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PLAY, EXPRESSIVITY A ND THE ELEMENTAL: MARRYING SPEECH, MOV EMENT, AND MUSIC THR OUGH IMPROVISATION IN ORFF'S SCHULWERK BY ALLISON DOTTS A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Humanities New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requ irements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the Sponsorship of Maribeth Clark Sarasota, FL May, 2011
iii Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS/TABLES iv ABSTRACT v INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE: Orff Building the Schulwerk 4 History and Foundations 13 Tools: Instruments and Publications 15 The Volumes 21 CHAPTER TWO: P rimitivism and the Elemental 25 C HAPTER THREE: Music Learning 32 CHAPTER FOUR: Music Learning Theory and Integ ration 43 Conclusion 47 Appendix Activities 49 REFERENCES 58
iv List of Illustrations/Tables Table 1.1 A Comparison of Music Education Methods 8 Figure 1.2 Rhythm Syllable Systems 9 Figure 1.3 Curwen Hand Signs 10 Figure 2.1 Orff Instrumentarium 18 Figure 2.2 Bordun Accompaniment 20 Figure 3.1 Effective Elements of Music Teaching 40 Figure 3.2 Modes/Exp eriences of Music Instruction 40 Figure 4.1 Gordon Rhythm Syllable System 46
v PLAY, EXPRESSIVITY A ND THE ELEMENTAL: MARRYING SPEECH, MO VEMENT, AN D MUSIC THROUGH IMPROVISAT ION IN ORFF'S SCHULWERK Allison Dotts New College of Florida, 2011 ABSTRACT Carl Orff's Schulwerk along with much of his compositional work, started as an exploration into the most primitive, elemental roots of music. In this thesis, I explore the natural, active music making experience developed by Orff, Dorothee Gunther, and Gunild Keetman. Through movement, improvisation, play, composition, and collective performance, music making through the Schulwerk incorporates musical k nowledge into a piece/performance, and creates an effective ensemble through active listening and collaboration. Because of its adaptability, the Schulwerk is an appropriate approach to music learning at any age, even in the 21 st century. I also investig at e turn of the century fascination with primitivism, and its effect on Orff's compositions and conception of elementare Musik. I explore traditional and contemporary methods of music learning, and compare these with the Schulwerk I propose that it is the elemental nature of the Orff approach and its focus on play based, experiential learni ng that make this type of music learning appropriate for and accessible to a wide range of students. Maribeth Clark Division of Humanities
1 INTRODUCTION Carl O rff's Schulwerk along with much of his compositional work, started as an exploration into the most primitive, elemental roots of music. Joined by Dorothee Gnther and Gunild Keetman, he create d a natural musical experience, through movement, improvisation play, composition, and collective performance. The Schulwerk 's collaborative music making experience allows for individuals to not only learn how to incorporate musical knowledge into a performance, but also to create an effective ensemble through active listening and collaborating to highlight individual strengths. In this thesis, I introduce the Schulwerk and its foundation in the early twentieth century. Other methods of music education, such as the Kodaly approach and Dalcroze Eurythmics, are contrast ed in terms of their goals and processes. In addition, I investigate the root of Orff's concept of "elemental" stressing what can be most naturally acquired o r learned regardless of context and its role in his compositions as well as its manifestation in t he Schulwerk I explore the meaning and validity of "primitivism" within the historical and cultural context of early 20th century Europe its significance for Carl Orff and his work and the link to Orff's concept of "elemental" music making. I then link traditional functions of music and its role in va rious cultures and historical periods, and compare
2 elements of the Orff Schulwerk and Music Learning Theory, which incorporate the building of extra musical skills, like socialization, critical thinking, and self expression. I use this information to further the parallel between successful music learning and language learning through immersion, and why the Orff Schulwerk is an effective approach to apply to the process. In an effort to understand why music ed ucation is necessary, and what makes Orff's approach effective I consider what it means to "understand" music, and how we come to be "musical" peo ple. Music education in America is largely based on processes of enculturation. We learn music through consta nt exposure; begin to form a vocabulary of melodic, rhythmic, and other patterns; and through imitation and improvisation gain expressivity for effective performance. Gordon's Music Learning Theory suggests that learning music is like learning a language. Through exposure, one's brain begins to categorize and organize musical information, even subconsciously, developing the tools to use the information correctly, and eventually learning to read and write it. We speak before we lean to read but other method s of music education stress literacy so heavily that teachers often introduce concepts simultaneously or in this backwards order Music learning according to Gordon and Orff seems closest to a natural, perhaps "primitive" way of learning; students are imme rsed and learn gradually through the buildin g of aural skills and Gordon's audiation process, akin to thought and understanding in language. I also include examples of how Music Learning Theory and the Orff approach might be combined demonstrating my ow n connection with the material I include material from Orff and Keetman's M usik fr Kinder (Music for Children) as well as "familiar material" popular, traditional, and folk music; chants, rhymes and body
3 percussion; and other poetry and literature. Thes e activities allow engagement through kinesthetic, aural/vocal, and visual means, which is facilitated by their familiarity.
4 CHAPTER ONE Orff Building the Schulwerk The Orff Schulwerk approach combines the fundamental elements of speech, movement, m usic, and play to create a comfortable environment in which children can learn the basics of music as naturally as they would a language. The "elemental music making" of the Orff approach allows children to pick up the basics of music in the same manner th at one learns a native language structures and concepts emerge through simple, playful, accessible games and activities, and the repetition of the familiar. The Orff approach is also highly participatory and improvisational concepts are learned by doing rather than rote instruction which fosters the development of musicianship and a "total awareness". The Orff Schulwerk is not a "method" but rather an "approach" so there is not a designated or systemized implementation of curriculum, but rather an amalga mation of intuitive models and principles that teachers use to organize materials creatively. Orff is unlike other methods of music education, such as Dalcroze Eurhythmics, or the Kodly system partly in its adaptability and fluidity; that elements and se quences from other methods can be incorporated. Like Orff, mile Jacques Dalcroze was concerned with learning through experience (rather than by rote or through unsupported, abstract activities), incorporating
5 kinesthetic learning through movement, and fo cusing on student improvisation and creativity. Dalcroze Eurhythmics was developed by Jacques Dalcroze in the first decade of the twentieth century, focusing on the body as the original instrument. The method combines eurhythmics (rhythmic, structural, and expressive musical concepts are learned through movement), solfge (understanding of pitch, scale, and tonality is developed through aural/vocal exercises), and improvisation (understanding of form and meaning developed through movement and spontaneous mu sical creation). He believed that developing a rhythmically accurate physical response to movement showed the potential for an accurate performance of musical rhythms, and could be used to develop musical understanding and sensitivity. The approach include s little instrumental training or exploration for students, and focused more on building aural skills through ingraining kinesthetic connections between the body and mind. In contrast to Orff and Dalcroze, Zoltan Kodly's method focuses heavily on musical literacy, and follows a systematic, organized method for curriculum design. Musical experiences progress from rhythmic to vocal to instrumental training, using solfge to introduce sight reading, rhythmic mnemonic syllables 1 (See Figure 1.1), and unaccompa nied folk songs and dances. Kodly's method stresses the voice as well as an adaptation of John Curwen's solfge hand signs as a means of kinesthetic learning. Teaching by rote is used prominently, so aural learning precedes musical notation. A main founda tion of the method is the development of "inner hearing" (similar to Gordon's concept of audiation ), mostly through building up a vocabulary of aurally 1 Various mnemonic syllabic systems have been developed to introduce children to rhythms and rhythmic fragments and introduce/improve sight reading skills, such as the French Time Name system, mile Chev's syllable system, and more recently, the Gordon s ystem.
