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LA PERSPECTIVA DE OTRA RIBERA: THE GROTESQUE AESTHETIC IN FRANCISCO LOS CAPRICHOS AND RAM"N MARA DE VALLE ESPERPENTO BY ZOE MIRZIAI A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Humanities New College of Florida in partial requirement for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Dr. Magdalena E. Carrasco and Dr. Jos Alberto Portugal Sarasota, Florida May 2011
i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTR ii 1 CHAPTER 1 : AN INTRODUCTION TO IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY ......... 4 1.1 THE ROMANTIC EYE ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 1.2 THE CAPRICHO ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 6 1.3 El SUEO ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 1.4 17 1.6 CHAPTER 2 G LOS CAPRICHOS ................................ ................................ ................................ 2 6 2.1 INTERPRETIVE TOOLS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 2 6 2.2 THE PROCESS BEHIND LOS CAPRICHOS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 2 9 2.3 THE ORGANIZATION OF LOS CAPRICHOS ................................ ................................ .............................. .30 2.4 LOS CAPRICHOS: 32 2.5 49 CHAPTER 3 VALLE ESPERPENTO ................................ ................................ .................. 5 9 3.1 ESPERPENTISMO AND THE ESPERPENTO ................................ ................................ ................... 5 9 3.2 DIVINAS PALABRAS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 60 3.3 LUCES DE BOHEMIA ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 70 3.4 LOS CUERNOS DE DON FRIOLERA 77 3.5 THE EVOLUTION OF THE ESPERPENTO 90 3.6 91 3.7 94 3.8 THE STORIES OF THE DEAD .. 98 ... 104 .. 107 IMAGES .. 110
i i LA PERSPECTIVA DE OTRA RIBERA: THE GROTESQUE AESTHETIC IN LOS CAPRICHOS AND RAM"N MARA DE VALLE ESPERPENTO Zoe Mirziai New College of Florida, 2011 ABSTRACT This thesis explores the connection between the grotesque play, or esperpento, of Ramn Mara de Valle Incln (1866 1936) and the series of 80 aquatint etchings, Los Caprichos, made by Francisco de Goya (1746 1828) by comparing twenty four of the eighty Ca prichos esperpentos, Divinas Palabras (1920), Luces de Bohemia (1920 1) and Los Cuernos de don Friolera (1924). In order to discussion of c ertain concepts, such as the artist as a Creator, and terminology, such as the capricho and the grotesque. While b oth artists lived during a chaotic period in Spanish history, this thesis does not delve far into the history of Spain bib liographies. Instead, it focuses on the Goya and Valle Incln in the making of their art, and the grotesque results of such a perspective In addition, they also insert themselves in their work as a way to expla in how and why they confront their audiences with highly distorted renditions of humanity
ii i rather than portraying reality in an ideal manner. With the grotesque, they communicate what they perceive to be the ugly truth of reality. Magdalena E. Carrasco Division of Humanities Jos Alberto Portugal Divison of Humanities
1 Introduction I discovered the grotesque two years ago, when I first studied Francisco de notice a peculiar trend for Spanish artists (in addition to Goya) to incor porate the poetry marked my introduction to the literary grotesque, I recognized a distinct connecti on between the grotesque in Ram n Mara de Valle 1936) 1828). I was able to affirm this connection when I finally read Luces de Bohemia (1920 1), a grotesque play, or esperpento, in which Valle Incln explicitly declares that Goya invented the horrendous sights th at inspired the author to concoct the esperpento As part of the Generation of 1898, a group of intellectuals who recognized the social and political crisis of their nation, Valle Incln sought to represent Spain in its true and chaotic form. The author looked back to history in search of a more appropriate way to present the world and found value in the way that Goya, who also lived during a constraints) to guide him in hi s interpretation of society. Although one may incorporate a discussion of Spanish history in the analysis of the art of Valle Incln and Goya, it is not necessary to examine historical factors when comparing the two artists. I find that it is more valuab le to analyze their art in terms of their creative process and the grotesque aesthetic involved in their portrayals of the world.
2 Both Goya and Valle Incln actively refuse to idealize appearances in their art, a common trend of previous art and literature movements, and ins tead adopt a n alienated and distorted perspective in their art. In my thesis, I explore the relation between grotesque in his series of 80 aquatint etchings, Los Caprichos (1799), and Valle literary genre, the esperpent o. I will show that bo th artists use the grotesque in order to effectively communicate how and what they perceive to be the ugly truth of reality My first chapter mainly serves as an in depth introduction to the terminology and concepts that I explore i n my thesis I define the capricho as both a creative faculty and its innovativ e product dual meaning in Los Caprichos as well as how the capricho a cts as a pathway through which Goya accesses the grotesque. I then connect Valle esperpento work by demonstrating that both artists not only take on a distorted perspective in the creation of their art, but employ a similar aesthetic as well. In my second chapter, I offer a deep description and analysis of 24 of the 80 prints Los Caprichos First, I describe the aquatint making process, informing the reader how this process benefited Goya in the creation of Los Caprichos. I begin my discussion by explaining how Goya create s a thematic binary in the series by dividing it between two self portraits: the Caprichos beginning with the frontispiece ( Capricho 1) until Capricho 42 show the audience how Goya perceives reality in the waking world, while Caprichos 43 80 show how he c omprehends the world through his dreams. I explain how the artist begins the series with the distortion of the human figure and how, after Capricho 43, he proceeds to dehumanize and create fantastic creatures for each image. By the end of the chapter, my analysis of the plates allows the reader to
3 achieve a greater understandi ng of the grotesque aesthetic in Los Caprichos and how it alternative representation of reality. In the beginning of my third chapter, I solidify the connection between Goya and Valle Incln by explaining how and why Valle Incln considered Goya to be the inventor of the types grotesque sights that later on influenced him in the development of his literary genre, the esperpento I then provide a detailed descrip tion and analysis of the three plays, Divinas Palabras (1920), Luces de Bohemia (1920 1), and Los Cuernos de don Friolera (1924), each of which allows the reader to progressively grasp the concept behind the esperpento and how it came into existence. I de vote special attention to the vivid images that evoke Goya. The chapter conclude s the with an enumeration and explanation of the esperpentic theory as e xpressed by egos Max Estrella of Luces de Bohemia and don Estrafalario of Los Cuernos de don Friolera When I reach my conclusion, I will have shown how both Goya and Valle Incln confront the audience with highly distorted renditions of humanity as a way of revealing its u nderlying treachery and brutality I will have explained how the two eccentric artists Goya and Valle Incln, distance themselves from the rest of society observing it through an other worldly perspective through that allows them to perce ive the ugly tr uth of reality that they bring to light through their art
4 Chapter One: An Introduction to Important Concepts and Terminology 1.1 The Romantic Eye The Prelude, traces gradual immersion into the world of nature and the development of his artistic mind and imagination In his reading of the poem, David Blayney Brown compares the development of self awareness a s a Creator to the transformation of the artist from the Renaissance to the Romantic period 1 Indeed, the Renaissance introduced the notion that an artist was born with ingenium 2 a high level of innate ta lent which must first be refined by mastering a system of rational rules that dictate t he proper ways of making art. 3 W hile Romantic artists embraced t he idea that an artist was born and not made, they rejected the insistence that the ingenium must be cultivated through rational learning. They felt that these standards posed too many limitations on their art by reducing th e role of the imagination 4 Renaissance artists used their technical skill s to imitate natural forms and relied on previously established conventions of balance, perspective and propor tion in order to produce a work of art that s art, on the other hand, was more like a personal experiment that could not be limited by these standards. Romantics focu adop ted the role of the Creator, exposing to the public th e gr eater truths that only he could perceive 1 David Blayney Brown, Romanticism Art & ideas (London: Phaidon, 2001) 28. 2 Martin K emp, "The 'Super Artist' as Gen ius: The Sixteenth Century View, Genius: the History of an Idea Ed. Penelope Murray (Oxford: New York, 1989) 36. 3 Ibid., 38. 4 Brown 28.
5 by means of his unique vision. 5 While being able to access these universal truths may produce feelings of euphoria, the knowledge of some of the darker trut hs did make the artist more prone to melancholic madness. 6 T he introspective and me lancholic artist would look deep into his own thoughts, in addition to Nature, for inspiration. While the Renaissance and the Romantic periods both embraced the concept of the melancholic artist, the former stressed the importance of modifying personal visions according to a set of aesthetic rules. On the contrary, the Romantics considered to be the largest priority in the creation of art, and they believed that his t houghts should not be bound by external constraints. The Romantics embraced the concept of the vision providing a truthful and direct acc ount of the world that was free from academic training and external constraints, whether they be aesthetic, economic or cultural. 7 Instead, Romantic artists freed themselves from such constraints as well as the Renaissance practices of rational learning, and looked to their imagi nation for artistic inspiration. Their notion of artistic inspiration aligns with the Platonic concept of fantasmata, which may arise during sleep, extreme illness, or under divine inspiration. This fantasmata may be used by the intellect in order to perc eive unseen truths. 8 Overall, ruth observe and describe the truth so that it may be accessible to others 9 5 Ibid. 6 Kemp 39. 7 Brown 24 8 Kemp 38. 9 Brown 28.
6 These Romantic notions may not have be en set forth explicitly until some years after Goya published his series of 80 aquatint etchings, Los Caprichos (1799). However, it is extremely important to understand the concept of th e Romantic artist and his role as a work. Though it is difficult to categorize Goya in terms of a specific artistic movement, the Spanish artist does exhibit the Romantic tendency to look to his imaginati on for artistic inspiration. In Los Caprichos, he looks both to Nature and his imagina tion for subject matter, but does not let artistic conventions get in the way of the execution of his vision. 1.2 The Capricho Over the years, many art historians and scholars of Spanish literature have speculated as to what exactly Goya mea when he named his series of 80 aquatint etchings. I understand that, when used as a singular noun, the word had two main definitions consider both definitions of c apricho as they are both active in C apricho may signify a that neither obey s ordinary rules n or adhere s to traditional customs. However, t he word may also be used to indicate th e internal and uninh ibited creative drive synonymous with the Platonic fantasmata tha t produces such a result The two senses of capricho are inevitably intertwined, often making it difficult to define one without using the other. For example, in the thir d edition of the 1791 Diccionario de la lengua castellana, the Real Academia offers a special de finition for capricho when used in
7 alguno forma fuer a de las reglas ordina rias y co munes, y la m s veces sin fundamento, ni razn. En las obras de msica y pintura es lo que se executa por la fuerza del ingenio ms que por la observancia de las reglas del arte. Llma se tambien fantasa 10 First, the dictionary states that th e capricho ordinary rules and continues to explain that, in works of rules of ar The concept or idea spawns from a creative for ce that is not based on common ), and s ince neither reason nor rule engenders this product, the product itself reveals another source of cr eation (the capricho ) therefore testifying to the existence of this alternative force. This definition aligns with the Romantic idea that an artist has more than mere skill or talent: he has a unique creative process that begins with his unique creative d rive. 11 The creation of the capricho begins first with the creative faculty, which is also referred to as the capricho To continue with the definition, t synonymous w ith the imagination itself, or if it refers to a vision produced by the imagination The coda itself reinforces the ambivalence of the meaning of capricho. Whether the definition refers to the capr icho as a process or a product, it is important to keep in mind that by referencing the product, it inevitably refers to the process as well because as an object the capricho is understood not to be governed by reason or common 10 Paul Ilie, The Grotesque sthetic in Spanish Literature, from the Golden Age to Modernism ( Newark: Juan de la Cuesta 2009) 88. 11 Brown 28.
8 rule; therefore, it immedia tely invokes the irrational force that processed it. The Real inevitably entangled and prevents the reader from excluding either the process or the object in the understa nding of the capricho In order to facilitate the comprehension of the capricho, I find that it is necessary to first explain the capricho a people primarily use the word in reference to a product On January 5 1794 Goya wrote a letter to Bernardo de Iriarte in which he refers to his loss of reputation as court painter, a consequence of the temporary break he took to recuperate from his illness. I n order to reintroduce himself to the art scene Goya explains that he has decided to paint a series of cabinet paintings 12 with imaginative subjects that do not have a place in c ommissioned paintings consideracin de mis males y para resarcir, en parte, lo s grandes dispendios que me han ocasionado, me dediqu a pintar un juego de cuadros de gabinete en que he logrado hacer observaciones a que regularmente no dan lugar las obras encargadas y en que el capricho y la invencin no 13 In this case, Goya uses c apricho to refer to a creative faculty that functions parallel to inventiveness a type of artistic inspiration that cannot play a large role in paintings commissioned by the court, as these are expected to be completely based upon Nature and established rules. 14 12 Janis Tomlinson, Francisco Goya y Lucientes 1746 1828 ( Lond on: Phaidon Press Limited, 1994) 94 5. 13 Ilie 95. 14 Ibid.
9 Goya also uses the word briefly in his Diario de Madrid advertisement for Los Caprichos : Colecci n de estampas de asuntos caprichos os inventadas y grabados al agua fuerte, por Don Francisco Goya. Persuadido el autor de que la ce nsura de los error e s y vicios humanos (aunque parace peculiar de la eloqencia y la poesia) puede tambien ser objeto de la pintura: ha escogido como asuntos proporcionados para su obra, ent re la multitude de extravagancia s y desaciertos que son co mmunes en toda sociedad civil, y entre las preocupaciones y embustes vulgares, autorizados por la costumbre, la ignorancia el inters, aquellos que ha creido mas aptos subministrar material para el ridiculo, y exercitar al mismo tiempo la fantasia del artificio Como la mayor parte de los objetos que en esta obra se representan son ideales, no ser temeridad creer que sus defectos hallara n, tal vez, mucha disculpa entre los inteligentes: considerando qu e el autor, ni ha seguido los ej emplos de otro, ni ha segui do los ejem plos de otro, ni ha podido copia r tan poco de la naturaleza. Y si imitarla es tan dificil, como admirable quando se logra; no dexar de merecer alguna estimacion el que apartandose enteramente de ella, ha tenido que exponer a los ojos formas y actitudes que solo han existido hasta ahora en la men te humana, obscurecida y confusa por la falta de ilustracin acalorada con el desenfreno de las pasiones. Seria suponer demasiada ignorancia en la s bellas artes el advertir al p blic o que en ninguna d e las composiciones que forman esta coleccion ha propuesto el autor, para riducilizar los defectos particular e s uno otro individuos que sera en verdad, estrechar demasiado los limites al talent o y equivocar los medios de que se valen las artes de imit acin para producer obras perfectas. La pintura (como la poesa) escoge en lo universal lo que juzga mas proposito para sus fines: reune en un solo personage fant stic o circunstancias y caracteres que la naturaleza presenta repartidos en muchos y de esta convinacion, ingenio samente dispuesta, resulta aquella feliz imitacion, por lo qual adquiere en buen artificie el ttulo de inventor y no de copiante servil.
10 Se vende en la calle del Desengao en la tienda de perfumes y licores, pagando por cada colec cion de 80 estampas 320 rs. vn. 15 When Goya refers to the Los Caprichos caprichosos, inven tadas y grabadas al agua fuerte, 16 he uses the word as an adjective rather than a noun Paul Ilie suggests that Goya allu des to situations synonymous with Ilie, human confusion, shameful deeds, and an impulsive human mind all provide subject matter that may be either harmlessly entertaini ng or dark and horrifying. 17 I agree with may have been used to signify these deplorable and 15 Quoted in Pierre Gassier and Juliet W. Bareau. Goya: His Life and Work: With a Catalogue R the Paintings, Drawings and Engravings (London: Thames and Hudson, 1971) 129. Janis Tomlinson translates the advertisement on pages 140 2 in her book Goya: subjects, invented and etched by Francisco Goya. The author is convinced that it is as proper for painting to criticize human error and vice as for poetry and prose to do so, although criticism is usually taken to be exclusively the province of literature. He has selected from amongst the innumerable fo ibles and follies to be found in any civilized society, and from the common prejudices and deceitful practices which custom, ignorance or self interest have hallowed, those subjects which he feels to be some of the more suitable material for satire, and wh subjects depicted in this work are not real, it is not unreasonable to hope that connoisseurs will readily overlook their defects. The author has not followed the precedents of a ny other artist, nor has he been able to copy Nature herself. It is very difficult to imitate Nature, and a successful imitation is worthy of admiration. He who departs entirely from Nature will surely merit high esteem, since he has to put before the ey es of the public forms and poses which have existed previously in the darkness and confusion of an irrational mind, or one which is beset by an uncontrolled passion. The public is not so ignorant of the Fine Arts that it needs to be told that the author ha s intended no satire of the personal defects of any specific individual in any of his compositions. Such particularized satire achieved through imitat ion in art. Painting (like poetry) chooses from universals what is most apposite. It brings together in a single imaginary being, circumstances and characteristics which occur in nature in many different persons. With such an ingeniously arranged combina tion of properties the artist produces a faithful likeness, but also 16 Pierre Gassier and Juliet W. Bareau Paintings Drawings and Engravings ( London: Thames and Hudson, 1971 ) 17 Ilie 102.
11 irrational human acts, but I also think that Ilie fails to acknowledge another potential meaning of caprichoso. Goya purpose ly places caprichoso when describing the subjects of the series. Since he used caprichoso in contiguity with two adjectives that describe the process of making Los Caprichos, it is also possible that the artist could have used the word to elaborate on the creative process behind the series of etchings. In this case, one would translate the 18 translati on of capricho he word describes the same concept (the creative process of Los Caprichos) as the other adjectives. While statement may be valid, it seems limited when put in the same context as the other Capricho was also commonly used by critics in terms of architecture It is valuable to learn these usages of the word because as they were used to describe a form of the plastic arts, they may also shed some light on One contemporaries, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, discusses the emergence of the Gothic style of architecture from the Moorish style that resulted from an irrational creative force (or the capricho ) that does not correspond to nat ure no hizo ms que perfeccionarle, sin perder de vista su modelo, y cuando el capricho le usurp este oficio, ya no volvi a consultar con la naturaleza ni con la razn, sino que huy de entrambas para seguir lib rem 19 Jovellanos considers capricho 18 Here I have translated capricho than the capricho. 19 Jovellanos, Obras, I, BAE, Vol. 46 [Madri d, 1963], 383a. quoted in Ilie 93.
12 rationalize, so, as a result, he does not consult either nature or reason in his decisions. Here, capricho does not nece ssarily relate to dark or gruesome notions of the artist (as we will see later with Goya), but instead Jovellanos is referring to art that is fun damentally decorative in nature, superficially attractive, and shallow in meaning. In the same text, Jovellano s also uses capricho while c riticizing the influence that Arabic architecture, which is highly ornamental and decorative, had on architectural styles of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. as representing a 20 in terms of the architectural decoration : caprich 21 Jovellanos basically explains that the capricho, which in this case means excessive and m eaningless decoration, may distract the viewer from the actual talent of the architect. Jovellanos continues his critique and say s ornato arabesco era del todo insignificante, pues, no permitiendo el Alcorn esculpir ningn viviente se dieron los rabes a inventa r lazos y figuras de puro capricho, sin objeto ni si g nificacin 22 Here, capricho expresses a n extravagant decorative concept that lacks any purpose 23 Jovellanos describes how the Koran forbids the imitation of livi ng things, hence the tendency of Arabic artists to create decorations by using their capricho In this case, t he author is using capricho to indicate the process, unbound by reason or Nature, 20 Ilie 93. 21 Jovellanos, Obras, I, BAE, Vol. 46 [Madri d, 1963], 37 Ib. quoted in Ilie 93. 22 Jovellanos, Obras, I, BAE, Vol. 46 [Madrid, 1963], 385b. quoted in Ilie 102. 23 Ilie 101.
