This item is only available as the following downloads:
BODY, MIND, AND BELLY: COMPARING BODY IMAGE AND PERCEIVED STRESS BETWEEN BELLY DANCERS AND DANCERS OF OTHER STYLES BY REBECCA PORZIG A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Social Sciences New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Steven Graham Sarasota, Florida December, 2012
BODY MIND AND BELLY ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to offer thanks to Professor Steven Graham, for guiding and supporting me through the thesis process, and to Professors Heidi Harley and April Flakne for offering their advice and serving on my baccalaureate commit tee I would also like to offer deepest thanks to my parents, Lynn and Roger Porzig, for all their support and encouragement through the years. Thanks to Rew Tippin, for supplying me with food and coffee all those long nights of researching and writing, a nd to all my friends who offered stres s relief in the form of giving hugs and supplying cats to cuddle And of course, special thanks to all who participated in my study. None of this could have happened without you
BODY MIND AND BELLY iii Table o f Contents Introduction 1 Method 19 Results 22 Discussion 24 References 28 Appendices 32
BODY MIND AND BELLY iv BODY, MIND, AND BELLY: COMPARING BODY IMAGE AND PERCEIVED STRESS BETWEEN BELL DANCERS AND DANCERS OF OTHER STYLES Rebecca Porzig New College of Florida 2013 ABSTRACT The purpose of this study wa s to measure and compare body image and perceived stress between belly dancers and dancers of other styles. Participants were 177 dancers (9 male, 168 female; 113 belly dancers, 64 dancers of other styles) between the ages of 18 and 75 years. Participants responded to a survey meas uring body image satisfaction / dissatisfaction and levels of perceived stress. Belly dancers were older and weighed more than other dancers, but had similar levels of body image satisfaction and pe rceived stress. It was suggested t hat, because other dance forms are already considered to be physically and psychologically beneficial (Rudolph & Kim, 1996; West e t al., 2004), belly dance could also be considered potentially psychologically beneficial. With further research, it is possib le that movement modalities and techniques found in belly dance can be effectively worked into danc e movement therapy models and/ or be recommended as a compliment to psychotherapy. Steven Graham Division of Social Sciences
BODY MIND AND BELLY 1 Belly dance or r aqs sharqi is an ancient art with cultural roots in the Middle East. Even modern belly dance, with all its variations and different styles, has a common movement vocabulary (Dinicu, 2012). Because of this common movement vocabulary with several variations, belly dance is likely to appeal and be accessible to a number of individuals. Belly dance makes p eople feel good about their bodies about moving, and about life in general. At least, so it seems. Although there is a substantial amount of research on dance movement therapy (DMT) and the psychological benefits of various dance forms, belly dance is a n eglected topic in the realm of psychological research. This is what I aim to change. This thesis will compare the bod y image and perceived stress of belly dancers and dancer s of other styles. Belly dance is popularly considered to be a form of exercise (Fo ltz Gray, 2003). Therefore, I begin with addressing research about exercise in relation to body image, anxiety, and stress. Exercise Belly dance, and in fact all forms of dance, can be tho ught of as exercise. Therefore, research addressing the psycholo gical effects of various forms and intensity levels of exercise should be taken into account when considering the potential psychological benefits of belly da nce beyond the context of DMT. Stress, Mood, & Health E xercise intensity has a great effect on the reduction of anxiety in older adults. A study by Katula, Blissmer, and McAuley (1999) shows that light and moderate exercise intensity levels successfully decrease anxiety levels in older adults. Eighty participa nts with a mean age of 67 years were recruited from a larger ongoing study on exercise. Participants were mostly well educated Caucasians who were overweight and had low
BODY MIND AND BELLY 2 cardiovascular fitness levels. Par ticipants were randomized into two groups: an aerobi c walking program group and a stretching and toning program group. E ach group completed measures of rating self efficacy and state anxiety. Participants in each group were then placed in one of three experimental exercise conditions: light intensity, moder ate intensity, or maximal intensity. Pre exercise anxiety levels were equal among all groups. Results revealed significantly decreased anxiety in the light and moderate exercise conditions, and significantly increased anxiety in the maximal exercise condit ion. Thi s emphasized the importance of exercise intensity level is in relation to successful anxiety reduction. Intensity level is not the only thing that matters when exercising. There are also different modes of exercise. Mindful exercise (exercise tha t is cognitively based and low exertion) and aerobic exercise are two examples. Netz and Lidor (2003) conducted a study focusing on the effects of mindful and aerobic exercise modes on mood. One hundred and forty seven female teachers chose to participate in one of the following: a swimming, aerobic dance, yoga, Feldenkrais, or computer class. Feldenkrais is a somatic education al technique that uses gentle movements to increase range of motion, ease pain, and improve flexibility and coordination ( Goldfarb 1993). There were 22 participants in the swimming class, 28 in aerobic dance, 31 in yoga, 37 in Feldenkrais, and 29 in the computer class. The computer class served as a control group, the yoga and Feldenkrai s classes served as the mindful exercise modes, and the aerobic dance and swimming classes served as the aerobic exercise modes. These class es took place in once weekly 90 minute sessions, and went on throughout an entire academic year. The State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Depression Adjective Check L ist, Subjective Well Being Scale,
BODY MIND AND BELLY 3 Eysenck Personality Inventory and Lie Scale (designed to expose participants who respond with what he/she thinks the researcher wants rather than responding honestly ) were all used in the study. Measures were taken befor e and after all classes, with the exception of the Trait Anxiety Inventory, which was taken once at the beginning and once at the end of the academic year. Results showed that both mindful and aerobic exercise modes produced significant mood increases and lowered state anxiety, with the exception of aerobic dance. Aerobic dance did not produce significant changes in mood participants in the present study may not have b enefitted from this activity because they In other words, while this particular study found that aerob ic dance did not significantly a ffect mood or anxiety, this is general ly not the case. In another study, Rudolph and Kim (1996) showed that aerobic dance did increase positive well being. The st udy examined how mood compared in four recreational sport groups (aerobic dance, soccer, tennis, and bowl ing). Participants were 108 undergraduate college students (90 male, 18 female) with a mean age of 24 years. The Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale was used to assess positive well being, psychological distress, and fatigue. Results showed that aerobic dance and soccer produce d equivalent increases in positive well being, while tennis and bowling produced no significant increases. Participating in physical activity also has benefits such as dec reasing depression and lowering risk of job burnout (Toker & Biron, 2012). A sample of 1,632 full time employees, 70% of whom were male, participated in three health examinations and
