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I DID IT MY WAY: SELF DETERMINATION THEORY APPLIED TO SEXUAL ADJUSTMENT BY SARAH M C KNIGHT A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Social Sciences New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of the Arts Under the sponsorship of Steven Graham Sarasota, Florida May 2013
I DID IT MY WAY II Acknowledgements Thank you to my academic advisor of four years and thesis sponsor Professor Steven Graham. It has truly been a pleasure to learn with you. I would like to thank Professors Catherine Cottrell and Heidi Harley for serving on my committee. I especially thank Professor Heidi Harley for helping me understand how amazing it is to be conscious being. Thank you to Professor Michelle Barton for always expecting the most out of all of us and showing us that we are capable of it. Thank you to Professor Gordon Bauer for a few kind words of wisdom and for sharing his beautiful dog Sam with all of us. Thank you to Professor Maribeth Clark for te lling an overwhelmed first year student that so approachable and still voraciously academic. I respect you immensely as a scholar and even more as a person. Thank you to my third grade teacher Mrs. Rogers for showing me that my character is not a flaw. Thank you to all the rest of the Professors and Teachers who have helped me become the confident person that I am. Thank you to Dr. Nathan White of the New College Coun seling and Wellness Center. Your guidance helped restore the peace and serenity to my soul and I will always be grateful. Thank you to my friends for many wonderful hours we have shared together. Each of you deserves a whole chapter of thanks. Thank you to my family. You helped create the stable foundation from which my life grows.
I DID IT MY WAY III Table of Contents Table of Contents ... .V Empirical Support for SDT. SDT a nd Health Constructs First and Current 17 17 G eneral Causal Orientations Classification Q First Sex M Affective Reactions to First Se x Sexual S el f Sexual A ... Procedure
I DID IT MY WAY IV Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appe Appendix F
I DID IT MY WAY V I DID IT MY WAY: SELF DETERMINATION THEORY APPLIED TO SEXUAL ADJUSTMENT Sarah McKnight New College of Florida 2013 ABSTRACT Self Determination theory has been variously applied to different health constructs. This theory posits that people have three basic needs; autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These needs are satisfied the most when a person engages in intrinsically mot ivated behaviors (done for the experience alone with a perceived internal locus of control). In this thesis we explored how the motivational style of participants influenced their motivations to engage in their first sexual experience. We also explored how the affective reactions, their current sexual self efficacy, and their current sexual anxiety. Our initial hypotheses were not supported in the study. We did find that participants who cited marriage as their motivation for their first sexual experience had higher sexual anxiety scores (F (3, 25) = 4.389, p = .013) but with on three participants in this motivational category we are cautious of the conclusions we can draw. Steven Graham Social Sciences
I DID IT MY WAY 1 Self Determination Theory Applied to Sexual Adjustment Images of sexuality are pervasive th roughout contemporary culture. From children i s s i n g in trees to popular movies like The 40 Year Old Virgin sexual behavior is emph asized as an important coming of age milestone In The 40 Year Old Virgin the assumption that all adults will have engaged in sexual acts is portra yed through the characters shock that their coworker has not yet lost his virginity (Apatow, Robertson, & Tow nsend, 2005) Taken aback the coworkers vow to remedy the situation in which they perceive their friend to be. There is a cultural expectation that adolescents and young adults will eng age in sex T his expectation increases social pressure to engage in a b ehavior that some are not prepared for All individual s explore their sexuality in their own way. Some explore their sexuality and sexual desires in a way that supports their future sexuality. Still others lack the appropriate knowledge to make an informed decision or fi nd themselves in a situation that does not support their experience of autonomy In this thesis we will explore what drives these sexual explorations and how that drive sets the stage for later experiences. Different theories can contextua lize the motivational processes that drive a person to have sex for the first time. Self determination theory (SDT) is an empirically supported theory of motivation that can be appropriately applied here SDT is focused on operationalizing and contextuali development. The theories main conceptual structure focuses on innate psychological needs of individuals (Ryan & Deci, 2000). These needs are the basis for self motivation and personality integration. T he theory also explores how social contexts influence these needs and motivations.
I DID IT MY WAY 2 different types of motivation that run on a continuum of varying degrees of intrinsic experience Figure 1 provides a visual to help explain this linear relationship Ryan and Deci define intrinsic motivations as those desires to do an activity for the novelty, the challenge, to exercise ones capacities, to explore, or to learn (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Motivation s do n o t exi st in a vacuum but instead exist in the context of assimilation of values into the self, mastery, and spontaneous interest. I nternalized values lead to intrinsic motivations to engage in behaviors that support the internalized values. Achievement of these tasks promotes a feeling of competence For instance we may internalize the idea that success in life is having and supporting a large family We become intrin sically motivated to achieve this and feel competent when we have. Intrinsic motivations can be s pontaneous. We might be spontaneously interested in becoming a bio chemist and might be intrinsically motivated to pursue that goal. Achieving this experience will still result in feeling s of competence. Intrinsic motivations are the most self determined t ype of motivation. Intrinsically motivated behaviors are performed for the sake of the behavior itself, in order to experience pleasure and satisfaction inherent in the activity (Deci, 1975, as cited in Vallerand, 2012). Extrinsically motivated behaviors h ave separable goals such as receiving rewards or avoiding punishment (Deci, 1980 as cited in Vallerand 2012, Deci & Ryan 1985 as cited in Vallerand 2012). An example of this might be a student w ho enters a spelling bee to win a trophy as opposed to simply enjoying the experience. Amotivated behaviors are those in which a pers on does not wish to participate (Ryan & Deci, 2000). These behaviors come with accompanying feelings of loss o f autonomy and competence. Extrinsic and amotivated behaviors are all cons idered to be controlled
I DID IT MY WAY 3 motivations. Controlled motivations involve the experience of a pressure towards a specific outcome that is perceived to originate outside of the self (Deci & Ryan, 2008). SDT asserts that each person has three basic needs: competen ce, relatedness and autonomy (Ryan & Deci, 2000). The satisfaction of these needs is required to facilitate optimal functioning, positive social engagement, and personal well being (Ryan & Deci, 2000). A sub theory of SDT, Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) explains that social contextual factors such as feedback, communication, and rewards can conduce toward a feeling of competence which in turn enhances intrinsic motivation s for a behavior (Ryan & Deci, 2000). External rewards and threat s conduce towards extrinsic motivation Behaviors that are internally validating and satisfy the need for autonomy and competence are intrinsically motivated (Ryan & Deci, 2000). When a person has integrated values that result in intrinsic motivations the satisfaction of th ese motivations after significant others with whom a person is attached, thus satisfying the desire for relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2000). When values are internalized from a social group, such as a family, realizing the behaviors supported by those values makes us feel closer to the group with which those values originated. When a person has a more controlled motivation (either extrinsic or amotivated) they do not feel the same satisfaction of their basic needs. When a person strives to achieve recognition through material gain they do not experience a satisfaction of their feelings of autonomy, competence and relatedness. Empirical Support for SDT These theoretical asserti ons have been variously supported. Deci (1971) explored the effects of varying external rewards on intrinsic motivations to engage in various tasks.