6 acquired musical intervals, fragments, and patterns. The Curwen hand signs are used as a form of proto n otation (see Figure 1.2), as students work their way through a carefully selected sequence of tonal and rhythmic materials. This sequence is "sensitive to the psychological development of the child", for example, building melodies starting with "childhood chant" ( sol mi la sol mi ) and adding new solfge syllables and fragments gradually, or introducing duple before triple meter (Campbell 1991, 226). Improvisation is generally used for rhythmic learning activities, but rarely melodic; it is suggested that i mprovisation is more advanced, and should be employed by students to reinterpret notated melodies and rhythms or explore their "vocabulary of aural patterns" ( Ibid., 224). Despite similarities in methods of aural and kinesthetic learning and retention of m usical information, use of creativity through improvisation, and approach to musical literacy an obvious consequence of successful methods of music education the goals of the three ideologies are different Dalcroze aims to develop musical movement before vocal or instrumental performance or reading and writing notation; Kodly stresses the importance of unaccompanied vocal performance as a means to develop musical literacy. Orff, however, advocated for a rich variety of creative musical experiences, which lead to developed musical performances and a honing of personal expression. Although the three methods stress the importance of building aural skills, Orff provides for multiple experiences with the same material students are exposed to musical material an d given a chance to explore it through movement, body percussion, instrumental performance, vocal performance, improvisation, and finally through a group performance dictated by the students themselves. Kinesthetic learning (aside from vocal/instrumental p erformance) is used heavily in Dalcroze's method every experience involves
7 thoughtful, exploratory movement as well as the Orff approach. The Schulwerk incorporates creative, free form movement to express the music, and often includes dance and body percus sion patterns to build on rhythmic patterns and internalization of the beat. Kinesthetic reinforcement in the Kodly method is often limited to use of the Curwen hand signs for solfge activities, but sometimes includes folk dancing. While the goal of Kod ly 's system is musical literacy, the Schulwerk was c onceived as a pre reading process for developing musicianship, and allows for introduction of alternative or proto notation as well as conventional notation at any point. Improvisation is part of movemen t training in Dalcroze, and is only occasionally used (through singing) in Kodly whereas the Schulwerk 's main foundation is improvisation. Students progress from free expressions of speech and movement and build patterns into music al pieces on percussion instruments, allowing full interaction during all stages of the learning process. Four main stages of Orff 's approach to music teaching and learning have developed in the United States: preliminary play, imitation, exploration, and improvisation/compositi on. These stages overlap throughout the teaching learning process, as students hear, interact with, process, interpret, and create music. A deeper familiarity and understanding leads to more "perceptive" music making later on; that is, students perform mor e expressively, and in cooperation and collaboration with other performers. The first of these stages, p reliminary play allows guided exploration and spontaneous interaction with materials to begin developing them. During this stage students can discover the music on their own terms: developing aural and oral skills,
8 Table 1.1 A Comparison of Music Education Methods ( Dotts)
9 Figure 1.2 Rhythm Syllable Systems (Dotts)
10 Figure 1.3 Curwen Hand Signs ( Dotts)
11 creating expectations and recognizing patterns, and using the body and movement to express musical fundamentals. For example, students might play with the lyrics or poetry of a piece, varying in pitch or emotion; demonstrate the beat/pulse with their body through locomotor (physical displacement of body ) and nonlocomotor (moving body without physical displacement) movement; or use improvisatory dance and gesture to express the general "feeling" of the music. The preliminary play stage al so combines with the imitation stage, during which the teacher might sing or play the whole song several times, known as Whole Song Assimilation, or simply Whole Part Whole. After singing a piece in its entirety one or more times; rather than rote echoing of each segment, a teacher might introduce a small part, followed by the whole. Students join in on the part they have just learned, pointing ou t where it occurs and/or repeats, or how it might be altered, fo llowed by group repetitions of small parts until the whole has been learned. Echo or "question and answer" response using movement or other forms of student participation is a large part of this stage, so that the students stay completely engaged. The Chinese proverb Tell me, I'll forget. Show me, I'll remember. Involve me, I'll understand," sets the precedent for this stage: rather than a teacher lecturing or demonstrating, students model and lead activities during the learning process for themselves. Kinesthetic reinforcement of the beat or rhythmic pattern by means of a speech or body percussion ostinato pattern also leads to quicker comprehension of a piece, so with each repetition of the whole song, students are able to perform consistently until they have learned the song in its entirety. The exploration stage incorporates "informed" play and exploration (like prel iminary play) but applying learned ideas in movement, singing, speech, and/or
12 instrument play. Improvisation follows, introducing original material on Orff or percussion instruments, with speech, song, dance, or body percussion; students can also compose a nd determine structural elements of the performance to create form. Speech, rhythm, and body percussion are important tools to the Orff approach that often manifest in ostinat i or other forms of accompaniment. New concepts are combined with familiar songs and activities through movement, improvisation, and communal participation in each step of the learning process.
13 History and Foundations Orff was always interested in backward looking music; his shift from a serious career in theatrical composition to a free form, improvisatory method of music education is not entirely surprising given his cultural backdrop and musical influences Born into a Bavarian family of nobility in Munich on July 10, 1895, Carl Orff was presented a world of opportunity. He excelle d academically and musically, studying piano, cello and organ as a young boy. He began to compose, setting various texts to music, which continued through his teenage years. During his studies under Anton Beer Walbrunn at the Akademie der Tonkunst he dist anced himself from the ideals of Romanticism. Orff developed interest in the music of Debussy (heavily influenced by Javanese, Chinese, and Indian tonalities and instruments) and Schoenberg, and traits of his later works began to appear: "a diatonic and li near approach, tectonic construction, and employment of drones and ostinati, as well as the central role of the word" (Fassone, n.d. ). While composers like Schoenberg were interested in neoclassicism, Orff's interest in classical languages and ideals was a result of his fascination with text as the cornerstone of theatrical experience. Orff was interested in the classical idea music of music as a unity of text music, and movement, and disagreed with the Romantic idea of music as an absolute form of express ion. After working as Kappellmeister at the Munich Kammerspiele, Orff composed at the Nationaltheater in Mannheim, and the Hoftheater in Darmstadt, before returning to Munich. Orff's interest in composing for the theatre expanded he wrote musical works s olely for the stage, and wanted to explore the realm of movement. He discovered the
14 dance and e urhythmics methods of Emile Jacques Dalcroze, Rudolf Laban, and Mary Wigman, methods that strayed from the movement typically used in the theatrical productions in which he had been involved. Jacques Dalcroze had developed a dance style in Geneva at the turn of the century integrating music and movement; Laban, in addition to other methods, had stressed the Tanz Ton Wort (dance sound word) concept which involved accompanying movement with various types of speech or percussive sounds ( Pruett 2003, 178 9). In the 1920s, ideas and methods of individuals like Dalcroze and Laban led to the founding of gymnastic and dance schools across Germany, and an interest in gymna stics, sport, and dancing spread among youth. Wassily Kandinsky's ber das Geistige in der Kunst written in 1912, became a strong cultural influence. Kandinsky posited that future art forms, especially dance, would require the internalization of movement as its means of expression, since contemporary artists were lacking an "internal spark" present in primitive artists Mary Wigman's new form of expressionist dance ( Ausdrucktanz ) was also an important influence in the German art/c ultural movements at this time, and made some use of drama and "primitive" rhythmic and percussion accompaniment. Although Orff was interested in the connection between this work and his own, he was seeking something more focused on the marriage of poetic language, music, movement, and other elements. Orff began collaboration with Dorothee Gnther, with whom he had worked on some translations and transcriptions She and Orff built a successful professional relationship based on their common belief in a "symbiosis" between music and movement ( Pruett 2003, 175 6) They attended course s together at the Messendieck Foundation on a new system of controlled body move ments for therapeutic uses. In
15 contrast to Orff, who was a musician developing an interest in rhythm and movement, Gnther had little musical training and had gained recognition as an artist and choreographer of the Staatliche Schauspielhaus in Hamburg. Orff and Gnther founded the Gntherschule in Munich in 1924, where the concept of elementare Musik burgeoned. A school for m usic, dance, and rhythmic movement, it also provided an outlet for their experimental work. Orff hoped his "ideas about a reciprocal interpenetration of movement and music education" could come to fruition in the development of a "new kind of rhythmical ed ucation" (Orff 196 3). In 1925, a student of the school, Maja Lex, joined Orff and Gnther and helped formulate the school's unique movement style, built on structured improvisation. Thi s style stressed rhythm as the fundamental kinetic element of improvis ation, which was often attained through the rela tionship of word and sound This type of improvisation was the means of discovery at the Gntherschule and later became a foundation of the Schulwerk Tools: Instruments and Publications Part of the usua l musical instruction at this time at other dance and gymnastic schools included only the use of piano for musical acc ompaniment. Orff and Gnther wanted to change this tradition by introducing student accompaniment on the most primitive of instruments, un pitched percussion and drums. A connection between primitivism and Orff's elemental music was clear by attaching rattles and shakers to their bodies, students created music more objectively. In this way the music was a direct
