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i PLAYING GOD : P aintings of companies that pollute water and the repercussions of their actions by Alex andra Miranda A Thesis Submitted to the division of Humanities New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts in Art Under the sponsorship of Kim Anderson Sarasota, Florida May, 2012
ii Dedication My parents Jodi and JJ for giving me life, supporting me, loving me no matter what, putting up my art show, and letting me become an artist. The only way I could every repay you would be to have children of my own and raise them with the love and support you have given me. I love you both. My brother, Brandon I have been proud of you since you were born. MIT is only the beginning o f many accomplishments and successes to come. Thanks for all your love still the smartest guy I know. I love you.
iii Acknowledgements Kim and Rick for pushing than my best. Thank you. Delaney for lots of things incl. Disney songs, Miley Cyrus, and hugs. You have impacted my life so much for the better. Allie for being there for me through the toughest parts of college and growing up. Allison for our Wednesday dates and being one of the best friends a girl could ask for. Hannah Heather for froyo and all of your fridge quotes. Ilene for all your love, hugs, support, and letters. Jessie Mackenzie Katie for your love, support, and Jesus talks. I am so blessed to have you in my life. Judith brother, I love you. You ground me and keep me sane. I am a better person for having you in my life. Jenica Thank you for making all four years fun. You were always there to study, go the beach, or just spend time together. I value those moments and you. Thank you. Emily for Dr. Who. Enough said.
iv Sagrario for being my best friend and sister. You mean so much to me, and words cannot describe how blessed I am to have you in my life. Kyle I am so proud of all your successes and accomplishments this year. Peyton thank you for all your kisses and hugs. I hope to continue to become a good role model and presence in your life. Titi Alex loves you. The Dic kmann Family (esp. Faith and Sarah) for all the hugs, support, encouragements, Godly advice, Whiteberry trips, and PG Tips. The Joshi Family for all the love and encouragement you have given me, and for all the trips to Whole Foods on Saturday. Seein g you is always the best part of the workday. Johnette, Kevin, and Laura for all the wisdom and knowledge you have shared with me. It has been an invaluable experience to work with each of you. Genie you have been there for me this whole time. I cou ld not have thesised without you. Sherry for YOLO, our book, whoopsie, Starbucks, Jenny Saville, and yogurt. Your love and support helped me get through. The rest of my family and friends I love you all.
v Table of Contents Dedication ii Acknowledgements iii Image List vi Abstract viii Introduction 1 2 Dissolving the Figure 7 A Cohesive Direction Inspired by Poseidon 11 Conclusion 15 Works Cited 17 Images 20
vi Image List Millais, John Everett. Ophelia (FIG.1) Albert Steck Ophelia (FIG. 2) Alex Miranda Final Decision (FIG.3 ) Alex Miranda Shiver (FIG.4 ) Alex Miranda I was the more deceived (FIG. 5 ) Alex Miranda Cower (FIG.6 ) Oscar Munoz Linea del destino (FIG. 7 ) Alex Miranda Hubris (FIG.8 ) Alex Miranda Disintegrate (FIG.9) Alex Miranda In Plain Sight (FIG. 10 ) Alex Miranda Hiding (FIG. 11 ) Kiki Smith Daphne (FIG. 12 ) Theodore Chasseriau Apollo and Daphne (FIG.13 ) Karen Kilim nik Leonardo Dicaprio as Prince Charming (FIG.14 ) Karen Kilim nik Paris Hilton as Marie Antoinette (FIG.15 ) Eleanor Antin The Tourists (FIG. 16 ) Alex Miranda Tony Hayward of BP (FIG. 17 ) Alex Miranda Jim Hackett of Anadarko Petroleum (FI G.18 ) Alex Miranda Steven Newman of Transocean L td. (FIG.19 ) Alex Miranda Tim Probert of Halliburton Co. (FIG.20 )
vii Alex Miranda Captain Francesco Schettino of the Costa Concordia (FIG. 21 ) Alex Miranda Shane Lynch of North Ireland Water (FIG.22 ) Alex Miranda Zhang Ping of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and National Development and Reform Commission (FIG. 23 ) Alex Miranda Anacleto Angelini of Celco (FIG.24 ) Alex Miranda Peter Anderton of Anglo Gold Ashanti Iduapriem Limited (FIG.25 ) Alex Miranda Mike Hammah of Anglo Gold Ashanti Iduapriem Limited (FIG.26 ) Alex Miranda Ian Reid of Pfizer (FIG.27 ) Alex Miranda Kwesi Enyan of Obuasi Mine (FIG.28 ) Alex Miranda Edward Cohen of Atlas Energy (FIG.29 ) Alex Miranda Chuck Bundrant of Trident Sea Foods ( FIG. 30 )