BODY MIND AND BELLY 4 completed questionnaires measuring job burnout, depressive symptoms, and physical activity between the years 2003 and 2009. Results from these measures conf irmed a link between job burnout and depression, such that as job burnout increased, depression also increased, and vice versa. Results also showed that p hysical activity levels were associated with both job burnout and depression, such that as physical ac tivity increased both depression levels and job burnout decrease d Body Image Koyuncu, Tok, Canpolat, and Catikkas (2010) compared body image satisfaction/dissatisfaction, social physique anxiety, self esteem, and body fat ratio between female exerciser s and non exercisers. Two hundred and ninety women between the ages of 18 and 60 with a mean age of 24 years, participated in the study. Participants were categorized into four group, groups 2 and 3 consisted of non exercisers who were faculty members of a nursing s chool, and group 4 consisted of internationally recognized elite athletes from various universities. The So cial Physique Anxiety Scale, Body Image Satisfaction/dissatisfaction Q uestionnaire, and Coopersmith Self Esteem Scale were given to participants. In addition, body fat ratio of each participant was obtained using skin fold measureme nt. Analysis of the surv eys showed that group 4 displayed higher body image satisfaction than all other groups. B ody fat ratio was found to be a significant predictor of social physique anxiety in all groups such that if body fat ratio was high, social physique anxiety was also high. A study by Stoll and Alfermann (2002) examined the effects of physical exercise on body self concept, general well be ing, and resources evaluation on older adults.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 5 Participants were 101 older adults (84 women, 17 men) over the age of 50. Participan ts were randomly assigned to either the experimental condition, which involved a 14 week exercise program with weekly hour long sessions, or the control condition, which involved no exercise or supervi sed activity. Participants responded to a questionnaire that measured resources evaluation (in terms of financial and health related resource availability, material resource availability, and coping recourse availability), body self concept, and subjective well being. Exercise was found to improve body self co ncept, although there was no effect on resources evaluation or subjective well being. In a study on college women, Henry, Anshel, and Michael (2006) found that aerobic circuit training improves body image and overall physical fitness. Seventy two college females in preexisting groups were involved in either straight aerobic training, aerobic circuit training (involving aerobic and anaerobic exercises), or no vigorous exercise (the control group). Body image was assessed with the Body Self Image Questionna ire, while physical fitness was assessed by measuring percent body fat and performing step and bench press tests. While the control group showed no changes to body image or physical fitness, the aerobic group did improve significantly in terms of both body image and physical fitness, and the aerobic circuit training group showed significantly higher scores than the st raight aerobic group in terms of positive body image and physical fitness. As summarized in the studies above, physical activity boost s body image, lowers depression, helps prevent job burnout, and can improve mood and reduce anxiety ( Henry, Anshel, & M ichael, 2006; Netz & Lidor, 2003; Toker & Biron, 2012) W hen done at low to moder ate intensity levels, physical activity is especially beneficial to older adults
BODY MIND AND BELLY 6 (Katula, Blissmer, & McAuley, 1999) Belly dance, being a low impact exercise (Al Rawi, 1999), may theref ore be an activity that can help to reduce anxiety and boost body image across a wide age range. Dance, movement, and posture Researchers have examined movement, posture and dance both inside and outside the context of DMT Dance movement therapy is defined by the American Dance is used in treatment of learning disorders, schizoph renia, autism, eating disorders, and several oth er psychological conditions. Dance movement therapy pulls from many different dance & Pruzinsky, 1990). Belly dance is very rhythmic and full of emotional expression, and should be examined as a possible addi tion to DMT curricula as well as a psychologically beneficial exercise to complement daily life and/ or psychotherapy. Dance and it s Associations With Stress, Mood, & Health Dance movement therapy has been shown to improve psyc hological distress and modulate neurohormones in mildly depressed adolescents (Jeong Hon, Lee, and Park, 2005). Several researchers in Korea collaborated on a study examining psychological health and changes in neurohormones of mildly depressed adolescents after 12 weeks of DMT sessions. Participants were 40 middle school students (mean age being 16 years). Participants were randomly assigned to either the expe rimental (DMT) group ( N =20) or the control (no DMT) group ( N =20). Dance movement therapy occur r ed in 45 minute
BODY MIND AND BELLY 7 sessions held three times weekly over the course of 12 weeks. During these s essions, participants explored four main themes: awareness of the body, the room, and the group; expression through movement and the symbolic quality of movement; feelin gs, images, and words evoked th r o ugh movement; differentiation and integration of feelings brought up through movement. Re sults showe d that psychological distress decreas ed significantly after the 12 weeks of DMT and that plasma serotonin concentration increased while dopamine concentrat ion decreased. DMT provides improvements in images, clarifying ego bou ndaries, providing an outlet for physical tension, anxiety and Eke and Gent (2010) studied the benefits o f a DMT program as applied to withdrawn adolescents in secondary school through a group case study. The group that ha d been holding such programs for three years at the time of th e study. There were eight girls in the group, all aged 12, and they parti cipated in 10 sessions starting in the month of September. At th e beginning of the program, the girls used movement and postures to express stress, anger and an xiety in their lives As these issues were worked through over the course of the program, the be nefits of DMT became apparent. The importance of the connection between moving and being was explored, reinforced, and used to form a more complete sense of self, with less anxiety a nd more openness to others. The authors point out that the program seemed to offer what the adolescent girls expressed they wanted most: a safe space for inner reflection with peer trust, f ree from the fear of rejection.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 8 In a pilot study conducted with patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUSs), Payne (2009) e mployed a DMT BodyMind approach is based on the view of the body as a sort of theater for mental experiences such as stress, trauma, and emotions. This is appealing to many patients with MUSs who refuse psychological supp ort because they associate it with a stigma and see themselves as having strictly bodily conditions. The BodyMind program employed in the study took place over 12 weeks. Participants for the program and study were recruited by referred. Eighteen adults took part in the study (15 female, 3 male). Age of participants ranged from 21 81, with a median age of 48 and an inter quartile range of 34 54 years. Participants completed semi structured interviews at baseline (before program), mid program, immediately post program, and at a 3 month follow up session Analysis of qualitative interview c onducted with patients showed that participants felt the DMT BodyMind provided a supporti ve atmosphere which helped them to more effectively self manage their health and make positive life choices. Participants also filled out Counseling Outcome Routine Evaluation (CORE) and Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) forms. Results from these forms were reported in a separate article (Payne & Stott, 2010), and showed positive outcomes from the program. Participants had increased activity levels and more positive well being, and saw a reduction in visits to general practitioners, medicatio n usage, and experienced fewer MUSs. All participants maintained these qualities at the 3 month follow up. Winters (2008) addressed the question of emotional response to either watching a person model postures or actively embodying those postures. Fo r th is study, an open