13 responsible for creating the extravagant and meaningless decora tions of Arabesque architecture. Leandro Fernndez de Moratn a Spanish dramatist and close friend of Goya, uses the word capricho when he condemn s Roman esque monuments like Santa Mara Mayor (located in Sevilla) ho, todo superfluidad, inconexi n ingenio mal empleado, sin raz n ni gusto 24 Here, the term becomes synonymous with an impulsive, undeveloped, irrational, or superfluous idea. This impulsive aspect of capricho connects with its plural meaning denoting whi ms that caprichos de la suerte 25 Again, one may recognize the interconnectedness of both senses of capricho text because even as he uses the word to signify a concept or idea, its usage still indicates that the idea was created by an irrational force ( the capricho ). In naming Los Caprichos, Goya must have considered the dual ity of the term capricho as both the creative faculty and its result. The title therefore represents the birth of Los Caprichos as a product of the will of his uninhibited creative power, or capricho. He clearly uses capricho to indicate that each plate, or capricho, spawns from his imagination. The artist also may have used the term to allude to the crucial role p layed by his im agination, in terms of uncontro lable or irrational urges that affected his creation. 1.3 El Sueo In Timaeus, in his rational mind, but only when the power of his intel ligence is fettered in sleep or 24 Edith F.Helman, d Monstruos of Cadalso and Goya, Hispanic Review 26.3 (1958): 200 222, 202. 25 Ibid.
14 26 notion of the 43 of Los Caprichos El sueo de la razn produce monstrous (Fig. 1). The artist depicts himself asleep at his desk in the foreground while creatures of darkness, owls and bats, stream in from the background and surround him. One owl perched on his desk jabs at arm with a pencil, as if i t were urging him to create a work of art in his sleep. The owl, a figment of his imagination represents the ideas, which are in part affected by his surrounding environment, that come to him in his sleep. At this time, the artist reason abandons him freeing his mind and allowing it to conjure the potentially irrational caprichos ). The purely imaginative dream realm therefore acts as a vehicle that enables him capricho. In the gives an overview of the history of the grote sque. He explains that the wor d originates from the Italian word, grotte, initially referred to the ornamental w all paintings of the Domus Aurea, an ancient Roman palace that was discovered as an underground chamber during the fifteenth century During the Renaissance, the word grotteschi, which evolved from grotte, was used to signify the natural and unnatural things. 27 Interestingly both terms linked to architectural de coration Just as capricho may refer to the insubstantial or 26 Maria Ruvold t, "Michelan gelo's Dream," Art Bulletin 85 (2003): 100. 27 David Summers, "The Archaeology of the Modern Grot esque, Modern Art and the Grotesque Ed. Frances S. Connelly ( United Kingdom: C ambridge University Press, 2003) 20 27.
15 irrational design s in Moorish originally described the unnatural, or even absurd, decorations in the Domus Aurea Both appearances (the capricho and the but are generally harmless, though excessive, decorative elements In El Sueo, dream or sleep as a creative mechanism through which he encounters grotesque monsters of the capricho Maria Ruvoldt raises an important question while discussing the signi ficance of the forty El sueo de la razn produce monstrous : Does Goya speak of the dream of the artist, free to invent according to the dictates of his own fantasy ? Or does he mean that the monsters produced by the sleep of reas on represent the folly of the social order, superstitions and prejudices that he satirizes in Los Caprichos ? 28 While may also exist outside the dream realm Indeed, the gr otesque monsters in Los Caprichos r emind the audience of the crucial role played by the series However, as I will show in my second chapter, Goya also uses the grotesque in order to expose the human foll ies sup erst i tions and prejudices that deform society in reality. s personality, Victor Hugo of dream that he feels, comprehends, learns, perceives, drinks, eats, frets, mock s, weeps, and reasons 29 According t o Hugh or less representative of the R 30 Goya may have had this concept in mind when illustrating El sueo de la razn. Asleep at his desk, Goya learns 28 Ruvoldt 108. 29 Quoted in Hugh Honour R omanticism (New York: Harper & Row, 1979) 265. 30 Ibid.
16 and comprehends what Wordsw which he attempts to reveal to the public through Los Caprichos. capricho or imagination, which allows him to illustrate these caprichos or ideas unbound by pre existing conventions. As we have seen in his advertisement, Goya states: Painting (like poetry) chooses from universals what is most apposite. It brings together in a single imaginary being, circumstances and characteristics which occur in nature in many differen t persons. With such an ingeniously arranged combination of properties the artist produces a faithful likeness, but also earns the title of inventor rather than of servile copyist. 31 With Los Caprichos, Goya asserts his status as an inventor rather than a By usi 32 or, capricho, Goya produces art that incorporates both elements of his uncontrolled imagination (also a capricho ) and things existing in Nature in order to portray reality in its truest state. In this semi imagined, semi natural realm, Goya ridicules the follies, superstitions, a nd prejudices that dominate Spanish society during his time. With this series, Goya depicts the consequences of the sleep of reason. He purposely mixes elements of both re ality and fantasy in order to demonstrate that human vices, along with ignorance may lead to spectacles that are equally as grotesque as any jarring figment of the imagination. By blurring the boundary between fantasy and reality, Goya creates an ambiguo us dream like realm that functions as an alternative reflection of Four Dialogues on Painting Michaelangelo states 31 Tomlinson 140. 32 Ibid.
17 variation and r elaxation of the senses and in respect of mortal eyes, that sometimes desire to see that which they never see and think cannot exist) rather than the accustomed figure (admirable though it be) of men a nd animals 33 grotesqu e primarily seeks to please the audience with never before seen figures, Goya uses the grotesque within a social context. Both Michelangelo and Goya recognize the value of distort ing and transform ing the human figure to present reality in a new way to whi ch the audience is not accustomed. However, Goya applies the grotesque to a social context, using his hybrid human animal monsters to represent the discrimination, corruption, superstition, and folly he observes in society. 1.4 Caricature and the Grotesq ue In his book, The Grotesque in Art and Literature, Wolfgang Kayser explains the difference between two kinds of visual grotesque: the fantastic grotesque which originates with Bosch and Bruegel, and the satirical grotesque. 34 He characterizes the first 35 and the latter as exaggerated caricature and 36 Kayser briefly mentions that Goya combines both categories of the grotesque in his art, as is apparent in Los Caprichos. While the artist ridicule s society in the series, his fantasy, or capricho, clearly plays a large role in the creation of the deformed and distorted figures. 33 Francisco de Hollanda, Four Dialogues on Painting trans. Aubrey F.G. Bell (1928; reprint, Westport, Conn: Hyperion Press, 1979), 60 2. quoted in Summers, 33. 34 Wolfgang Kayse r, The Grotesque in Art and Literature (New York .: McG raw Hill, 1966) 173. 35 Ibid., 173. 36 Ibid., 173.
18 In the first part of the series, pla tes one through forty three, Goya does not incorporate as much of his imagination as he does in the second part (plates forty four to eighty), but he does exaggerate and distort certain aspects of his figures. Caricature and grotesque are disparate catego ries of art, but nevertheless, they both serve as a means to humiliate and ridicule. Although Goya practices a process similar to the caricature in his grotesque rendition of society it is highly important to distinguish between the grotesque and caricat ure. A caricature, according to David exaggerated forms and reassembles them in a new, misproportioned whole, always it is not, and quickly opens the way to the comic, and beyond that, to the shameful and 37 Summers mentions the two main elements of caricature, firstly, that it entails the distortion of on serves to deride that individual. In his discussion of caricature, definition of exaggerated caricatures 38 It is impo rtant to remember that caricatures, which typically have a political agenda appearance in order to ridicule a certain individual Grotesques may incorporate certain aspects of a particular individual, however, unlike caricatu res, grotesques do not n ecessarily retain the subject In his advertisement, Goya explicitly designated of Los Caprichos of imaginary 37 Summers 40. 38 Kayser 30.
19 s 39 Though the purpose of this claim may have been simply to absolve the artist of offending anyone, the artist clarifies that the series is not to be read as a simple satire. Still the line separating caricature an d grotesque may seem paper thin, especially in the first part of Los Caprichos. For example, Goya in plate twenty nine, Esto si que es leer? ( Fig. 3), an old man, shown in profile, sleeps with a newspaper in his lap. A younger male, presumably a barber, crouching figure looks more like a gnome because he has a long beard, a tiny face, and a tic nose takes up almost a quarter of his face, and his nostrils are just about as large as his eyes. His heavy lips hang engage in normal human activities, like grooming and reading, and act as humans. The old man sits upright in a chair and crosses his legs in a normal fashion. In this case, the artist limits the role of his imagination in creating his figures and only enhances his tures. Here, Goya slightly dehumanizes each of the figures in the composition as a means of equalization. Regardless of whether or not a figure is working or being pampered, each figure is equally as absurd due to its grotesque features. In the second pa rt, from plate forty three on, Goya incorporates more fantastical elements that clearly do not exist in this world, like goblins, witches, and monsters. For example, in plate forty five, Hay mucho que chupar ( Fig. 4) the viewer may have a harder time dec iphering the origin of the three hideous creatures. Like a human, they each have two eyes, a nose and a mouth, but their disgusting appearances and actions 39 Tomlinson 140 2.
20 bear no likeness to anything in reality. Their bones are so prominent that it seems as though thei r skin has started to decay. In the center of the image, an unknown source of be a box of bones. A basket containing body parts of dead babies sits in the foregroun d in front of the three disgusting creatures. The scene takes place in an unidentifiable and ambiguous setting: the goblins sit on a solid gray ground and two humongous bats hover above them in a gray sky. This plate exhibits the type of heavy distortion and dehumanization that characterizes the fantastic grotesque. With this Capricho, Goya confronts the audience with a grotesque spectacle that depicts a common superstition. As he demonstrates in El Sueo de la razn, Goya uses his capricho to reveal th e in the creative process even during his sleep, where he may attain an uncontrollable and irrational source of artistic inspiration. This is also where he encou nters the grotesque. Goya adopts a different type of perspective in his creative process; he illustrates 40 In Los Caprichos, Goya takes on the alienated perspective that is inherent in the dream world in order to confront and shock the audience with a distorted and deformed version of reality. The grotesque provides Goya with a more suitable way to represent r eality as he sees it. Alth ough our normal value systems may not be applied to the grotesque realm, as it is i nhabited by irrational monsters, the audience may detect something astoundingly in the same types of activities that Goya initially ob served in the human world. However these activities 40 Kayser 186.
21 seem far more irrational or even barbaric when enacted by monsters. While the viewer may be able to slightly relate to forms or actions which may s eem familiar, we are ultimately unable to orient ourselves in the world of Los Caprichos. As Kayser explains, the audience may react with contradicting feelings, like awe and disgust, or horror and laughter. 41 In the end, the audience remains confused, un able to decipher whether it is the imaginative world of Los Caprichos or reality that is truly grotesque. While the series still has an element that invokes reality, it is suddenly deformed by the intrusion of the fantastic. 1.5 La perspectiva de la ot ra ribera 42 Through the words of Max Estrella in Luces de Bohemia Ramn Mara de Valle Incln acknowledges Goya as the inventor of esperpentismo, a precursor of the esperpento, a type of grot esque play invented by Valle Incln terms of the art itself, but also in the creative process. Like Goya, Valle Incln takes on an other worldly perspec tive in the creation of h is art, a practice that emb odies the idea of the capricho as the imagination. He explains this notion through the words of Don Estrafalario another one of his literary alter egos in Los Cuernos de don Friolera : esttica es una superacin del dolor y de la risa, como deben ser las conversaciones de los muertos, al contarse histori 43 He explains how he must first distance 41 Ibid., 185. 42 Romance De Lobos: Divinas Palabras. Luces De Bohem ia (Madrid: Aguilar, 1971) 239. 43 : Esperpentos (Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1964) 68.
22 himself and abandon human sentiment in the creation of his art so that he may give an objective and more authentic r epresentation of reality. Like Goya, he feels the need to distort the appearance of reality in his art in desires otherwise prevent s him or her from seeing. capricho a llows him to access the grotesque in his dreams, Valle Incln is able to access the grotesque by taking on the distant and other worldly perspective of both the devil and the puppet master. Kayser states, perspective in the grotesque consist s in an unimpassioned view of life on earth as an empty, meaningless puppet play or caricatural marionette theatre. The divinity of poets and the shaping force of nature have altogeth er ceased to exist 44 In writing his esperpentos, the author takes on t he role of both th e devil and the puppet master; he embodies the impassionate and unsympathetic view of the devil while simultaneously strategically reduces his characters to the leve l of puppets, things characterized by their appearances 45 is what enables the author to break away from the influence of theatrical conventions that claim their origins in the classic comedia one of the great products of the Spanish literary Golden Age, and its contemporary, bastardized versions in melodrama. He elaborates on this idea in the epilogue of Los Cuernos de don Friolera when the two intellectuals, Don Estrafalario and Don Manolito discuss the degraded state of literature. 44 Kayser 186. 45 Valle Los Cuernos 68.
23 DON ESTRAFALARIO No le parece a usted ridcula esa literatura jactanciosa como si hubiese pasado bajo los bigotes de Kaiser? DON MANOLITO Indudablemente, en la literature aparecemos como unos brba ros sangui narios. Luego se nos trata, y se ve que somos borregos . . 46 Don Estrafalario asserts that the only way to redeem literature is throug h the use of just as Don Estrafalario and Don Manolito do when they watch a puppet show in the prologue, which is when Don Estrafalario expresses his admiration for the puppet naturaleza, a los muecos de su tabanque. Tiene una dig nidad demirgica 47 In the creation of the esperpento, Valle Incln becomes a puppet master himself bec ause he considers himself superior to his characters, who are reduced to the level of mere puppets, dolls, and animals. As the master, he has all the control to deform and distort his characters. 1.6 El Espejo Cncavo distorted and grotesque fo rm of representation is precisely the kind of work present in Valle esperpentos. T he mirror serves as a symbol for the mimetic function of art: just as a mirror precisely reflects what stands in front of it, art produces a faithful reflection of Nature. This notion, however, generally refers to a flat 46 Ibi d., 173. 47 Ibid., 76.
24 mirror because, unlike a concave or a convex mirror, it reflects without any exaggeration. Through the words of the protagonist Max Estrella in Luces de Bohemia Ramon Mara Valle Incln compares the aesthetic of his literary form, the esperpento, to the distortive 48 The author explicitly compares his literature to a concave mi rror because his plays, like the mirror, act as a distortive filter for reality. In his esperpentos the Spanish playwright intentionally uses classic techniques of the grotesque, such as dehumanization and deformation, to distort the appearance of realit y in greedy by dehumanizing his figures and distorting the settings inhabited by his characters. Valle part to the Caprichos. Frances Weyers Weber states that Valle 49 Like Goya, the author does not completely abandon reality in his art; it just undergoes inte nse distortion and deformation so that, in the end, it becomes difficult to separate reality from farce. By amalgamating realism with the grotesque, Valle Incln ridicules societal constructions and mores, like matrimony, honor, and heroes. The esperpent o especially deforms the positive conceptions of classic heroes as role models in order to communicate a sense of hopelessness for humanity. In the esperpento and corrupt, if not more so, than the notorious croo ks and criminals. 48 Luces 239. 49 Frances Wyers Weber. "Luces de Bohemia and the Impossibility of Art," 82.5 (1967):588
25 Valle Incln deforms and vulgarizes societal values so that the things familiar to us in the world of the esperpento suddenly seem strange, distorted, and isolated. 50 Valle Incln exaggerates the ugliness in the appearance and actions of his characters, which originate in reality, to the point where nothing seems rational: the audience is only able to see the grotesque. The esperpento is a grotesque play that adjusts the appearance of reality using the techniques of dehumanization and di stortion, similar to how Goya distorts reality in Los Caprichos, in order to produce a more authentic representation of modern society. 50 Weber 589.
26 Chapter Two : Caprichos 2.1 Interpretive Tools H and wri tten manuscripts contemporary with Los Ca prichos have proven to be helpful tool s in the interpretation of many of the images. Alt hough the sources of these written commentaries remain slightly controversial, they still offer a contemporary interpretation of the plates and oftentimes aid in the identification of certain figures that would otherwise be impossible to classify. I have consulted two manuscripts, the Lpez de Ayala and the Prado manuscript s in my analysis of certain plates. Eleanor Sayre considers these two commentaries in p articular to be more directly related to the artist than other manuscripts, such as the Lefort commentary which was anonymously written in 1808, and the manuscript written by Juan Antonio Llorente, a controversial political 51 The Pr ado manuscript was written early in the nineteenth century on papers that Th e Prado manuscript is believed t o be directly linked to Goya original owne r, inscribed Explicaci n de los Caprichos de Goya escrita de propia ( Caprichos written by his hand ) at the top of the paper s There are also two brief notes believed to be in handwriting on t he last sheet of the manus cript. However, the attribution of the notes has been disputed by other scholars 51 Eleanor Sayre, Changing Image: Prints by Francisco Goya : [exhibition, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, O ctober 24 December 29, 1974, the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, January 24 March 14, 1975] (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1974) 56.
27 because the writing style is not characteristic of Goya, but rather resembles that of Leandro Fernndez de Moratn, a playwright who was a friend of the artist 52 The Lpez de Ayala manuscript is closely related in terms of content to the Prado 53 In certain instances the Lpez de Ayala manusc ript is dangerously explicit because it identif ies satirical figures as Prime Minister Godoy and the Duchess of Alba. I have discounted these specific identifications because in his advertisement statement, Goya claims that he does not direct the satire in Los Caprichos to any spec ific individual. Although the artist may have said this only with intentions of a bsolving himself of any blame for political offence, considered a serious crime during the Inquisition, it is highly important to keep this statement in mind when interpretin g the series. Nonetheless, the manuscripts still offer valuable information that incorporates Spanish culture and knowledge of events contemporary to Los Caprichos in their interpretations of the captions (which at times refer to old Spanish proverbs ) as well as their identifications of the types of figures and actions that Goya depicts in each print references would be completely lost. interpretation of Los Caprichos. Approximately three years prior to the publication of Los Caprichos, Goya kept drawing journals where he recorded his observations and inner thoughts about tate in Sanlcar de Barrameda, Andalusia Goya filled a sketchbook, which scholars refer to as the Sanlcar 52 Ibid., 57. 53 Ibid.