I DID IT MY WAY 4 Deci hypothesized that if a person engaged in an activity for an intrinsic reward but received a tangible e xternal reward such as money that the intrinsic motivation for the activity would decrease. If the same person were instead to receive a non tangible external reward however, there would not be the same decrease in intrinsic motivation Instead participan ts would experience an increase in intrinsic motivation. These hypotheses were explored through a series of three experiments. The same general experimental paradigm was followed throughout all three experiments. Participants were observed across three ti me periods. During the first they engage in an activity with no reinforcement or external motivation for participation. During the second time period the participants in the experimental condition receive d reinforcement for the behavior while the controls receive d none. In the final stage any reinforcement was halted and the participants were observed for their continued intrinsic interest in the activity. The first experiment in volved participants completing S om a puzzles during three experimental sessions The experimental group was given one dollar for ever y puzzle successfully completed during the second session but not the first or third session To measure intrinsic motivation the experimenter left for eight minutes during the middle of each of the thr ee sessions and allowed the participant to choose between playing with the puzzle and reading magazines. As hypothesized, the experimental group showed a significant decline in their intrinsic motivation for completing the puzzles at time three as compared to time one. The second experiment involved two groups of newspaper staffers who had the task of writing headlines for the paper. The time it took to write the headlines was used as a measure of intrinsic motivation The semester of headline writing was d ivided into three
I DID IT MY WAY 5 sections. Participants in the experimental condition received 50 cents for each headline written during the second section of the semester but not the first or third. The control groups times tended to improve through the experiment such that they became quicker at headline writing. The experimental group had a reversal in performance after the reward of money was removed at time three such that their speed at headline writing increased The extra time it took to complete the headline writ ing shows that participants who had received the external reward for a previously intrinsic behavior saw a decrease in intrinsic motivation. The researchers used the final experiment to turn to their second hypothesis that a positive verbal reinforcement since it is not tangible, would not show that same d ecrease in intrinsic motivation The final experiment was nearly identical to the first experiment with the exception that the experimental groups received verbal reinforcement for their performance in th e puzzle task. Participants were told things such as "That's much better than average for this configuration" (Deci, 1971, p. 112). Over the three sessions the control group showed a decrease in their motivation to engage with the puzzle during the free ch oice period. The experimental group showed no such decline. As CET would suggest the social contextual factors surrounding the participants influenced the intrinsic motivation to engage in the task. The experimenter influenced the social context through po sitive verbal reinforcement which supported the participant s intrinsic motivation for the puzzle task. In the first two experiments tangible rewards decreased intrinsic motivation and in the last, reinforcement increased intrinsic motivations. In the thir d experiment, positive verbal reinforcement directly elicited feelings of competence in the participants and improved their feelings of intrinsic motivation for the puzzle task.
I DID IT MY WAY 6 SDT a nd Health Constructs SDT is also an established method of investigating health related behaviors. With the recent rise in chronic health problems in developed countries researchers have turned to theories of motivation to try to understand varied adherence to medical interventions and positive health behaviors (Ng, Ntoumanis, Thgersen Ntoumani, Deci, Ryan, Duda, & Williams, 2012). Some researchers believe that adaptive self regulation follows autonomy support and satisfaction of basic needs. A meta analysis by Ng et al, 2012 explored the correlates and predictors of positive h ealth behaviors in studies using SDT constructs. The researchers conducted a literature review that ultimately included 184 data sets. The researchers recorded the SDT constructs of autonomy support, controlling health care climates, causality orientatio ns, life aspirations, psychological need satisfaction, and behavioral regulations. The researchers also explored the relations between these constructs and indicators of physical and mental health. The researchers in their analysis and also calculated total variances of the correlation. They also conducted a path analysis using the meta analyzed data and two proposed models. A number of results were reported. These findings support their hypothesis that autonomy su pport would promote better health outcomes and behaviors. Introjected regulation originated in the self (see Figure 1), was found to be positively correlated with health outcomes a nd behaviors but was most likely a short term positive influence. The path analysis also indicated a number of ways in which autonomy support can lead to
I DID IT MY WAY 7 improved physical and mental health directly and indirectly Autonomy support correlated positively w ith autonomous se lf regulation, and they both were correlated with perceived competence. Both perceived competence and autonomous self regulation are directly correlated with mental health and physical health. The findings establish SDT as a conceptual f ramework appropriate for investigating the motivational processes behind health related behaviors and for planning interventions for improved health care. The researchers acknowledge d that their analysis of the conceptual process models was unable to deter mine caus ality. They also acknowledge that autonomy does not invariably promote outcomes that are supported by practitioners (a patient might be perfectly content to smoke) but these choices should be respected. Even though autonomy support does not always lead directly to positive health related behaviors (since a person may choose an un healthy behavior) it does promote need satisfaction. SDT a nd Sexuality The SDT framework has also been applied to specific health related domains, such as sexuality. Fi rst sexual experiences are an important developmental and cultural milestone that have a variet y of health related implications There are many competing social groups that exert influence on the decision to have sex. Com monly referred to as v irginity, first sexual experiences are highly salient events in the lives of adolescents as well as emerging and older adults. It is so salient because there are a number of inconsistent cultural and familial expectations about the timing and context of fi rst sexual experiences. This first sexual experience and the context in which it occurs can shape later sexu al and psychosocial development by setting the stage for all future
I DID IT MY WAY 8 interactions ( Reissing, Andruff, & Wentland, 2012 Smith & Shaffer, 2013 ) While much of the literature has focused on the age of intercourse as a primary determinant of outcomes (Donahue Lichtenstein, Lngstrm & D'Onofrio 20 13, Harden, 2012 Magnusson Masho, & Lapane 2012) there are many influences on the choice to engage in i ntercourse. The application of SDT to first intercourse is theoretically justified but not extensively investigated. Ingledew and Ferguson (2007) proposed that different personality traits would influence individual motivations for having sex. These motiva tions affect whether or not the sex is self determined by being triggered by autonomous motivations or controlled motivations. They believed that more self determined sex would mean having safer sex and that different personality traits held by participant s who reported either type of motivation would influence sexual risk taking. It is important to note that the model does not propose a direct effect of personality trait on sexual risk taking. The model instead supposes that personality traits elicit certa in motivational processes that in turn affect behavior. The authors conducted a cross sectional questionnaire survey. The participants were 18 to 21 year old university students, 200 of whom were sexually experienced. Using structural equation modeling th e authors were able to verify the model of influence The model proposed that personality traits would influence motivations for sex, and that both personality traits and motivations would influence the self determination for sex. The self determination fo r sex would in turn influence the level of sexual risk taking. The results indicated that autonomous motivation for sex were associated with less risky sexual behavior. Controlled motivation was not shown to have