viii PLAYING GOD Alexandra Miranda New College of Florida, 2012 ABSTRACT From shock portraits where the subject is doused in water, to depictions of people became a cohesive body of work inspired by the idea of a contemporary Poseidon destructive and distortion creating nature was explored through various modes of experimentation in concept and medium the focus turned to comp anies who pollute and destroy water. Portraits painted in a fauvist manner of 14 heads of companies who have been fined, have killed wildlife, and ha drew attention to a general cultural apathy Considering our dependence on water to survive, we should. Images of the destruction brought on by the actions of acco mpany the chiton clad portraits a reminder of the failures of the Greek gods and of our continued exploitation of water. Kim Anderson Humanities
1 Introduction Water, though life giving is also destructive. Capable of eroding rock, and sustaining bodily functions, it is also a hot political topic. The dual nature of water gives rise to a complex but fascinating subject for study. Our bodies are made up of roughly seventy percent water and without it cellular respiration ends. Cellular respiration is simply several processes of converting nutrients into ATP, or energy that our bodies use. he distortions water impose s on an object are able to skew it so much that it alludes to destruction, relationship with humanity and t he notion that nothing lasts including our bodies Water is something that is life giving, cleansing, and renewing, yet it can also be destructive. At the same time, humanity takes water for granted by misusing and polluting it. Water emerges throughout history in various myths as a de structive, distorting, and powerful force. When viewing an object through water, the object appears to be destroye d but it is only an illusion. is an actual representation of this illusion. Her body is distorted in the water and is being internally and externally destroyed. Ophelia is not a mythological character, but the nature of her death inspired the beginnin gs of my exploration in water which informed each set of paintings. In many ways she is a fitting analogy to my process and to the unsettling nature of water as a political, environmental, and mythological source. Rather than voicin g an opinion I was simply finding new ways to create a visual narrative. This issue begot the idea of creating time based photographs of literal dissolutions of the body but they looked more like experiments or reference photographs
2 depicting how water can interact with the figure. The central issue for creating works based upon water and mythology is finding a way to create something contemporary and conceptual without becoming literal. I began to think about what a contemporary Poseidon, god of the seas, would look like. The main question, then, is who has control over the seas? My mind went immediately to Tony Hayward, because the oil spill left Through this polit ical lens water is relevant as both life affirming and destructive I begin each chapter by discussing relevant historical and contemporary artists and concluding it with an analysis of my own work. The first chapter considers Bill Viola, John Everett Millais, and Paul Albert Steck within the context of Ophelia and how she inspired this entire project The second chapter analyze s Oscar Munoz Narcissus and how the myth informed my experiments with water and the li teral destruction of the body The third and final chapter talks about Eleanor Antin Kiki Smith, and Karen Kilimnik because of their ability to use myth and history to critique contemporary culture, which is my final product W ith paintings of companies who pollute water and the repercussions of their decisions I have created a parody of the Greek gods and people of power. Because Shakespeare left no definite interpretation of Ophelia, the reader is left to guess what happened during her descent into madness and eventual death. I was forced to reconcile the historical Ophe lia, with a contemporary visual equivalent of my ow n devising death is violent and destructive, a visual example of potential lethality Because her body is dissolving in the wat er literally and