28 Album, with a number of delicate ink wash drawings that document the idyllic countryside and his casual encounters with the Duchess and her serv ants (Fig. 8) 54 He also began another sketchbook, the Madrid Album, in Sanlcar and later completed it in Madrid. In the later album Goya gave the ink drawings numbers as well as witty and ironic titles (Fig. 21) much as he did with Los Caprichos. 55 El eanor Sayre notes that the than the previous sketchbook, a phenomenon that becomes apparent after the 55 th page, ic renderings of natural human forms. According to Sayre, the tone and character of these drawings becomes far more satirical after the 55 th sketch due to the use of masks, caricature, and distorted human forms that share similar features with goblins, wi tches, and animals. Goya also spends less time on background landscape details, such as trees and mountains, and instead begins to sketch geometric shadows to heighten the chiaroscuro effect and thus bring attention to the fi gures in the foreground 56 In his analysis of the Madrid Album, Lpez Rey separates the sketches into subgroups. The first group, sketches 1 27, presents men and women acting in front of a black or lightly sketched background. He characterizes the second group, sketches 28 46, by i ts strong chiaroscuro effects, and marks t he third group, sketches from the 49 th drawing on, by satire, caricature, and the grotesque. 57 O verall the organization of Los Caprichos loosely resembles that of the Madrid Album in the way that it begins with 54 Rey, Goya's Caprichos: Beauty, Reason & Caricature (Westport : Greenwood Press, 1970 ) 7. 55 Sayre 59. 56 Ibid. 57 Rey 8.
29 r enditions of more realistic figures but after a certain point embarks into a more f antastic and sinister realm Interestingly the two sketchbooks, which both provided Goya with ideas for Los Caprichos, show how his stylistic and thematic interests evolve d over time. When he began the Sanlcar Album, the artist was more focused on imitating nature and recording his peaceful surroundings. However in the Madrid Album, h e became progressively more interested in incorporating his own thoughts into his drawi ngs of Spanish life, and he began to favor simple r compositions with limited background information Though Goya borrowed certain elements from both drawing albums, the Madrid Album more resembles the content and tone of Los Caprichos. 2.2 The Process b ehind Los Caprichos For Los Caprichos, Goya used aquatint, a variant of the intaglio printmaking technique, etching which allowed him to preserve the sk etchy and lifelike quality in the brushed ink drawings of Madrid and Sanlcar Albums. First, Goya used an etching tool to roug h ly outline e ach of the onto a copper plate, which he then placed inside an acid mordant bath to In order to make different tones, Goya adjust ed the amount of acid mordant expo sed to each region of the plate by applying various layers of a semi porous resinous groun d to the plate. The directly correlates to the length of time that the copper plate was exposed to the mordant, allowing Goya to achieve a variety of tones in his compositions including a rich velvety black, a grainy dark gray, a lighter gray, and white. In order to achieve a highlighted effect, Goya stop out, an acid resistant varnish, to certain
30 a reas so that they would be impervious to the acid mordant eliminating the ability for these areas to retain ink and causing them to appear white when the design was transferred onto paper In contrast the dark figural conto urs and intricate details incised and bitten i nto the plate emerge fro m the subtle tonal variations on the rest of the plate 58 Although Goya could have used the aquatint to develop complex backgrounds and achie ve a greater sense of depth, he deliberately chose not to include many elements in the background for compositions in the series Instead, he usually centers the composition s on a group of large, detailed figures in the foreground who occupy a lesser detailed, ambiguous setting In certain cases, G oya may hint at shrubbery or archi tectural forms but he more typical ly tones the background with eith er completely gray or black, occasionally using both tones to form clouds or geometric shadows He incises deep lines to delineate figural contours and to detail foreground elements such as wrinkles in a or t he fabrics in a costume, causing them to stand out from the background. As a result, each Capricho almost seems like a quick sketch made from life, despite the fact that Goya drew from a number of sources, including his drawing albums and his capricho i n order to design each print. 2.3 The Organization of Los Caprichos Goya divides the series into two main parts, both beginning with a different self portrait: the first is marked by the frontispiece, the first self portrait (Fig. 2 ) and the second be gins with Capricho 43, El sueo de la razn produce monstrous (Fig.1 ) which s frontispiece. 59 In the first self portrait, Goya 58 E.S. Lumsden, The Art of Etching 2nd ed. (New York: Dover Publications, 1962 ) 118 122. 59 Fred Licht, Goya (New York: Abbeville Press, 2001) 142.
31 presents himself as a sophisticated member of the bourgeoisie, wearing a top hot and o affirms his role also as still exudes an undeniable sense of isolation. His eyelids and lips droop downward and he fixates his gaze on a point outside of the composition as if he were lost in his own thought. A dark shadow rests on his shoulders and gradually fades into light above his black top hat. The melancholic frown, introspective and dreamy ey es, and confident posture make this portrait the epitome of the imaginative and romantic artist. However, unlike the Romantic artist, Goya portrays himself as a member of a certain social class rather than a completely alienated individual. With this self portrait, Goya reaffirms the role of his capricho in the creation of his art. While he does look out to Nature for artistic inspiration, his imagination has an equally as important, if not more important, impact on his art. By splitting the series be tween two self portraits, the artist also shows the viewe r the two ways he perceives reality: first he shares his vision of the world as a fully conscious member of the bourgeoisie, then, after El Sueo, he portrays the world as it revisits him in his drea ms. Goya had originally conceived Los Caprichos as a series called Sueos which merely recorded the dreams of an artist who saw the truth. 60 Though the Sueo drawings (Fig.22) alo ng with the album sketches, influence d some of the plates in Los Caprichos, it is significant that the artist only portrays figments of pure fantasy in the second half of the series. mimics the creative process behind it : in the first half, Goya ridicules the deplorable human behaviors and mentalities present in reality and then, in the second half, he enhances the grotesque 60 Ibid., 60.
32 qualities of these visions with fantastical elements as a way of revealing the absurdity he sees to the public. If Goya had not removed El Sueo as th e frontispiece, the viewer mig ht be inclined to write off the entire series simply as grotesque delusions that he encounters in his sleep. Without the separation the viewer also might be less likely to realize that the figures in the first part of the series are more faithful to Natu re, as they are either entirely human or entirely animal. In Caprichos 1 42, which serve a more blatantly satirical function than the other half of the series, Goya ridicules the vices, stupidity and greed of all classes of society. In the Caprichos aft er El Sueo, Goya incorporates more of the fantastical grotesque in order to create an innovative and perhaps more appropriate, representation of reality. 2.4 Los Caprichos: The Waking World Goya spends the first half of Los Caprichos ridiculing the many follies and vices that dominate each facet of society: he mocks nave men and deceitful women of both the upper and lower classes, the inane snobbery of the aristocrats, and the greedy clergy. He shows the audience exactly how he sees humanity: as a morally bankrupt and treacherous group of hypocritical individuals who cannot, or deliberately choose not to, acknowledge the heinous truth. In order to convey this truth to the audience, Goya distorts his figures and their surroundings so that the visu ally grotesque correlates with morph into boorish animals, and clergy members slowly transform into goblins
33 G oya dedicates a sizeable number of prints in the first ha lf of the series to the subject of the relationship between men and wo men, in the context of both marriage and prostitution. He expresses a rather cynical view on such relationships, consistently portraying both types of relationships as harmf ul and meani ngless r egardless of the basis of each interaction. By portraying both types of relationship in a negative light, Goya makes the statement that women sexually exploit themselves in an effort to attain a greater freedom : as a prostitute, a woman has total control over the money that she earns on her own and as an upper class wife a woman can simply rely on her husband for money and do what she pleases with it. In these Caprichos, Goya also deplores men because, oftentimes, their sexual desires im pair the ir judgment and prevent them from recognizing the manipulative games that women play. Overall, these plates concentrate on the innate sinfulness selfishness, and treachery that the artist believes to shape all human decisions. In regards to marriage, Goy a distorts the image of both the male and female participants in order to reveal their true self serving motivations for the union. For example, in Capricho 2, El s pronuncian y alargan la mano al primero que llega (Fig. 5 ), Goya portra ys the woman as a conniving, yet attractive masked individual who tricks a nave, oftentimes older and ghastly looking male suitor who does not see beyond the 61 According to Prez Snchez and Sayre, the poem deride s the vices that affect the lives of high born ladies, but does not attack 61 Sayre Goya and the Spirit of Enlightenment (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1989) 86.
34 62 Alcinda, a woman of upper nobility, leaves her cuckolded husband sleeping alone at home while she walks the Paseo del Prado dressed provocatively to attract lovers, an activity associated with majas, women who carried fans and wore tight bodices and long dresses 63 Alcind invoquen la razn, ni pese/ su corazn los mritos del novio, / el s pronuncian y la mano alar 64 wife with that of a prostitute, an integration that has reso nance in many of the women in Caprichos. With Los Caprichos, Goya shows how women resort to using their sexuality as a means to advance within a patriarchal society. He even shows the training required for success in such endeavors: in Bellos consejos (Fig.6 ) and Bien tirada est (Fig.7), experienc ed older women teach their youthful protges how to flaunt their good looks and manipula te wealthy men. In Caprichos like Nadie se conoce (Fig. 9 ) and Ni asi la distingue (Fig.11 ), Goya shows ho w even the most distinguished ma n cannot see past a even when she is blatantly using him to her own advantage. In Capricho 15, Bellos Consejos (Fig. 6 ), Goya illustrates two women, one younger and one older, seated outside on two wooden chairs. He divides the sky diagonally in half with two contrasting clouds, making the upper half a shade darker than the lower half. The grainy two toned sky provides a simple backdrop for the women, the focal point of the composition. Goya delineates the with dark, deeply 62 Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, A Arnesto quoted in Pr ez Snchez and Sayre 86. 63 D.B. Wyndham Lewis World of Goya (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1968) 42. 64 Jovellanos, A Arnesto q uo ted in Prez Snchez and Sayre 86.
35 incised lines so that they emerge from the background He uses the same technique to illustrate the shadows below the incising an amalgamati on of thin, h eavily inked lines. He stops out the heads and bodies causing them to be the brightest part of the composition while the rest remains either entirely gray or black. As a result, the foreground scene jumps out from the blurry background, allowing the audience to focus on the highly detailed foreground features Goya draws almost looks like a grotesque mask come to life, imbuing her face with a sinister quality that re flects her amo ral behavior in teaching another woman deceptive games She clutches a fan with her bony white hands and hunches toward her student in an effort to teach her how to send different signals with a fan. The younger woman sits upright in her chair, thrusting her shapely bust forward as she examines the position of her fan. Her old exudes a sense of immediacy, showing that the young girl must quickly learn how to seduce and manipulate men before she loses her youthful appearance and become s a haggard and corrupt old woman like her teacher Goya depicts a similar scene in Capricho 17, Bien tirada est, ( Fig.7 ) where a procuress looks over the proper fitting of a beautiful you borrowed the younger female figure from a n earlier Sanlcar sketch (Fig.8). In the drawing, Goya captures a moment in which a young woman pulls up her stocking in the privacy of her bedroom Completely absorbed in her meni al task, she turns her head away from the viewer seemingly unaware that However, Goya alters the image so that the Capricho (Fig.7 ) does not retain the innocent quality of the
36 sketch (Fig.8 ). As the Prado manuscript states, the youn g woman now has a different, morally corrupt incentive for pulling her stockings tights: Oh! La t a curra no es tonta Bien sabe ella lo que conviene que las medias vayan estiraditas. 65 A hideous procuress, whom the Prado man appears in the Capricho version. She hunches and assumes a position that recalls the poor posture of the hideous older woman in Bellos consejos (Fig.6 ). The two elderly women not only resemble each other in terms of their decrepit appearance, but they also both teach their young protgs the importance of maintaining a beautiful appearanc e so that they may attract men, either as clients or as suitors. In both plates, Goya deforms the faces of the older women so that their physical decay points to thei r moral ugliness. Doing so, he emphasizes the ephemeral nature of their physical beauty and that they ultimately share the same fate as their gro tesque teachers In Cap richo 17 (Fig.7 ), Goya insinuates that the young girl i s aware of her unpleasant fate by casting her head downwards in the shadows and closing her eyes He also highlights her sloped shoulders and curved back, drawing attention to her incipient hunch back that resembles the posture of her procu posture foreshadow of her future as a morally corrupt procuress. Goya not only shows how women train each other to exploit their bodies, but he also shows them e mploying the skills they learn from their elders. As he shows in Capricho 6, Nadie se conoce (Fig.9 ), women charm men while mask ing their true interest in marriage, whether they are motivated by money or by the desire to elevate their social status. In the foreground an attractive, masked young lady flirts with a suitor who leans 65 Sayre 79.
37 forward, extending his arm as an invitation to dance. Goya stops out the outstretched leg, her breasts and her face, parts that she uses to seduce men Her bright chin contrasts with the black mask that obscures the rest of her face and symbolizes the ch arade she puts on during courtship: she acts as if she were a different person in front of the suitor and waits until after marriage to reve al the greedy and deceitful person who really lies beneath the mask. In the background, Goya incises short lines close ly together in a sketchy, om inous shadow that envelops the costumed suitors impatiently awaiting their turn to dance with the maiden. Eac h of the suitors reveals th at they too hide their true identities Some suitors wear large p ointed hats and white masks, recalling Balli di Sfessania (Fig. 10 ). In a sens e, these men are no different than the bizarre actors of the Balli prints because they too put on a show; they act as if they are not solely interested in the sexual benefits they gain from marrying a beautiful, younger woman. However, the masked figures in Los Caprichos take on a far ps the because Goya uses the masks in order to reveal the grotesque reality of h uman nature For the Capricho, t for the trickery entailed in the pursuit of marriage. Just as Goya deforms the faces of the female teachers in Capricho 15 and Capricho 17 (Fig. 6, Fig. 7) he distorts the visages in a courtship scene to show that, as the caption states, nobody knows each other The following Capricho, Ni asi la distingue (Fig. 11 ), Goya depicts a similar scene in which a female lures a man into her trickery with her good looks. The female
38 figure holds a fan, just as she was taught to do in Capricho 15 (Fig.6 ), and smiles modestly at the man who flirts with her. Another prostitute sits on a wooden chair close by as she watches the two figures and holds her fan i n a similar position to the maja in the foreground, again recalling Bellos consejos ( Fig.6 ). At first, it is unclear whether or not the woman in the foreground is a prostitute, but Goya illustrates trees in th e left corner of the background to indicate that th e scene transpires outdoors, bolstering the assumption that the scene depicts a group of prostitutes waiting outside for clients. Goya employs a similar shadow effect as he did with Capricho 6, Nadie se conoce (Fig. 9 ), on the opposi te side of the pl ate. S ketchy lines form a dark triangular shadow in the upper left corner of the plate, as if the scene were a continuation of the previous plate. When placed side by side, a circle of light appears between the background shadows, acting as a spotlight f or the the interaction in the foregro unds However, one might wonder why Capricho 7 has a much brighter tone than the preceding plate. If the two prints were intended to be read in tandem, one would think that the artist would have illustrated them in a uniform tonal scheme. After reading the caption, which translates to one may understand the reason behind the different tonal schemes. Ni asi la distingue is brighter than the previous Capricho offering the audience a clearer picture t han Capricho 6, where darkness enshrouds a conglomeration of masked figures. With both captions, Goya shows how at first it may be understandable for a man not to perceive veiled intentions for marriage, since she hi des them. However, in the next scene, Goya depicts a similar interaction between a prostitute and her potential client to show that, in both cases, the women exploit their sexuality for monetary gain. The man is not aware of this fact in the first
39 plate, and he still cannot understand the reality of the situation when it is presented to him in the most obvious manner. Goya compares marriage to prostitution because, in both cases a woman uses her sexuality as a way to coax men into giving her what she wan ts With Los Caprichos, Goya asserts that man can neither perceive trickery nor apprehend the social, psychological, or financial ramifications that arise from relationships He presents this notion in Capricho 19, Todos Cayern, (Fig.12 ). The g rotesque human bird hybrids fluttering about in this Capricho are anomalous in the first half of the series; the fantastic grotesque does not come into full force until after Capricho 43 (Fig.1). Perhaps Goya included these hybrids in order to evoke the c lassical w as often a moralizing and didactic theme preached to love sick young couples. 66 The classical allegory usually involves two young maidens gently clipping Cupid in a bucolic lands cape. The classical scene as presented in the sculpture, (Fig.13 ), is Goya, however, distorts this classical motif a nd transforms it into a grotesque scene. Cupid becomes a fantastic creature with the head of a Spanish man and the body of a chicken. The highlighted woman hen in the background lures the man chickens to their gruesome fate in the foreground where two young maidens, accompanied by their procures s, fleece a man chicken of his feathers so violently that it vomits in pain. The naive men fluttering in the background are completely unaware of what is occurring right before their eyes, and b efore they know it, they too will be plucked of their feather s, their money, and their dignity. However, the caption suggests that not only will the men plunge to a horrible fate: all will fall, i ncluding the prostitutes who fleece the man 66 Licht, Goya 134
40 chicken hybrids. Although the women succeed in tricking men they too will have fate as ugly as their complete lack of morals. In the end, these attractive ladies will age and resemble the disgusting old women in Bellos consejos (Fig.6 ) and Bien tirada est (Fig.7) In addition to ridiculing the general v ices of women and men G oya devotes seven Caprichos to the mockery of the ignorant and self indulgent upper class, placing a special emphasis on their pretension s. With the exception of one plate, the artist uses donkeys to represent wealthy upper class citizens in order to demo nstrate that the y are often times brutish and dumb beasts. He begins with El de la rollona (Fig.14 ) to show how a lax upbringing promotes incompetence and prevents a person from becoming independent Then, as the aristocrats grow older, they tr ansform in to over indulgent, ignorant asses who pretend to have an understanding of intellectual matters such as the arts, as shown in Brabissimo (Fig. 18 ). El de la rollona (Fig.14 ) highlights the incom petence and self indulgence of the upper class. A mustached m an leans towards a huge bucket of food, his weight entirely supported by a lackey who pulls the man The man child fastens the attributes of a wealthy child and a book to his waist, demonstrating that, like an irresponsible child, he might lose them otherwise. The man child even wears a padded helmet to protect his head in the event that he falls. The majority of the background, including the lac key and the padded toilet, is a darker tone so that the man stopped out face stand s ou t. shovels food into his mouth, emphasizing his greed In addition to this print, there is a
41 six plate sequence in which Goya portrays the upper class as ignorant and in ept fools, represented b y donkeys, who se lavish life style depends on the arduous work of others The aristocratic donkey sequence debuts with Capricho 37, Si sabr mas el discpulo (Fig. 15 ) when Goya depicts the root of aristocratic incompetency: ignorance. Five seated d onk dressed in peatedly on the open page of the book that audien ce may ask. Although the students are supposedly receiving an education, the lesson that they repeat mindlessly does not, in fact, teach anything valuable. In the following Capricho Brabisimo! (Fig. 16) Goya makes a similar point, ridiculing the ignor ance and hypocrisy of the pretentious upper class In the foreground, a monkey musician strums on the back of a guitar as a donkey aristocrat sits in awe, pretending to understand and appreciate the music being played. Two men in the background jeeringly clap at the senseless noise because they re performance is a farce to create the illusion of a light shining into the composition from the bottom left corner. The do and hair have much more detail than the two men in the shadowy, burnished background so that the viewer may compare the ridiculous facial expression to the huge antagonistic grins on the ghostly Both the Prado and the L pez de Ayala manuscripts comment on the superficial function of s one thing to simply hear music, but i t is an entirely different thing to understand music as a prestigious art form The Prado Si para ent enderlo bastan las orejas nadie habra mas inteligente;
42 pero es de temer que aplauda lo que no suena 67 Similarly, the Lpez de Ayala 68 Goya mocks the way in which people, e class, fake an appreciation for the arts. One begins to wonder how these ignorant asses hold any type of respectable position within the social hierarchy. Goya answers this puzzl ing question with the next Capricho Asta su Abuelo (Fig.17) when he depicts a well dressed donkey that d isplays pictures of other donkeys from an album a visual document of its ancestry. An intense chiaroscuro contrast draws attention to it were seated before a spotlight. Goya places less importance on the background leaving it blank t o promote the audience concentration on the foreground, where they will learn that t he donkeys simply inherit the ir privileged status Goya makes the statement that the upper c without a struggle Goya shows how the upper class leaves the hard work for the lower class, who must literally carry the weight of the upper class on their shoulders in the forty second plate, Tu que no puedes (Fig.18 ) Two men hoist donkeys on their back and struggle to walk because the weight of the donkeys prevents them from moving forward. The plate presents a visual analogy representing the complete lack of social progress, showing how much h ard er the lower class has to work in o rder to survive while the upper class remains indolent and pampered. Goya highlights t he donkeys so that their white, pristine bodies contrast with the darker, dirty looking men beneath them. The two men close their eyes as they strain their bodies to carry such gigantic creatures on their backs, demonstrating that they willfully and blindly enable the upper class. 67 Sayre 98. 68 Ibid.