BODY MIND AND BELLY 9 ended Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy Test of Posture (DANA2 POS) was used. The DANA2 POS is a test that asks participants to categorize 24 photographs of peopl e in various postures as happy, sad, angry, fearful, or none of the above. Participants (N = 41, 4 males and 37 females) were placed in one of two conditions: observing a model embodying postures from the DANVA2 POS or observing a photo of each posture, then embodying it him / were then coded into one of four categories: happy, sad, angry or fearful. Results showed that of postures do not differ on the basis of whether the posture is observed or embodied. American Tribal Style belly dance, created by Carol eena Nericcio in California, involves dancing as a group, and utilizes many dramatic and expressive postures (Dinicu, 2011). It is possible that elements of this completely western branch of belly dance may be able to be used to explore and elicit emotions through both observation and action. West, Otte, Geher, Johnson, and Mohr (2004) found that Hatha yoga and African dance courses reduced perceived stress and negative affect in college students. The study examined the effects of Hatha yoga and African dance on perceived stress, affect and salivary cortisol levels in college students. Participants were 69 healthy undergraduate students (47 female, 22 male, with a mean age of 19), and were enrolled in either a Hatha yoga course, an African dance course, or a biology lecture. There were 18 students in the Hatha yoga condition, 21 students in the African dance condition, and 30 students in the bio logy lecture condition. Data were collected during a thr ee day window three weeks into the semester. To measure perceived stress, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used. To measure affect, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was
BODY MIND AND BELLY 10 administered. Cortisol levels were obtained using a chemiluminesce nce immunometric assay. Results sho wed significant reduction in perceived stress for African dance and Hatha yoga, while there was no significant change in the biology lecture group. Scores similarly decreased significantly for negative affect in both the dance and yoga courses but not the biology lecture. Salivary cor t isol levels remained steady in the biology group, dropped in the yoga group, and rose in the dance group (likely because of the higher level of physical exertion involved in African dance). W hile the study had severe limitations such as no random assignment (participants self selected) and no long term measurements, the results are promising because they support the theory that movement based courses are indeed capable of lowering stress in pe ople. On a different note, Caldwell, Harrison, Adams, Quinn & Greeson (2010) found that movement based courses increase mindfulness and improve sleep quality in college students. One hundred and sixty college students enrolled for the semester in Pilates GYROKENESIS (an exercise developed by Juliu Horvath that employs principals of dance, yoga, gymnastics, and taiji quan ), or t aiji quan (a martial art ) classes completed the study; no students were enrolled in more than one of the classes listed above. Pa rticipants ranged in age from 18 to 41 years of age and showed baseline activity levels of 1 20 weekly hours of exercise. The study investigated if mindfulness increases through participation in movement based courses, and if changes in self regulation, mood, and perceived stress effect the relationship between mindfulness and better sleep. To assess mindfulness, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) was administered. For assessing sleep, researchers administered the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Inde x (PSQI). Self regulation, mood, and perceived stress were assessed using the Self
BODY MIND AND BELLY 11 regulatory Self effica cy S cale (SRE), Four Dimensional Mood Scale (FDMS), and Perceived Stress Scale 4 (PSS4). Participants took the surveys at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester. Mindfulness increased significantly across time for total score on the FFMQ in all classes with t aiji quan showing higher scores than Pilates and GYROKINESIS. While self regulation was not found to lead to better sleep, a more relaxed mood and lower perceived stress caused by mindfulness did lead to better sleep. Looking at the body in the context of psychotherapy, Berg, Sandhal, and Bullington focused body psychotherapy in treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Affect focused body psychotherapy (ABP) integrates physiotherapy with affect focused psychotherapy. Thirty patients ( 23 female, 7 male) diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and recruited from six different psychiatric clinics took part in an ABP program. The program took place in hour long sessions held weekly over the course of a year. During this time, patients did not receive any other form of psychotherapy, but did have access to a physician to address any medication upkeep and needs Qualitative interviews were conducted at the end of the program and again one year after the program. Analysis of these intervi ews showed that the program gave patients a feeling of being in control of their bodies, as well as a deeper understanding of the connection between their emotions and the bodily symptoms those emotions can produce. The researchers also noted that openness toward the therapy program itself was essential to successful treatment. Because of this, it is important to have as many treatment modalities as possible available to patients receiving psychotherapy. Body Image
BODY MIND AND BELLY 12 More of the potential benefits of DMT are explored in a discussion about DMT in a psychiatric outpatient clinic (Pylvninen, 2010). The DMT program was offered to groups of adult outpatients (mostly female) over the duration of 10 weeks. The therapy sessions themselves involved warm up sequ ences (focusing on working through tiredness and anxiety, feeling grounded, and bringing attention to breathing) and exploring themes such as threat vs. safety through various mo vements. The author identified six main benefits that DMT brought to the gro up. The first of these was emotional release resulting in a relaxation of the autonomic nervous system. The therapy also provided a new way of dealing with images, memories and associations that the patients had been previously unable to address, as well a s allowing for symbolic expression of the self. The DMT sessions also allowed for group members to form a more active and integrated relationship with the self and the body, and g ave group members practice with experiencing their bodies in the present. P ollatou, Bakali, Theodorakis, and Goudas (2010) conducted a study looking at body image in female professional and amateur danc ers. Participants were 200 dancers (115 professionals and 85 ama teurs) Each participant completed the Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). The MBSRQ is a 69 item survey that includes 10 subscales: Appearance Evaluation, Appearance Orientation, Fitness Evaluation, Fitness Orientation, Health Evaluation, Health Orientation, and Illness Orientation. Each of thes e subscales has acceptable internal consistency and stability (Cash, 2000). Analysis of the MBSRQ responses revealed that professional dancers possessed higher mean scores on the fitness orientation subscale and less body areas satisfaction than amateur da ncers. Amateur dancers, however, did have higher mean