I DID IT MY WAY 9 any effect on sexual risk taking. Individua l personality traits were shown to influence which type of motivations for sex were in play Agreeableness and conscientiousness correlated with autonomous motivation for safer sex while the enhancement motive for having sex (as measured by the Sexual Moti ves Questionnaire) correlated with riskier behavior. These r esults indicate that motivations interact with sexual behaviors. This research implies that future interventions for sexual risk taking behavior need to take into account the personality and motiv ational influences of sexual risk taking. SDT and First Sexual Experiences The perspective provided by SDT as it relates to sexuality has also been explored as a way to improve mental health Smith (2007 ) asserted previous research had shown that men and women who had engaged in a s exual activity that they were not really interested in (not forced but uninterested) often experienced negative affect post intercourse In opposition to this women who had more assertive sexual experience had more po sitive exp ) research demonstrated how good intercourse experiences can result in better adjustment and bad experiences in less couple satisfaction T he difference between good and bad sexual experiences can be characterized as whether the need s for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met. In general, when these needs are met, people have greater positive a ffect and fewer physical symptoms. These findings support the idea that basic need satisfaction enhances the positive mental impact of intercourse. Smith (20 07 ) used an event specific diary methodology t o determine the extent to which SDT need satisfaction associates with positive outcomes (higher s atisfaction and lower guilt). Smith (20 07 ) also explored whether or not individual differ ences in need
I DID IT MY WAY 10 satisfaction impact participants perceptions of their own sexual interactions. One hundred and sixty four participants in a racially diverse sample successfully complete d the initial measurement and the subsequent diary. Participants were an average of 21.78 years and most intimate events occurred with a boyfriend/girlfriend (75.1%), though participants relationship status was not reported. Th ere were an average of 5.6 intimate interactions over the 3 week collection period, with almost all be ing with a "boyfriend/girlfriend" (75.1%). Participants completed forms detailing these interactions, inc luding the use of contraception. Participants also indicated how they felt during the interaction on 10 dimensions and after the interaction on 9 dimen sions. These dimensions included things such as i ntimacy, how desirable they felt to their partner and perceived control over the situation The participants completed the Dyadic Sexual Regulation Scale (This 11 item scale measures the extent to which peo ple believe that their sexual autonomy needs are being met), the Sexual Esteem Scale (the Sexual Esteem Scale, a subscale of a large scale called the Sexuality Scale, measures the degree to which people have positive regard for, and confidence in, their ca pacity to experience their sexuality in a satisfying and enjoyable way), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (to measure general satisfaction with their sexual relationships). General sexual autonomy and sexual competence were positively correlat ed with sexual satisfaction. Greater need satisfaction was associa ted with more positive and fewer negative outcomes. All three need composites significantly predicted satisfaction, relaxation, and Global Sexual Satisfaction. In summary, Smith (20 07 ) found that the satisfaction of ba sic needs as defined by SDT supports more positive sexual experiences.
I DID IT MY WAY 11 Tanner, Hensel, and Fortenberry (2010) have also demonstrated that the context of sex can have a positive impact on sexual risk behaviors. Their study sough t to analyze the event level characteristics of first coitus and p rospectively explored sexual interest and love at first and subsequent coitus. The study included 61 females who were part of a larger sample of predominately African American s age 14 to 17 Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of sexual behaviors using face to face interviews and a daily diary. The researchers measured coital event variables through diary entries on days relative to first coitus, ordinal sequence of coital eve nts and order of coital events. The researchers also measured outcome variables including positive mood, negative mood, feeling in love, sexual interest, partner support, partner negativity, condom use, contraceptive use and contraceptive repertoire. Th e results indicated that feelings of sexual interest and love were significantly higher on the day of first coitus as opposed to day after first coitus. This finding suggests that the decision to engage in intercourse was not entirely male driven since the female participant experienced greater feelings of sexual interest the day of. This is notable because women's sexual agency is an important element of healthy sexual development. The researchers also found that condom use was consistent across coital eve nts. The participants were 9 times more likely to use condoms at first intercourse than subsequent intercourse, and condom use was positively correlated with levels of sexual interest and love. Contracepti ve use was higher with greater reports of having wa nted sex. This increased condom use with increased experience of sexual interest and love shows that desire for sex results i n preparation for it to occur. These girls also experienced greater need fulfillment. More personal sexual interest and less male l ed sexual initiation
I DID IT MY WAY 12 supports the need for autonomy while love increases feelings of relatedness with the partner. First and Later Sexual Experiences Other researchers have explored constructs similar to SDT in the context of sex and sexuality. Thompson (1990) coital events. Thompson (1990) asserted that i n contemporary culture s ex is and accepted teenage activity and i nstead of engaging in heavy petting that was common in the 50's and 60' s contempor ary teenagers jump right into intercourse. Thompson (1990) drew from a 1978 1986 narrative study of girl sexual, romantic, and reproductive histories to investigate changes in mpled through a snowball method but no other participant data was provided. Thompson (1990) provided a fairly simple dualism of sexual scripts. The first was called tory 1 and was characterized by a lack of intrinsic motivation to engage in intercourse along with confusio n and uncertainty. Many of the girls denied sexual volition, had received no sex education, and were unsure of how the process would work. Some of the girls had received biological instructions on the nature of sex but still felt unprepared. The participan narratives lack any allusion to having had a developing sexuality as a child. Many describe d the experience as painful because, as the researcher supposed, they were most likely unaroused. Girls from this script often identified a voluntary sexual experience as involuntary because it failed to match up with their expectations for themselves failed to identify a coercive experience as one. Despite all of this many of the girls describe d their experience as special b ecause of their desire to cherish their first experience. The social context in