3 figuratively, Ophelia becomes a relevant metaphor for exploitation, and pollution of water. Ophelia (FIG.1), she is depicted submerged in the water, in the final moments of her demise. Millais utilizes th e landscape in his paintings, and t he water and the plants are encroaching on the space occupied by the figure: Ophelia is half submerged in water and the plants are beginning to float over her. Rather than detracting from the figure, the landscape invites a voyeuristic gaze This is a p rivate for air. Whichever is the intended answer, Ophelia is still depicted in the pregnant mo ment ; w hether she is singing or inhaling her final breath, there is som ething about to happen in either case. Ophelia is a compelling figure throughout art history, because of the dramatic nature of her death and the madness that consumes her. Like many before me I found inspiration in the events surrounding her story and metaphors that could be drawn to mortality, water, and the environment. Albert Steck (FIG. 2), depicts the moment while she drowns Where Millais portrays the final breath before the plunge (or singing before drowning), Steck has shown the final breath leaving the body. The morbidity of the event is countered by the pastel colors and idyllic imagined scenery that Steck has created in this painting. Steck uses curvilinear lines reminiscent of early Mannerist works which makes the painting appear more stylized than realistic The lines combined with his use of shadows and bright colors of the underwater scene make this painting look like a cartoon. Opheli of a corpse during burial. The peaceful expression on her face and the flowers i n her
4 hands and in her hair contribute to this effect. Both of these historical narratives lack a physical destruction of the body explicit in actual death inspiring my idea of painting the realistic decay of the figure. which to depict the drowning and show a realistic rather than idealistic, figural decay The contemporary artist, Bill Viola, explores the absence of the figure in water in his video installation, 1 Viola nature through the deletion of man T he video begins with a man walking. Eventually there is a drip of water on his head. The water then comes faster and faster until it is a roaring torrential downpour. This continues for a couple minutes and then it slows down, but the man has disappeare d with the water. There is a screen next to it with the same action happening, only with fire instead of water. Viola uses a cool color scheme in his video with the water. This adds a soothing effect to the video. Though Viola wants his images to show a spiritual and life sustain ing force, he juxtaposes it with the destructive mature of water when it deletes the human figure. [The deluge energizes the space] with a violent raging crescendo of intense images and roaring sound. The two traditional natural elements of fire and water appear here not only in their destructive aspects, but manifest their cathartic, purifying, transformative, and regenerative capacities as well. In this way, self annihilation becomes a necessary means to transcendence and liber ation (Ross and Sellars 127). way would be the spiritual, calm, an d enlightening feelings evoked when the water cascades on the man, who eventually disappears. This is not a s successful as the second 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHqhaH6m9pY
5 inference of the water does not lead to a soothing calm for the viewer, but rather evokes the aspect of deletion and wiping away from existence. Thi s deletion is in progress in one of my paintings Final Decision Final Decision (FIG.3 ) is a photograph I took in an effort to capture the struggle piece, the amount of disturbed water around the figure suggests that it is in the process of happening. A cool color scheme makes the figure appear pallid and sickly. The only visible and whole representation of the fi gure is the foot in the center of the image. The re st of the body is absorbed in the churning water as a visual representation of the dissolution that water is capable of. Another piece that is similar to this one in terms of concept is Shiver (FIG. 4 ). My small scale colored pencil drawing, Shiver has a figure cropped at the bust, and she is gazing at the viewer with an expression of loss and sadness. Because of the cognizance in her eyes, the viewer can see that she is not dead yet. The entire drawing is full of color and varied strokes, which dr aw the eye across the image. Rather than being monochromatic, this drawing utilizes color to create depth and to separate the forms in the painting. Rather than detracting from the theme of decay, the scribbles of color enhance it. The sense of urgency and movement created with this mark dissolves the figure into the background. My drawing entitled I was the more deceived (FIG.5 ), is similar to Shiver. It is almost the same scale and the same medium. This drawing is not as successful as the other be cause of the lack of water interacting with the figure. At this point in my thesis I became distracted by portraying a contemporary Ophelia and lost