16 consequence of their movement, so that music and movement were perpetually tied together. Schools like Mary Wigman's began to incorporate some drums and other percussion, but it was somewhat arrhythmic and served more as an accessory to the dance. Orff and Gnther, however sought to t ransfer their foundation from the "harmonic to the rhythmic instruments", as well as to "activate" the students by having them play their own music through improvis ation and composition (Orff 1963). From the beginning, Orff desired the most natural and el emental of instruments, so body percussion, vocalizations, and shakers attached to moving body parts were among the first. Carl Sachs, director of the Staatlichen Musikinstrumenten Sammlung (state collection of musical instruments), was influential in the building of Orff's instrumentarium. Orff first met Sachs in Berlin in the fall of 1923, to show him some Monteverdi arrangements; their bold, elemental versions piqued Sachs' interest. The two discussed Orff's plans for the Schulwerk Sachs considered the Gntherschule concept a bit unusual at first, but he ultimately realized, "You want to find the source of all beginnings...the elemental is your element, and, if I understand your far reaching exposition correctly, you will rediscover it there" (Orff 1976, 14). After a tour of the collection and some discussion, Orff departed repeating what Sachs had said: "In the beginning there was the drum" ( Orff 1976, 15). In the autumn of 1926 Orff met two well traveled Swedish sisters trying to establish a puppet the atre, inspired by Chinese and Javanese shadow plays. Interested in incorporating Orff's percussion ensemble (akin to the Gamelan accompanied plays), the sisters sent Orff a small African xylophone a few months later, which he and the others tried to integr ate into their ensemble, but unfortunately the tuning contained intervals
17 smaller than a semitone (Orff 1976, 96). Orff was enamored with its sound, so he sought to reproduce it with a more standard western tuning. Orff approached Sachs for advice on makin g a more conventionally tuned xylophone/marimba. Sachs discouraged Orff from reproducing the African models because they were of "purely African origin" the wood, calabash resonat ors, and other materials would no t be available, especially to make multiple instruments. Not discouraged, Orff came across a "Kaffir piano" from Cameroon made of a wooden nail box with palisander wooden bars strung on top he thought this would be much easier to reproduce than the other xylophones and enlisted Karl Maendler, a harp sichord builder/restorer, and friend who Orff asked for musical advice. After listening to the marimba and kaffir piano, Maendler produced for them an alto xylophone (range D4 E5); a soprano xylophone (range an octave higher), and later made versions secur ed by nails so notes could be interchanged. He also made a "tenor" (chromatic) xylophone, having a 25 note possible range from C4 E6. In addition to unpitched percussion and pitched marimba, Orff added recorders to the mix of potential instruments. It was Sachs, in attempts to dissuade him from replicating the xylophones, who convinced Orff to introduce recorders. T hen you will have what you most need, a melody instrument to your percussion, the pipe to the drumcorresponding to historical development" (O rff 1976, 96). Orff thought to use a wind instrument, but originally had misgivings about the recorder since it was so closely tied to the Baroque, which is stylistically distant from "elemental". However, Sachs suggested that old forms of recorders had e xisted possibly as far back as the Stone Age (bone flutes, etc), and that the recorder had far more potential than baroque style and
18 technique could have allowed: the variety of voicings (SATB) available, their accessibility and ease of play also occupied Orff's imagination ( Ibid., 97). One of the students at the Gntherschule Gunild Keetman, also became integral in the development of the Schulwerk especially in establishing the instrumental ensemble and preparing publications. Keetman was also integral in the introduction of the recorders, since no one at the Gntherschule had ever played one before. She experimented until finding an appropriate style that fit with the group's "rhythmic dynamically emphasized" music making (Orff 176, 109). Keetman's work alongside Maja Lex's dance instruction allowed the Gntherschule group to perform as a dance orchestra, where the roles of dancer and musician were interchangeab le (Orff 196 3). In the wake of the group's successful touring throughout Europe, Orff, Gnther and Keetman also gave educational lectures and demonstrations. With the help of assistants Hans Bergese and Wilhelm Twittenhoff, Orff published Rhythmische bung in 1930. The collection included rhythmic and melodic improvised exercises and other experi mental work from the school for dance and movement, recorders, pitched and unpitched percussion, and other instruments (Velsquez 1990, 94). Orff also wanted to publish some of the experiences from the Gntherschule for use in children's music education (m ost of the pupils at the Gntherschule were adolescents and young adults), and despite an acceptance from Schott's in 1932, the events of WWII delayed this and other efforts of Orff and the Schulwerk and most of the instruments at the Gntherschule (as we ll as most of Karl Maendler's studio) were destroyed (Orff 196 3). Even plans to integrate the Schulwerk
19 into elementary schools in Berlin fell prey to politics (war); Orff resigned from his post as director of Munich Bachverein and returned to compositiona l work on his own. Although his previous efforts were in the rhythmic musical training of adults and adolescents, Orff was aware that starting this type of education would be more beneficial earlier, during the primary school years, as "the unity of music and movement, that young people in Germany have to be taught so laboriously, is qui te natural to a child" (Orff 196 3). Orff wanted to experiment and rework giving vocal music and the spoken word a more centralized role. Rather than composing works himse lf for children to perform, he also wanted to focus on an educational method that would allow the unity of singing, playing, and movement for composition by children. Orff's concept of elemental music, speech, and movement was especially suitable for the child, with play and creative improvisation as its roots. These strengthened ideas revitalized the Schulwerk in 1948, when Orff was invited by Annemarie Schambeck of the Schools' division of the Bayerischer Rundfunk to write music for children that they co uld play themselves and offer a series of broadcasts. Keetman, Orff, and Rudolf Kirmeyer (a Berlin schoolteacher) developed the radio broadcast programs, which proceeded from the simplest foundations: The melodic starting point was the cuckoo call, the fa lling third [ sol mi ], a melodic range of notes that was increased step by step to the five note pentatonic scale that has no semitones. Speech started with name calling, counting out rhymes and the simplest of children's rhymes and songs. This was an easil y accessible world for all children. My experience had taught me that completely unmusical children are very rare, and that nearly every child is at some point educable (Orff 1963). As the broadcasts grew in popularity, there arrived a need for more instr uments pitched percussion instruments were made by Klaus Becker, who had worked under Karl
20 Maendler. Despite the difficulty in obtaining materials and devising construction plans, Becker continued in the production and development of what are now known a s "Orff Instruments" The availability of instruments from Becker's factory, Studio 49, greatly contributed to the Schulwerk s continued success and growth. The specialized "Orff Instruments" along with other pitched and various unpitched percussion instru ments, forms the Orff Instrumentarium (Figure 2.1). Keetman also took a new post at the Mozarteum in Salzburg, which allowed for movement instruction along with the broadcast materials. It is perhaps ironic that Orff's elemental music disseminated in this way: not only was the radio a modern technological innovation, but the approach was consequently spread without physical, human interaction between Orff and the teachers and children listening to the programs. Figure 2.1 Orff Instrumentarium (s tudio49.d e )
21 The Volumes Dissemination of the new approaches took place through more traditional publications in addition to the radio broadcasts. A compilation of Orff and Keetman's work comprised the five volumes of Musik fr Kinder (1950 54), using simple poetic material (nursery rhymes, children's games, poems, etc .) as fodder for rhythmic activities, including speech and body percussion exercises, as well as pieces for pitched and unpitched percussion. An important feature of the volumes is the use of bordun (o pen fifth) accompaniment (See Figure 2.2). The f ive volumes of Musik fr Kinder are distinguished from one another by tonality and mo de, and are entitled: Volume One Pentatonic, Volume Two Major: Drone Bass and Triads, Volume Three Major, Dominant and Subd ominant, Volume Four Minor: Drone Bass and Triads, and Volume Five Minor: Dominant and Subdominant Volume One begins with two note melodies (on sol mi ), followed by three note ( la sol mi ) songs and chants. T he remainder of the tonal, anhemitonic (without h alf steps) pentatonic scale ( do re mi sol la ) is introduced next in more complex melodies. The pentatonic scale is predominant in folk music cross culturally; the absence of half steps makes improvisation error proof, because any combination of notes is mo re or less consonant, and thus aurally pleasing. T he first volume also includes rhythmic and melodic training for voice, body percussion, and instruments. Bordun s or ostinati, rhymes, chants, and other speech exercises provide ample opportunity for improvi sation The volume introduces the "elemental" pentatonic scale (on which the included folk songs and children's chants are based) and provides a variety of melodic and accompanied material as well as kinesthetic rhythmic activities.