BODY MIND AND BELLY 13 scores for overweight preoccupation. Dance status had no significant effect on the other subscales of the MBSRQ. Th is raises an important question, about how dance classes are taught, that will be discu ssed later in the section addressing the present study. Aerobic dance, as part of a non professional group dance program, helps to boost body image in healthy, middle aged women (Hos, 2005). The study observed the effects of a group aerobic dance program lasting for one year and occurring three times a week. Participants consisted of 53 healthy women with a mean age of 48 years. All women were employed at the same company, had sedentary jobs, and were taking no exercise programs nor participating in any r egular physical activity. The experimental group, the group that took the dance program, consisted of 25 women. The control group, who did not take any program, consisted of 28 people. Both groups possessed similar baseline self esteem and self image value s. The Rosenberg Self esteem Scale was used to assess self esteem. The Tennessee Self image Test measured total self image. The test includes subscales for body image, moral self image, individual self image, family self image, and social self image. Parti cipants were tested at baseline (before the program) and after the program. Results showed an increase in self esteem and all self image subscales in the experimental group, while the control group only experienced increases in social self image. Prolonged exposure of at least one year of aerobic dance training does improve body image and overall self image. Addressing posture specifically, Scarpa, Nart, Gobbi, and Carraro (2011) found rrection exercises. Participants were 217 women between the ages of 50 and 70 years T he experimental group was made up of 112 women who performed a postural correction
BODY MIND AND BELLY 14 exercise, while the control group was made up of 105 women who read newspapers instead of performing the exercise. The Body Image States Scale was used to measure body image before and after the experiment. Results showed that body image scores of women who participated in the postural correction exercise were highe r than before the exercise, while women in the control group had no change in body image. Dance movement therapy programs help alleviate mild depression, and can help patients experiencing medically unexplained symptoms (Jeong et al., 2005; Payne, 2009). Dance movement therapy programs can also create a safe space among women for inner reflection and self exploration (Eke & Gent, 2010). This safe space could be easily re created in belly dance classes, specifically in the traditional setting of women gat hering together to dance as an inclusive and non judgmental community (Al Rawi, 1999). Patients receivin g therapy, though, must have an open and willing attitude for successful treatment (Berg et al., 2010). Therefore, patients should have many treatment m odalities to choose from. Belly dance could also be implemented not as a therapy in and of itself, but as part of a larger, more comprehensive treatment plan. P osture correction exercises boost body image (Scarpa et al., 2011). It is not too far a stretch to say that dance in gene ral helps to improve posture, which would make belly dance a viable option for those looking to improve posture, as well as those seeking to boost body image. Moreover, dance can help to reduce stress and improve both mood and sleep quality (Berg et al., 2010), and steady dance training of one year or more helps to improve body image (Hos, 2005). If these benefits also apply to belly dance, then belly dance classes could be suggested to ps ycho therapy patients as something that could contribute to becoming and staying healthier.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 15 Belly dance Although there is little to no psychological literature on belly dance, there is literature on the subject of belly dance written by dancers and rese archers in the field s of gender studies and anthropology Downey, Reel, SooHoo, and Zerbib (2010) looked at belly dance in the context of body and gender norms. They administered surveys to 103 belly dancers in Utah. They compared their findings with other gender studies research on the influence of dance on body image. Research showed that belly dance provided a counter example to more traditional dance forms that emphasize narrow body image norms. Analysis of the survey showed that belly dancers tended to have a broader and more inclusive idea of what normal bodies are, created dance spaces with a lack of pressure for body image conformity, and possessed generally high levels of body satisfaction. In a semi autobiographical book, author Rosina Fawzia Al Rawi (1999) writes about her take on the art and healing power of belly dance. According to Al Rawi, belly dance allo ws women (and increasingly, men ) to break through cultural norms. When learning new body movements through belly dance, one becomes more self aware in all aspects, both positive and negative. Al Rawi also stresses that belly dance is traditionally done for one self and for other women no t for public performance. Historically and even to this day in middle eastern culture, the norm is for wo men to only dance in their homes or at family weddings, and to have their bellies covered or be wearing normal clothing when dancing. This is important because often in the west, particularly in America, belly dance is perceived as something that is done p rimarily for entertainment and show, and
BODY MIND AND BELLY 16 only secondarily as something that is done privately or semi privately for pure enjoyment. If belly dance were to be used in a psychological setting, the therapist or instructor using belly dance techniques should m ake it clear that what they are teaching (the aspects of belly dance they are utilizing as part of therapy) is not geared toward professional performance, but rather as something that people can do primarily for themselves, their own health, and their own enjoyment. This way, belly dance can happen in a very safe environment and the people learning it can be allowed to approach it in a very relaxed, paced manner, without the pressure that comes with training in a dance form with the goal of performing for m oney in front of a public audience. Dancer Morocco (C. Varga Dinicu) provides a plethora of personal research and experience in her book about raqs sharqi (what we call oriental dance, Middle E astern dance, or belly dance) and raqs shaabi (folkloric danc e). In particular, I wish to draw attention to her discussion about common styles or variations of raqs sharqi As previously mentioned, across all styles of belly dance that we see today, the basic movement vocabulary remains the same (Dinicu, 2012). In t raditional Egyptian belly dance, relaxed and confident movements are popular, and the main focus is on the hips. In Lebanese belly dance, there is more focus on the arms and hands. Lebanese belly dance also tends to be more flirtatious and wearing high he els (which can be dangerous and a detriment to performing hip movements) is popular with many dancers of this style. Turkish belly dance, on the other hand, is very bright and vivacious, often incorporating many traditional folk dance movements. American T ribal Style (ATS) is typically performed in a group, and involves a combination of hip movements, arm and hand movements, and torso undulations.