I DID IT MY WAY 13 which they engaged in sex places great importance on the experience pressuring girls to provide if equal importance. Many girls also expressed a sense of boredom. Interestingly many of the girls forced a positive spin onto a mostly negative experience. Even with this positive spin many said they would wait some time before having sex again. The second script is characterized by sexual experience and agency (sort of the proto typical liberated women). The se participants had vivid memories of a developing sexuality through out their life and of first sexual experience s They described taking sexual initiative and asking for things they enjoyed. They tell stories of learning to ma sturbate or of age appropriate sexual play across their development Some women even describe a truly intrinsic motivation for intercourse with their bodily desire being their motivation to have sex. They describe taking their time and not jumping into int ercourse but enjoying arousing activities that lead to intercourse. Many of these second script girls had mothers who were very open, sharing personal and detailed accounts of adult life instead of just biological facts. These girls were significantly mor e likely to prepare for sex by procuring contraceptives. Most of the women did not have an ecstatic experience but reflected on it positively and emphasized their right to pleasure. The author emphasizes that these second script girls are exemplars of why girls need an erotic education in addition to sexual education. Thompson (1990) believes sexuality education should promote the deferral of sex un til someone experience d genital arousal or a desire to orgasm. research should be considere d in light of its complications First, the article fails to mention any demographic data for the participants. This means that the data could be skewed to a certain population. Thompson (1990) also writes from
I DID IT MY WAY 14 a social sciences perspective and focuses on the themes of her respondent s narratives meaning there was no statistical support presented for her f indings and no hard data to back up the claims she presented. This is not to say her contribution is without merit. In fact it provides a solid theory ope n to future investigation using a more standardized and scientific approach. Fr om what Thompson (1990) presented we can gather that script 2 narratives characterized women who had an experience of autonomy in their decision to engage in intercourse. Many o f these women had mothers who educated them and provided them a set of values that promoted safe and appropriate sexual behavior. These are examples of relationally defined value systems that help satisfy the need to feel related. These women did not repre ss their natural sexual desires as children but instead have a fully integrated sense of self and value. As a result the women felt competent as sexual beings, competent in their knowledge of the biology and emotion of sex, and were able to intrinsically e ngage in sex. First sex ual experiences can also have an impact on later sexual adjustment and functioning. Reissing, Andruff, and Wentland, (2012) sought to explore how first sexual experiences and their contextual factors influenced subsequent sexual adj ustment. Their study examined the retrospective experience of first intercourse to understand the context in which it was experienced, explore d gender differences in the affective and contextua l intercourse experience, and explore d the relationship between first intercourse and later sexual adjustment. The study included 322 women and 153 men between the ages of 18 29. The study was conducted using an anonymous survey completed in a lab. The study included a number of measures of sexual adjustment. The stu dy included the First Coital Affective
I DID IT MY WAY 15 Reaction Scale to determine emotional response to a first sexual experience. Participants also completed the Sexual History Form to assess current sexual adjustment, Sexual Self Efficacy Scale (Erectile functioning an d Female Functioning whichever was appropriate for the participants gender), the Sexual Aversion Scale (to assess an individual's sexual fears and avoidant behaviors), and a self reported perception of sexuality following first intercourse The results s howed that first intercourse typically occurred at 17 years of age in a committed relationship (for both men and women) with limited instances of orgasm. Sexual self efficacy contributed to the variance of sexual adjustment Sexual self efficacy mediated the relationship between affective reaction to first intercourse and current sexual adjustment Women who had lower sexual self efficacy had a first sexual experience that negatively impacted their view on sexuality while men with lower levels of sexual se lf efficacy had higher sexual aversion, lower sexual adjustment, and were more likely to have had a negative affective reaction to their first sexual experience. The authors believed that a negative first sexual experience would lead to becoming sexually a versive affording a lack of opportunities to disconfirm negat ive sexual experiences. Ultimately this resulted in decreased sexual self efficacy. Women who had intercourse earlier had less positive experiences and more regret, while women who were older had more sexual aversion and lower sexual adjustment. Men were more likely to report positive first sexual experiences, better current adjustment and sexual self efficacy. Women were more affected by the context of sexual experiences, but some men did experie nce negative affect that resulted in poorer current sexual adjustment.
I DID IT MY WAY 16 Smith and Shaffer (2013) also found evidence the first sexual experiences are related with later sexual functioning and satisfaction. Participants completed initial measures in additi on to a two week follow up diary of their current sexual experiences. Initial measures included a survey of first sexual experiences that evaluated their thoughts and feelings in the times surrounding their first sexual experience Participants also comple ted a global measure of sexual self esteem and the Dyadic Sexual Regulation Scale (measure s the degree to which a person believes that their sexual locus of control is internal or external). It is important to note Smith and Shaffer (2013) removed particip ants who had a first sexual experience involving sexual force in the assumption that their data would be non normative. The researchers also defined virginity loss as a heterosexual first sexual experiences, or penile vaginal penetration, but did not requi re that participants identify as heterosexual or be currently engaging in heterosexual sex. Smith and Shaffer (2013) found that participants who had a more positive first sexual experience had more positive current sex lives. Negative first experiences si gnificantly and uniquely predict sexual preoccupation, implying that participants with a negative first sexual experience find it a salient experience. Participants who had a more satisfying physical experience during their first sexual experience showed m ore physically satisfying current sexual experiences, even when controlling for overall sexual satisfaction. A similar pattern showed that more emotionally satisfying first sexual experiences predict ed more emotionally satisfying current experiences. Negat ive first sexual experiences predicted negativity during current interactions decreased connection during first interactions, and global sexual satisfaction scores. Post interaction negativity was predicted by first time negativity and global sexual satis faction. Positivity after first
I DID IT MY WAY 17 interactions was significantly related to first time afterglow and global sexual satisfaction. These findings support the importance of first sexual experiences in sh aping later sexual experiences thereby justifying the pres ent research on the motive for first sex and later sexual adjustment. The Current Study This study investigates the SDT correlates of first sexual experiences and later ed by the GCOS will predict their perceptions of the loci of control for their first sexual experience. Since the degree to which a person pays attention to contextual influences for motivation is consistent across the life span it would make sense that fi rst sexual experiences would be congruent. Additionally we hypothesize that the more motivations for first sex are perceived as self determined (supporting participant s basic needs) the more positive the immediate affective reaction will be and participan ts will experience greater sexual self efficacy and less sexual anxiety. Method Participants Participants were 31 adults (13 male, 18 female). Participants ranged in age from 20 60 years (average 34.5 years). Participants were predominately white (23 Whit e, 6 Asian, 1 Black, and 1 Hispanic) and predominately heterosexual (28 heterosexual, 2 homosexual, 1 bisexual). Participants were recruited through Amazon MTUR K, and online crowdsourcing website. All recruitment materials disclosed the explicit sexual con tent of the study. Participants received $1 in compensation for their participation.