22 Figure 2.2 Bordun Acco mpaniment ( Dotts) Volume s Two and Three differ from Volume One in significant ways: they include the full diatonic major scale, and expand on harmony through triads Volume Two introduces the diatonic major scale, and although more complex melodies are ex plored, harmonies are most ly limited to the tonic bordun Drone basses and bordu ns are used, but they do nothing to reinforce any real sense of harmony or polyphony. Volume Three builds on the major tonalities introduced in the second v olume but the domin ant and subdominant chords are added to the texture. Unlike Volume Two, in which Cadences, especially authentic (dominant to tonic), are emphasized, while the subdominant manifests in the form of bordun and ostinato accompaniments. The importance of musica l form and other, more challenging concepts are also considered. The two volumes guide students from the basic pentatonic material of the first volume into more complex harmonic material, introducing formal concepts key to the understanding of tonal harmon y. Volume s Four and Five increase considerably in difficulty, as noted in Orff's own introduction to the fourth v olume : "the childish note has, by now, been almost entirely superseded. The closest connections with the traditional folk song are established ." Volume Four includes more sophisticated harmonies, the minor and Aeolian modes prevail, and the Dorian and Phrygian modes also make an appearance. The drone is still used as folksong accompaniment, but triads, along with more difficult rhythmic and
23 melo dic material also play a role. Volume five continues with the previously introduced modes, and builds on the role of the dominant and subdominant, especially as applied to minor keys. Other modes are touched on, and in the closing section "the highest dema nds are made upon the pupilwith its speech pieces and recitatives [that] lead directly to Orff's m usic of language'" (Liess 1966, 161). A student advancing through the material in these volumes becomes a proficient player with experience in many modes an d tonalities. The approach and its texts have developed a vast following since the 1950s. E ditions of Musik fr Kinder have been published in several languages, the editions of which draw from music and literature specific to the region of publication (er go, the American volumes contain American nursery rhymes, poems, and other folk and cultural material). There are multiple versions of the volumes available in the United States, but the most commonly used are Margaret Murray's English language adaptation (1958 66), and the "American Edition" (1982). Murray's version includes Orff and Keetman's original materials, with English texts (some translations, some traditional poems, etc.) The "American Edition" consists of only three volumes, which divided by age/ level (Pre School, Primary, and Upper Elementary). Intended as teachers' guides, these volumes include various activities and additional articles for reference. Sadly, it draws only lightly on material from the original volumes for example, Volume 1 takes material mostly from the "Nursery Rhymes and Songs" section of Murray's Volume I, and skims over many rhythmic, body percussion, and speech exercises. The original volumes, however, include not only valuable musical material, but also include texts and li terature from folk sources to Goethe's Faust and Sophocles'
24 Antigon e. It is truly a well rounded work: "Not only is the whole selection so organized that it brings into play the full range of spiritual refraction, the quintessence of the elemental as well as the Western, but each separate pieceis a revelation of childhood, of folk character, and a true revelation of Orff" (Liess 1966, 162). Despite its established status, the Schulwerk still allows for an incredible degree of interpretation and improvisati on from not only the teacher, but also through the active involvement of the student. The active participation of both teacher and student in the learning process leads to improved engagement, participation, and retention of not only musical but co curricu lar concepts and social skills.
25 CHAPTER TWO Primitivism and the Elemental Carl Orff composed and created the Schulwerk during the early years of the twentieth century, and he drew on backward looking styles explored by composers like Stravinsky and Debussy in his own compositions. A growing interest in pritimitivism returning to "nave", "simplistic", and folk art styles and exoticism spread throughout Europe at this time, and also influenced Orff's work. Following Gaugin's "escape" to Tahiti 2 "Prim itivism" became a strong influence at this time in France and throughout Western Europe. Although racially and culturally insensitive, the movement embodied a fascination with somewhat exaggerated ideals the natural, the raw, the unconscious, the rhythmic everything non Western Backwards looking movements are particularly interesting in the context of a time ripe with technological advances, but even at the turn of the century there were individuals looking to reform societal notions of the arts. The conce pt of primitivism is contestable in itself; anthropologist Adam Kuper argues that primitive society "does not and never has existed" and is really a quest for a framework for the interpr etation of modern society ( Kaufmann 2008 434). He and others argue th at "primitive" served mainly to create an other" to the modern self and society 2 Gaugin, a French painter, left France for Tahiti in the latter half of the 19 th century. Adopting a "simpler" lifestyle, he escaped the constraints of European society, exploring (and exploiting) the sexual freedoms granted thereby.
26 until the middle of the 20th century creating the dichotomy of "primitive versus civilized, undeveloped versus developed, simple versus complex" (Kaufmann 2008, 434). In he r article Doris Kaufmann focuses on the "us" versus "other" relationship within a cultural and historical context, rather than its place in contemporary discourse. Kaufmann offers several words synonymous with primitive in this dialogue: "simple...lackin g in historical records [or] literature...societies in which social relations are based primarily on kinship; those endowed with an over powering sense of reality; where everyday facts have religious and ritual covering; those who endow all nature with spi rit life (Kaufmann 2008, 435). The growing interest in the primitive and exotic in art and music not only influenced Orff in the conception of elemental music. Orff 's approach resonated with the Zeitgeist" of the early 20 th century he had already formed an interest in backward looking compositional styles of antiquity The German mindset amid the "crisis of modernity" led to the emergence of a new field: Kulturwissenschaften (cultural studies ), a cross disciplinary investigation of social problems involvi ng collaboration among academics, anthropologists, art historians, musicologists, sociologists, philosophers, psychologists, and others in academia. Feelings of growing social constraints (bureaucracy, processes of rationalization) and dwindling personal r ecourse arose with the disintegration of the bourgeois culture, necessitating the exploration of problems of modern society, and developing new fields of cultural studies (Kaufmann 2008, 435). These developments also led to a conceptualization of culture, defined as the entirety of reciprocal interchange of forms of thought, ways of behavior, social practice, and the material culture in which they resulted...includ[ing] institutions, social practices, religion, and art (Kaufmann 2008, 435). The growing de sire for cultural
27 knowledge was integral not only as an aid for colonial control, but also as part of two problems outlined by Kaufmann first, a questioning of the origin and details of other forms of thought, and second, the ability of a particul ar indi vidual to recognize the "other" given one's historically and culturally determined mode of consciousness. Because of their methods of processing reality ( Objektivationen ), these problems applied mainly to non European primitives (through language, reli gion, and art), but were also investigated in children and the insane within the European context. The interest in primitive art forms (the thought of the "other" expressed artistically) began primarily within the domain of the art historians, experimenta l and "folk" psychologists, sociologists, ethnologists (by definition), and scholars of prehistory, whose interest was in the aesthetics and conception of art; by the 1920s the emphasis shifted to the "psychiatrists, developmental and Gestalt psychologists and philosophical anthropologists" interested in creativity, pathology, and mental illness (Kaufmann 2008, 435). However, the same two issues remained sociocultural problems of aesthetics ("examination of social interdependence of artistic production") and the autonomy of aesthetics in relation to modernity ( Ibid., 436). Kandinsky's treatise on the spiritual in art referred to the "spark of inner life" present in "the p rimitives" which has been lost o n contemporary society ( Kandinsky 1977, 1). Contempo rary artists attempting to emulate primitive styles were concerned with the subjective, but attempted to mirror the simple, pure attempts of the primitive, intertwining their art and reality, and bringing "the most essential of their inner life into their works" (Kaufmann 2008, 436). In his "Problems of Modern Art", Karl Lamprecht argues for a "correspondence between the life of the mind of prehistoric cultures and the
28 inner life of the present" through art ( Lamprecht 1901 ). He contends that prehistoric wo rks were instinctually created, but contemporary works were consciously created in a deliberate attempt to "rebuild a non separated sphere of emotional and rational life" which was characteristic of the primitive (K aufmann 2008, 436). Wilhelm Worringer als o drew on the similarities between primitive and modern (especially abstract) art, claiming the same mental powers were responsible for the similarities between the two aesthetics. He also asserted that the most abstracted art is closely related to the mos t primitive stage of culture: the primitive individual had the strongest instinct for das Ding an sich (the thing in itself), which was lost through rationality and influx of knowledge. The urge of primitive man i s, according to Worringer to take the arbi trariness from outside objects and ... to transform them instead into objects o f value and order" (Worringer 1921 ). The music that emerged from the Schulwerk was created "primitively" by these definitions. Expressive dances were manifested into sound thro ugh both the percussion of body movements and instruments attached to moving bodies or played simultaneously; impromptu ensemble performances grew into developed pieces from of simple ( bordun ) accompaniment and layers of improvisation, and dramatic speech and play were infused into musical accompaniment to create larger interactive pieces. This was Orff's intention in the creation of elemental music that pieces would arise organically from improvisatory musical gesture and movement. These performances would progress from an almost instinctual, objective place and develop into more informed music making with increased training and subjective experience. The dichotomization between the subjective self and objective other may also project onto Eastern and Weste rn artistry, according to Ton de Leeuw There is romantic