6 decay, which was the original plan. None of these pieces ended up in the fi nal show because these works were a starting point for viewing water as destruction. The painting, Cower (FIG.6 ), is about death and decay of the figure in water. Though there is minimal information given, the process behind the painting is important to the concept, because it started with a depiction of grief; someone who went insane because she lost her family and significant other. The under painting gave minimal information to the viewer, because it was a mass of muddy color. The recurring themes of water and death were ways for me to highlight decay The Prussian b lue glaze is in the shadows to avoid black, which sucks the color out of a painting. The blue drips add a new layer of depth to the canvas. Because majority of the previous color relationships were close together, the painting l ooked monochromatic A Prussian b lue glaze was a good way to emphas ize shapes and bring the colors out of the mud such as the figure and leaves surrounding her This prompted an experiment with temperature shifts. Mixing different tones of the primary colors and then heavily diluting them with gamsol caused drips on th e canvas. This created a grid like pattern similar to snakeskin once the canvas was rotated continuously. Ophelia became less important and the decay of the body became more of the theme. This was where I shifted back and Overall, these portraits reflect subjects from art history, but they have been turned into vessels of decay. The interaction between figure and background enhances the abstraction an d dissolution seen when a human body interacts with water. As I began to
7 the focus became less on her story, and more on the experience that her bo dy went through wh ile drowning. This prompted an entire se ries of dissolving sculptures inspired by the work of Oscar Munoz and my own struggle with the broad subject of water and Though none of these pieces ended up in my final show, they were integral for the development of water as a political controversy. Chapter 2: Dissolving the figure Oscar Munoz is a contemporary artist who works with the myth of Narcissus and the dissolu tion of the figure. His pieces are, an ongoing contemplation of the photographic image and its apparent inability to live up to the memory of a particular person, since the photograph a fixed representation, cannot fully capture the fluctuation of the human spirit (Roca). The overall concept of loss and personal memory loss are shown through the dissolution of the self portrait. In his piece, Linea del Destino, (FIG.7 ) there are a series of mirrors covered in grease. When the viewer breathes onto a mirror, a painted image appears. There is the added symbolism of image fragility, because no matter our determination to create a lasting image, it is incomplete and vulnerabl e; it will never truly capture the reality of the person or object. Munoz says that his work reveals the human need to create something that will last for eternity to be false. No matter how we try, everything fades in the end. Decay always wins out. T hese ideas are what I was thinking about when creating the next series of work centered on the decay of the body in water, inspired
8 In my pieces, Hubris (FIG. 8 ) Disintegrate (FIG. 9 ) and In Plain Sight (FIG. 10 ), the breakdown of the figure is displayed over time. For Hubris I began by sculpting a clay face, and then covering it with a paper towel, similar to paper Mache. This covering became a death mask, with the tissue reminiscent of burial cloths or linens. Because my work is steeped in mythology, Hubris is inspired by several different stories. T he story of Narcissus is the most blatant. Narcissus is the youth that fell in love with his Narcissus is half in love eventually gives into death and withers away to be turned into a flower. The self infatuation is brought forth in the faces of Hubris, Disinte grate, and Dissolve Rather than a reflection dissolving for the viewer, the breakdown of an ambiguous face is shown, which means anyone can relate the face to their own. Just as Narcissus faded to nothing, so do the subjects in this series of works. Th e image breakdown mimics an actual disintegration of a cadaver. Because I have placed my own body in these sculptures, I am taking the notion of mimicry and assimilating my body into nature. The story of Hylas resonates in both pieces as well as in my th esis as a whole. Hylas was a beautiful boy and the companion of Herakles. The two of them were on the journey to retrieve the Golden Fleece, when Hylas disappeared at an island on their way. Hylas looked into a pond, and the nymphs fell so in love with him that they stole him away. Part of what drives my work is the disco very of what actually happened through visual exercises Each piece that I create is a chance to explore the myth or story in a way similar to an investigation. Hylas was an obvious step from Ophelia, because their deaths are both in water.