43 I n Ni mas ni menos (Fig.19 ) Goya shows how everyone, even artists, must comply with the demands of th e wealthy in order to survive, e xploring the dynamic between a wealthy patron and a servile artist Three main tones comprise the image : the white of the paper while the rest of the com position is either gray or a much heavier black. Consequentially, the is drawn to the illuminated donkey portrait that emerges from the black canvas. When one looks closely at the portrait, one discover s th at the monkey idealizes brutish visage by making it look more sophisticated the sitter r eally looks. I n order to earn money for his work the monkey the audience is aware of the deception Goya als o portrays the Spa nish clergy in a negative light by emphasizing the greediness of the Church an institution that, along with the nobles, owned a vast majority 69 A couple of the Caprichos also refer indire ctly to the brutal Spanish Inquisition that persisted until 1834, alluding more particularly to the Autos de Fe public hearings in which members of the Santo Oficio (Holy Of fice) read evidence against prisoners who were then sentenced. 70 The Caprichos re veal the corr uption brutality, and overall hypocrisy of the Church and its officials who atrocities In Capricho 13, Estn Calientes (Fig.20 ) three monks sit around a tabl e as they wait impatiently for their hot soup A man retrieves the soup for the others and creeps into the room from the background shadows smiling at the audience with a haunting, 69 Sayre 54. 70 Ibid., 54.
44 goblin like facial expression. Goya stops out the left foreground lap and upper body creating t he illusion of a spotlight with a stark chiaroscuro contrast, making the monk stand out from the rest of the dark room He stares mindlessly into space opening his mouth abnormally wide in anticipation of tasting his hot so up. The monk to the right of him repeats the gesture and opens his mouth wide, while the third seated figure sits closely at his side. Each man has extremely poor posture, a vacant stare, and a rather indulgent eating habit that make s it difficult to beli eve that t he se men live strict and devout lives nclear whether it refers to the bowls of soup on the table or the monks themselves. The Lpez de Ayala Manuscript has allowed me to conclude t hat the four figures in the scene are monks, iable appetite and their repressed sexual desires: Los frailes estpidos se atracan, all sus horas, en los refectorios, rindose del mundo; ¡qu han de (Stupid monks stuff themselves at meals in their refectories and laugh at the world; how could they be anything but hot [in heat]). 71 The Lpez de Ayala commentary brings to mind the Madrid Album sketch, Caricatura Alegre (Fig.2 1 ) which has a similar composition, is supported by a wooden splint, making it clear that Goya refers to their carnal appetites. The composition of another sketch, the Sueo drawing titled De unos hombre s que se nos comian ( Of some men ), resembles that of t he Capricho but differs in that the monks are cannibals waiting to eat a human head being carried in on a tray. The symbolism of the preparatory sketches more clearl y portray s the church as a le cherous 71 Ibid., 77.
45 and corrupt institution. H owever most likely out of fear of being censored or persecuted by the Inquisition; Goya had to obscure this message in the public Caprichos. In Capricho 30, Porque esconderlos? (Fig.23 ), a c lergyman shamefully crouches down in the foreground as a last attempt to hide money bags he has stolen (presumably from the Church ) His figure comprises the l ightest tone in the composition and occupies head hits the center of the face illustrated with intense chiaroscuro, in effect magnifying its grotesque quality. Goya uses a similar technique to illustrate the d in Bellos Consejos (Fig.6), in which he stops out the face so but still etches small delicate outh gapes wide open, recalling the greedy monks in Capricho 13 (Fig.20 ) who open their mouths wide and stuff themselves with hot soup Four other goblin like figures, all clothed in black, encircle the g uilty man as they taunt him, laugh ing with sinister expressions. One of the haunting figures puts his arm around the clergyman though he says Why makes the background ambiguous, shading in the ground with sketchy black marks and dividing the cloudy sky into two separate shades of gray. Although the clouds indicate that the five men are outside, it is difficult to decipher exactly where the y are because of the lack of visual clues in the background Goya also addresses other injustices committed by the Church with Aquellos polbos and No hubo remedio (Fig.24 and Fig.25
46 Autos de fe. The caption, Aquellos Polbos (Fig.24 ) refers to an old Spanish proverb that transl 72 However, Eleanor Sayre points out that in the Lpez de Ayala manuscript that Auto de Fe. Un vulgo de curas y frailes n cios hacen su comidilla de semejantes funciones. Perico () el cojo que daba polvos los enamorados. (Auto de f: A mob of stupid priests and monks feast on such performances. 73 According to the manuscript, this Capricho depicts a n actual event that transpi red during the Inquisition. Although the manuscript makes a valid point, it is important to remember Caprichos do not satirize any par ticular individual The image clearly depicts a prisoner of the Inquisition sitt ing on a stage listening to the jury outcome to him as well as the hoards of spectators surrounding him Goya highlights the prisoner by stopping him out and placing him in the center of the image, pushing him away from the muted gray background. Goya also puts the prisoner, showing the dark, scraggly hair that billows out from underneath the conical hat of infamy, or coroza that he wears. 74 The sanbenito the penitential dress, 75 hangs on the rest of the criminal and even covers his feet. He sorrowfully closes his eyes and shamefully casts his head down as he listens to the jury and his hands are bound together at the wrists, preventing him from m oving freely or settling himself comfortably on the wooden platform A swarm of c rowd of people crowd around the 72 Sylvia L. Horowitz, Francisco Goya: Painter of Kings and Demons (New York: Harper & Row, 1974) 111. 73 Sayre 86. 74 Horowitz 11 1. 75 Ibid., 111.
47 prisoner, each of them either gazing up at the prisoner or looking downward in discontent Goya has carefully detailed only two members of the crowd, both of whom stand in the bottom right hand corner while the rest of the sketchy spectators have hardly discernable features The rest of the crowd r emains a sea of heads, some distinctly human, while the other heads become dehumanized due to a lac k of detail For instance, a figure in the bottom left corner has a bald head looks like a skull because it only has dark sockets in place of eyes and nose. One of the detailed onlookers solemnly stares up at the prisoner; his eyes connect diagonally to the downcast gaze of the prisoner even though he does not return the gesture Perhaps this onlooker is a former friend or a befor e executioners carry him off Immediatel y following this aquatint is Capricho 24, No hubo remedio (Fig.25 ) Both translations are relevant in this case because there remains no other alternative for the pris oner, as he is being sent to his death. However, there is also no comfort for the criminal because his ropes bind his hands together and his head is anchored by a ri gid wooden device. He still tries his best at avoid ing eye contact with the crowd and l ooks down, facing forward so that the audience may see his incredibly pitiful facial expression. His eyebrows slant upwards while his slanted lips mimic the upward actions of his eyebrows, acting as a single arrow point him as a sinner.
48 The crowd look s less melancholic in this scene than in the previous Capricho because they are eager for the execution Goya details the characters more, giving them each an identity and a role contrary to the earlier assembly, where fac es blend together as a sea of heads. In the later Capricho, a man to the left of the donkey holds his left fist up and stares at the prisoner, cheering with excitement. The old woman to his left casts her wrinkly face down refusing to make any eye conta ct with anyone. A man to the looks up at him and squints so that his whole face crunches together as if he is having difficulty observing the spectacle. An undefined and impossible light source illuminates the criminal and the donkey, w hile the rest of the crowd members who swarm around him in complete shade. In effect, the prisoner and the mule blaze by themselves in spotlight attracting the attention of anyone who might glance in their general direction Presumably, the viewer s woul d focus first on these bright figures, and then the malicious animalistic faces surrounding them, which might possibly evoke some sympathy in the viewer. Although one could have easily observ ed this kind of event in eigh teenth century Spain, Goya intenti onally provides an invented and unrealistic source of light for the composition so that he can place his characters in a different, imaginary realm. In both Caprichos 23 and 24, the human figures are realistic yet still exist within a sphere where the lig ht source is limited and impractical, and the sky is completely gray. The human characters exist in a realm absent of reason, where they perform barbaric and haunting acts, like this public execution.
49 2.5 Sleep of Reason El Sueo de la razn produ ce monstruos (Fig.1) marks the beginning of a more disturbing and fantastic section of Los Caprichos where Goya brings to light the dark truth he encounters in his dreams. In the eighteenth century wild owls, or buhos, symbolized folly or stupidity rathe r than carrying connotations of wisdom as they do today. 76 Symbolizing folly and irrationality, creatures of the night swarm into dreams and show him the madness that arises during the sleep of reason Borrowing the lynx trays the an ignorance, vice and folly) as a way of forcing society to see how genuinely disturbing these monsters are. Whereas in the first half of Los Caprichos, Goya introduces the instances in which people obfuscate the truth but that emphasizes and reveals their depravity The g luttonous monks in Capricho 13 (Fig. 20) return in Capricho 49, Duendecitos (Fig. 26) as three terrifying hobgoblins drinking wine T he audience may identify the three haunting, sharp teethed figures as friars because of their costumes despite the fact that Goya has distorted some aspects of their garb, such as the right abnormally long cowl 77 Prez Sanchez and Sayre explain t hat the caption, Duendecitos meaning in eighteenth century, when duende was used to mock friars whose actions mimicked those of a goblin. For instance, the way in which goblins t ricked people was convinced people to believe. Goblins also were believed to hoard treasure in the hidden 76 Sayre 118. 77 Prez Sanchez and Sayre 117.
50 chambers where they dwelled, a habit that may have been compared to the way in which the Church allotted large sums of mon ey to illustrious decorations or kept treasures in monasteries. In Duendecitos, greed and hypocrisy by portraying friars as duendes getting dru nk in their underground chamber. Whereas Goya shows clergymen attempt ing to hide and repress their sinful desires by drinking hot soup in Capricho 13, he reveals what transpires behind closed doors in Capricho 49. Goya draws a diagonal line extending fro m the left side of the composition to the top right corner to suggest a flight of stairs that descend to the chamber. Just below the stairs is a barred window through which light enters the room and illuminates a small, triangular portion of the floor ben eath it. The remaining parts of the image, including the walls, bars on the window, and floor are uniform in tone, causing the lighter portions of the composition to stand out while also depriving the composition of any sense of r ational depth Although light flows through the back window, an indeterminable light source shines on the faces and feet of the goblins in the foreground, making it clear that Goya had no interest in portraying light naturally but instead uses light to call attention to certain p arts of the image For instance, the goblin on the right has an extremely contented grin on his white, wrinkly face and extends his white foot to point at the left goblin seated on the floor His white profile and fingers stand out from the rest of his g ray body, offering the audience a clear view of the way he dips food into his wine to savor it. A short, black robed goblin stands in the middle clutching a glass of wine with one hand while his abnormally large hand provides the focal point of the compos ition.
51 His eyes are huge and his nostrils are flared, as if he were frantically searching for something more. The disproportionate size of his hand could symbolize greed in general, or, more specifically, vast ownership of of land during the eighteenth century, when it was the wealthiest institution in Spain despite the fact that the majority 78 By transforming the clergymen shown in Capricho 13) and exposes their shortcomings (and hypocrisy) to the viewer. The hot soup in Estn Calientes (Fig.20 ) serves the same repressive purpose in Capricho 54, El Vergonzoso (Fig. 27 ). The caption, El vergonzoso, sham ed one his pants on his head, insinuating that the cause of his shame relates to his inability to keep them on H is pants function in a similar way to the coroza in Capricho 23 ( Fig.24); both forms of head gear identify t he guilty parties. T bright white face in the very center of the composition. S uch a stark contrast brings genitalia, while De unos hombres que nos comian (Fig.22). A diagonal stripe of light hits the wall behind the vergonzoso as well as the floor in f ront of him, separating him from the other two figures A decrepi t man with a pig nose and deeply sunken in eyes holds the soup. His head and arm are solid and gray while the rest of his body is composed of sketchy black lines that disseminate into the pants of el vergonzoso, who is seemingly un aware of th The other man has his hands bound together and seems to float in mid air, yelling in defiance. The background figure could represent el 78 Ibid., 118.
52 good conscience the inner force begging him to refrain from what the grotesq ue figure feeds him. However, el vergonzoso does just what the monks do in Estn Calientes indulging his appetite for both food and sex. Although el vergonzoso may attempt to look as if he is simply devouring a bo wl of soup (like the monks do ), his pecu liar headgear, phallic nose, and the image s caption expose his iniquit y. Whereas in Capricho 54 Goya depicts man actively devouring hot soup hoping to repress his sexual urges, he depicts a sinister looking figure spoon feeding two grown men in Capricho 50, Los Chinchillas (Fig. 28). Alt hough both images address the activity of eating, the way in which the figures consume nourishment is entirely different. In El vergonzoso, the man eats as a means to satisfy his sexual a ppetite. H owever, the figures in Los Chinchillas their sheer lack of motivation or care. Los Chinchillas, is derived from a popular comedy of manners written by Jos de Caizares, El Dmine Lucas Prez Sanch ez and Sayre explain that the protagonist, Lucas Chinchilla, was a member of a noble family who were notoriously zealous about their lineage, but knew nothing more than the his tory of their ancestors. D espite thei r elevated social status, the Chinchillas were just as ignorant, if not more, than the lowly and superstitious peasants. 79 T he donkey man hybr id administering the food wears a blindfold but he still The Lpez de Ayala manuscript identifies this grotesque figure as a symb ol of I Los necios preciados de nobles se entregan la haraganera y supersticin, y cierran con canadadaos su entendimiento, mientras lo alimenta groseramente la ignorancia. 80 The white Chinchillas co ntrast with the gray 79 Ibid., 122. 80 Ibid.
53 backgro und, remaining They close their eyes and cover their ears with contraptions rendering them incapable of gaining any other knowledge than what Ignorance feeds them. Goya shows fill their mi nds wit h ridiculous beliefs, blindly follow ing traditions that they do not understand. One Chinchilla even lies on the ground tilting his head back as he waits for the food to enter his mouth. His arms and torso are constrained by the coat of arms wrapped around him, but his relaxed posture assures the viewer of his acceptance. Just as the swaddling clothes prevent the man acting on his own in El de la rollona (Fig. 14), the grown man in Los Chinchillas is restricted by his clothing, which indicates that he is h igh born. Much like the aristocratic donkey in Asta su Abuelo (Fig.17 heritage grants him an elevated social status without even having to do so much as stand on his own two feet. Willfully remaining innocent, the Chinchillas do not see n or h ear the problems or needs Goya expands on traditions he considers meaningless especially marriage, and emphasizes the absurdity of continuing these traditions In Capricho 57, La Filacin (Fig.29 ) Goya depi cts the same beautiful girl from the courting scene in Capricho 2, El si pronuncian y alargan la mano al primero que llega (Fig.5) However, instead of wearing the more appealing black mask from Capricho 2, Goya portrays her in the fox mask that was f ormerly hidden behind her head b ecause it better suits the maiden as it points to her slyness. Her husband sleep s in her lap and she holds his head in place so that the procession may continue. A slew of grotesque onlookers yells and laugh s in the background. The most conspicuous onl ooker has a beaked nose and uses a monacle to watch the procession as if he were inspecting the ceremony. A pair of old fashioned
54 spectacles is anonymously raised in the background, but they do not seem to serve a purpose. In Capricho 75, No hay quien que nos desate? (Fig. 31 ), a crazed owl we ars the old fashioned glasses while attacking a young couple bound to a tree. The young man, tied at an awkward angle, bends over, desperately trying to untie the cords that bound him and a woman (presumably his wi fe) to the tree. The woman falls back in horror, bending her elbows and raising her arms in the air in response to the owl clawing at her face. Her leaning motion echoes the swaying vegetation be hind her Clearly, this scene could n ot transpire in this world, as the monumental scale of the owl far exceeds the size of an y owl in real ity: i ts wingspan larger than her waistline. However, one can almost hear the woman screaming the caption the both of the m they are both bound together by their marital relationship, represented by the owl, and may not divorce due to the weight of an unreasonable convention. The Prado manuscript also considers this Capricho to represent the struggles of couples who desire to escape marriage : Un hombre y una muger atados son sogas forcejeando por soltarse y gritando que los desaten a todo prisa? 81 Goya predicts the ity to flee from their undesirable marriage earlier on in the series with Capricho 72, No te escapars (Fig. 31 ). A beautiful young girl dances with four hideous birds which seem like amalgamations of parts of the bats and owls in El Sueo de la razn pro duce monstruos (Fig.1). The uppermost bird has the body and face of an owl but short, stubby human legs. He perches on top of two other birds, the one on the left is a creature comprised of bat wings, a masked face, and human 81 Prez Sanchez and Sayre, Goya and the Spirit of the Enlightenment, 122.