29 subjectivism, in which experiences, emotion, any hint of artists' individualism are infused in their work. On the other hand is the objective working not for his own s ake, but for that of the "ot her" It is this type of music which comes out of eliminating one's will or personal voice, purging the self to become one with the other (harmony) and surrendering to the music ("other") that was exotic (albeit superficial) to fin de sicle Western artist s ( de Leeuw 2005, 117 20). Orff distanced himself from romantic subjectivism early on, and became interested in a natural music making process dependent on the group experience. However, Orff may have accepted some subjectivity by means of improvisatory g esture which invites personal expression within the confines of a group performance. This was (and is) also an issue of aesthetic qualities in Western Art Music. De Leeuw draws the distinction that "Eastern" cult ures should be divided between highly devel oped Eastern cultures" like Indian, Arab, and Chinese Japanese cultures, and "more or less primitive peoples"( 2005, 118). This primitivism is evident often in rhythm and melody of composers like Stravinsky and Debussy melodies often stressed repetition s of small intervals often the m ajor second and minor third rather than exploring scales, modes, or octaves in their entirety. Carl Orff's compositional work, however, is a different case: it is "essentially monophonicruling out vertical harmonic development "; it relies on ostinato structures and simple rhythm ( de Leeuw 2005, 121). Only the most basic harmonies are used often drone type basses and non ornamental harmonies, which may have had some influence on the static harmonies of the minimalist movement. Especially in his later years, his compositions feature percussion heavily, as well as rhythmic ostinato patterns
30 and their variations. But Orff's music was often combined with text, drama, movement, dance, action or other elements de Leeuw argues this ty pe of primitive music is "entirely functional", and canno t be judged as an autonomous art object by means of Western aesthetics or musical traditions ( 2005, 122). In addition to composing with texts or topics from antiquity, Orff also drew on the musical notions of antiquity: Greek drama included both music and dancing, and music seldom existed without text (Pickard Cambridge 1968, 262). Ancient Greek dancing was generally expressive or mimetic in character (in relation to the text) and made use of gestura l, rhythmic movement of the hands (Ibid., 248). Orff explored this in some of his works, composing incidental music, and other pieces which he termed fairy tale operas (Mrchenoper) and "musical settings" ( Vertonung ). A particularly interesting aspect of Orff's compositions is that his melodies are often close to natural speech patterns. This builds on the Ancient Greek recitative, which included musical intervals smaller than a semitone, and used the modes to express particular emotional character, both o f which mimicked speech (Ibid, 258 60). Romantic composers also often mirrored natural speech patterns, especially rhythmically. Stress timed languages (like German) show a great difference between lengths of adjacent syllables, in comparison to syllable t imed languages (like French), which are less rhythmically diverse and include similar syllable durations. A surge of nationalism in nineteenth century European music led to attempts to make songs more accurately reflect native manners of speaking. This is apparent in German Lieder, in which longer duration notes were placed on syllables which would be stressed in speech, and melodic contour closely followed the natural curve of speech. Even Debussy, who influenced Orff's
31 interest in primitivism and percussi on in composition, exhorted other French composers to compose with French speech rhythms. Although Orff was fundamentally at odds with Romanticism, he made use of the natural tendencies speech in his work, inextricably tied to music and gesture. Orff outli nes these aspects of his compositional work that would later become the foundations of the Schulwerk : What then is elemental music? Elemental music is never music alone but forms a unity with movement, dance and speech. It is music that one makes oneself in which one takes part not as a listener, but as a participant. It is unsophisticated, employs no big forms and no big architectural structures, and it uses small sequence forms, ostinato and rondo. Elemental music is near the earth, natural, physical within the range of everyone to learn it and experience it and suitable for the child.[it is] word and movement, play, everything that awakens and develops the pow ers of the spirit, this is the "humus" of the spirit, the humus without which we face the danger of a spiritua l erosion (Orff 1963 ) In any case, it seems that Orff embraced and generated music in its most primitive form, developing the concept of elementare Musik to emphasize that music was intended to arise naturally through active music mak ing experiences. The incorporation of other arts theatre, poetry, image, dance, etc and emphasis on natural rhythms of speech and the body, simple forms, and familiar tonal material support its suitability for children or any novice music learners.
32 CHAPTER THREE Music Learning Music (and dance) can be so deeply infused in daily life; like religion, it often serves to teach and reinforce cultural and societal attitudes. Traditional Western music and that of the African Diaspora is passed on through oral tradition (rather than documentation); styles like blues, jazz, and rock music also evolved from improvisation combined with oral/aural learning strategies from multiple continents. Even the roots of contemporary, written musical culture, depend heav ily on the oral transmission of musical skills. Traditionally (especially prior to the development of Western Art Music), music also serves as a unifying and inclusive social force, a communal activity learned experientially, and while trained performers m ight lead a performance, they are often seen as part of the larger group (Campbell 1991, 159). In many traditional African (Sub Saharan) societies, learning and teaching are intertwined: "music is life and learning occurs through life experiences.There i s no direct teaching or school of instruction; it all happens spontaneouslyin fact the art is acquired to start with through play" (Campbell 1991, 160). Traditionally, music in African and European traditions is learned socially, through informal encultur ation. The music learning process, then, starts early in life with lullabies and musical games; kinesthetic reinforcement through dance or instrumental performance is "both cause and consequence of African music" (Campbell 1991, 162).
33 The voice, perhaps th e most accessible instrument, relies on language and improvisation skills (not necessarily technical prowess) to communicate meaningfully with the audience. Similarly, the talking drum serves as a vessel of translation: words of tonal languages are beaten onto a drum (often simultaneously with a spoken recitation). This type of performance is closely related to Orff's speech rhythm body percussion sequence: drummers learn rhythms orally/aurally and transfer them kinesthetically. These aural oral kinestheti c learning methods are not exclusive to traditional sub saharan African cultures. European folk music has largely been preserved through means of aural oral tradition, aided by the prevalence of isometric structure, repetitive strophic form (with relativel y short stanzas) and other features (Campbell 1991, 167). Cross culturally, contemporary music education is often based on Western models and techniques, but with methods like the Orff Schulwerk developing aural skills, vocalizing instrumental music, and structured improvisation, a broader realm of materials is equally accessible. Any effective musical learning is dependent on aural skills and kinesthetic reinforcement (even vocal performance), gained informally through experience and imitation; skilled pe rformers have a capacity for more complex musicality built from long term exposure and observation and refined individual expression In this way, m usic is a phenomenon culturally embedded and inescapable; we are surrounded by music almost constantly from birth. It seems, however, that there exists a schism between "musician" and "non musician" or "trained" and "untrained" i n contemporary society that did and does not exist in many other cultures, where music making and learning follows this process of encu lturation. Certainly there are different levels of musicianship excellence in playing or performing does not necessitate an
34 expertise in music theory, or compositional skill. A flautist might have the ability to play a piece perfectly as written, not missi ng any notes, but we prefer the music of the flautist who might miss something, but conveys some other feeling (which we might call "expressivity"). But what effect does this musical ability have on our listening to/perception of music? Most of us hear mus ic with a degree of sensitivity perhaps for an emotional c onnection but does the "trained" ear experience a piece of music differently from the "untrained" ? Each time we experience a piece of music, we develop our processing skills we constantly listen "b etter" heighten our ability to discern structure and form in music. Daniel Levitin notes in This Is Your Brain on Music that these processes make it easier for us to build musical preferences and taste; that musical expertise does not depend solely on tec hnique: "music listening and enjoyment, musical memory, and how engaged with music a person is are also aspects of a musical mind and a musical personality" ( 2006, 208). He suggests we take an optimally inclusive approach to recognizing musicality, to incl ude those who are not necessarily technically or formally trained, but are "generally musical". Yet the body of psychological musical research constantly draws a distinction between musicians and non musicians, or trained and untrained. Special abilities i n music, extensive musical training, and/or some combination of both have generally been criteria for setting listeners apart based on their response to music (Frederickson 2000, 41). This dis tinction is drawn in terms of analytical ability (cognition) and preference (affective response) it is valid that study, performance, critique, and analysis would all have an affect on the way a listener might react to music. Levitin points out that "even
35 small exposure to music lessons as a child creates neural circui ts for music processing that are enhanced and more efficient than for those who lack training" ( 2006, 194). In order to "appreciate" music, then, it is assumed that one must understand through "aural perception and conceptualization" tonality, formal struc ture, as well as stylistic, timbral, and rhythmic elements (Gordon 1971, 113). It is not enough that one passively hears the music, but rather that one builds a true comprehension of these elements for real appreciation. In order to say we "like" a particu lar song or genre, we must be somewhat familiar with some of these elements of the music: to recognize them and subsequently understand them is what tickles our aesthetic fancies. One way of making a pleasant listening experience is to provide listeners wi th an appropriate vocabulary, so that expectations can be formed (either within a particular work, within the style of the work, or according to Gestalt principles). One of the most effective means for understanding a piece is being able to form expectatio ns for music: when these expectations are fulfilled we feel content, but when they are broken, we experience anything from discomfort to excitement, and use this to derive extra musical meaning from a piece. Early studies on the value of active listening ( Fitzpatrick 1968) suggest that only students trained in aural perception could react significantly to melody, form, structure, texture, and tone colour (which was furthered by Bailey and Routch, who developed tests to measure understanding). While it is po ssible to listen passively and build a preference for a piece the term "appreciation" is often used to describe preference combined with understanding. Only when we learn to listen can this be achieved this is where even minimal musical training can hav e a positive effect. Children in music classes need to do more than recognize