9 Hiding, (FIG.11 ) is a piece inspired by the ancient Florida Native Americans who buried their dead underwater. A shallow bog of ancient underwater graves was found in 1984, ago, more than 2,000 years before the first pyramids were built in Egypt. The ancient amazem speculations as to why this culture buried its dead underwater. The first is that it held a religious significance, believing that this burial site kept evil spirits away. The se cond reason is that it is easier to dig a grave in mud than in hard earth, and the third reason is the methane gas that appears as vegetable matter decays. The methane gas could have been identified as the pond breathing, and therefore could have given b reath to those who had none (Richardson 1992). In this painting, the underwater figure on the right is a woman with her arms that the people were often buried with things important to their life. For instance, warriors were buried with their weapons and children were buried with their favorite toys. The clay pot is included with two purposes: to include something that would be useful for the afterlife, and to include something that this woman would have used frequently, and was t herefore relevant to her life. The woman is also wrapped in a burial shroud made from palm fronds, one of the earliest types of plant fiber clothing found (Richardson 1992). Another narrative element of this piece is the canoe underside on the top left of the painting. This is included to develop the overall narrative and to add movement It
10 also serves to help place the woman underwater and acts as a grounding element in that way. The angled away canoe underside and the way the woman is arranged, sho w that the body was just placed underwater for burial. The head has not yet touched the mud on the bottom and one leg is still slightly raised, showing the movement just before the figure fully rests on the bottom. The stringy weeds and plant matter tha t fall from the top right of the canvas onto the woman also help to place her in an underwater scene. The plant matter is also used to help bridge the gap between the top of the canvas and the bottom, thereby achieving a fluidity that does not disrupt the The materials and color scheme used are consistent with an underwater scene. Paint has been dragged across the canvas to create rivulets that break up the figure and background. There are also large globs of paint inconsistently placed in the composition. These two handling techniques provide a realistic portrayal of what an underwater bog would look like. The color scheme is full of browns and greens, which help place the figure not only underwater, but also in death. The way the pain t is handled combined with the colors gives the overall tone of decay and rot. The darker areas of teal and viridian green are found in the top left and bottom right of the canvas, which balances the composition and adds depth to a two dimensional surface This also shows that the light source is coming from the area near the canoe, and it filters through the water to touch upon the woman. Her skin tone is consistent with the underwater scene, and it has a greenish white pallor. This is not wholly attr ibuted to the water, but also to her recent death.
11 All of the highlights on her body are restricted to angles that make up her figure. The expressionistic brush stroke is not detailed, but adds a sense of immediacy and movement to the painting. This wo man is decaying as we look at her, and the brush stroke serves as an enhancement and reminder of this. The immediacy and movement further the goal of the painting, which is to highlight an underwater burial and narrate the ancient past. The overall narra tive, composition, materials, and color scheme are arranged to bring ancient customs and modern sensibilities together. The narrative details a scene that the viewer might not be wholly familiar with, but the composition grounds a time and place. The bru sh stroke, color scheme, and paint handling support the composition and narrative as an underwater grave. The streaks of gamsol and paint that break up the canvas further the realization of death and decay, which is also reinforced by the color scheme tha t works as a placement underwater and as a death palate. Chapter 3: A cohesive direction inspired by Poseidon Kiki Smith does not utilize water as destructive in the same manner that Viola does, but she is a contemporary artist with a series of work focused on mythology. Even though Smith has a wistful tone to her pieces that contain mythologies and classical stories, her artwork is always ground in reality. The wistful and sentimental are achieved because of the pra cticality Smith executes. It is as if she is reflecting on childhood and discovering t he lies and truths there. It is successful because she incorporates mortality into her work. These elements mentioned are best shown through her sculpture, Daphne (FIG.12 ).