55 legs while the creature on t he right has a single long human leg, a masked face and bat wings. Another horrendous figure sticks its owl face out from behi nd the dancing woman, spreading its owl like wings while standing with two ape like legs. Though t he appearance of these creatur es may be con fusing at first each creature has two things in common: a pair of legs to run with and a set of wings to fly with. They each dance with the girl as if it is a courting scene like Capricho 2 (Fig.5). However, Goya uses the caption to remind the audience that, despite their win gs and legs, the creatures still will not escape their marriage or whatever shortcomings may arise and make them want to leave Likewise, the wife will not b e able to escape her terrifying, deformed husband. In the end both parties will be trapped in a marital union just as the figures appear in Capricho 75 (Fig. 31 ) due to their own folly. No te escapars (Fig.31 ) is preceded by Capricho 71, Si amanece nos vamos (Fig.32 ), which concludes a sequence of eleven images ad dressing the topic of witchcraft. The caption of Capricho may be read as a reminder of the mores associated with marriage because during the Spanish Inquisition the Church did not permit divorce. 82 However, keeping in mind tha t this Capricho immediately fol lows a sequence on witchcraft, escape the superstitions that arise in a world ungoverned by reason. Goya inserts the witchcraft sequence in the second half of Los Caprichos, the portion dedicated to the monsters that arise during the sleep of reason, to confront the audience with the irrational sight of witches Though the Spanish Inquisition was losing force during the time in which Goya produced Los Caprichos, t he hunt and persecution of witches persisted and many people, including the aristocracy, still remained highly superstitious. 82 Ibid., 122.
56 In Si amanece nos vamos (Fig.32 ), Goya depicts a group of highly deformed witches ready to abscond into the darkness. They all h uddle together, naked, on the floor with the exception of the witch leader, the largest figure in the composition who sits cross legged on top of a sack. She looks at her companions and points behind her to the sta where they w ill travel when and if the time comes to flee. Goya illuminates the witches of the night so that they emerge from the dark background. said, indicating that they must flee from the light of day, and metaphorically the light of reason, for they are evil creatures that inhabit the darkness. Goya makes the point that these cre atures cannot exist in the face of reason, but m a y only thrive in this fantasy realm, or, as he states in his Diario de Madrid 83 In the middle of the composition, a very faint impression of a winged figure floats in the sky behind the figures. It stretches its dark wings, which are by far the darkest and most solid feature of the composition, around the scene and watches the witches, reinforcing the notion that one may only witness such a scene from a dark and irrational perspective. A large winged figure also spreads its wings to protect an assembly of witches in Capricho 69, Sopla (Fig. 32), possibly the most disturbing image in the entirety of Los Caprichos. The largest witch uses a and legs as handles as she folds him in half to blow airs out of his behind to start a fire. The child looks up at the witch at such an angle that the audience may only see his nostrils and mouth as h e screams out in pain and horror. Two witches are seated on the 83 Tomlinson 140.
57 left, and two floating skulls howl as they watch the fire being blown in front of them. Another witch flies towards the center of the image, carrying two babies who will later be used by the of a fire; both the fire and the wind carry traditional associations with carnal love. 84 These erotic associations become clearer when one realizes the disgusting act being perf ormed by the middle figure seated in the foreground: he sucks on the genitals Sopla, means sopla Spanish slang. 85 With this Capricho, Goya brings to light the appalling consequences of the sleep of reason, which include both the participation in cruel and unthinkable activities and the tendency to believe in absurd things like witches. The monsters only begin to dominate once humans fall asleep and cease to reason. These fantastical creatures in the second half of Los Caprichos live in an illusory and chaotic realm t hat completely lacks reason. Goya created this world as a way to reveal the transformation of a rational human being into a grotesque monster as a result of neglecting reason. Goya ends the series with Capricho 80, Ya es hora a scene where daybreak fina lly arrives. The sky is no longer ominous and gray as in the previous Caprichos instead light shi nes in the background, reflecting off the ground and the figures in the foreground. People are beginning to wake up from their slumber so that they become f ully conscious and able to reason, making it impossible for these monsters 84 P rez Sanchez and Sayre 127. 85 Ibid., 128.
58 wake up and open their eyes to the truths he has just revealed with the series.
59 Chapter Three: Valle esperpento 3.1 Esperpentismo and the Esperpento The twentieth century Spanish playwright, Ramon Mara de Valle Incln, introduces the logic behind the aesthetics of his literary genre, the esperpento, through Max Es in Luces de Bohemia : MAX. Los ultrastas son u nos farsantes El esperpentismo lo ha inventado Goya. Los hroes clsicos han ido a pasearse en el callejn de Gato. DON LATINO. -¡Ests completamente curda! MAX. Los hroes clsicos reflejado s en los espejos cncavos dan el Esperpento. El sentido trgico de la vida espaola solo puede darse con una esttica sistemticamente deformada. 86 Max declares Francisco de Goya as the inventor of what he calls el esperpentismo (not to be confused with th e esperpento ), spectacle Domus Aurea of Roman antiquity, in the haunting Baroque pai ntings of Hieronymous Bosch or in the narrative of the Spanish Baroque author Francisco de Quevedo. However, Max Estrella, and vicariously Valle Incln, specifically cites Goya as the creator of grotesque sights, perhaps with the Caprichos in mind. By re Incln also invokes the way in which the artist deforms reality to accentuate the likeness between man and monster in his social commentary. 86 Valle Incln, Luces, 239.
60 tions of the esperpentismo and el Esperpento esperpento. Max Estrella continues to tell his companion, don Latino that th e classical heroes have taken a walk through the callejn de Gato, an actual walkway with concave mirrors that what produced the esperpento, which essentially paro dies pre existing literary forms while offering a grotesque, more appropriate portrayal of modern Spanish society. One may trace the gradual development of the esperpento through my analysis of the three plays, Divinas Palabras (1920) Luces de Bohemia (1 920 1) and Los Cuernos de don Friolera (1924). 3.2 Divinas Palabras One may trace the evolution of Valle esperpento through his three plays, Divinas Palabras (1920), Luces de Bohemia (1920), and Los Cuernos de don Friolera (1924). First, in t Divinas Palabras the author begins to experiment with the grotesque by the overwhelming compilation of macabre elements and the animation of the dramatic chiaroscuro effect in his stage directions. In these highly detailed an d often poetic stage directions, the author thoroughly describes the deformed appearance of his characters who act in front of a beautiful and scenic backdrop of rural Galicia. In effect, the idyllic and tranquil countryside, which is a common setting for traditional Spanish dramas, contrasts with the barbarous and destructive actions performed by the physically (and morally) deformed characters.
61 into three acts, five scen es in the first act, ten scenes in the second, and another five in the last act. It also takes after a drama de honor which is typically set in the countryside and centers on the theme of the loss and recovery of honor Generally, in the drama, a person in a high position of power imposes himself upon an honorable or innocent woman in the village, causing a loss of honor for her family. The village takes the punishment of the nce is, however, in the end, validated by the highest power in the land, usually the king. As we shall see Valle Incln completely destroys any element of nobility within the drama by focusing on the physical and moral deformation of the barba rous villag ers, in addition to distorting the general plot of the traditional drama. Within the first scene, the reader, or viewer, is quickly exposed to the tension San Clemente, anejo de V iana del Prior. Iglesia de aldea sobre la cruz de dos caminos, en medio de una quintana Pedro Gailo se pasa la mano por la frente, y los cuatro pelos qudanle de punta. Sus ojos con estrabismo miran hacia la carrete ra, donde hacen huelo dos farandules, pareja de hombre y mujer con nio pequeo, flor de su manceba. Ella, triste y esbelta, la falda corta, un toquilln azul, peines y rizos. El hombre, gorra de visera, la guitarra en la funda, y el perro sabio sujeto de un rojo cordn mugiriento. Estn sentados en la cuneta, de cara al prtico de la iglesia. Habla el hombre, y la mujer escucha zaraceando al nio que llora. A esta mujer la conocen con diversos nombres, y, segn cambian las tierras, es Julia, Rosina, M atilde, Pepa la Morena. El nombre del farandul es otro enigma, pero la mujer le dice Lucero. Ella recibe de su coime el dictado Poca Pena. The play begins by the local church of the village, San Clemente, where the notorious crook Lucero and the prostitu te Poca Pena argue about their crying son. The village
62 sexton, Pedro Gailo, argues about the importance of living a pious and respectable life Inferno and the seven deadly this into consideration, it is not surprising that Lucero responds to the sexton by saying, has his back turned). 87 However, it is not only Lucero who has this carefree and hedonistic attitude towards life: all of the characters in the village are hypocrites who live without any sen se of ethics or morals despite their professed belief in God. Pedro Reina, even uses her deformed an d mentally retarded son, Laureano, who is more fairs. Valle Incln paints a vivid and repugnant dumb facial expression. In the following stage direction, the author al so emphasizes the fact that Pedro Gailo is cross eyed, indicating that his physical deformity causes him to have a distorted vision of the world. Juana la Reina, sombra terrosa y descalza que mendiga por ferias y romeras con su engendro, interroga al sacr ist n, Pedro Gailo pone su ojo bizc o sobre el enano, que con expresi n lela mueve la enorme cabezota. Y la madre le espanta las moscas que acuden a 87 Valle Incln, Divinas Palabras 100.
63 posarse sobre la boca belfa donde el bozo negrea. Tirando del dornajo cruza la Quint ana y sale a l as sombras de la carretera. 88 The beggar Juana la Reina, cast as a shadow, takes her deformed son on her daily journey to use him to beg for alms. In the description, Valle Incln juxtaposes the sacred and the profane that already exists i n reality by mentioning the two places in which Juana la Reina exploits her son, at religious pilgrimage sites and at local fairs. As I will also show later, the juxtaposition of the sacred and the profane is a popular theme throughout the play. Eventual Gaila, and his sister Marica del Reino, of her death, and consequentially of their inheritance of her deformed idiot child, Laureano. In this scene, it seems completely out of place that the city born Mari Gaila, who feels superior and more educated than the village peasants, engages in the ext remely Mari Gaila deja caer e l cntaro, desanuda el pauelo que lleva a la cabeza, y frente a la hija, que suspira apocada, abre los brazos en ritmos trgicos y antiguos. La fila de cabezas, con un murmullo casi religioso, est vuelta para la plaidera que bajo las sombras de la fuente aldeana resucita una antigua belleza histrinica. Detenida en lo alto del camino, abre la curva cadenciosa de los brazos, con las curvas sensuales de la voz. MARI GAILA. -¡Escacha el cntaro, Simonia! ¡Simonia, eschacha el cntaro! ¡Qu triste sino! ¡Acabar como la hija de dspota! ¡Nunca jmas querer acogerse al abrigo de su familia! ¡Ay cuada no te llamaba sangre, y te 88 Ibid., 102.
64 llam para sie mpre la tierra, que todos pisan, de una vereda! ¡Escacha el cntaro, Simoni a! UNA MUJERUCA. -¡No hay otra para un planto! OTRA MUJERUCA. De la cuna le viene esa gracia! 89 Mari Gaila and her simpleton daughter in order to stress the backwardness and absurdity of such a tradition. As the play progresses, the audience quickly learns that Mari etiquette and behavior are far worse than that of the villagers. Both Val le Incln and their ignorance and brutishness. This is an ambivalent scene because in the moment of death emerges a sense of pathos and tradition, but it has two confli cting aspects because it invokes the reemergence in the present of this emotional grief expressed by Mari Gaila, who revives an outdated tradition. Ironically, Mari Mari such inauthentic grief is what baffles the mujerucas, or attendants. Just as her farcical display of emotion is praised by the attendants, it is immediately transformed into a mockery because of the very fact that the attendants are admiring her ability to put on such a remarkable show. At the same time, this scene is grotesque because it minimizes the importance of the authenticity of emotions, because what is regarded as important, at least by the attendants, is the ability to carry on an archaic tradi tional form while faking having emotions. In the next scene, the husband and wife fight over custody of the child with ities at festivals and fairs, which is exactly 89 Ibid., 110 111.
65 what his mother did to earn a living. Eventually in the fifth and final scene of the first jornada, the family agrees to avoid bringing the case to court and to share custody of Laureano, more commonly referr ed to simply as el enano or el idiota. The scene ends with a group toast at a cemetery, marking the first time in which el enano is fed alcohol, foreshadowing his eventual alcohol Gaila bebe la postrera y se sienta en el corro. Una v ieja comienza un cuento, y El Idiota, balaceando la cabeza enorme sobre la almohada de paja, da s u grito en la humedad del cementerio. 90 This stage direction demonstrates how Valle Incl characters in the creat ion of the grotesque images so characteristic of the esperpento. The scene takes place in a cemetery because the characters have just buried Juana la Reina; however they are not drinking to mourn the death of a relative, but rather to close a sort of busi ness deal, which is the ownership of the deformed idiot child. The second jornada, Mari Gaila runs away with the enano in an effort to make money in carnivals and soon me e t s Lucero, with whom she quickly develops a sexual relationship. Mari Gaila and Lu cero are similar in that they both exploit their abnormal companions for money: Mari Lucero charges people money to receive information about the future from his dog, Coimbra, and diviner parrot, never treated as a human being, but rather as an object constantly pawned off on the other beggars like L a Tatula and Migueln, who feed the child alcohol in effort to silence his cries. The only instance in the play in which the enano is treated as a human being takes place at a dinner party. 90 Ibid., 121.
66 A canto del hoga r, un matrimonio de dos viejos, y una nia blanca con hbito morado, reparten la cena. Rosquillas, vino, y un pauelo con guindas. La nia, exttica, parece una figura de cera entre aquellos dos viejos de retablo, con las arrugas bien dibujadas y los rostros de un ocre caliente y melado, como los pastor es de una Adoracin. El grito del Idiota pone la flor de una sonrisa en la boca triste de la nia. LA NIA -Quieres pan de la fiesta, Laureanio? Y un melindre? 91 Valle Incln provides visual details about the moment in which the young girl, who looks l the two parents look like figures from an Adoration scene, except instead of the C hrist endearing version of his real name, and offers him bread. This scene marks the only glimpse of humanity in the whole play and the only kind gesture made towards L aureano. Meanwhile, back at Mari Gailo gets drunk and obsesses also happens later on in Los Cuernos de don Friolera. ). In a drunken stupor, the se xton even asks his simple minded daughter, Simonia, to come to bed with him, but she modestly shrugs it off and tells him to go to sleep alone. The dwarf child eventually dies of alcohol poisoning, causing Mari Gaila to return home. On her way home, she encounters a talking goat, representative of lust and temptation that tries seducing her multiple times. She eventually flies home to her 91 Ibid., 147.
67 Mari Gaila se desvanece, y desvanecida se siente llevada por las nub e s. Cuando, tras una larga cabalgata por arcos de Luna, abre los ojos, est al pie de su puerta. La Luna grande, redonda y abobada, cae sobre el dornajo donde el enano hace siempre la misma mueca. EL CABRO -¡J ujuruj! MARI GAILA -Adnde me llevas, negro? EL CABRO Vamos al baile. MARI GAILA -Por dnde vamos? EL CABRO Por arcos de Luna. MARI GAILA -¡Ay, que desvanezco! ¡Temo caer! EL CABRO Cieme las piernas. MARI GAILA -¡Qu peludo eres! 92 The au dience is left baffled and confused in response to the appearance of such an enigmatic figure. This scene is one of the most puzzling and important moments in the play because its use of an imaginary character seems like a radical departure from the rest Los Caprichos. One may consider the goat to be both a hallucination resulting from Mari her lust for Sptimo Miau (the goat being a longstanding symbol of lust and sex), or a combination of both. Regardless, the fantastic quality of this scene forces the reader to abandon the code that has so far governed the play, even if for an instant, th e scene is simply not of this world. It creates a larger sense of distance and detachment from the play and its characters, from a world to which it was already difficult to relate. 92 Ibid., 152.
68 Upon her return in the middle of the night Mari Gaila forces Simonia to leave jornada ends with s: Prima maana, rosados luces, cantos de pjaros. En la copa de las higueras abren los brazos derrengados peleles y dos marrones gruen sobre el dornajo ante la puerta an cerrada de Marica del Reino. La vieja rada y pelona, saca la cabeza por el venta no, y con gritos espanta a las bestias. MARICA DEL REINO. -¡Cache!... ¡Cache!... ¡Cache, gradsimos ladrones!... ¡Nuestro Seor me valga, los bacurios sobre el carretn! ¡A las calladas me lo trujeron! ¡Las malas almas ni una voz para advertirme! MARI CA DEL REINO. -¡Cache, ladrones! ¡Cache, empedernidos!...¡Alma, no te espantes! ¡No te vayas, alma! ¡Ay, toda la cara le comieron! ¡Devorado! ¡Devorado de los bacurios! ¡Fro del todo! 93 Valle Incln maximizes the grotesque qualities of the innocent chil eaten face and the pigs eating at it. Valle Incln transforms the beautiful hues of a sunrise into a macabre and haunting mess. Marica del Reino, disgusted by the entire situation, returns the dead cadaver to her brother and his wife. The child is no longer of use to her; for she can no longer profit off er alive. The third jornada revolves mainly around the humiliation and torture of Mari Gaila after Migueln leads the entire town to the place where she is fornicating with Lucero. The town acts as a pack of wolves as they rip off Mari and make 93 Ibid., 156.
69 her dance naked in a wagon. It also recalls Capricho 77, Unos otros (Fig. 35), where Goya depicts a group of four ghoulish men, some on the shoulders of others, spearing another man who wears a bull costume. It is significant that only the me n who are seated on the shoulders of their companions are the ones spearing, representing their feelings of superiority that, in their minds, justify their cruel actions. Like Mari Gaila, the man in the bull suit is outnumbered and must endure abuse from the other men. The mob eventually take her to Pedro Gailo thinking that he will kill her to rectify his honor, but he instead utters words from the B ible, urging the man who has not sinned to throw the first stone. The uneducated and simple peasants pa y no attention to the sexton until he utters the same message with t he mysterious Latin translation, the 94 Ironically, this is what causes the town speople to stop acting like a pack of wild animals The last scene of the play does not end with the ethical enlightenment of the peasants, nor does it re establish any sense of justice or nobility. Instead, the peasants are astonished by the words they do not understand, they are silenced by a religious enigma they do not believe in or even understand. Los oros del poniente flotan sobre la q uintana. Mari Gaila, armoniosa y desnuda, pisando descalza sobre las piedra sepulcrales, percibe el ritmo de la vida bajo un velo de lgrimas. Al penetrar en la sombra del prtico, la enorme cabeza de El Idiota, coronada de camelias, se le aparece como una cabeza de ngel. Conducida de la mano del marido, la mujer adltera se acoge al asilo de la iglesia, circunda da del ureo y religioso prestigio que en aquel mundo milagrero, de almas rudas, intuye el latn ignoto de las DIVINAS PALABRAS. 95 94 Ibid., 177. 95 Ibid., 178.