36 instruments or lay out a narrative: they should be exposed and guided through pieces to determine tonality, meter, harmonic structure, changes or recurrences in any of these; t o participate in rhythmic or tonal accompaniments on instruments or with voices; to read the notation; or to engage in eurhythmic activities while the music plays (Gordon 1971, 116). The musical experience is "direct experience with the materials of music themselves t he tonal and rhythmic aspects of sound and all that the sounds attempt to communicate"(Greenberg 1979, 75). Children's music nursery rhymes, games, chants, etc is not at all focused on developing musical listening, but rather for entertainment or mnemonic purposes. These can certainly provide a starting point (and are often used in the Orff approach), but it is also important to broaden exposure to many forms and genres Western and non Western art musics, folk music, dances, rhythmic games, and others. In this way, children begin to form a vocabulary of forms and structures so they can categorize musical works, listen, and enjoy them; they know what to expect and can draw on this knowledge to form viable comparisons. It is necessary to build a fo undation of listening skills from an early age through engagement (not mere direction), which can ultimately lead to deeper interest and understanding. Music listening skills are important to music learning and effective in other areas, but active music m aking is imperative to an effective music learning experience and is a dominant, unifying quality among the Gordon, Dalcroze, Kodly, and Orff approaches In the past, research has supported music's positive effect on performance: incidental music improve d fifth graders' performance of everyday tasks (Davidson & Powell 1986), keyboard instruction led to significantly higher scores on children's spatial temporal tests (Costa Giomi 1997), and music even influenced adult morale and production (Antrim
37 1943). T his is all related to the so called "Mozart effect", which posits that listening to Mozart enhances students' performances on tests of spatial awareness (Rauchser, et al. 1993). However, researchers originally neglected to identify by which mechanism impro vement was possible. Since the original experiments, two major interpretations have emerged: "neural priming" (music and spatial reasoning share pathways in the brain) or simply an increase in arousal. Subsequent research has shown that enhanced performanc e occurs when participants enjoy what they hear, but it need not be Mozart, or even music (Nantais & Schellenberg 1999). More recent data shows that simultaneously listening to Mozart and participating in physically arousing activities (jumping jacks, ball passing, etc.) may improve performance on spatial awareness tests in contrast to sitting in silence (Gonzalez et al. 2003, 27). "Active music making", then, ties physical activity even more closely to music not only are students kinesthetically engaged, b ut they are reinforcing the structure of the music with varying types of movement. Thus active music making is particularly effective in the music learning experience. It is important that music education address a broad realm o f musical elements and skill s Current methods of music instruction, such as Dalcroze Eurhythmics the Kodly system, and the Orff Schulwerk all emphasize a fully engaged approach to musical l earning and response. Figure 3.1 aims to categorize effective elements of music teaching. A ccording to music educators like Marvin Greenberg, a multifaceted approach is most effective active listening can be combined with composing (creating) and performing for an optimally involved and engaged experience. However, conceptions of any musical ele ments are basically the same regardle ss of the type of process ( rhythm, melody, harmony, dynamics, tone colour); these are the elements by which we categorize
38 and process to obtain musical meaning of some kind (Greenberg 1979, 88). By providing a variety o f musical experiences and encouraging active and varied participation, a young listener can develop his or her own way of conceptualizing and understanding music. Thus, even the listener minimally educated in the fundamentals of music can develop a deeper listening technique. The primary goal of music education in America is often unfortunately musical literacy. Although some think musical understanding comes from the ability to read, write, and/or perform conventional notation, the approach is imbalanced and incomplete without significant prior aural skills exploration and development. As late as the 1990s the ideology of developing performance skills before theory was still in its "formative" stages, but textbooks including pre reading/pre theory notatio ns and illustrations reinforced the belief that "playing instruments and singing are the initial rather than the end phase of the learning process" (Campbell 1991, 214). Currently, even some college level music theory textbooks include forms of proto notat ion, pitch mapping, and solmization before introducing standard music notation devices. Music instruction needs to include a combination of receptive and active/participatory experiences in aural, visual, and ki nesthetic modes (see Figure 3.2 ). Receptive a ctivities are not entirely passive, as they require listening, processing, comprehending, and internalizing material, and often serve as precursors to the active/participatory activities. These active/participatory activities, especially in the aural (and sometimes kinesthetic) mode, often require simultaneous receptive experiences, for example, when singing or playing an instrument, one must also listen to his or her own part within the ensemble or performance as a whole.
39 The Schulwerk includes a rich vari ety of musical experiences, and learning activities generally incorporate the maximum combination of receptive and active/participatory modes. Orff's approach is founded upon the unity of music, movement, and speech as one entity, which grows out of natura l experiences. Children are inherently musical this is evident in their own rhythmic movements, in play and socialization, exaggerated speech, or performances of their own repertoire of melodies, songs, and chant (Campbell 2008, 127). Elements of a child's natural activities parallel the basic structure of the Schulwerk which incorporates the basic processes: sing, say, dance, play, create. Play is perhaps the most integral to not only the Orff approach, but any approach to a child's education. Definition s of play range greatly, implying that anything that is not work is play, or that anything frivolous and non serious is play, but it seems that play is defined "not [by] the activity itself, but the reasons for the activity" activities done for their own sake, and not for external reward (Spodeck & Saracho 1988, 11). A list of criteria 3 drawn from various sources is identified: intrinsic motivation; orientation towards means rather than ends; internal rather than external locus of control; non instrumenta l actions rather than instrumental actions; freedom from externally imposed rules; and active engagement. But several other criteria have also been suggested distinguishing work from play and play from other types of activities is difficult, and perhaps un necessary. It is clear, however, that play involves an earnest exploration into available materials, allowing for maximal individual reflection and expression under a minimal set of constraints. Play allows children to familiarize themselves with and make sense of their environment, social norms, and their sense of self within these realms. The 3 Rubin et al (1983) in Spodeck & Saracho 11
40 Figure 3.1 1 Effective Elements of Music Teaching (M. Greenberg, adapted by Dotts) Fig ure 3.2 Modes/Experiences of Music Instruction ( Dotts)
41 exploration and exp ansion of prior knowledge and new ideas is useful in educational applications, and can be categorized into cognitive, creative, language, social, and manipulative play. Children create objects and roles in cognitive play this might involve symbolic play, where children use these objects and roles in imaginary ways, to stand for something else, but retain the object's original identity a nd purpose (Spodeck & Saracho 1988, 15). Creative play involves imagination (as opposed to imitation), which builds persp ective taking skills, the ability to differ between immediate, real situations, and remote, imaginary situations ( Ibid., 16). Children develop range of tone and expressive speech, and experiment with rhythm, sound, form, and other elements of language (pho nology, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic) during language play. Social play strengthens students' abilities to communicate and empathize with peers, and to assimilate other points of view into their own. Finally, children use play materials (toys) to explore their function and proper use during manipulative play. The Schulwerk makes use of multiple means of play to reinforce musical skills and concepts parallel to children 's developmental abilities. Students creatively integrate their own movement with music, play instruments and develop technique, make use of scarves or other objects to visually express musical ideas, explore their vocal capabilities through expressive speech and singing, and constantly build social skills through group activities, games, and performances. "If play is the process, children's games are the textbooks of Nature's schooling bursting with rich language, patterned math, physical challenge, colour ful history, scientific observation, visual design, rhythmic dance, and exuberant music a complete curriculum by any school's standards", says Goodkin. Games, then, reflect a
42 child's natural way of learning, and appeal through a variety of media so that children learn often exclusively through interactivity. Children use games cross cultural ly to play the role of adult, to transition from the unconcerned realm of childhood to the serious, formal adult world through both the skills and forms of games (Goodkin 2004, 12). Children can learn such invaluable life skills as emotional and intellectu al intelligence dealing with acceptance/rejection, consequences of decisions, balancing the individual within the group, building conversation skills, and other social issues in addition to building academic knowledge math, literacy, history, science, etc Games are additionally just as appealing to adults who may have become disenchanted with more traditional styles of learning, which often leads to frustration due to ineffective methods (memorization, rote, lecture, etc.). It is important for music educ ators to move away from methods that stress literacy as the sole purpose and goal of the music learning process. It is impossible to read without first having the aural tools and structures to relate to the written symbols. Just as we learn a language, one of the most elemental of human processes, we must learn music through a process of free, playful exploration and increasing fluency. As we will see, Gordon's music learning theory, combines well with other approaches to music learning because of its foun dation on the universal process of language learning.