12 In Greek mythology, Daphne, a nymph, was the daughter of Zeus. Apollo fell madly in love with her, yet Daphne resisted his advances. Apollo ended up chasing Daphne through the forest, where Daphne, sensing she was about to be overtaken, prayed to Zeus for deliverance. Zeus took pity on her and turned her into a laurel tree. The painting, Apollo and Daphne by T heodore Chasseriau, (FIG.13 ), shows an elegant transformation from girl to tree. Her legs are gradually turning into a laurel tree. and she is gazing directly into Ap original story of a potential rape. scul pture conveys exactly what happened. There is a human body, the plaster highlighting the vulnerability and human qualities, and her limbs and head are tree branches. The juxtaposition of hard and soft does not showcase an act of kindness from a god. This sculpture forces the viewer to question whether being turned into a tree was deliverance or punishment. The change is not gradual or majestic. The plaster splatters on the wood make it seem painful and jarring. The stark reality of what a transformation from girl to tree entails is shown in omething disturbing and unsettling with the harsh depiction she has shown, the story of Daphne is ancient. Smith has given recognition to classical mythology as important to contemporary
13 face than from the private disenchantments of childhood that erosion of faith in the s transformation with practicality, Smith is achieving exactly what Stevens is talking about. There is no way that transforming into a tree transformation is supposed to be an ac realization of the lie in what we are taught to believe While Kiki Smith uses mythology in her work, Karen Kilim nik uses parody and irony to force the viewer into a contemplation of contemporary priorities. This shift from mythology to portraiture is grounded in the idea that events from history and classical mythology are re levant to contemporary culture, specifically through parody. Karen Kilimnik uses celebrity figures as a parody to highlight our depend ence on Alternately girlish and demonic, and merges popular paintings of Leonardo Dicaprio as Prince Charming, (FIG.14 ) and Paris Hilton as Marie Antoinette (FIG.15 ), highlight the way in which our society promotes the idea of an idol. But who wants human and accessible when you can have untouchable and divine? We chose [the celebrity] and rejected ourselves. Karen Kilimnik seems to under makes deceptively sophisticated art about glamour, the junk food of the soul (Cotter). Another artist relevant to my Poseidon series is Eleanor Antin. She says her phorical parallels to the and Roman history.
14 T Days of Pompeii. The first series is abou t Helen of Troy and includes the photograph, The Tourist s, (FIG. 16 ) This is of a battle scene where two Grecian socialites are visiting. They are completely unfazed by the blood and gore, which can be related to works are subtle and striki ng comparisons to today. My final series is of corporate figures portrayed as Poseidon. Through irony and exaggerated color schemes, I hope to highlight the negative ways humanity treats water, and the repercussions of a related social apathy The Pose idon series is about taking color and using it to create a dialogue about the subject. Each of the men depicted are shown with the strangest expressions I could find, and they are all painted in absurd colors. The mark is loose and painterly, and the sha pes are distorted subtly to create discomfort. The painting Tony Hayward of BP (FIG. 17 ), shows the negative aspect of how humanity interacts with water. Tony Hayward was the president of BP during the oil spill, and I hope the irony of the situation dr aws attention to the serious matter of the oil spill and conversely the apathy of our culture about the repercussions of their actions. By showing men who destroy water by polluting it in an idealistic manner, I have created an ironic image To accompany each of the corporate figures is an image of t poor decisions. Jim Hacket t of Anadarko Petroleum, (F IG.18 ) Steven Ne wman of Transo cean L td. (FIG. 19 ), Tim Pr obert of Halliburton Co. (FIG.20 ), are figure heads of companies who were involved in the oil spill alongside Tony Hayward. However, oil spills are not the only problem that humanity can inflict upon water. Captain Francesco Schettino of