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 17 With all of these variations on the same theme, it is easy to pick and choose which elements to keep and which to exclude when teaching or performing. For example, a teacher might combine the relaxed hip work of Egyptian belly dance with the graceful arm movements of Lebanese belly dance. This could be very advantageous when thinking about belly dance as applied t o dance movement therapy. When integrating belly dance movements into the therapy process, it would be easy for the therapist to pick and choose elements (like a focus on moving the hands, or circular hip movements) to meet the needs of the patient and the goals of the therapy program. In relation to the current study Because there is no empirical psychological research on belly dance, as there has been on other dance forms, the field is wide open for new research. There are many possible benefits to bell y dance, such as improved balance and posture, lower stress and anxiety, and healthier body image. However, none of these benefits have been scientifically proven, and before belly dance is examined as a possible DMT treatment modality or an addition to ps ychotherapy, basic questions need to be answered. Two aspects of psychological health, body image and perceived stress levels, should be measured. It is important to see how belly dance, in at least these two aspects, compares to other dance forms. If bell y dancers have comparable or more favorable scores in terms of body image and perceived stress levels, this would bode well for future research. Once such basic information is know n more complex questions can be investigated. The Current Study As previously discussed, there is a strong body of research addressing the psychological benefits of exercise, various forms of movement and dance, and dance
BODY MIND AND BELLY 18 movement therapy Exercise, both aerobic and anaerobic, s atisfaction (He nry, Anschel, & Michael, 2006 ), and reduces anxiety in older adults (Katula, Bliss mer, & McAuley, 1999). Movement based courses, such as Pilates and Tai Chi, lower perceived stress and promote better sleep (Caldwell et al., 2010). Dance movement therapy le ssens psychological distress in mildly depressed adolescents (Jeong et al, 2005). Observing a posture elicits the same emotional response as if one were to embody that posture (Winters, 2008). This could be of particular use to both therapists and dance in structors as they work to create and maintain emotionally positive environments, by using posture and carriage to convey self confidence and body positivity. However, professional dancers show higher body image dissatisfaction than amateur dancers (Pollato u et al., 2010). Professional dancers also often experience such adverse symptoms as disrupted and decreased sleep times and a drop in general well being for several days before public performances (Fietze, Strauch, Holzhausen, Glos Theobald, Lehnkering, & Penzel, 2009). Therefore, the most psychologically beneficial dance should be taught without the aim of producing professional performers. Research outside of the field of psychology indicates that belly dance can provide women with valuable information about their bodies, and allows women to feel more positive about themselves by b reaking away from conventional w estern standards of beauty (Bock & Bor land, 2011). Belly dancing in the United States also offers women a non indige nous theatrical form throug h which to express themselves outside of pre established artistic mediums (Sellers Young 1992). Despite all of the information available about DMT and the psychological effects of exercise and dance, in addition to research on belly dance outside of the field of
BODY MIND AND BELLY 19 psychology, there is no resear ch on the psychological correlates of belly dance by itself or as part of a dance movement therapy program. Furthermore, there is no psychological research on differences between professional and amateur belly dancer s. There is also no research that com pares the psychological correlates of belly dance to other dance forms, such as modern dance and ballet. Therefore, my study investigated and compared levels of perceived stress and body image, specifically appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, body areas satisfaction, overweight preoccupation, and weight class, between belly dancers and those who study other dance forms. This was achieved through the distribution of a survey to practitioners of belly dance, modern dance, ballet, and other dance forms. The survey assessed appearance evaluation appearance orientation, body areas satisfaction, overweight preoccupation, weight class, perceived stress, level of dance experience (amateur, experien ced, professional), and type of dance studied. Method Participants Participants were 177 dancers (9 male, 168 female). Of these, 113 were belly dancers and 64 were dancers of other styles; 167 were U.S. citizens and 10 were not. Fifty participants were amateur dancers, 65 were experienced dancers, and 62 were professional dancers. Participants ranged in age from 18 75 years, with a mean age of 35 years. Despite the survey being aimed at adults, three people under 18 years responded. Their data were excluded from all analyses.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 20 Measures Participants completed a survey c reated and hosted on an online survey website. For a full copy of the survey, refer to Appendix A. Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire The first section of the survey is comprised of the 34 item Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questi onnaire Appearances S cale s (MBSRQ AS), developed by Thomas Cash (Cash, 2000; Brown, Cash, & Mikulka, 1990). The first subscale of the MBSRQ AS is the Appearance E valuation scale, consisting of seven items ( = .89) This subscale gauges feel i ngs o f physical attractiveness/unattractiveness and satisfaction/ dissatisfaction with one s looks. High m 1 (definitely disagree) to 5 (definitely agree). The Appearance Orientation subscale is the second of the MBSRQ AS and consists of 12 items ( = .85) grooming behaviors, importance of how one l ooks. High scores indicate more dedication, agree). The third subsection of the MBSRQ AS is the Body Areas Satis faction Scale, and consists of nine items ( = .81) This subscale is similar to the Appearance Evaluation scale, but deals with specific areas of the body rather than overall appearance and attractiveness. Like the Ap pearance Evaluation subscale, high scores indicate
BODY MIND AND BELLY 21 Overweight Preoccupation is th e fourth of the subscales, and consists of four items ( = .74) It gauges fat anxiety, weight monitoring, dieting, and eating restraint. High scores indicate more of these behaviors, while low scores indicate less. Sample 1 (definitely disagree) to 5 (definitely agree). The last subscale of the MBSRQ AS is Self Classified W eight. This two item ( = .81) ght. Sample (very overweight). Perceived Stress Scale The second section of the survey is comprised of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), developed by Sheldon Cohen ( Cohen, Kamarck, & Marmelstein, 1983). There are 10 items ( = .89) life are deemed stressful. In the last month, how often have you felt nervous th responses ranging from 0 (a lmost never) to 4 (very often). Demographic Questions The third section of this survey, developed specifically for this study, was comprised of questions assessing style of dance studied by participants, hours spent dancing, experience level, as well as age, gender, and U.S. citizenship. Sample question: (an amateur dancer) 2 (an
BODY MIND AND BELLY 22 experienced dancer), or 3 (a professional dancer). Participants had the option of se lecting the experienced dancer answer because this presented a more nuanced view of dance than the strict amateur vs. professional model. Procedure Surveys were distributed by posting a survey link (with recruitment letter) to Facebook groups focusing on dance, and by contacting dance instructors and requesting that they distribute the study recruitment letter, which includ ed a link to the online survey. A copy of the letter can be found in Appendix B Participants were told that the survey asked quest ions about body image, stress, and personal dance practices, and were advised that the survey would take about 10 minutes to complete. All participants who consented to take part in the study saw the same survey layout. Results This study was created to measure and compare body image and perceived stress between belly dancers and dancers of other styles. Analyses were performed to discover not only if any differences exist between belly dancers and other dancers in terms of body image and perceived stres s, but also to discover if amateur, experienced, and professional dancers differ from each other in terms of body image and perceived stress. Range, mean, and standard deviation of MBSRQ AS and PSS es ranged from 1.00 5.00, M = 3.68, SD = .79. The appearance orientation subscale showed scores ranging from 1.58 4.83, M = 3.30. On the body areas satisfaction scale, participants scores ranged from 1.55 5.00, M = 3.53, SD= .67. Participants scores for overweight