43 CHAPTER F OUR Music Learning Theory and Integration Because the Orff Schulwerk provides an approach by which familiar materials and learning sequences can be applied to a curriculum, it meshes well with Music Learning Theory, developed primarily by Edwin E. Gordon. Music Learning Theory was developed through research in the mid twentieth century on how, which, and when different musical skills and knowledge should be taught, emphasizing a more l ogical and systematic order for curriculum. Gordon likens the music learning process to the language learning process that it is immersive and travels through a number of stages (babbling, building vocabulary, strengthening syntax, etc) to fluency and, lat er, literacy. While Orff and Gordon both use speech to mirror and internalize rhythmic speech patterns (Orff's rhythmic building bricks, Gordon's rhythm syllable system), Gordon also uses language learning as a foundational parallel for his learning proces s. Perhaps Orff's elemental is Gordon's language learning principle. Music Learning Theory stresses the importance of building a "vocabulary" of tonal and rhythmic patterns, not only for proper audiation, but for a broad understanding of music. This is bec ause audiation relies on musical information in context, not individual intervals or durations, and how the patterns of music interact internally and relate to other patterns. Gordon suggests that "Music Learning Theory provides the
44 conceptual basis for pr actical application of learning sequence activities[which should] take place during the first few minutes of a class period customary classroom or performance activities account for the remainder of the class time" ( Gordon 2006, x). These patterns should then, be introduced by rote, but if patterns are not introduced in the context of a whole piece, they cannot be learned and retained. This is why rote instruction is usually avoided (especially in Orff settings), but by integrating methods like Whole Son g Assimilation (or Whole Part Whole), learning sequence activities can be integrated effectively. This method can be applied on multiple levels on the class as a whole, shifting from a whole song to its parts (movements, verses, melodic fragments, etc), and returning to the entire song; or within individual activities, having students perform in a group, individually, and in a group again. Often music teachers introduce a song in its entirety, and continue linearly through the piece, failing to reintroduc e smaller parts of the song in detail, which leads to confusion, muddling of the melody, and reinforceme nt of mistakes. If students canno t experience careful practice and analysis of new materials, they will fail to become independent musical thinkers. The successful music learning model relies heavily on developing a student's ability to audiate: to hear, process, and comprehend music in the mind, in the same way one processes the sounds of language derives meaning Audiation occu rs both when we digest mu sic we ha ve just heard, or when we are reading notation, composing, or improvising (and not hearing music performed). This differs from aural perception, which occurs as we are hearing a sound; audiation occurs after having perceived sound ( Gordon 2006, ix ).
45 Eric Bluestine provides explanation for audiation (as well as many other Music Learning Theory concepts) in The Ways Children Learn Music Bluestine uses a visualization metaphor, quoting this projection of a performance: I can project my performance f rom the time I first read the script. I suspect that it's similar to what happens when a block of marble arrives at a sculptor's studio. When he first looks at it, sees the image inside the block and then starts to chip away to reveal it to the eyes of oth ers, the ability to see it is his visionary talent. The ability to chip away the excess is his craft or technique. (Nimoy in Bluestine, 12) Bluestine clarifies: one must have the tools to categorize, analyze, and process sound as it transforms through tim e by reading notation, improvising, or hearing a performance ( 2000, 14). Past musical experiences build a vocabulary of patterns from which we predict what is happening in a piece of music. But these predictions and expectations change as music progresses just as a sculptor gains insight into the final produ ct and visualizes it differently as he progresses in his work ( Ibid. ). Audiation is not just having the sense of "inner hearing", but rather internalizing musical information, understanding it, and bui lding and adjusting expectations about it. Like the Schulwerk Music Learning Theory is not considered a method of music education. It includes a wide variety of tonalities and meters, uses movement as an important tool for rhythmic development, and aims to teach audiation. The theory provides its own syllable system for rhythms, with a hierarchical organization based on the pulse (macrobeat) and its subdivisions (microbeats). The system focuses on the sound of the rhythmic patterns how they are audiated r ather than how they are notated. The attachment of rhythmic patterns to movement is also possible and facile shifting weight or stomping on the macrobeats and clapping, snapping, or patsching on the microbeats since the syllables are based on how rhythms a re "felt" (Lange 2005 ). Figure 4.1
46 illustrates the organization of this system. The syllable du represents the macrobeat in all meters. In duple meters, de is used for the first microbeat subdivision, while da and di are used in triple meter. Further subdi visions are represented by the syllable ta Unusual meters (macrobeats of unequal length) use du be for microbeats grouped in two and du ba bi when grouped in three. This system also maps well onto recorder or other wind instrument playing by whispering th e syllables, students mimic and learn effective tonguing technique. Figure 4.1 Gordon Rhythm Syllable System (Dotts)
47 CONCLUSION Music Learning Theory and the Orff Schulwerk can be combined easily the theory provides the organizational system and cu rriculum by which the tools and materials of the Orff Schulwerk can be put into use. Using the Whole Part Whole method e ven limiting ourselves to the first volume we can find a wealth of materials for building curriculum. Combining material from Musik fr Kinder with familiar and folk music activities; poems, chants, and nursery rhymes; movement; as well as improvised and composed material gives students a chance to be fully involved in active music making. Orff philosophies can be used to reinforce other c urricular areas, incorporating musical gesture improvisation, and movement. Rhythm, for example, is an often overlooked feature of language learning: using a song or poem to reinforce not only the rhythmic flow of English but also word families through rhy me, new vocabulary, and pronunciation. Rhythm building bricks could incorporate vocabulary words, geographical terms, or any subject area. Cultural knowledge can be augmented through the use of folk music, poems, games, and other activities from other nati ons. Similarly, folk music from various time periods war songs, spirituals, work songs, protest songs, play parties can illustrate movements in American history (and other parts of the world). Orff's ideology, while grounded in a somewhat misguided and rac ially insensitive arts movement, morphs primitivism and other backward looking components into his
48 elementare Musik The approach aims to incorporate more natural, objective music making through expressive movement, body percussion (music making is a direc t result of body movement), the pentatonic scale, and exploration of other familiar material. Natural processes of enculturation and imitation form the foundation of the approach, building expressivity through aural and oral training. It is imperative that music education emphasize in depth aural skills training before notation: this also mirrors traditional music learning processes, in that skills are passed first through oral/aural transmission, and notation is introduced once students have attained a lev el of mastery (or continue through advanced study). Like other music learning methods and processes, the Schulwerk also stresses the importance of building a sense of rhythmic movement through kinesthetic learning activities to develop a strong feeling for rhythm as a foundation for all other music learning. The Orff approach is particularly appealing in that it emphasizes creative contribution through improvisation and diversity of learning processes. Creativity, improvisation, incorporation of familiar ma terials, and active kinesthetic and mental engagement with peers are tools of the Schulwerk which allow the rewarding process of active music making. Orff's conceptualization of elemental music the marriage of speech, movement, and music engages various le arning processes and allows learners to engage in a more satisfying way. Play in the Schulwerk brings natural impulsivity, awareness, analysis, sensitivity, and physical expression through movement, fully engages children's minds and bodies, and lead s to a harmonious fusion of children's creativity and musical potential.
49 Appendix Orff Activity 1 Rhythmic Rondo Music for Children (Murray), Vo l.1, No. 1 Objectives: Use Gordon Learning Theory for rhythmic training. Identify duple meter, Perform and Improvise rhythm patterns, Perform Rondo Form Teaching Process: Perform chant in entirety at beginning of class (Part A). Ask students to shift weight/ stomp to the macrobeat while teacher performs chant Then, a sk students to pat microbeat on chest or legs while teacher performs chant After the first few listenings, a sk students how many times the first phrase occurs (3) Demonstrate chant using part song method: Chant first phrase with claps students echo (Are we clapping on all the words? No.) Chant whole, h ave students "lip sync" this phrase each time it occurs What happened in the middle? (something different) Chant and clap third phrase students echo Chant phrases one and two students echo Chant phrases three and four students echo Have a student chan t all four phrases students echo -With each step, have them move while they're performing walking to the beat. Introduce Part 2: Have students perform chant/claps while you perform other part Start with chant and claps. Repeat process as before for se cond part. (Probably for another day) Divide students into groups and perform Parts 1 and 2 together. Students may continue to walk the beat, or can form two lines facing eachother and perform to eachother. Discuss form. Maybe have Part 1 perform, then Pa rt 2, then all together, etc. Segue/Introduce Rondo Form/Part B ( Part A is the part we learned before words, claps, stomps) Have an improvisatory Part B: Chant/Clap 4 macrobeat rhythm pattern in duple meter, have students echo Alternate between chanting A section and echoing rhythm patterns. Call on individuals or whole class for echo responses For Part B' Chant 4 macrobeat rhythm pattern in duple meter as "question", have students create an "answer". Students must not echo given pattern, but improvise their own to fit.