15 the Costa Concordia, (FIG. 21 ), abandoned his ship after he wrecked it in the Mediterranean. Shane Lync h of North Ireland Water (FIG.22 ) Zhang Ping of the the Ministry of Environmental Protection and National Development and Reform Commission (FIG. 23 ), Anacl eto Angelini of Celco (FIG.24 ), Peter Anderton, (FIG.25 ), and Mik e Hammah, (FIG.26 ) of Anglo Gold Ashanti Mine Ian Reid of Pfeizer, (FIG.27 ), Kw esi Enyan of Obuasi Mine (FIG.28 ), Edwa rd Cohen of Atlas Energy, (FIG.29 ), and Chuc k Bundrant of Trident Sea Foods, (FIG. 30 ) were all fined for pollution. Accompanying each of these men is an image in a muted color palate of the destruction o f water and wildlife who depend on water. The intent is to parody the men while keeping the opposite ima ge serious and newspaper like. These images show the destructive nature of humanity against w ater through a political lens while discussing power over water. Each man has a chiton to represent Poseidon, god of the seas. In classical mythology he embodies s power, and t he parallel between these men and Poseidon adds to the overall parody. Conclusion The subject of water is very broad, and it was difficult to focus on a cohesive subject until the end. I spent a lot of time experimenting and trying new things, eventually settling on the political side of water. From starting out with water poured over the head invoking baptism and the cleansing effects of water, to addressing drowning and Ophelia, Hylas, and Narcissus, this project has been similar to a survey on the different ways to interpret the subject of wat er. The Ophelia series started out conceptually interesting but got lost in the formal techniques that I was using. Those techniques led to sculptural and technological experiments of the breakdown of the body
16 over time. The disintegration of the figure is a metaphor for the notion that nothing lasts. The outward dissolution is a depiction of the inward aging of the body. We cannot reverse time, and so our bodies break down. Every day cells die and things malfunction. This concept was what drove most of my work, but it did not become successful until the end, when I began to paint the men of companies who ruin water. I believe that the juxtapositions I have created allow the viewer to make the connections necessary to understand the final product. I did not include all of my work in my thesis show because much of what I created over the year was not visually or conceptually cohesive. I chose to only include the men whose companies destroy water, and the repercussions of those actions, because throug h a political lens the ideas I explored with Ophelia and other myths was shown in the best way possible. The decay, disintegration, and destruction are subtly and blatantly referenced in the works in a successful manner.
17 Works Cited Actress. Print. Martin, Helena F. Rosalind, Beatrice, Hermione Edin burgh: W. Blackwood and sons, 1891. Print. Kiefer, Carol S. The Myth and Madness of Ophelia Amherst, Mass: Mead Art Museum, 2001. Print. Farren, George. Essays on the Varieties in Mania, Exhibited by the Characters of Hamlet, Ophelia, Lear, and Edgar. New York: AMS Press, 1975. Print. Trafford, Jeremy. Ophelia. Thirsk: House of Stratus, 2001. Print. Mancoff, Debra N. John Everett Millais: Beyond the Pre Raphaelite Brotherhood. New Haven: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in Bri tish Art, the yale Center for British Art, 2001. Print. Klein, Holger M, and James L. Harner. Shakespeare and the Visual Arts. Lewiston, N.Y: Edwin Mellen Press, 2000. Print. Young, Alan R. Hamlet and the Visual Arts, 1709 1900. NewarK: University o f Delaware Press, 2002. Print. Windover. FSU Department of Anthropology. Web. 19 Sept. 2011.