BODY MIND AND BELLY 23 preoccupation ranged from 1.00 5.00, M = 2.56, SD = .94. The self classified weight subscale showed scores ranging from 2.00 5.00, M = 3.31, SD = .67. On the PSS portion of the survey, scores ranged from 1.00 39.00, M = 16.75, SD = 6.5 6. Belly dancers and dancers of other styles Analysis of the data in this sample indicate that belly dancers had higher weight class scores (M = 3.42, SD = .67), than dancers of other styles (M = 3.12, SD = .61), t (174) = 2.97, p < .01. Belly dancers were also older (M = 38.12, SD = 10.09) than dancers of other styles (M = 31.27, SD = 15.34), t (175) = 6.84, p < .01. Belly dancers (M = 3.66, SD = .78) were similar to other dancers (M = 3.76, SD = .80) in terms of appearance eval uation, t (175) = .80, p = .42, ns. Both groups (belly dancers, other dancers) were similar in terms of appearance orientation (M = 3.29, SD = .66; M = 3.30, SD = .61), t (175) = .13, p = .89, ns. Scores on the body areas satisfaction scale were similar fo r both groups (belly dancers: M = 3.55, SD = .66; other dancers: M = 3.51, SD = .61) t (175) = .38, p = .69, ns. Similarly, scores for overweight preoccupation were nearly equal between groups (belly dancers: M = 2.56, SD = .95; other dancers: M = 2.53, S D = .91) t (175) = .23, p = .81, ns. Finally, both groups of participant scored similarly on the perceived stress scale (belly dancers: M = 16.72, SD = 6.87; other dancers: M = 16.62, SD = 6.13) t (175) = .09, p = .92, ns. Experience level of dancers All participants responded to a question about their experience level as dancers, labeling themselves a s amateur, experienced, or professional. A one way ANOVA revealed significant differences between experience levels and appearance evaluation, such that amateurs (M = 3.42, SE = .10) had the lowest appearance evaluation scores,
BODY MIND AND BELLY 24 experienced dancers (M = 3.67, SE = .10) had higher appearance evaluation scores, and professional dancers (M = 3.96, SE = .10) had the highest appearance evaluation scores, F (2,17 4) = 6.50, p = .002. Discussion Below, the results of the data analyses performed in this study are discussed in depth, taking real world implications into consideration. MBSRQ AS and PSS scores in relation to dance style Even though belly dancers were older and weighed more than dancers of other styles, they had similar scores on all other subscales of the MBSRQ and on the PSS. These results are consistent with the idea that belly dance challenges traditional, narrow body image norms and allows an acceptance of a wider range of body types (Downey et al., 2010). There is already research that shows other dance styles to be effective in lowering perceived stress and anxiety, and increasing positive body image (Caldwell et al. 2010; Hos, 2005; Katula, Blissmer, & McAuley, 1999). Because belly dancers were on par with other dancers in the present study, in terms of stress levels and body image, might belly dance also be effective in lowering stress and boosting positive body im age? Currently it is unclear, and future research in this area would need to include comparisons between belly dancers and non dancers, not just belly dancers and other dancers. MBSRQ Results r were unexpected. Contrary to previous research by Pollatou et al. (2010), professional dancers did not show higher body image dissatisfaction compared to dancers of lower
BODY MIND AND BELLY 25 experience levels. In fact, professional dancers showed more positive appearance evaluation (in other words, they felt more physically attractive and satisfied with their looks) than both amateur and experienced dancers. Not only that, but scores for appearance orientation, body areas satisfaction, weight preoccupation, weight class, and perceived stress were statistically equal across all experience levels. This could be looked at a looked at professionally active dancers who were also enrolled in dance schools. Dancer s in the present study self selected their expe rience levels. Perhaps this led to people having a more fluid idea of what constituted each category. For example, dancers who have been active a long time but perhaps lack confidence might label themselves as amateurs while dancers who have just started but enjoyed much positive social feedback might l abel themselves as experienced or professional. However, if the present study were replicated, it would not be surprising to find results in a different or larger sample to be more consistent with previous research stating that professional dancers suffer lowered body image satisfaction and higher stress levels (Fietze et al., 2009; Pollatou et al., 2010). Limitations and Future Research This study was not without limitations. As previously mentioned, there are many variations of dance that fall und er the umbrella of belly dance/Middle Eastern dance/ raqs sharqi (C. V. Dinicu, 2011). The present study lumped all of these variations and styles of dance under one name, which while commonly done, does not offer as nuanced a view of belly dance as could be off ered. There were also not enough responses from dancers of other styles to compare belly dance to ballet specifically, or modern dance
BODY MIND AND BELLY 26 specifically. Instead, all of the dancers who responded as studying any form of dance that was not belly dance were lumpe d into one category, so that there would be enough participants to perform statistically meaningful analyses between groups. Future research should strive to examine the nuances of belly dance, comparing different styles of belly dance (e.g. classical Eg yptian, tribal fusion, American Tribal Style, Turkish) to each other. Future research should also strive to compare belly dance to specific other styles of dance (e.g. ballet, modern, hip hop) instead of a general sample of other dance styles. It would als o be interesting to compare belly dance to other movement modalities such as Tai Chi in terms of effect on stress and body image. The current study also only looked at perceived stress levels and the appearances subscales of the MBSRQ. Future research in this area should investigate the relationship of belly dance to more aspects of mental health, such as state and trait anxiety, self esteem, and depression. If a larger amount of research points toward belly dance being psychologically beneficial, then be lly dance can be experimentally worked into existing dance movement therapy models, offering a wider range of treatment modalities to patients. Conclusion While plenty of research has focused on the psychological benefits of exercise (Katula, Blissmer, & McAuley, 1999; Koyuncu et al., 2010; Netz & Lidor, 2003), aerobic dance and African dance (Rudolph & Kim, 1996; West et al., 2004), psychological research has been silent on the topic of belly dance in relation to psychological health. The current study a ssessed belly dancers in terms of body image and perceived stress, as compared to dancers of other styles. Belly dancers were found to be older and heavier