70 In the end, the deformed cada ver of the Idiot ap pears in the church as an angel. It is as if he is a distorted and obscene v ersion of Jesus Christ, who served as a martyr for the salvation of humanity. Mari Gaila walks through the church naked and bloody with her husband, yet again Valle Incln juxtaposes the sacred with the profane. In the end, el result in the restoration of good within the village. The people of the village are just as corrupt as they were in the beginning of the play; they by the intended me ssage. 3.3 Luces de Bohemia Valle Incln moves from the bucolic countryside of Divinas Palabras to a chaotic and dark city setting where he situates his first explicit esperpento, Luces de Bohemia which consists of fifteen scenes. In addition to chan ging the setting for this esperpento Valle Incln begins to tone down the appearance of macabre elements used to create a sense of estrangement in the audience, like the flying goat and deteriorating body of el enano in Divinas Palabras However, he con tinues to distance the audience from the characters by dehumanizing and them, making it difficult for the audience to relate to or connect with the characters on a psychological level. Valle Incln also borrows other techniques he explored in Divinas Pala bras such as using stage directions to describe the Luces de Bohemia acts as a dark window through which the audience may watch 96 96 Valle Incln Luces, 180.
71 no one is interested in his antiquated writi sensitivity to death, a theme that prevails in the esperpento. He proposes the suicide because the Academy has denied him a position, leaving him penniless and without a job. editor to accompany Max on an errand to the bookdealer. In the next scene, the poet returns to la cueva de Zaratustra, the shop of the greedy bookdealer who cheated Max out of his money. La cueva de Zaratustra en el Pretil de los Consejos. Rimeros de libros hacen escombro y cubren las p aredes. Empapelan los cuatro vidrios de una puerta cuatro cromas espeluznantes de un noveln por entregas. En la cueva hacen tertulia el gato, el loro, el can, y el librero. Zaratustra, abichado y giboso la cara de tocino rancio y la bufanda de verde se rpiente -, promueve, con su caracterizacin de fantoche, una aguda y dolorosa disonancia muy emotiva y muy moderna. Encogido en el roto pelete de una silla enana, con los pies entrapados y cepones en la tarima del brasero, guarda la tienda. Un ratn saca el hocico intrigante por un agujero. 97 Valle Incln vividly describes the grotesque character Zaratustra, whose name was borrowed from Niet z sche Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None, so that his disgusting appearance correlates with his repulsive personality. A green serpent puppet like attributes foreshadow the typ e of dehumanization that Valle Incln favors in 97 Ibid., 185.
72 his esperpento, Los Cuernos de don Friolera. discussion about art and literature) with his parrot, dog, and cat in which all the animals babble nonsense, except for the 98 Later on in the scene, Valle cave in a stage description: Zaratustra entra y sale en la trastienda, con una vela encendida. La palmatoria pringosa tiembla en la mano del fantoche. Camina sin ruido, con andar entrampado. La mano, calzada con mitn negro, pasea la luz por estantes de libros. Media cara en reflejo y media cara en sombra. Parece que la nariz se le dobla sobre una oreja. El loro ha puesto el pico bajo el ala. Un retn de polizontes pasa con un hombre maniatado. Sale alborotando el barrio un chico peln montado en una caa, con una bandera. 99 puppet, has to li ght a greasy candle Valle Incln plays with chiaroscuro, casting half of enshrouded in the shadows, the author also describes the parrot placing its beak underneath its wing. It is as though he paints a picture of one grotesque, composite figure emerging from the the halves of the other figures: the puppet like Zaratustra and the parrot. Valle Incln also shows what transpires outside of the cave, as a group of policemen pass by with a prisoner in handcuffs, perhaps referring to the prisoner who Max meets later on in jail. 98 Ibid., 185. 99 Ibid., 187.
73 Unsuccessful in his business endeavor, Max leaves the bookstore and arrives at The is incredibly dark: La taberna de P ico Lagartos: Luz de acetileno: Mostrador de cinc: Zagun oscuro con mesas y b anquillos: Jugadores de mus: Borrosos dilogos. Mximo Estrella y Don Latino de Hispalis, sombras en las sombras de un rincn, se regalan con sendos quinces de morapio. 100 Here, Max encounters the prostitute, Pisa Bien and her pimp, El Rey de Portugal (the King of Portugal), who Valle Incln animalizes by describing him like a dog The couple also recalls the prostitute, Poca Penas and Sptimo Miau in the beginning of Divinas Palabras Un golfo largo y atroso, que vende peridicos re asomado a la puerta, y como perro que se espulga, se acude con jaleo de hombros, la cara es una gran risa de viruelas. Es el Rey de Portugal, que hace las bellaqueras con Enriqueta la Pisa Bien, Marquesa del Tango. 101 A s he does with Zaratusta, Valle Incln deteriorates the appearance of a morally corrupt character: El Rey de Portugal not only shakes his shoulders like a dog shaking off fleas, but his face is also covered in pockmarks. La Pisa Bien, El Rey de Porugal, El Borracho (a drunkard) and Max discuss how Spain can im prove itself until a riot suddenly breaks out in the streets. In the same scene, Max gives a boy his overcoat to sells for a few pesetas. After Don Latino and Max drunkenly exit the tavern, Don Latino leads the poet cold streets and consistently refuses to share his overcoat with Max, despite his poor health. 100 Ibid., 191. 101 Ibid., 193.
74 In the fourth scene, Max runs into a group of modernists, including Dorio de Gadex, who accumulates a variety of traits from three disparate bei ngs, a goblin, an jovial como un trasgo, irnico como un 102 He is one of the most appearances bizarre in the play, especially when Valle Incln describes him Dorio de Gadex, feo, burlesco, y chepudo, abre los brazos, que son como alones sin plumas, en el claro lunero. 103 Max and Dorio de Gadex get into an argumen t about literature in which Dorio speaks highly of modernism until Max Estrella drunkenly yells DORIO DE GADEX. Maestro presntese usted a un silln de la Academia. MAX. -No lo digas en burla, idiota. ¡Me sobran mritos! Pero esa prensa miserable me boicotea. Odian mi rebelda y odian mi talent o Para medrar hay que ser agrador de todos los Segismundos. ¡El Buey Apis m e despide como a un criado! ¡La Academia me ignora! ¡Yo soy el primer poeta de Espaa! ¡El primero! ¡El primero! ¡Y no me parte un rayo! ¡Yo soy el verdadero inmortal, y no esos cabrones del coratto acad mic o ¡Muera Maura! 104 Eventually, Max is arrested an d thrown in a dark prison cell with a Cataln anarchist, who was mentioned as a man being taken away by the police in the second scene. The prisoner is the only character who shares a genuine bond with Max; the two men embrace in a hug when Max is freed, marking one of the very few moments in 102 Ibid., 199. 103 Ibid., 200. 104 Ibid.
75 the police abused Max during his incarce ration. Not surprisingly, the editors refuse the offer because it could get them into trouble with the government. Next, the two travel to abuse Max endured from th e police. As a friend, the Ministro writes a check for the poet, now, as his despicable guide (don Latino) leads him through a somber journey downwards. In the eleventh s cene, don Latino and Max hear gun shots fired. This is followed anarchist Max had just met in jail. The prisoner predicted his own death: short, anticlimactic and st aged by the police as an attempted escape. In the same scene, Max and Don Latino stumble upon the aftermath of a violent street riot, which recalls the historical tragedy of La Semana Trgica that occurred in Barcelona. Max and Don Latino arrive just in time to witness the cries of a grieving mother who holds her dead child in her arms, an innocent casualty of the riot, a moment that marks the second and last intensely emotional moment of the play: Una mu ger, despechugada y ronca, tiene en los brazos a su nio muerto, la sien traspasada por el agujero de una bala. Max Estrella y Don Latino hacen un alto. MAX Tambin aqu se pisan cristales rotos. DON LATINO -¡ La Zurra ha sido buena! MAX -¡Canallas!...¡Todos!... ¡Y los primeros nosotros, los poetas
76 DON LATINO -¡Se vive de milagro! LA MADRE DEL IO -¡Maricas, cobardes! ¡El duelo del Infierno os abrase las negras entraas! ¡Maricas, cobardes! MAX -Qu sucede, Latino? Quin llora? Quin grita con tal rabia? DON LATINO Una verdulera, que tie ne a su chico muerto en los brazos. MAX -¡Me ha estremecido esa voz trgica! 105 dead child during the r iot. In this scene, Max finally returns to his doorstep with Don Latino, marking the Max essentially voices the aesthetic of the concave mirror (which I wi ll discuss later on in this chapter). Max ends up dying from a mixture of alcohol poisoning and hypothermia. Don Latino takes his wallet, knowing he is dead, but masks his true amente borracho y sera un crimen dejarte la cartera encima, para que te la roben. Max, me llevo tu cartera y te la devolver ma 106 Goya also addresses the repugnant act of stealing from the dead with Capricho 12, A caza de dientes (Fig. 36 ) Althou gh the woman is 105 Ibid., 235. 106 Ibid., 242.
77 repulsed by the cadaver hanging in front of her, she continues to pluck a tooth from his mouth, which was believed to serve as a talisman for good luck. Both Goya and Valle Incln show how greed will push a person to do even the most repul sive things in hope of gaining money or treasures. Mme. Collet, complaining that the ordeal was preventing her from tending to her chores. In the next scene, don Latino arrives Russian soldier whom Max knew and a few other people at his funeral regarding whether Max responds. His wif heated, yet comical debate. Like el enano in Divinas Palabras the intense deformation of death (and, as we Cuernos) deaths are marginalized. The audience becomes somewhat desensitized to their deaths because they do not transpire on stage, but are instead announced in the newspaper. 3.4 Los Cuer nos de don Friolera With Los Cuernos de don Friolera Valle Incln revives two major aspects of Divinas Palabras : the village setting, and the parody of the theme of the loss and recovery of honor. As in Luces the stage directions emphasize the characters while they also focus on the visual effects of light. The stage directions describe the undulation of the wind and the sea as well as the effects of blue lighting, whether it is produced artificially like from a porcelain lamp or produce d naturally by the moon. As a
78 consequence, the characters in Cuernos live in what appears to be a permanent twilight zone, or in between zone, a world that constantly sways back and forth and is never completely illuminated or entirely dark. This swaying mimics the way in which the core of the play, the twelve middle scenes, interplay with the prologue and the epilogue. One could say that Valle Incln combines aspects of Divinas with elements of Luces so that the esperpento reaches its culmination in 1924 when he published Los Cuernos de don Friolera. The play has three parts, a prologue, twelve middle scenes (which could stand as a play by themselves), and an epilogue. Each of part presents a variant of the same story in which a military officer in a sm act of adultery through rumor and must then decide how he will approach the situation. code of honor that st ipulates he must kill his wife in order to avenge his honor (lost due to lose his position within the military and more importantly, sacrifice his reputation and honor. In the prologue, the story debuts as a puppet show, which is followed by a bizarre pseudo drama in twelve scenes, and finally, in the epilogue the story is recited in a romance de ciego, ner. As I will discuss later on in this chapter, the play has a convoluted structure in which the prologue and the epilogue act as mirrors that reflect and distort the central scenes. The first scene begins when don Friolera reads the letter that informs him of his
79 to his ridiculous habit of intermittently shouting friolera! (a word that literally means every phrase he utters in a frenzy: DON FRIOLERA: ¡Est e mundo es una solfa! Qu culpa tiene el marido de que la mujer le salga rana? ¡Y no basta una honrosa separacin! ¡Friolera! ¡Si bastase!... La galera no se conforma con eso. El principio del honor ordena matar. ¡Pim! ¡Pam! ¡Pum!... El mundo nunca se cansa de ver tteres y agradece el espectculo de balde. ¡Formulismos!... ¡Bastante tiene con su pena el ciudadano que ve deshecha su casa! ¡Ya lo creo! La mujer por un camino, el marido por otro, los hijos sin calor, desamparados. Y al sujeto, en estas circunstancias, le piden que degelle y se satisfaga con sangre, como si no tuviese otra cosa que rencor en el alma. ¡Friolera! Y todos somos unos botarates. Yo matar como el primero. ¡Friolera! Soy un militar espaol y no tengo derecho a filosofar como en Francia. ¡En el Cuerpo de Carabineros no hay maridos cabrones! ¡Friolera! 107 As a member of the Cuerpo de Carabineros right to philosophize, or reason, like they do in France (Valle Incln makes a comical jab expected to assert his manhood and conform to tradition by obeying the honor code whether he agrees with it or not. In a stage direction at the end of the f irst scene, Valle Incln introduces a number of elements that encapsulate the aesthetic of the esperpento, including animalization, deformation, and a grotesque sight: Acalorado, se quita el gorro y mete la cabeza por el ventanillo, respirando en las rfa gas del mar. Los cuatro pelos de su calva bailan un baile fatuo. En el fondo del muelle, sobre un grupo de mujeres y rapaces, bambolea el 107 Valle Incln, Cuernos 80.
80 atad destinado a un capitn mercante, fallecido a bordo de su barco. Pachequn el barbero, que fue llamado para rap arle las carbas cojea detrs, pisndose la punta de la capa. Don Friolera, al verle, se recoge en la garita. Le tiembla el bigote como a los gatos cuando estornudan. 108 After complaining relentlessly, don Friolera slams his head against a window and brea the wharf. Valle Incln juxtaposes the morbid sight of a coffin with a rather comical c omedic with the morbid, Valle Incln confronts the viewer with two rather dissonant yet simultaneous perspectives of the world; he zooms in on a trivial sight (the tiny hairs on from afar (the coffin). Valle Incln creates a sense of estrangement by using a distorted and emotionally detached perspective. alleged lover, causing his mustache to trem ble in anger, a gesture compared to the way in which a cat shakes its whiskers before sneezing. With this specific and animalizing comparison, the author transforms what wo uld appear in a normal drama as a serious and powerful moment into a comical sight. Throughout the twelve scenes, Valle Incln constantly describes Pachequn in terms of his physical deformities, especially his lame leg that causes him to hobble from place to place. In the aforementioned stage direction, Pachequn limps over to the shi 108 Ibid., 80.
81 shaven as in the daily ministrations of the living) both calls attention to and locates Pachequn in a particular juncture between the living and the dead. conversation in which the barber professes his undying love for doa Loreta, who consistently refuses to be romantically involved with him despi te her feelings for him. The audience now knows that their alleged affair is only a rumor circulating around the town; although the two characters are interested in each other, they have not acted on their desires. Costanilla de Santiago el V erde, subie ndo del puerto. Casas encaladas, patios floridos, morunos canceles. Juanito Pacheco, P ACHEQUN el barber o cu r atentn cojo y narigudo, c on capa torera y quepis azul, rasguea la guitarra sentado bajo el jaulote de la cotorra, chilln y cromtico. DOA LO RETA, la seora tenienta, en la reja de u na casa fronteriza, se prende un clavel en el rodete. Pachequn canta con los ojos en blanco. 109 PACHEQUN -Va usted a quererme? DOA LORETA Ha hecho usted muchas picardas en el mundo, y pudiera suceder que las pagase todas juntas. PACHEQUN Si haba de a plicarme usted el castigo, lo celebrara. DOA LORETA Usted se o lvida de mi esposo. 110 T that the old fashioned village look wears a puppet like wardrobe, a kepi and a blue bolero jacket, as he strums his guitar singing a song for doa Loreta, who looks out from her barred window. Doa Loreta repeatedly reminds Pachequn about the limitations that her marriage poses on a potential 109 Ibid., 81. 110 Ibid., 85.
82 for each other, remains more or less innocent. The two are then frightened by the silhouette of doa Tadea, de The sinister presence of the owl indicates that the scene is not entirely innocent. Doa Tadea pasa atisbando. E l garabato de su silueta se recorta sobre el destello cegador y moruno de las casa e ncaladas. Se desvanece bajo un porche, y a poco, su cabeza de lechuza asoma en el ventano de una guardilla. 111 In the manner that an owl flies up to a tree and perches itself on a branch, doa Tadea quickly climbs up the stairs and then perches at her wind ow. Th e next scene takes place in a cemetery just after the funeral for the deceased captain (mentioned in the first scene) has taken place. Through a short conversation activities as a military lieutenant. Then, don Friolera confronts doa Tadea, notorious for spying on others, and accuses her of writing the anonymous note that he received in the beginning of the play. Wind gusts back and forth as herds of women cloake d in black rat with the somber tone of the rest of the scene, where people are lea ving the funeral. Sobre las cuatro figuras en hilera, ondula una rfaga de viento. Anochece. El teniente, con gestos de maniaco, viene bordeando la tapia, pasa bajo la sombra de los cipreses, u contina la ronda del cementerio. Bultos negros de mujeru cas con rebozos salpican el campillo. El teniente s e cruza con una vieja que le cla va los ojos de pajarraco: pequea, cetrina, ratonil, va cubierta con un manto de merenillo Don Friolera siente el peso de aquella mirada y una sbita iluminacin. Se vuel ve y atrapa a la beata por el moo. 111 Ibid., 86.
83 DON FRIOLE RA -¡Doa Tadea, merece usted morir quemada! DOA TADEA -¡Est usted loco! DON FRIOLERA -¡Quemada por bruja! DOA TADEA -¡No me falte usted! DON FRIOLERA Usted ha escrito el annimo! DOA TADEA Respet e usted que soy una anciana! 112 DON FRIOLERA ¡Usted ha escrito el papel! DOA TADEA ¡Chiflado! DON FRIOLERA: ¡Pero usted sabe que soy un cabrn! DOA TADEA Lo sabe el pueblo entero. ¡Sulteme usted! Debe usted sangrarse. 113 The two characters bicker ca lling each other names b ack and forth in a cemetery after the laughingstock of the vi llage. In the first scene don Friolera shows how reluctant he was to follow the honor code, but, as the play progresses the audience may see that every step the character takes forces him to become a puppet of the code. In the next scene, Friolera has o fficially transformed into a puppet in terms of both his appearance and his behavior. Pachequn suddenly interferes as Friolera goes to shoot his wife: DOA LORETA ¡Pascualn! DON FRIOLERA ¡Exijo que me lames Pascual! 112 Ibid., 92. 113 Ibid., 93.
84 PACHEQUN ¡No lleva usted razn, mi teniente! DOA LORETA ¡ Pascualn! DON FRIOLERA ¡Pascual! ¡Para ti ya no soy Pascualn! DOA LORETA ¡Rechazas un mimo, ya no me quieres! 114 DOA LORETA ¡Pachequn, tenga usted esta flor, culpa de los celos de mi esposo! Doa Loreta, con ademn trgi c o se desprende el clavel que baila al extreme del moo colgante. Pachequn alarga la mano. Don Friolera se interpone, arrebata la flor y la pistolea. La tarasca cae de rodillas, abre los brazos y ofrece el pecho a las furias del pistoln. DOA LORETA ¡Mtame! ¡Morir inocente! DON FRIOLERA Con vuestra sangre lavar mi honra. Vais a morir los dos. 115 T name to form an endearing nickname, but in certain circumstances the ending may attain a negative and mocking effect, even if involuntary. In the midst of his anger, Friolera yells at doa Loreta and tells her not to call him by that name, clearly as a rejection of el. The fact that Friolera and doa Loreta argue about nicknames just before Friolera is supposedly about to shoot her creates an awkward situation: the dramatic element is revoked due to their ridiculous dialogue. Friolera ends up stomping on the carnat ion that his wife throws to Pachequn rather than shooting them both. 114 Ibid., 100. 115 Ibid., 101.