18 Lightbrown, R.W. Secular Paintings. Botticelli. New York: Abbeville, 1989. Print. Lomas, David. Narcissus Reflected. Chicago, Il: University o f Chicago Press, 2011. Sutherland, Lyall. Waters of Life. Bournemouth: Parstone Press, 1999. Print. Mahony, Mike. World Art the Essential Illustrated History. London: Flame Tree Publishing, 2006. Print. Martin, Richard P. Myths of the Ancient Gree ks. New York: New American Library, 2003. Print. Richardson, Joseph L. The Windover Bog People an Archaeological Dig in Titusville Florida North Brevard Area Directory 32780. The Brevard Museum of History and Natural Science, 1992. Web. 19 Sept. 2011
19 5. General OneFile Web. 2 Nov. 2011. Yasumasu Morimura, An Inner Dialogue with Frida Kahlo Luhring Augustine, NY, 2001; Colette, Maison de la Lumire Egizio's Project, NY, 2002; Brice Dellsperger, Body Double 15 Team Gallery, NY, 2002. Gunzburg, Darrelyn. "John William Waterhouse, Beyond the Modern Pre Raphaelite." Art book 17.2 (2010):70. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/30/arts/design/30kili.html http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/21/arts/ design/21john.html?pagewanted=all http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/eleanor antin
20 Millais, John Everett. Ophelia 1852. (FIG.1) (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/John_Everett_Millais_ _Ophelia_ _Google_Art_Project.jpg/300px John_Everett_Millais_ _Ophelia_ _Google_Art_Project.jpg) Steck, Albert. Ophelia (FIG. 2) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Steck pau l_albertophelia.JPG)
21 Miranda, Alex. Final Decision 2011. (FIG.3 ) Miranda, Alex. Shiver 2011. (FIG.4 ) Alex Miranda I was the more deceived (FIG. 5 ) Miranda Alex. Cower 2011. (FIG.6 )
22 Munoz, Oscar. Linea del destino .(FIG. 7 ) (http://www.philagrafika2010.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/news_entry_image/news _entries/double%20image.jpg) Miranda Alex. Hubris 2012 (FIG.8 ) Miranda Alex. Disintegrate 2011 (FIG.9 ) Miranda, Alex. In Plain Sight 2012 (FIG. 10 )
23 Miranda Alex. Hiding 2011. (FIG. 11 ) Smith, Kiki. Daphne (FIG. 12 ) (http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_4vNO86Z3Doo/TSodxwcBQzI/AAAAAAAAAKI/M2tewXo LXqM/s1600/Kiki+Smith+Daphne.jpg) Chasseriau, Theodore. Apollo and Daphne 1845 (FIG.13 ) (http://cache2.artprintimages.com/lrg/13/1348/8DAS000Z.jpg)
24 Kilimnik Karen. Leonardo Dicaprio as Prince Charming (FIG.14 ) (http://arttattler.com/images/NorthAmerica/Illinois/Chicago/Museum%20of%20Contemp orary%20Art/Karen%20Kilimnik/67791Prince Charming.jpg) Kilim nik Karen. Paris Hilton as Marie Antoinette (FIG.15 ) (http://static.guim.co.uk/sys images/Arts/Arts_/Pictures/200 7/02/22/paris256.jpg) Antin Eleanor. The Tourists (FIG. 16 ) (http://images.artnet.com/artwork_images_373_365610_eleanor antin.jpg)
25 Miranda Alex. Tony Hayward of BP 2012 (FIG. 17 ) Miranda, Alex. Jim Hackett of Anadarko Petroleum 2012. (FIG.18 ) Miranda, Alex. Steven Newman of Transocean Ltd. 2012. ( FIG.19 )
26 Miranda Alex. Tim Probert of Halliburton Co. 2012. (FIG.20 ) Miranda, Alex. Captain Francesco Schettino of the Costa Concordia 2012. (FIG. 21 ) Miranda Alex. Shane Lynch of North Ireland Water 2012. (FI G.22 )
27 Miranda Alex. Zhang Ping of the the Ministry of Environmental Protection and National Development and Reform Commission 2012. (FIG. 23 ) Miranda Alex. Anacleto Angelini of Celco 2012. (FIG.24 ) Miranda Alex. Peter Anderton of Anglo Gold Ashanti Iduapriem Limited 2012. (FIG.25 )
28 Miranda Alex. Mike Hammah of Ang lo Gold Ashanti Mine. 2012. (FIG.26 ) Miranda Alex. Ian Reid of Pf izer 2012. (FIG.27 ) Miranda Alex. Kwesi Enyan of Obuasi Mine 2012. (FIG.28 )
29 Miranda Alex. Edward Cohen of Atlas Energy 2012. (FIG.29 ) Miranda Alex. Chuck Bundrant of Trident Sea Foods 2012. (FIG. 30 )