BODY MIND AND BELLY 27 than other dancers, but nevertheless were not significantly different in terms of perceived stress l evels and body image satisfaction. This is promising, given that other forms of dance have already been recognized as being psychologically beneficial in terms of reducing stress and boosting body image. Dance forms other than belly dance (such as modern d ance and improvisational movement) are used in various dance movement therapy techniques, effectively helping patients to cope with a variety of troubles ranging from medically unexplained symptoms to depression and social withdrawal (Payne, 2009; Jeong et al., 2005; Eke & Gent, 2010). The results of this study suggest further, more detailed research into the various types of belly dance and the potential they have to positively impact psychological health is warranted. With more research, it is possible th at movement modalities and techniques found in various styles of belly dance can be effectively worked into dance movement therapy models, offering more options to patients seeking improved psychological health.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 28 References Al Rawi R. F. (2003). belly dancing. Northampton, MA: Interlink Publishing Group, Inc. processes in affect focus ed body psychotherapy for generalised anxiety disorder. Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, 5 151 169. Bock, S., & Borland, K. (2011). Exotic identities: Dance, difference and self fashioning. Journal of Folklore Research, 48, 1 32. Brown, T.A., Cash, T.F., & Mikulka, P.J. (1990). Attitudinal body image assessment: Factor analysis of the Body Self Relations Questionnaire Journal of Personality Assessment, 55, 135 144. Caldwell, M., Harrison, M., Adams, M., Quinn, R., & Greeson, J. (2010). Developing mindfulness in college students through movement based courses: Effects on self regulatory self efficacy, mood, stress, and sleep quality. Journal of American College Health, 58, 443 440. Cash, T. F. (2000). ird Revision. Available from http://www.body images.com/assessments/order.html Cash, T. F., & Pruzinsky (Eds.). (1990). Body I mages: Development, Deviance, and Change New York: Guilford Press. Dinicu, C. V. (2012). You asked Aunt Rocky: Answers and advic e about raqs sharqi and raqs shaabi. Virginia Beach, VA: RDI Publications.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 29 Downey, D., Reel, J., SooHoo, S., & Zerbib, S. (2010). Body image in belly dance: Integrating alternative norms into collective identity. Journal of Gender Studies, 19, 377 39 3. Eke, L., & Gent, A. (2010). Working with withdrawn adolescents as a moving experience: A community resourced project exploring the usefulness of group dance movement psychotherapy within a school setting. Body, Movement, and Dance in Psychotherapy, 5, 45 57. Fietze, I., Strauch, J., Holzhausen, M., Glos, M., Theobald, C., Lehnkering, H., & Penzel, T. (2009). Sleep Quality in Professional Ballet Dancers. Chronobiology International, 26, 1249 1262. Foltz Gray, D. (2005). Hip, dip, shimmy, shimm y: Belly dancing can loosen your hips and your inhibitions. Health, 17, 74 76. Goldfarb, L. Wm. (1993). Felden WHAT? Retrieved from http://www.feldenkrais.com/method/article/felden_what/ Henry, R. N., Anshel, M. H., & Michael, T. (2006). Effects of a erobic and circuit training on fitness and body image among women. Journal of Sport Behavior, 29, 281 303. Hos, A. (2005). The effects of guided systematic aerobic dance programme on the self esteem of adults. Kinesiology, 37, 141 150. Jeong Y., Hong, S., Lee, M., & Park, M. (2005). Dance movement therapy improves emotional responses and modulates neurohormones in adolescents with mild depression. International Journal of Neuroscience, 115, 1711 1720.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 30 Katula, J. A., Blissmer, B. J., & M cAuley, E. (1999). Exercise intensity and self efficacy effects on anxiety reduction in healthy, older adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 223 246. Koyuncu, M., Tok, S., Canpolat, A. M., & Catikkas, F. (2010). Body image satisfaction and diss atisfaction, social physique anxiety, self esteem, and body fat ratio in female exercisers and nonexercisers. Social Behavior and Personality, 38, 561 570. Netz, Y., & Lidor, R. (2003). Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes. The Journal of Psychology, 137, 405 419. Payne, H. (2009). Pilot study to evaluate Dance Movement Psychotherapy (the BodyMind Approach) in patients with medically unexplained symptoms: Participant and facilitator perceptions and a summary discussion. Body Movement, and Dance in Psychotherapy, 4, 77 94. Payne, H., & Stott, D. (2010). Change in the moving bodymind: Quantitative results from a pilot study on the use of the BodyMind approach to psychotherapeutic group work with patients with medically unexplained symptoms. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 10, 295 306. Pollatou, E., Bakali, N., Theodorakis, Y., & Goudas, M. (2010). Body image in female professional and amateur dancers. Research in Dance Education, 11, 131 137. Pylvninen P. (2010). The dance/movement therapy group in a psychiatric outpatient clinic: Explorations in body image and interaction. Body, Movement, and Dance in Psychotherapy, 5, 219 230.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 31 Rudolph, D., & Kim, J. (1996). Mood responses to recreational sport and exercise in a Korean sample. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 841 849. body image improve after one session o f posture correction exercises? Social Behavior & Personality, 39, 1045 1052. Sellers Young, B. (1992). Raks el sharki: Transculturation of a folk form. Journal of Popular Culture, 26, 141 152. Stoll, O., & Alfermann, D. (2002). Effects of physic al exercise on resources evaluation, body self concept, and well being among older adults. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 15, 311 319. Toker, S., & Biron, M. (2012). Job burnout and depression: Unraveling their temporal relationship and considering th e role of physical activity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 9, 699 710. West, J., Otte, C., Geher, K., Johnson, J., & Mohr, D. (2004). Effects of Hatha yoga and African dance on perceived stress, affect, and salivary cortisol. Annals of Behavioral Me dicine, 28, 114 118. Winters, A. (2008). Emotion, embodiment, and mirror neurons in dance/ movement therapy: A connection across disciplines. American Journal of Dance Therapy, 30, 84 105.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 32 Append ix A Full copy of the survey used in the current study Title of research study: Body Image and Perceived Stress in Various Dance Types Person in charge of study: Rebecca Porzig The purpose of this research study is to investigate body image and perceived stress among dancers. Description: You are invited to participate in a research study on perceived stress and body image. You will be asked to take a survey about perceived stress, body image, and your dance practices. Your participation will take between 10 and 15 minutes. Benefits of Being a Part of this Research Study: By participating in this study, you may become more self aware about your levels of perceived stress. Risks of Being a Part of this Research Study: There are minimal risks associated with this research study. If for any reason you feel distressed by any of the questions, know that you may stop the survey at any time and have no obligation to participate. If you are feeling very emotionally distressed and as if you are at risk for harming yourself or others, please contact the Nation al Suicide Prevention Lifeline at (800) 273TALK (8255). Confidentiality of Your Records: Your privacy is important. However, the results of this study may be published. Your individual privacy will be maintained in all published and written data resulting from the study. Only authorized research personnel, employees of the Department of Health and Human Services and the New College of Florida Institutional Review Board may inspect the data from this research project. The data