85 In the sixth scene, don Friolera returns home frantic with anger once again threatening the life of doa Loreta, who trembles in fear and begs for a divorce although they both know that a legal separation is not a feasible solution. As an attempt to pacify her frenetic husband, doa Loreta retrieves a bottle of liquor, demanding him to get drunk command without putting up much of a fight because responding to the request undermines his authority. in Luces de Bohemia Valle pinturas 116 With this description, Valle Incln f degraded art that the prologue introduces. Upstairs, three military lieutenants play cards while discussing don their past military travels, recalling only the inst ances in which they physically and sexually abused the natives of the places they were stationed. After learning about the so dedicated to an honor code when they d o not even adhere to any set of rational morals. Valle Incln inserts a stage direction in the middle of the vil e yet nostalgic conversation, bring ing loose glass eye Bailan en el velador las tazas del caf, salta el canario en la jaula y se sujeta su ojo de cristal el teniente don Lauro 117 By juxtaposing the sight of a bird hopping in its cage to Rovirosa holding 116 Ibid., 117. 117 Ibid., 134.
86 his hand over his eye, small canary, wi lack of control over his physical deformi ty contrasts with the tight grip he holds over others, especially Friolera. Later on, Friolera discusses his predicament with his superior, Lieutena nt Rovirosa, who believes that this type of situation is solved best by a duel: EL TENIENTE ROVIROSA Para m, los desafos representan un Adelanto en las costumbres sociales. Otros opinan lo contario, y los condenan como supervivencia del feudalism o ¡Pe ro Alemania, pueblo de una superior cultura, sostiene en sus costumbres el duelo! ¡Para usted la desgracia ha sida la mala eleccin por parte de su seora! 118 poor choice in a lover, who is both disabled and of a lower social status. However, it seems ridiculous that Rovirosa distinguishes the Friolera and Pachequn in terms of their class because, by this point in the play Valle Incln has destroyed the significance of s ocial status by reducing both of the characters to ridiculous puppets. The author has created a dangerous sense of equality that can only have a bad outcome, as it is marked by rivalry. Just as Goya shows with Los Caprichos, Valle Incln shows how underne ath the charades, and underneath the fancy titles, every human is the same in that everyone is ruled by folly and vice. Both Goya and Valle Incln unmask their figures so that the audience may see their true, ugly, selves. Pachequn constantly appears a s a pelele or a fantoche, while don Friolera appears as a puppet in front of a gold and blue curtain earlier in the play Un fondo divino de oro 118 Ibid., 15 0.
87 y azul para los aspavientos de un fantoche. 119 At the end of the conversation, Rovirosa and her lover, a solution that seems even more antiquated and barbaric than aduel. And, although the code of honor seems barbaric to begin with, the notion seems even more absurd considerin g that the man avenging his so coward from the very beginning. Valle Incln paints an even more pathetic image of don Friolera in the ninth scene, where he transforms both Friolera and his daughter into dolls: B ajo la luz verdosa d el emparrado, medita la sombra de don Friolera: parches en las sienes, babuchas moras, bragas azules de uniforme viejo, y jubn amarillo de franela. El teniente aparece sentado en una banqueta de campamento, tiene a la nia cabalgada y la contempla con ojos vidriados y lnguidos de perro cansino. MANOLITA lleva el pelo sujeto por un arillo de coralina, las medias cadas y las cintas de las alpargatas sueltas. Tiene el aire triste, la tristeza absurda de esas muecas emigradas por los desvanes. 120 Exhausted, Friolera sits in his garden wearing an old military uniform and, with his glassy dog eyes e absurd sadness of a buharda, por encina ), 121 instantly ceasing 119 Ibid., 145. 120 Ibid., 138. 121 Ibid., 141.
8 8 Doa Tadea shouts at Friolera, and Manolita responds and shouts profanities a t Con los ejemplos que recibes no puedes tener otra c 122 B ad child rearing also has a place in Divinas Palabras and Luces de Bohemia : in the former, the simpleton daugh ter shouts obscenities at don Latino Hispalis. Goya also comments on bad child rear ing in Los Caprichos, particularly with Capricho 25, Si quebr el cantaro (Fig. 37) where a offensive songs about doa Tadea, who returns the favor. The scene ends with Friolera and Manolita The window plays a large role in Los Cuernos because the villagers, like doa Tadea and Pachequn, constantly peer through the glass windows to spy on others. Noche estrellada. Fragrancia serena de un huerto de naranjos con el claro de luna sobre la tapia. Abre los brazos el pelele en la copa de la higuera. Cantan los grillos y se apagan las luces de algunas ventan as. El BARBERO, encaramado a un rbol, apunta el tajamar de la nariz acechando una reja vecina, en las frondas de otro huerto. DOA LORETA, con peinador lleno de lazos, sale a la reja, y el galn saca la figura sobre la copa del rbol, negro y torcido co mo un espantapjaros. 123 In the middle of the night, Pachequn, illuminated by the moon, climbs a fig tree to spy on doa Loreta. The author describes him as a pelele, 122 I bid. 123 Ibid., 151.
89 with the devil; just as the devil serpent tempted Eve, and just as the dark skinned Sptimo Miau seduces Mari d begs her to run away with him. When she finally consents and comes with him, he holds his arms out, just as the puppets negro y torcido, abre las aspas de los brazos, bajo el 124 Soon after their esc ape, the two, described as puppets, hear a Dispara el pistoln, y con un grito los fantoches luneros de la tapia se doblan sobre el otro 125 and suddenly int dressed wife, who was reading him a follotn (a novel published in entries) in the newspaper, La poca The audience finally completel state of complete insanity to inform the Colonel that he has restored his honor by killing being told to leave with the truth of the matter: Friolera neither killed his wife nor her lover, but he killed his own daughter. Friolera screams at the Colonel, telling him to kill his wife n the prolo show, making this scene seem completely farcical. In the end, the Colonel calls for guards to take Friolera to the prison but later agrees to let him go to the hospital because Colonel tells his wife to explain how 124 Ibid., 160. 125 Ibid., 161.
90 affirming her involvement with another man, indicating that the Colonel too is a cuckold, 3.5 The Evolution of the E sperpento As I have stated in the beginning of the chapter, one may trace the evolution of Valle esperpento by analyzing the three aforementioned plays. In Divinas Palabras the author begins to experiment with forms of dehumanization, both in terms of Incln invents the rural village, Viana del Prior, for the play and focuses on its barbaric inhabitants who at times bear more likeness to animals than humans animalization is towards the end of the play when the mob of vicious villagers acts like a pack of wolves in the hunt and torture of the transgressor, Mari Gaila. Valle Incln deforms the form of the traditio nal Spanish drama de honor by denying the play and its characters any sense of nobility or honor and therefore making the basis of the plot completely absurd. The author retains the village setting and the format of the drama de honor (the three jornadas and each respective scenes), but distorts the plot and its characters. With Luces de Bohemia Valle Incln situates the play i n the chaotic city of Madrid. Al though Luces does not take place in a village, the characters live in poverty and are just as repugnant, if not more, as the characters in Divinas Palabras The author deforms elements of previous literary forms in order to convey the farcical quality of modern life. He continues to use the grotesque techniques of deformation and distortion
91 in the plot and its characters as he does with Divinas Palabras However, Luces delves more explicitly into literarature (whereas the previous play never directly ref ers to it), especially in the eleventh scene where Max Estrella introduces the esperpento as a With Los Cuernos de don Friolera the esperpento finally meets its culmination. At thi s stage, Valle Incln has recognized the value in selecting more marginal and impoverished settings, such as small villages or city slums, because they allow him to stage a degraded and chaotic form of social existence. In literature, deteriorated village s and slums are commonly presented as small universes governed by their own logic. In particular, the village is especially an ideal place for the development of an extremely patriarchal society, like the one in Cuernos Valle Incln expands on the theme of honor, derived from the drama del honor, more particularly in terms of how this ideal completely lacks transcendence in modern society and therefore, is no longer valid. He dehumanizes his characters, slowly transforming them into dolls and puppets t hat act out a distorted drama. Doing so distances the audience from the characters, allowing the spectator to detect the absurdity of such antiquated traditions. 3.6 Death of Tragedy Just before his death, Max Estrella essentially acts as a spokespe rson for Valle esperpento when he has his last conversation with don Latino de Hispalis. Feeling completely defeated at the end of his brutal voyage, Max says that human life itself is a dantesque circle of hell, indicating that life is nothing b ut cruel torture. For Max, this statement is hardly an exaggeration, especially when considering the atrocities
92 he encounters in each of the seven stops he makes on the last day of his life. Although its organization may still be Ministrio, the street with the grieving mothe r, and finally his doorstop. After seeing how despicable humanity truly is, the poet says: M AX La leyenda negra, en estos d as menguados, es la Historia de Espaa. Nuestra vida es un crculo dantesco. Rabia y vergenza. Me muero de hambre, satisfecho de no haber llevado una triste velilla en la trgica mojiganga. Has odo los ceme nterios de esa gente, viejo canalla? T eres como ellos. Peor que ellos, porque no tienes una pese ta y propagas la mala literatur a, por entregas. Latino, vil corredor de aventuras insulsas, llvame al Viaducto. Te invito a regenerarte con un vuelo. 126 In the above statement, Max also criticizes don Latino for promot Incln originally published both Luces d e Bohemia and Los Cuernos de don Friolera by weekly entries in a periodical. Max expresses a feeling of hopelessness, perhaps insinuating that the only way to improve the state of literature is to begin something new by leaving all old literature in the p ast. By proposing that they jump off the viaduct, Max makes the point that classical forms of literature, especially the tragedy, are no longer relevant to their lives. Valle Incln uses Max Estrella (as he will use don Estrafalario in the prologue and e pilogue of Cuernos) to assert that current literature has simply deformed and degraded both the forms and values involved with pre existing literature. Through the words of Max Estrella, the author asserts that it is absurd to preserve such antiquated fo rms of literature: 126 Valle Incln, Luces 237.
93 MAX -¡Don Latino de Hispalis, grotesco personaje, te immortalizar en una novela! DON LATINO Una tragedia, Max. MAX La tragedia nuestra no es tragedia. DON LATINO -¡Pues algo asi! MAX Es un esperpento! 127 Seemingly tragic moments, such as the death of an innocent child, that may have once tragedy esperpento Valle Incln distorts classical heroes and tragedies so that they serve as a more authentic way of conveying modern tragedies. Odysseus, who faced one obstacle after the next in his brutal voya ge home. First hardships, like losing his money to Zaratusta, getting thrown i n jail, or witnessing the gory aftermath of a street riot. As the play progresses, Valle Incln slowly debilitates the poet, who becomes drunker and weaker with each scene until he is entirely dependent on don Latino Hispalis for physical support. Wherea s in the Odyssey, return home gives him strength to persevere through his journey, Max begins his journey without any hope at all (Max even suggests a collective family suicide to his wife in the first scene). Also, unlike Odysseus, M 127 Ibid., 238.
94 home: instead, he collapses on his door stoop and dies alone of hypothermia and alcohol poisoning. The next morning marks the disappearing of night stars, including the highest star, Max Estrella. His n eighbor finds his body on his door stoop and becomes irritated because having to deal with his dead body hinders her ability to complete her daily tasks in a timely manner, a similar response as the ones given to the innocent child in the riot earlier on i Divinas In the end, Max is anything but revered hero; his body is even desecrated by a Russian soldier at his funeral, just as el eact to the death of a person as they would in a traditional tragedy or drama due to the inability to relate to the characters on a sentimental level. Valle Incln also alludes to classical heroes in descriptions of Max Estrella. In just the first scene of Luces Valle Incln compares Max to the Greek messenger god, Hermes: Se incorpora con un gesto animoso, esparcida sobre el pecho la hermosa barba con mechones de canas. Su cabe za rizada y ciega, de un gran ca rcter clsico arcaico, re 128 Like Hermes, Max is subjected to the dictates of a higher god and actions are completely determined by the author, who assumes an almighty power in writing the espe rpento 3.7 The Concave Mirror The pseudo recognize the farcical quality of life, which becomes a central feature of the esperpento. 128 Ibid., 182.
95 In effort to capture the absurdity that surrou of portraying it in a more authentic and appropriate manner In the same scene that Max has this realization, he constantly complains of the overwhelmingly c old weather and begs to borrow Don deciphering whether he is actually dying or he is merely spouting off exaggerations in a drunken stupor. In the esperpento the li ne between reality and farce becomes paper thin due to the comedic qualities of serious situations and the apathetic response to dramatic events. MAX -¡Estoy helando! DON LATINO Levntate. Vamos a caminar. MAX No puedo. DON LATINO Deja esta farsea. Vamos a caminar. MAX La deformacin deja de serlo cuando est sujeta a una matemtica perfecta. Mi esttica actual es transformar con matemtica de espejo cncavo las normas clsicas. DON LATINO -Y dnde est el espejo? MAX En el fondo de vaso. 129 Whi le well known euphemism for being drunk, it may simultaneously be interpreted literally in this context If one looks through the concave base of a drinking glass while tilting it upward, one may see a distorted and version of the world, m uch like the alcohol induced DON LATINO -¡Eres genial! Me quit el crneo! 129 Ibid., 239.
96 MAX Latino, deformemos la expresin en el mismo espejo que nos deforma las caras y toda la vida miserable de Espaa. 130 MAX Yo so y el que se va para siempre. MAX Estoy muerto. 131 vicariously Valle Incln, to recognize the literary value of distorting reality in the same way that a concave mirror distorts on entails blurred or double vision or seeing in motion, plays a large part in each of the discussed esperpentos, Mari Gaila, Sptimo Miau, and Miguelin are constantly drinking and feeding the poor Divinas scene where Pedro Gailo, who already has a distorted view of the world because he is cross eyed, is so inebriated that he attempt s to seduce his daughter, Simonia. In Cuernos, Friolera is so highly intoxicated that he mistakenly shoots his daughter instead of his wife and her lover. In each of the aforementioned scenes, the alcohol induced absurdity achieves the effect of the con cave mirror, making it difficult for the audience to relate with the morally twisted characters. The degradation of the human form is a main ingredient of the esperpento that one may detect in each of the three plays. The author may animalize a character either by imbuing the character with animal like qualities, or by explicitly comparing them to an animal. The most blatant example of the first (inexplicit) type of animalization is in the last scene of Divinas where the author describes the mob of vil lagers going after Mari 130 Ibid. 131 Ibid., 241.
97 Gaila as a pack of wolves and juxtaposes descriptions of the mob ripping her clothes off with descriptions of dogs ferociously gnawing at her skirt. Later on in Luces Valle Incln begins to describe his characters as having anima l attributes, as when he describes Cuernos on others. Certain characters also become characterized by facial deformities, bad posture, animal like mannerisms, and puppet like gestures. In descriptions, Valle Incln consistently downplays human emotion in favor of magnifying farcical elements o f each scene, much like the eighth scene in Luces where screams. In scene nine of Cuernos, don Friolera sadly plays his guitar while sitting on whitewashed Moorish walls with his daughter. Manolita, the daughter, tries to cheer her father up, but don Friolera resists due to his self pity. T iene el aire triste, la tristeza 132 Even in such a sorrowful scene, Valle Incln explicitl e scene, he compares don Friolera to a sad dog, further diminishing any potential for emotion to enter the 133 The author even dehumanizes his characters in one the midst of highly dramatic moments, like when don Friolera confronts his wife, doa Loreta, about having an affair in Cuernos Sobre el velador con tapete de malla, el quinqu de porcelana azul alumbra la sala domingue ra. El movimiento de las figuras, aquel entrar y salir con los brazos 132 Ibid., 138. 133 Ibid., 139.
98 134 The stage direction describes the scene in a tragic puppets) and t herefore diminishes the air of seriousness in what would normally appear as a highly dramatic moment. This kind of dissonant effect is in a way also present in Divinas when Mari Gaila fakes having an emotional response to the death of Juana la Reina. How ever, the two scenes differ in that Mari Gaila is wholly aware that she putts on an act, while don Friolera and his wife are not. The two plays differ in that the Divinas characters demonstrate the human tendency act out of will, while Valle Incln denies that ability to the Cuernos characters because he simply treats them as puppets and jerks them violently around as their master. 3.8 The Stories of the Dead that Don Estrafalario speaks of in the prologue to Cuernos As Valle ego, Don Estrafalario continues to explain the theory behind the esperpento, essentially finishing off what Max Estrella beg ins to describe in Luces The prologue begins with a Estrafalario, who analyze a painting in which the devil stands laughing beside the hanging human corpse of a picador. DON MANOLITO -¡Hay un picador q ue se ahorca y un Diablo que r e, como no has soado Goya! Es la obra maestra de una pintura absurda! El Diablo que saca la lengua y guia el ojo, es un prodigio. Se siente la carcajada. Resuena. 134 Ibid. 97.
99 DON ESTRAFALARIO -¡Que cae Usted en el error de Manes! La Obra Divina est extenta de defectos. No crea Usted en la realidad de ese diablo que se interesa por el sainete humano y se divierte como un tendero. Las lgrimas y la risa nacen de la contemplacin de cosas parejas a nosotros mismos, y el diablo es d e naturaleza anglica. 135 Don Estrafalario asserts that the painter is a dilettante who simply imbues his painting with random macabre elements, like a human corpse and a devil. Furthermore, the juvenile painting depicts an implausible phenomenon because the devil is a superior being, completely incapable of empathizing with humans. According to don Estrafalario, the devil would therefore not laugh in reaction to human suffering, which he describes as a sainete (a short, comical and dramatic play). The devil, in fact, would not connect with the human race at all. Don Estrafalario explains that we, as humans, reserve our laughter and tears for things with which we identify, which is why he says that spectators cringe when a bull attacks an innocent horse during a bullfight but not when someone drills into a rock. One does not react to the same action performed with a rock because, unlike the horse, a rock does not feel pain; it does not feel at all: DON ESTRAFALARIO: Los sentimentales que en los toros se duelen de la agona de los caballos, son incapaces para la emocin esttica de la lidia. Su sensibilidad se revela p areja de la sensibilidad equina y por caso de cerebracin inconsciente, llegan a suponer para ellos una suerte igual a la de aquellos roc ines destripados. Si no supieran que guardan treinta varas de morcillas en el arca del cenar, crea usted que no conmovan. Por ventura los ha visto usted llorar cuando un barren o destripa una cantera? 135 Valle Incln, Cuernos 67.