I DID IT MY WAY 18 Materials General C ausal O rientations Participants completed The General Causality Orientations Scale (GCOS) which measures the strength of the existence of three causal ity orientations in a person (Deci & Ryan, 1985). These three orientations are theorized to exist to some degree in every person with their strength consistent across the lifespan. The Autonomy Orientation subscale assesses how much a person is oriented to aspects of an environment that elicit intrinsic motivations. The Controlled Orientation subscale measures for a focus on external goals and feedback that support extrinsic motivations. The Impersonal Orientation subscale measures the degree to which a per son believes they have little control over their experiences The adapted version GCOS used in this study is a hybrid of the original 12 vignette scale and the extended 17 vignette version. Half of the original vignettes were e xcluded to improve the brevit y of the scale and because they were too career focused. We believed the career focused vignettes would not be relatable to younger participants. All of the vignettes that focus on social situations that were added to the original GCOS to create the extend ed version were included. Vignettes were also edited to remove t has historically been used as a singular, an d no participants cited it as a source of confusion. Order of presentation of each vignette was randomized. The GCOS includes three subscales that measure the degree to which any one causal orientation exist within each participant. The first subscale mea sures the
I DID IT MY WAY 19 Autonomous orientation which is the degree to which a person orients themselves towards things in their environment that stimulate intrinsic motivations. In this data set the Autonomous subscale had The second subscale measures the Controlled orientation which is the degree to which a person is externally motivated towards tangible rewards. In this data set the Controlled subscale had an of .768. The final subscale measures the Imperso nal orientation which is how much a person believes they have little to no co ntrol over achieving their goals. In his data set the Impersonal subscale had an of .821. See Appendix A for the adapted scale. Classification Questions Next partic ipants comple ted classification question s to determine their eligibility to complete the remaining sections of the survey. These questions determined whether or not the participants had experienced a sexual assault or sexually coercive act as well as whether or not the participants ha d had a first sexual experience. The questions are provided in Appendix D. First Sex M otivations Participants completed free response questions to determine their motivations for having sex the first time. The questions also explored the c ontext in which they first had sex. Motivations for first sexual experiences were coded into four groups. The first group included internalized motivations for having sex the first time A sample of an t was somethi ng I wanted to experienc second group included extrinsic motivations for having sex the first time. A sample of an extrinsic The third group included participant s who cited both extrinsic and intrinsic
I DID IT MY WAY 20 motivations for having sex the first time. An example of this dualistic response is stigma of being a virgin. I found my p artner incredibly attractive and felt extremely The final group was those answers that cited marriage as their motivation for having sex the and it is the main thing for us. The complete measure is provided in Appendix C. Affective Reactions t o F irst S ex To measure affective reaction to their first sexual experience participants completed the First Coital Affective Reaction Scale (FCARS) (Schwartz, 1993). In this data set the FCARS had an of .911. The complete measure is provided in Appendix D Sexual S elf e fficacy To measure sexual self efficacy we created a non gendered sexual self efficacy scale. Previous studies ( Reissing, Andruff, and Wentland, 2012) have used both the Sexual Self Ef ficacy Scale for Female Functioning (SS ESFF) (Bailes et al., 2010) and the Sexual Self Efficacy Scale for Erectile Functioning (SS ESEF) (Fichten et al., 2009) assigning the appropriate scale to the appropriate sex. However these scales are divergent in t he ir focus The SS ESEF emphasizes the participants ability confidently use their genitals while the SS ESFF is diverse in the topics discussed and has a greater emphasis on confidence in intimacy By creating a sexual self efficacy scale that is non sex s pecific we allow direct comparisons between different gender identifications. We are also able to accommodate participants who were not c is gendered. We achieved this by removing items from the SS ESFF that were specific to female bodies to create what we w ill refer
I DID IT MY WAY 21 to as the Sexual Self Efficacy Scale Non Gendered (SS ESN G) In this data set the SS ESN G had an of .948. The adapted scale is provided in Appendix E Sexual Anxiety The participants additionally completed the Sexual Anxiety Scale (SAS) (Fallis, E.E. Gordon, C. & Purdon C., 2010). The original scale included fifty six items from three subscales. Fo r the sake of brevity we included only fives items from each subscale. We chose the five items with the highest factor loading in their individual sub scales. In this data set the adapted SAS had an of .926. A complete copy of this measure is provided in Appendix F Procedure After opening the survey participants completed an informed consent form. Participants then completed the survey measures and a series of demographic questions. If participants indicated that they had never had sex they only complet ed the GCOS and demographics portion. At the end of the survey participants were provided with a code to receive their one dollar of compensation. Participants were asked in the recruitment materials to not participate if they had ever experienced a sexual as sault or sexually coercive act. If they choose to open the survey and did indicate that they had one of these experiences they were diverted to a disqualification page. We believed as have other researchers (Smith & Shaffer, 2013) that having to answe r questions about intimacy and reading questions with explicit descriptions of sexual acts would be too distressing for these participants
I DID IT MY WAY 22 Results Descriptive Statistics GCOS Autonomous causal orientations were the most commonly chosen causal orientati on (M = 5.55, SD = .91 0 Range = 3.55), followed by C ontrolled orientation (M = 3.49, SD = .857, Range = 3.36), and then by Impersonal orientation (M = 2.97, SD = .898, Range = 3.64). A one way ANOVA was conducted to determine whether peoples GCOS orientat ion scores influenced their motivations for first sex. Autonomous causal orientation did not predict motivations for first sex (F (3, 26) = .633, p = .601). Impersonal causal orientation did not predict motivations for first sex (F (3, 26) = 1.209, p = .32 6). Controlled causal orientations approached but did not achieve significance in predicting motivations for first sex (F (3, 26) = 2.593, p = .074). Since none of the analysis achieved significance no post hoc tests were justified. Inferential Statistics A one way ANOVA was conducted to determine whether motivations for first sex influenced FCARS scores SS ESN G scores and SAS scores Motivations for first sex did not predict affective reactions to first sexual experiences (F (3, 26) = 1.827, p = .167). Motivations for first sex did not predict sexual self efficacy (F ( 3 25) = 1.351, p = .280). Motivations for first sex did predict sexual anxiety (F (3, 25) = 4.389, p = .013) such that participants with marriage motivations for first sex had greater se xual anxiety. Samples size s did not justify post hoc tests.