50 Alternate between chanting poem and performing rhythm patterns Optional Part B" Ask students to find partners. First student chants a 4 macrobeat rhythm. Second student responds with a different rhythm. Students are having rhythmic con versations' with their questions and answers. Have them switch and repeat. Alternate between chanting A section and echoing rhythm patterns highlighting pairs of students to perform their conversation alone. For more variation or s ubsequent class sessio ns : Students should work with the familiar -material can be reintroduced in a variety of contexts as the year progresses. Have students choose appropriate unpitched percussion instruments for playing duple meter patterns. Repeat sequence -echoing rhyth ms, improvising rhythmic "answers", improvising rhythmic "conversations" with partners -chanting A section in between. Add some pitched percussion parts. (See scores) S tudents play on contrasting instruments: Part 1 Metals, Part 2 Woods (or vice versa) int roduce pitches all together they already know the rhythms Create a simple bordun to accompany the melody parts (students can create their own, or use "get the cat" rhythm from Part A) Add additional, complimentary ostinati or colour instruments (glocken spiel) to ends of phrases on octave do Play through, allowing sections for improvisation (A B A) Allow students to play with rondo form, defining their own A and B sections. Maybe students switch between metals and woods (playing the entire chant); or a group performs the chant with movement and clapping, and another group plays the instruments, etc. Further Expansion of Activity: Use different texts, and adjust performance elements to appropriately express the text (vary dynamics, combinations of instru ments, or elements of form). One example would be to use the following text, and create a soundscape type contrasting B section (like a thunderstorm) using unpitched percussion elements. Text Group 1: Pit ter Pa t ter Pit ter Pat ter Rain drops! Pit ter Pa t ter Pit ter Pat ter Rain drops Cats and Dogs! Cats and Dogs! Pit ter Pat ter Pit ter Pat ter Rain drops Text Group 2: A Thun der storm! A Thun der storm! Thun der claps and light ning flash es, Thun der claps and light ning f lash es, Rain! A Thun der s torm! An alternative B section which could expand to its own activity would be a performance of the poem (sung or spoken) "Rain Rain, Go Away", or other songs like "It's Raining, It's Pouring", or "There Is Thunder" (a canon to the tune of Frere Jacques). These songs can be layered with each other as well as bordun accompaniments and ostinati. Parts from other poems also make good material for speech ostinati.
51 Glock. Glockenspiel SX/SM Soprano Xylophone/Metallophone AX/AM Alto Xylophone/Metallo phone BX/BM Bass Xylophone/Metallophone
52 Rhythmic Rondo B Section Expansion Activity: Nursery Rhymes Rain, Rain, Go Away Come again another day Little (Johnny) wants to play Rain, rain go away It's raining, it's pouring The old man is snoring He went to bed and bumped his head and Couldn't get up in the morning There is thunder, there is thunder Hear it roar, hear it roar Pitter patter raindrops, pitter patter raindrops Down it pours, down it pours Play part A of Rhythmic Rondo, then perform on e of the rhymes while performing the B section. Alternate Part A with Part B body percussion and rhymes. Transfer rhythms of poems to body percussion, and unpitched and pitched percussion instruments.
53 Orff Activity 2 Macrobeat Passing Game Objectives: E xploration and recognition of tempo; macrobeats, microbeats, and subdivisions; phrasing and form Preliminary Play and Exploration Have children move to the music exploring locomotor and nonlocomotor movements. Students transition by moving to the beat to form a circle; sit, and tap the beat using various parts of the body, ending with the lap. Discuss and play movements of various tempos and/or dynamics -students should discuss how these differences might effect their movement style. Subdivision of the be at should also be discussed, which could be expanded using rhythm syllables to hear and say simple rhythms with altered macrobeats. The following pieces work well with this game, but any piece with a straightforward pulse will work: Largo Allegro vivace: Schubert, Symphony No. 2 in B flat Major, D.125, 1st Movement. Adagio: Haydn, Symphony No. 101 in D major (The Clock), 2nd movement. Andante: Clara Schumann, Prelude and Fugue, Op. 16, No. 3. Alla Hornpipe (Andante/ Moderato) : Handel, Water Music, Suite No. 2 in D Major, 2nd Movement. Allegro Moderato: Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 3, 1st Movement. Rondo Allegro: Mozart, Serenade No. 13 for Strings in G Major (Eine kleine Nachtmusik), K. 525, 4th Movement. Prestissimo: Beethoven, Piano Trio in C minor s, Op. 1, No. 3, 4th Movement. Passing Game Students sit in a circle with egg shakers on the floor in front of them. Teach pattern without the eggs first, using speech and motions. The first time have them pat on their laps to keep the beat. Children sho uld speak the pattern while performing it (although they can eventually "lip synch") Each level builds on the previous level with only small changes. Discuss 8 beat patterns as phrases that should line up with the music. For younger students, use just the first few levels, and increase tempo with repetitions of the game. Of course, possibilities for other variations are endless, and students should come up with patterns and variations. Level 1 Basic pattern Beat 1 OWN Pat own legs Beat 2 RIGHT Pat right neighbor's legs Beat 3 OWN Pat own legs Beat 4 LEFT Pat left neighbor's legs Beat 5 OWN Pat own legs Beat 6 CLAP Clap Hands Beat 7 RIGHT Pick up egg with right hand Beat 8 PASS Pass egg to right Level 2 to the Left Be at 1 6 same as before Beat 7 LEFT Pick up egg with left hand Beat 8 PASS Pass egg to left Level 3 Combine Level 1 and 2 Beat 1 6 same as before Beat 7 RIGHT Pick up egg with right hand Beat 8 PASS Pass egg to right Beat 9 14 sam e as before
54 Beat 15 LEFT Pick up egg with left hand Beat 16 PASS Pass egg to left Level 4 Variation Beat 1 4 same as before Beat 5 RIGHT Pick up egg with right hand Beat 6 PASS Pass egg to right Beat 7 LEFT Pick up egg with left h and Beat 8 PASS Pass egg to left Level 5 8 Change rhythm of pats Repeat the previous patterns (Level 5 Level 1, Level 6 Level 2, etc.), but change beats 1, 3, and 5 to (du de) Level 9 Partners Beat 1 OWN Pat own legs Beat 2 PARTNER Clap partner's hands Beat 3 OWN Pat own legs Beat 4 NEIGHBOR Clap neighbor's hands Beat 5 OWN Pat own legs Beat 6 CLAP Clap Hands Beat 7 RIGHT Pick up egg with right hand Beat 8 PASS Pass egg to right Level 10: Partner (parallel to level 2 structure) Beat 1 6: Same as Level 9 Beat 7 LEFT Pic k up egg with left hand Beat 8 PASS Pass egg to left Level 11 Partner/Neighbor, parallel to level 3 Beats 1 6: Same as before Beat 7 RIGHT Pick up egg with right hand Beat 8 PASS Pass egg to right Beats 9 14: Same as before Beat 15 LEFT Pick up egg with left hand Beat 16 PASS Pass egg to left Level 12 Beat 1 OWN Pat own legs Beat 2 PARTNER Clap partner's hands Beat 3 OWN Pat own legs Beat 4 NEIGHBOR Clap neighbor's hands Beat 5 RIGHT Pick up egg with right hand Beat 6 PASS Pass egg to right Beat 7 LEFT Pick up egg with left hand Beat 8 PASS Pass egg to left
55 Orff Activity 3 Shake those 'Simmons Down Objectives: Incorporate folk material and the American Play Party; Explore percussion ostinati; Use body and voice for musical expression The American Play Party grew out of strict religious practices (banning dancing and playing of musical instruments) in the 1830s, especially in the South and Midwest. Choreographed movements like those in children's g ames, as well as singing and clapping, were used in performance. By the 1950s, their popularity dwindled, and today they are seldom used outside the context of music classrooms. Songs like Skip To My Lou, Buffalo Gals, and Pop Goes the Weasel are tradition al examples of play parties. Teaching Process Sing the song in its in its entirety demonstrating actions and use verses "Clap the beat, do oh, do oh" and/or "Walk to the beat do oh, do oh", and finally "Make a circle, do oh, do oh". After these repetiti ons of the song, follow sequence to teach parts (phrase 1, echo, phrase 2, echo, phrase 3, echo, phrase four, echo, phrase 1 and 2, echo, phrase 3 and 4, echo, all, echo), having students volunteer for individual echoing of parts for variation. Game: Stud ents stand in a circle and move to the left singing the words. At the cadence ("shake those 'simmons down") they shake to the floor. The leader changes the direction: four beat pause, then singing "Circle right, here we go". Verses: Circle Left, Circle Rig ht, To the middle, Round your partner, Round your Corner, Balance all, Promenade all. Choose student "leaders" to come up with other commands if space permits, students can travel around the room in a line, and the "line leader" chooses a new movement (to uch your shoulders, flap your wings, hop around, etc.). Variations: Create some harmony! Use a vocal bordun and/or other ostinato patterns (see score) Transfer vocal ostinati to unpitched percussion instruments or body percussion to as accompaniment to th e singing of the song. Divide the class small groups. Brainstorm together what might kinds movement might be possible and appropriate to do within the a few singings of the song, and students create demonstrate a dance (square dance style) in groups.
57 O rff Activity 4 Traditional Singing Game Objectives: Incorporate folk material; Rhythmic and movement training macrobeat Teaching Proce ss: Sing song in its entirety clap at the end of each phrase to fill the rests, and encourage students to imitate claps. Have children move and continue clapping through subsequent repetitions of the song. Form groups of four students facing partners to teach movement (each motion lasts one quarter note beat): Partner clap, partner clap, own clap, own clap Neighbor c lap, neighbor clap, own clap, own clap Partner clap, partner clap, own clap, own clap Neighbor clap, neighbor clap, own clap, own clap Step right, close, Step right, close (on half notes during 2 measure rest) Then, form concentric circles. Move around t he circle and perform song with pattern. For more complexity, move circles in opposite directions, or perform song as 2 3 part round (use notation above, parts enter every 4 measures).
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