100 DON MANOLITO Y usted supone que no se conmueven po r e star ms lejos sensiblemente de las rocas que de los caballos? DON ESTRAFALARIO As es. Y paralelamente ocurre lo mismo con las cosas que nos regocijan: reservamos nuestras burlas para aquello que nos es semejante. DON MANOLITO Hay que amar, don Estr afalario. La risa y las lgrimas son los caminos de Dios. sa es mi esttica y la de usted. DON ESTRAFALARIO La ma no. Mi esttica es una superacin del dolor y de la risa, como deben ser las conversaciones de los muertos, al c ontarse historias de los vivos. 136 where don Friolera debuts as a puppet controlled by a demonic puppet master : el fantoche, con los brazos aspados y el ros en la oreja, hace su aparicin sobre un ho mbr o 137 This thorough stage the entirety of Cuernos even when the characters are not explicitly puppets. As the author of the esperpento, Valle Incln embraces the power of the puppet master; like the Bulul who controls the puppets in the prologue, Valle Incln manipulates the appearance and movements of his characters so that they resemble puppets. Through out the show, the Bulul urges the fantoche Friolera to violently kill his woman, either by slitting her throat or shooting her, as punishment for cheating on him with the oil merchant: 136 Ibid., 68. 137 Ibid., 70.
101 EL BULUL -¡Sooo! No camine tan agudo, mi teniente don Friolera y m ate usted a la bolichera, si no se aviene ser cornudo. EL FANTOCHE -¡Repara, Fidel, que no soy su marido, y al no serlo no puedo ser juez! EL BULUL Pues ser usted un cabrn consentido. EL FANTOCHE Antes que eso le pico la nuez. Quin mi honra encarn ece? EL BULUL Pedro Mal Casado. EL FANTOCHE -Qu pena merece? EL BULUL Morir degollado. 138 . EL BULUL -¡Ande usted, mi teniente, con ella! ¡Csala usted con un pu al! Tiene usted, por su buena estrella, vecina la raya de Portugal. 139 After Fr iolera supposedly kills his woman, the bulul demands Friolera to put a coin under her garter to see if she moves to grab it, an indicator of whether or not is truthfully dead. The woman eventually grabs the coin, affirming that she indeed faked her own d eath. After the puppet show ends, don Estrafalario expresses his admiration for the unsympathetic puppet master because the bulul has done exactly what he (and Valle Incln) wishes to do: he has overcome the human sentiments. The puppet show is not a s erious or dramatic rendition of the honor code, but rather, it presents it in the most absurd and farcical manner possible. In the epilogue, don Manolito and don Estrafalario are incarcerated based on accusations of being anarchists, which may have spawned from when Estrafalario states in the prologue that he thinks the destruction of barbaric codes and values is necessary for 138 Ibid., 71. 139 Ibid., 72.
102 the rebirth of a respectable form of Spanish theatre. Behind bars, the two intellectuals must listen to the romance de ciego whi in which he violently beheads both his wife and her lover. After killing them, Friolera is applauded, becomes famous and receives gifts from the King and Queen for being such an honorable man. D isguste d by the values and barbarity promoted by the romance de ciego, don Estrafalario re aparecemos como unos barbaro s sanguinarios. Luego se no s trata, y se ve que somos borregos 140 He also acknowledges the romance de ciego literature of any artistic merit and says that the only way for literature to redeem itself is through puppetry: 141 In essence, with the prolog ue and epilogue of Cuernos Valle Incln elaborates on the esperpentic aesthetic through the words on Don Estrafalario, just as he did through Luces esttica sstemticamente Espaa es una deformacin grotesca de la 142 Whereas the puppet show in the prologue is a clear example of pure farce, the following twelve scenes put into play the grotesque form of the actual esperpento as the human chara cters are subjected to physical deformation and are described as animals, puppets and dolls. In the epilogue, don Estrafalario reacts to the romance de ciego all literature. According to Don Estrafalario, the only way 140 Ibid., 173 141 Ibid. 142 Valle Incln, Luces 239
103 143 in reference to the puppet show in the prologue. The middle twelve scenes are a distorted reflection of what literature should be, as shown in the prologue, and what it should not and cannot be, as shown in the epilogue. The esperpento presents itself as a mixture of farce and drama, because it still maintains the conte xt and form of a typical Spanish drama while mixing in fantastic and absurd elements by imbuing the characters with properties of puppets, dolls, and animals. The play, in the end, produces a grotesque spectacle in which human/non human hybrids vacillate between farce and tragedy. 143 Valle Incln, Cuernos, 173.
104 Conclusion present throughout the entirety of Los Caprichos. In the beginning of the series, the artist deforms the figure by exaggerating its naturally ugly features as a means to convey a Incln repulses the audience with his deep description of the repugnant appearance of his morally corrupt characters as well as the ir atrocious actions. Goya also dehumanizes and animalizes his figures as a way of demolishing social constructions (like the division of classes and titles of noblility) that may have blinded the audience and prevented the acknowledgement of monstrous or absurd human behavior. Valle Incln borrows this technique from Goya when he transforms his characters into animals or puppets in the stage descriptions. For both artists, dehumanization also creates a distance between the figures within the work of art (whether it be an etching or a theatrical play) and the audience. Because the viewer is unable to relate to the characters on a psychological level, he or she may objectively An interesting issue that arose during my res earch was that both Goya and Valle Incln insert representations of themselves, whether it is a self portrait or a fictional alter ego, as a way to explain their innovative processes of artistic creation and to give an authorial commentary of their work Although Goya imbues his art with explicit self references, Valle portrayals are more abstract and implicit because he never declares Max Estrella and don Estrafalario as his alter egos, despite the fact that they specifically refer to the es perpento and literature I also recognized that both artists satirize types of people rather than specific individuals in order to distinguish the vices
105 and follies that affect humanity as a whole. They both address the treacherous woman, the perverted m and the superstitious and ignorant lower class to show how every person is affected by some form of depravity. One thing that remained more or less a mystery to me, regardless of the amount of material I read, was whether or not Valle esperpentos were performed in his lifetime. I discovered that Divinas Palabras was performed after Valle was unable to obtain a copy of such a performance. I believe that a performance would magnify the distancing effect of the esperpento especially because the spectator would dramatic appearance and behavior, heightening the farcical quality of each play. Ultimately, I ha ve decided that regardless whether or not Valle Incln intended for the esperpento to be performed, the writing itself is so detailed and effective (especially in the stage directions) that reading the esperpento alone achieves its full effect. Overall, th is project has inspired me to read more of Valle literature, such as La L mpara Maravillosa (1916), as a way to trace the evolution of the esperpento on a broader scale. In the future I would also like to compare Francisco de terature more specifically Sueos (1627), comparison would be stronger or weaker than the link shared between Valle Incln and Goya. After researching and writing this thesis, I realize that I could have written two separat Los Caprichos, and one that discusses Valle esperpento. However, I believe that my argument has
106 demonstrated that there is an incredibly strong connection between both art forms and therefore valid ates the combination of both topics.
107 Images 1 Francisco de Goya, El sueo de la razn produce monstruos, Los Caprichos, pl. 43, ca. 1794 1799, e tching and aquatint, 28 x 33.6 cm. Prado, Madrid (image from ARTstor / Digital Federation Academic Image) 2 Francisco de Goya, Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, Pintor, Los Caprichos pl. 1, 1799, e tc hing, drypoint and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis ( image from ARTstor/ The Minneapolis I nstitute of Arts) 3 Francisco de Goya, Esto si que es leer? Los Caprichos pl. 29 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15cm. (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Diego) 4 Francisco de Goya, Hay mucho que chupar, Los Caprichos pl. 45 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Torello Collection, Barcelona (image from Williams, Goya and the Impossible Revolution Fig. 23 p.55) 5 Francisco de Goya, El si pronuncian y la mano alargan al primero que llega, Los Caprichos pl.2 1799. (image from L pez Rey, Caprichos Fig. 88) 6 Francisco de Goya, Bellos Consejos Los Caprichos pl. 15 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown ( image from ARTstor/ Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institu te) 7 Francisco de Goya, Bien tirada est, Los Caprichos pl. 17, 1799, etching and a quatint, 21.9 x 15.3 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) 8 Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, Sanlcar Journal Youn g woman pulling up her stocking, 1797, b rush and gray wash, 17.2 x 10 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid ( image from Sayre The Changing Image Fig. 50, p. 78) 9 Francisco de Goya, Nadie se conoce, Los Caprichos pl. 6, 1799, etching and aquatint, 31.1 x 22.9 cm Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown ( image from ARTstor/ Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute) 10 Jaques Callot, Balli di Sfessania: Riciulina and Metzetin, 1621, e tching, 7.2 x 9.2 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San F rancisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco) 11 Francisco de Goya, Ni asi la distingue Los Caprichos pl. 7 1799, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from Lpez Rey, Caprichos, Fig. 98) 12 Francisco de Goya, Todos Cayern Los Caprichos pl. 19 1799. etching and aquatint, 21.9x14.5cm. (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Diego) 13 Anonymous, Museo Glauco Lombardi, Parma (Licht, Origins Fig. 41, p.95) 14 Francisco de Goya, El de la rollona, Los Caprichos pl. 4, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 20.5 x 15 cm. (image from ARTstor. University of California, San Francisco)
108 15 Francisco de Goya, Si sabr ms el discpulo, Los Caprichos pl. 37 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 c m. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco (image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco) 16 Francisco de Goya, Brabissimo!, Los Capricho pl. 38 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.9 x 15.2 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Fra ncisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco) 17 Francisco de Goya, Asta su Abuelo, Los Caprichos pl. 39 1799, a quatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museums of San Franc isco) 18 Francisco de Goya, Tu que no puedes, Los Caprichos pl. 42, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.8 x 15.2 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) 19 Francisco de Goya, Ni m s ni menos, Los Caprichos pl.41 17 99, etching and aquatint, 20 x 15 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) 20 Francisco de Goya, Estn Calientes, Los Caprichos pl. 13, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.9 x 15.3 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( imag e from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts) 21 Francisco de Goya, Madrid Album, Caricatura Alegre, 1796 7, indian ink wash, 19 x 13 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from Tomlinson, Goya, Fig. 75, p. 103) 22 Francisco de Goya, Sueo drawing, De unos hombres que se nos comian, 1797, pen and sepia ink. 24.2 x 16.7 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from Tomlinson, Goya, Fig. 105, p. 138) 23 Francisco de Goya, Porque esconderlos?, Los Caprichos pl.30, 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Prado Museum, M adri d (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Diego) 24 Francisco de Goya, Aquellos polb os, Los Caprichos pl. 23, 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museu ms of San Francisco) 25 Francisco de Goya, No hubo remedio, Los Caprichos pl. 24 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco) 26 Francisco de Goya, D u e ndecitos, Los Caprichos pl.49, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.7 x 15.2 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) 27 Francisco de Goya, El Vergon zos o, Los Caprichos pl.54, 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Diego) 28 Francisco de Goya, Los Chinchillas, Los Caprichos pl. 50, 1799, etchin g and aquatint, 20.7 x 15.1 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Art s, Boston) 29 Francisco de Goya, La filacin, Los Caprichos pl. 57, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Diego)
109 30 Francisco de Goya, No hay quien nos desate?, Los Caprichos pl. 75 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.8 x 15.2 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) 31 Francisco de Goya, No te escapars, Los Caprichos pl. 72, 1 799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) 32 Francisco de Goya, Si amanece, nos vamos, Los Caprichos pl. 71, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 20.2 x 15.2 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) 33 Fran cisco de Goya, Sopla, Los Caprichos pl. 69, 1799, etching aquat int, and drypoint, 21 x 14.5 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) 34 Francisco de Goya, Ya es hora, Los Caprichos pl.80, 1799, etching and aquatin t, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) 35 Francisco de Goya, Unos otros, Los Caprichos pl.77, 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from ARTstor/ University of Ca lifornia, San Francisco) 36 Francisco de Goya, A caza de dientes, Los Caprichos pl.12 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Francisco) 37 Francisco de Goya, Si quebr el ca ntaro, Los Caprichos pl. 25, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco)
111 1 Francis co de Goya, El sueo de la razn produce monstruos, Los Caprichos, pl. 43, ca. 1794 1799, e tching and aquatint, 28 x 33.6 cm. Prado, Madrid (image from ARTstor/ Digital Federation Academic Image)
112 2 Francisco de Goya, Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, Pint or, Los Caprichos pl. 1, 1799, e tc hing, drypoint and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis ( image from ARTstor/ The Minneapolis Institute of Arts)
113 3 Francisco de Goya, Esto si que es leer? Los Caprichos pl. 29 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15cm. (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Diego)
114 4 Francisco de Goya, Hay mucho que chupar, Los Caprichos pl. 45 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Torello Collection, Barcelona (image from Will iams, Goya and the Impossible Revolution Fig. 23 p.55)
115 5 Francisco de Goya, El si pronuncian y la mano alargan al primero que llega, Los Caprichos pl.2 1799. (image from Lpez Rey, Caprichos Fig. 88)
116 6 Francisco de Goya, Bellos Con sejos Los Caprichos pl. 15 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown ( image from ARTstor/ Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute)
117 7 Francisco de Goya, Bien tirada est, Los Caprichos pl. 17 1799, etching and a quatint, 21.9 x 15.3 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
118 8 Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, Sanlcar Journal Young woman pulling up her stocking, 1797, b rush and gray wash 17.2 x 10 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid ( image from Sayre The Changing Image Fig. 50, p. 78)
119 9 Francisco de Goya, Nadie se conoce, Los Caprichos pl. 6, 1799, etching and aquatint, 31.1 x 22.9 cm. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Willi amstown ( image from ARTstor/ Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute)
120 10 Jaques Callot, Balli di Sfessania: Riciulina and Metzetin, 1621, e tching, 7.2 x 9.2 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco)
121 11 Francisco de Goya, Ni asi la distingue Los Caprichos pl. 7 1799, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from Lpez Rey, Caprichos, Fig. 98)
122 12 Francisco de Goya, Todos Cayern Los Caprichos pl. 19 1799. etching and aquatint, 21.9x14.5cm. (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Diego)
123 13 Anonymous, Museo Glauco Lombardi, Parma (Licht, Origins Fig. 41, p.95)
124 14 Francisco de Goya, El de la rollona, Los Caprichos pl. 4, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 20.5 x 15 cm. (image from ARTstor. University of California, San Francisco)
125 15 Francisco de Goya, Si sabr ms el discpulo, Los Caprichos pl. 37 1799, etching and aquatint, 2 1.5 x 15 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco (image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco)
126 16 Francisco de Goya, Brabissimo!, Los Capricho pl. 38 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.9 x 15.2 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Franci sco, San Francisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco)
127 17 Francisco de Goya, Asta su Abuelo, Los Caprichos pl. 39 1799, a quatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Muse ums of San Francisco)
128 18 Francisco de Goya, Tu que no puedes, Los Caprichos pl. 42, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.8 x 15.2 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
129 19 Francisco de Goya, Ni m s ni menos, Los Caprichos pl.41 1799, etching and aquatint, 20 x 15 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston )
130 20 Francisco de Goya, Estn Calientes, Los Caprichos pl. 13, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.9 x 15.3 cm. Museu m of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts)
131 21 Francisco de Goya, Madrid Album, Caricatura Alegre, 1796 7, indian ink wash, 19 x 13 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from Tomlinson, Goya, Fig. 75, p. 103)
132 22 Franci sco de Goya, Sueo drawing, De unos hombres que se nos comian, 1797, pen and sepia ink. 24.2 x 16.7 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from Tomlinson, Goya, Fig. 105, p. 138)
133 23 Francisco de Goya, Porque esconderlos?, Los Caprichos pl.30, 1799, et ching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Prado Museum, Madri d (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Diego)
134 24 Francisco de Goya, Aquellos polb os, Los Caprichos pl. 23, 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisc o, San Francisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco)
135 25 Francisco de Goya, No hubo remedio, Los Caprichos pl. 24 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco ( image from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco)
136 26 Francisco de Goya, D u e ndecitos, Los Caprichos pl.49, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.7 x 15.2 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
137 27 Francisco de Goya, El Verg on zos o, Los Caprichos pl.54, 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Diego)
138 28 Francisco de Goya, Los Chinchillas, Los Caprichos pl. 50, 1799, etchin g and aquatint, 20.7 x 1 5.1 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
139 29 Francisco de Goya, La filacin, Los Caprichos pl. 57, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from ARTstor/ University of Californi a, San Diego)
140 30 Francisco de Goya, No hay quien nos desate?, Los Caprichos pl. 75 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.8 x 15.2 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
141 31 Francisco de Goya, No te esc apars, Los Caprichos pl. 72, 1 799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
142 32 Francisco de Goya, Si amanece, nos vamos, Los Caprichos pl. 71, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 20.2 x 15.2 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston )
143 33 Francisco de Goya, Sopla, Los Caprichos pl. 69, 1799, etching aquat int, and drypoint, 21 x 14.5 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fi ne Arts, Boston
144 34. Francisco de Goya, Ya es hora, Los Caprichos pl.80, 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( image from ARTstor/ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
145 35 Francisco de Goya, Unos otros, Los C apri chos pl.77, 1799, etching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Francisco)
146 36 Francisco de Goya, A caza de dientes, Los Caprichos pl.12 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid (image from ARTstor/ University of California, San Francisco)
147 37 Francisco de Goya, Si quebr el cantaro, Los Caprichos pl. 25, 1799, e tching and aquatint, 21.5 x 15 cm. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco ( im age from ARTstor/ Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco)
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149 Kayser, Wolfgang. The Grotesque in Art and Literature New York, N.Y.: McGraw Hill, 1966. Kemp, Martin. "The 'Super Artist' as Genius: The Sixteenth Century View." Genius: the History of an Idea Ed. Penelope Murray. Oxford : B. Blackwell, 1989. Lewis, D.B. Wyndham. The World of Goya New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1968. Licht, Fred. Goya New York: Abbeville Press, 2001. Licht,Fred. Goya in Perspective Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1973. Licht,Fred. Goya: The Origin of the Modern Temper in Art New York: Universe Books, 1979 Goya's Caprichos: Beauty, Reason & Caricature Westport: Greenwood Press, 1970. Lumsden, E.S. The Art of Etching 2nd ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1962. Nehamas, Alexander. "The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters." Representations 74. (2001): 37 54.
150 E., and Eleanor A. Sayre. Goya and the Spirit of Enlightenment Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1989. Ruvolt, Maria. "Michelangelo's Dream." Art Bulletin 85. (2003): 86 113. Sayre, Eleanor A, The Changing Image: Prin ts by Francisco Goya : [exhibition, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, October 24 December 29, 1974, the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, January 24 March 14, 1975] Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1974. Soufas, C. Christopher. "'Esto si es que leer': learning to read Goya's Los Caprichos ." Word & Image 2.4 (1986): 311 330. Summers, David. "The Archaeology of the Modern Grotesque." Modern Art and the Grotesque Ed Frances S. Connelly. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Tomlinson, Janis A.. "E volving Concepts: Spain, Painting, and Authentic Goyas in Nineteenth Century France." Metropolitan Museum Journal 31. (1966): 189 202 Tomlinson, Janis. Francisco Goya y Lucientes 1746 1828 London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1994.
151 : Esperpentos Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1964 Mara Romance De Lobos: Divinas Palabras. Luces De Bohemia Madrid: Aguilar, 1971. Weber, Fr ances Wyers. "Luces de Bohemia and the Impossibility of Art." M.L.N. 82.5 (1967): 575 589.