I DID IT MY WAY 23 Discussion orientation (GCOS scores) influenced that motivations to have sex the first time, and whether or not these motiv ations would have significant impacts on the participants affective reactions to their first sexual experience (FCARS) and their current sexual self efficacy (SS ESN G) and sexual anxiety (SAS) In our analysis we found no significant influence of partici pants GCOS orientation on their motivations for first sex. Our analysis indicated that people with controlled causal orientations may be more likely to cite marriage as their motivation for having sex the first time, but this analysis only approached signi ficance. Only three participants cited marriage motivations for first intercourse. With such a small sample size, and with the finding only approaching but not achieving significance, any attempt to understand the implications of the finding needs to be te mpered with caution We can confidently say that the finding that people who cite marriage as a motivation for first sex are more likely to have a controlled orientation is conceptually consistent with SDT Controlled o rientation extent to which a person is oriented toward being controlled by rewards, deadlines, [and] 1985) and marriage is a culturally defined structure of which sex is an anticipated behavior. Having sex with a marital partner is the cultural ex pectation but it does not preclude the possibility that the participation in this culturally defined structure is an autonomous experience. Participants could have been intrinsically motivated towards the act itself, or towards marriage, but the salience o f the external reward structure makes the perseverance of intrinsic motivation unlikely. Parsing out
I DID IT MY WAY 24 whether or not participation in marital sex is more autonomous or more controlled is beyond t he scope of this article, but does warrant further investigati on. Our analysis also evaluated to what extent motivations for first sex influenced FCARS scores, SS ESN G scores, and SAS scores. FCARS scores evaluate the affective reaction to their first sexual experience but we did not find a ny influence of motivations for first sexual experiences. Motivations for first sex efficacy scores. We did find that participants who cited marriage as their motivation for sex did have higher sexual anxi ety scores. Still, this group includes on ly three participants, and we can not draw any solid conclusions from the finding even with it achieving significance. We can say that this finding provides justification for further investigating the sexual anxiety of people who wait for marriage to have sex. We know from previous research that among adolescents those who delay their first s exual experiences differ from those who do not in ways including coming from dual parent families, having a higher socio econom ic status, and higher parental expectations (Lammers, Irelan d, Resnick, & Blum, 2000) We do not know however whether the participants in this study were adolescents when they were married or whether or not they differ significantly in other ways. A larger sample of people who choose to wait for marriage to have sex would allow us to determine whether or not this group truly experiences more sexual anxiety. A larger sample would allow us to determine whether it is an effect of time, relationship with their partner, experience of autonomy, causality orientation, or any number of other potential influences. A prospective study would provide the ability to draw strong conclusions about the directionality of influence and the impact of different contextual facto rs.
I DID IT MY WAY 25 There are a number of potential explanatio ns for why so few of our analyse s turned out to be significant. The most obvious issue is that we did not have enough participants overall, let alone in each of the four categories of motivations for fir st se x. In some analyse s we only had data for seventeen people with externalized motivations, four with internalized motivations, five with internal and external motivations, and three with marriage motivations. Significantly increasing the number of participan ts per category would help eliminate limited sample size as the reason for our hypotheses no t being supported. There are also a number of variables that may have influenced the outcome of our study that were not measured. We did not measure the time from experiences to the time of the study. Reissing, Andruff, and Wentland (2012) asserted that people who had a first sexual experience that was negative, did not satisfy their basic needs and /or did not support int rinsic motivatio ns would be less likely to want to try sex again and to disconfirm their negative first impression. If some participants had their first sexual experience significantly earlier than others we may find an effect of time, either protective or detrimental. Si sexual experiences to the time of the study it is true that we also neglected to collect data on the age at which each participant had sex for the first time. Previous research has shown that w omen w ho had intercourse earlier had less positive experiences and more regret, while women who were older had more sexual avers ion and lower sexual adjustment (Reissing, Andruff, & Wentland, 2012). Including age at first intercourse would have provided greater insight into how motivational processes might manifest in sexual decision making.
I DID IT MY WAY 26 We also neglected to include a measure of religiosity since it was not a primary variable of interest However, in retrospect, this measure would have been particularly rel evant in evaluating the participants who cited marriage as their motivations for having sex the first time. Marriage, while a social institution, is also a religiously sanctioned institution. Our findings indicated that our participants who cited marriage as their motivation to have sex the first time had higher SAS scores. Without a measure of religiosity we might not know if the anxiety these participants felt was because of the extrinsic motivation for having sex the first time or because these participa nts were more religious. We do not believe that the reason our hypothese s fa iled to be supported is because t hey were not centered in a valid theoretical framework. We believe that the general premise of our hypothese s is supported by previous research. Sm ith and Shaffer (2013) found evidence that first sexual experiences have a myriad of influences on current sexual experiences. Their study use d a retrospective analysis of first sexual experiences, which support s our decision to also use a retrospective an alysis of first sexual experiences. Smith and Shaffer (2013) did include a diary portion to their study and used different measures of current sexual functioning which might be why our research was not as successful The diary study might provide more accu rate descriptions of current experiences. Had our analysis proved as successful as Smith and Shaffer (2013) we would be able to draw a number of conclusions. Had we established that general causal orientations are associated with motivations for first sex we would know that motivations for first sex exist in the broader context of all motivational processes. If we found that certain
I DID IT MY WAY 27 motivations for f irst sex caused negative affective reactions, decreased sexual self efficacy, and increased sexual anxiet y we would have a greater understanding of how the motivational process influences the experience and the outcomes of first sex ual experiences If controlled orientations were shown to have a negative influence on outcomes then we would have a basis for em phasizing autonomy supportive sexuality education. Even without support from our own findings we know that people who have more intrinsic motivations to have sex are more likely to prepare for it with contraception (Thompson, 1990, Ingledew & Ferguson, 200 7). Given this knowledge, and the complications of this study, further researcher will be necessary to fully understand the influence of different motivations on first sexual experience.
I DID IT MY WAY 28 References Apatow, J. (Director/Producer) Robertson, S. & Townsend, C. (Producers). (2005) The 40 Year Old Virgin [Motion picture]. USA: Universal Pictures. Bailes, S. Creti, L. Fichten, C. S. Libman, E. Brender, W. & Amsel, R. (2010). Sexual Self Efficacy Scale for Female Functioning. In T. D. Fisher, C M. Davis, W. L. Yarber & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handboo k of sexuality related measures Third Edition ( pp. 551 554)). Routledge: New York. Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Socia l Psychology 18(1), 105 115. doi: 10.1037/h0030644 Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Correction to Deci and Ryan. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 49(3), doi:10.1037/0708 55126.96.36.1992 Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal m otivation and psychological well being across life's domains. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 49(1), 14 23. doi: 10.1037/0708 55188.8.131.52 Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self determination in per sonality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19 109 134. Donahue, K. L., Lichtenstein, P., Lngstrm, N., & D'Onofrio, B. M. (2013). Why does early sexual intercourse predict subsequent maladjustment? Exploring potential familial confounds. Health Psyc hology 32(2), 180 189. doi:10.1037/a0028922 Fallis, E. E. Gordon, C. & Purdon, C. (2010). Sexual Anxiety Scale. In T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality related measures Third Edition (pp. 228 231). Routledg e: New York.
I DID IT MY WAY 29 Fichten, C.S. Budd, J. Spector, I. Amsel, R. Creti, L. Brender, W. Bailes, S. & Libman, E. (2009). Sexual Self Efficacy Scale Erectile Functioning. In T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis,W. L. Yarber & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality relat ed m easures Third Edition (pp. 557 561). Routledge: New York. Harden, K. (2012). True love waits? A sibling comparison study of age at first sexual intercourse and romantic relationships in young adulthood. Psychological Science 23(11), 1324 1336. doi: 10.1177/0956797612442550 Ingledew, D. K., & Ferguson, E. (2007). Personality and riskier sexual behavior : Motivational mediators. Psychology & Health 22 (3), 291 315. doi:10.1080/14768320600941004 Lammers, C., Ireland, M., Resnick, M., & Blum, R. (2000). Influences on adolescents' decision to postpone onset of sexual intercourse: A survival analysis of virginity among youths aged 13 to 18 years. Journal Of Adolescent Health 26(1), 42 48. doi:10.1016/S1054 139X(99)00041 5 Magnusson, B. M., Masho, S. W. & Lapane, K. L. (2012). Early age at first intercourse and subsequent gaps in contraceptive use. Journal Of Women's Health 21(1), 73 79. doi:10.1089/jwh.2011.2893 Ng, J. Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thgersen Ntoumani, C., Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Duda, J. L., & Williams, G. C. (2012). Self determination theory applied to health contexts: A meta analysis. Perspectives On Psychological Science 7(4), 325 340. doi:10.1177/1745691612447309
I DID IT MY WAY 30 Reissing, E. D., Andruff, H. L., & Wentland, J. J. (2012). Looking back : The experience of first sexual intercourse and current sexual adjustment in young heterosexual adults. Journal of Sex Research, 49 (1), 27 35. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2010.538951 Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self determination theory and the facilit ation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well being American Psychologist 55(1), 68 78. doi:10.1037/0003 066X.55.1.68 Schwartz, I. M. (1993). First Coital Affective Reaction Scale. In T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality related measures Third Edition (pp. 640 642). Routledge: New York. Smith, C. (2007). In pursuit of 'good' sex: Self determination and the sexual experience. Journal Of Social And Personal Relationships 24(1), 69 85. doi:1 0.1177/0265407507072589 Smith, V C. & Shaffer M. J. (2013): Gone But Not Forgotten: Virginity Loss and Current Sexual Satisfaction, Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 39:2, 96 111 Tanner, A. E., Hensel, D. J., & Fortenberry, J. D. (2010). A prospective study of the sexual, emotional, and behavioral correlates associated with young women's first an d usual coital events. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47 (1), 20 25. doi: 0.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.12.031 Thompson, S. (1990). Putting a big thing into a litt le hole: Teenage girls' accounts of sexual initiation. Journal of Sex Research, 27 (3), 341 361. doi: 10.1080/00224499009551564
I DID IT MY WAY 31 Vallerand, R. J. (2012). From motivation to passion: In search of the motivational processes involved in a meaningful life. C anadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 53(1), 42 52 doi: 10.1037 /a 0026377
I DID IT MY WAY 32 Amotivation Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation Non regulation External Regulation Int rojected Regulation Identified Regulation Integrated Regulation Intrinsic Regulation Least Self Determined Most Self Determined Figure 1 The figure shows the different types of Self Determination Theory motivations and their location the continuum of self determination.
I DID IT MY WAY 33 Appendix A General Causality Orientations Scale Adapted Instructions: Below you will find a series of vignettes (imaginary situations). Each one describes an incident and lists three ways of responding to it. Please read each vignette and then consider the responses in turn. Think of each response option in terms of how likely it is that you would respond in that way. We all respond in a varie ty of ways to situations, and probably each response is at least slightly likely for you. If it is very unlikely that you would respond in the way described in a given response, you would select numbers 1 or 2. If it is moderately likely, you would respond in the midrange of numbers; and if it is very likely that you would respond as described, you would select the 6 or 7. Please select one number for each of the three responses on the answer sheet for each vignette. 1 When you and your friend are making plans for Saturday evening, it is likely that you would: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moderately Likely (4) (5) (6) Very Likely (7) A. Leave it up to your friend; your friend probably wouldn't want to B. Each make suggestion s and then decide together on something that you both feel like doing. C. Talk your friend into doing what you want to do.
I DID IT MY WAY 34 2. You are a plant supervisor and have been charged with the task of allotting coffee breaks to three workers who cannot all break at once. You would likely handle this by: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moderately Likely (4) (5) (6) Very Likely (7) A. Telling the three workers the situation and having them work with you on the schedule. B. Simply assigning times that each can break to avoid any problems. C. Find out from someone in authority what to do or do what was done in the past. 3. You feel that your friend is being inconsiderate. You would probably: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moder ately Likely (4) (5) (6) Very Likely (7) A. Find an opportunity to explain why it bothers you; your friend may not even realize how much it is bothering you. B. Say nothing; if your friend really cares about you your friend would understand how y ou felt. C. Demand that your friend start being more considerate; otherwise
I DID IT MY WAY 35 been doing badly and asks you what they shou ld do about it. You advise your friend to: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moderately Likely (4) (5) (6) Very Likely (7) A. Talk it over with the sister and try to see what is going on for her. they could do about i t anyway. important for her to do well, so the sister should be working harder. 5. A close friend of yours has been moody lately, and a couple of times has become very angry with you over "nothing." You mi ght: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moderately Likely (4) (5) (6) Very Likely (7) A. Share your observations with your friend and try to find out what is going on for your friend. B. Ignore it because there's not much you can do about it anyway. C. Tell them that you're willing to spend time together if and only if your friend makes more effort to control themselves.
I DID IT MY WAY 36 6. You have a school age daughter. On parents' night the teacher tells you that your daughter is doing poorly and d oesn't seem involved in the work. You are likely to: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moderately Likely (4) (5) (6) Very Likely (7) A. Talk it over with your daughter to understand further what the problem is. B. Scold her and hope she does better. C. Make sure she does the assignments, because she should be working harder. 7. Your friend has a habit that annoys you to the point of making you angry. It is likely that you would: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moderately Likely (4) (5) (6) Very Likely (7) A. Point it out each time you notice it, that way maybe your friend will stop doing it. B. Try to ignore the habit because anyway. C. Try to understand why your friend does it and why it is so upsetting for you.
I DID IT MY WAY 37 8. You are asked to plan a picnic for yourself and your fellow employees. Your style for approaching this project could most likely be characterized as: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moderately Likely (4) (5) (6) Very Li kely (7) A. Take charge: that is, you would make most of the major decisions yourself. B. Follow precedent: you're not really up to the task so you'd do it the way it's been done before. C. Seek participation: get inputs from others who wa nt to make them before you make the final plans. 9. You have just received the results of a test you took, and you discovered that you did very poorly. Your initial reaction is likely to be: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moderately Likely (4) (5) ( 6) Very Likely (7) A. "I can't do anything right," and feel sad. B. "I wonder how it is I did so poorly," and feel disappointed. C. "That stupid test doesn't show anything," and feel angry.
I DID IT MY WAY 38 10. You have been invited to a large party where you know very few people. As you look forward to the evening, you would likely expect that: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moderately Likely (4) (5) (6) Very Likely (7) A. You'll try to fit in with whatever is happening in order to have a good t ime and not look bad. B. You'll find some people with whom you can relate. C. You'll probably feel somewhat isolated and unnoticed. 11. Within your circle of friends, the one with whom you choose to spend the most time is: Very Unlikely (1) (2) (3) Moderately Likely (4) (5) (6) Very Likely (7) A. The one with whom you spend the most time exchanging ideas and feelings. B. The one who is the most popular of them. C. The one who needs you the most as a friend.
I DID IT MY WAY 39 Appendix B Participant Qualification Questions 1. Sex is something that is independently defined. Many people choose to wait or to never have sex. Some people choose to have sex early in their life. Have you ever had sex? 2. Unfortunately not all s exual acts are consensual or positive. These experiences can be hard to overcome and can have a lasting impact. Have you ever been the victim of a sexual assault of a sexually coercive act?
I DID IT MY WAY 40 Appendix C First Sexual Experience Questions: 1. Th vaginal penetration, but many people who are unable to or uninterested in this variety of sexual expression have their own way of defining their first sexual experience. We would like to know how you self define your first sexual experience. Please explain what sexual act you considered to be 2. Please take tim e here to share why you chose to have sex for the first time ("lost your virginity"). There could be any number of reasons why you chose to have sex. You can probably think of more than one reason and we would like you to share as many as you can remember. 3. Some people chose to have their first sexual experience with someone who they do not know very well while other people do so in a more committed relationship. Please describe for us the nature of your relationship with the person you first had sex wit h.
I DID IT MY WAY 41 Appendix D First Coital Affective Reaction Scale The following items deal with your feelings about your first sexual intercourse. Please try to answer as accurately and honestly as possible. Please answer all items on the 7 point scale, in which strongly experiencing the feeling, with the numbers in between representing various gradations between these extremes. Please indicate the number in each item that most closely represen ts the way you felt. Did not feel at all (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Very much felt (7) Confused Satisfied Anxious Guilty Romantic Pleasure Sorry Relieved Exploited Happy Embar rassed Excited Fearful
I DID IT MY WAY 42 Appendix E Sexual Self efficacy Scale Non Gendered Below are a list of questions about a variety of different sexual and sex related activities. Please indicate your level of confidence that you could do each action listed below. Could not do Not at all confident (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Very confident (10) Anticipate (think about) having sex without fear or anxiety. Feel comfortable being nude with a partner. Feel comfortable with my body. In general, feel good about my ability to respond sexually. Be interested in sex. Feel sexual desire for a partner. Feel sexually desirable to a partner. Initiate an exch ange of affection without feeling obliged to have sex. Initiate sexual activities. Refuse a sexual advance from a partner. Cope with a partner's refusal of my sexual advances. Ask a partner to provide the typ e and amount of sexual stimulation needed. Provide a partner with the type and amount of sexual stimulation requested. Deal with discrepancies in sexual preference between me and a partner. Enjoy an exchange of affection without having sexual relations Enjoy a sexual encounter with a partner without having intercourse. Enjoy having your genitals caressed by a partner. body (excluding genitals). En joy caressing a partner's genitals.
I DID IT MY WAY 43 Enjoy sex. Enjoy sex in which I do not reach orgasm. Feel sexually aroused in response to erotica (pictures, book, films, etc.). Become sexually aroused by masturbating whe n alone. Become sexually aroused during foreplay when both a partner and I are clothed. Become sexually aroused during foreplay when both a partner and I are nude. Maintain sexual arousal throughout a sexual encounter. Engage in sex without pain or discomfort. Have an orgasm while masturbating alone. Have an orgasm while a partner stimulates you by means other than penetration. Stimulate a partner to orgasm by means other th an penetration. Stimulate a partner to orgasm by means of penetration. Reach orgasm within a reasonable period of time.
I DID IT MY WAY 44 Appendix F Sexual Anxiety Scale Short Form For the items listed below, please use the provided scale to rate how you feel about each activity. Extremely Uncomfortable Neutral Extremely Comfortable Visiting internet sites that feature erotic or softcore photos or video clips H aving arousing sexual thoughts that are related to my current sexual partner. Talking with my partner about his/her sexual fantasies. Looking at erotic or softcore photos in magazines. Being exposed to information about contraceptives and contraceptive use. Engaging in foreplay with my partner. Answering questions about sexual matters such as conception. Being exposed to inform ation about diseases of the sex organs, such as cervical cancer, testicular cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer. Looking at hardcore or pornographic photos in a magazine (explicit scenes of genitals and penetration) Being expos ed to information about sexually transmitted infections. Being around others who are changing their clothes. Visiting Internet sites that feature hardcore or porno graphic photos or video clips. Hearing about someone who has a biological sexual abnormality, such as undescended testicles, or a fertility problem. Changing activities or positions during sex with a partner to help ensure that I have an orgasm.