BODY MIND AND BELLY 33 obtained from y ou will be combined with the data from others in this publication. The published results will not include your name or any other information that would personally identify you in any way. Volunteering to Be Part of this Research Study: If you have read thi s form and have decided to participate in this project, please understand that your participation is voluntary and you have the right to withdraw your consent or discontinue participation at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are oth erwise entitled. You have the right to refuse to answer particular questions. Questions and Contacts: If you have any questions about this research study, contact Rebecca Porzig at: firstname.lastname@example.org If you have questions about your rights as a person who is taking part in a research study, you may contact the Human Protections Administrator of New College of Florida at: (941) 487 4649 or by email at: email@example.com Consent to Take Part in This Research Study: By selecting the "Yes, I consent to take part in this research study" option below and providing your electronic signature (your typed name), you agree that: I have fully read or have had read and explained to me this informed consent form describing this research project I have had the opportunity t o question the person in charge of this research and have received satisfactory answers. I understand that I am being asked to participate in research. I understand the risks and benefits, and I freely give my consent to participate in the research project outlined in this form, under the conditions indicated in it.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 34 Yes, I consent to take part in this research study No, I do not consent to take part in this research study Electronic Signature : The following pages contain a series of statements about how people might think, fe el, or behave. You are asked to indicate the extent to which each statem ent pertains to you personally. Your answers to the items in the questionnaire are anonymous. In order to complete the questionnaire, read each statement carefully and decide how much it pertains to you personally. Using a scale like the one below, indicate your answer by entering it to the left of the number of the statement. EXAMPLE: I am usually in a good mood. Please select the answer that best describe s you from the list below: Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree There are no right or wrong answers. Just give the answer that is most accurate for you. Remember, your responses are confidential, so please be completely honest and answer all items. However, you will not be penalized and will be able to continue the survey even if you leave some items blank.
BODY MIND AND BELLY 35 1. Before going out in public, I always notice how I look. Definitely Disagree Mostly Dis agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 2. I am careful to buy clothes that will make me look my best. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 3. My body is sexual ly appealing. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree
BODY MIND AND BELLY 36 4. I constantly worry about being or becoming fat. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 5. I like my looks just the way they are. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 6. I check my appearance in a mirror whenever I can. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree
BODY MIND AND BELLY 37 7. Before going out, I usually spend a lot of time getting ready. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 8. I am very conscious of even small changes in my weight. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 9. Most people would consider me good looking. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Nei ther Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree
BODY MIND AND BELLY 38 10. It is important that I always look good. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 11. I use very few grooming products. Defi nitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 12. I like the way I look without my clothes on. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree
BODY MIND AND BELLY 39 13. I am self conscious if my grooming isn't right. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 14. I usually wear whatever is handy without caring how it looks. Definitely Disagree Mostly Di sagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 15. I like the way my clothes fit me. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree
BODY MIND AND BELLY 40 16. I don't care what people think about my appearance. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 17. I take special care with my hair grooming. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 18. I dislike my physique. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree
BODY MIND AND BELLY 41 19. I am physically unattractive. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 20. I never think about my appearance. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 21. I am always trying to improve my physical appearance. Definitel y Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree
BODY MIND AND BELLY 42 22. I am on a weightloss diet. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 23. I have tried to lose weight by fasting or going on crash diets. Never Rarely Sometime Often Very Often 24. I think I am: Very Underweight Somewhat Underweight Normal Weight Somewhat Overweight Very Overweight
BODY MIND AND BELLY 43 25. From looking at me, most other people would think I am: Very Underweight Somewhat Underweight Normal Weight Somewhat Overweight Very Overweight Use this 1 to 5 scale to indicate how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with each of the following areas or aspects of your body: 1. Very Dissatisfied 2. Mostly Dissatisfied 3. Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied 4. Mostly Satisfied 5. Very Satisfied 26. Face (facial features, complexion) Very Dissatisfied Mostly Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Mostly Satisf ied Very Satisfied
BODY MIND AND BELLY 44 27. Hair (color, thickness, texture) Very Dissatisfied Mostly Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Mostly Satisfied Very Satisfied 28. Lower torso (buttocks, hips, thighs, legs) Very Dissatisfied Mostly D issatisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Mostly Satisfied Very Satisfied 29. Mid torso (waist, stomach) Very Dissatisfied Mostly Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Mostly Satisfied Very Satisfied
BODY MIND AND BELLY 45 30. Upper torso (chest or breasts, shoulders, arms) Very Dissatisfied Mostly Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Mostly Satisfied Very Satisfied 31. Muscle tone Very Dissatisfied Mostly Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Most ly Satisfied Very Satisfied 32. Weight Very Dissatisfied Mostly Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Mostly Satisfied Very Satisfied
BODY MIND AND BELLY 46 33. Height Very Dissatisfied Mostly Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Mostly Satisfied Very Satisfied 34. Overall appearance Very Dissatisfied Mostly Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Mostly Satisfied Very Satisfied The questions in this scale ask you about your feelings and thoughts during the last month. In each case, you will be asked to indicate by selecting how often you felt or thought a certain way, according the the scale below: Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often
BODY MIND AND BELLY 47 1. In the last month, how often have you been upset because of something that happened unexpectedly? Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often 2. In the last month, how often have you felt that you were unable to control the important things in your life? Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often 3. In the last month, how often have you felt nervous and "stressed"? Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often
BODY MIND AND BELLY 48 4. In the last month, how often h ave you felt confident about your ability to handle your personal problems? Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often 5. In the last month, how often have you felt that things were going your way? Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often 6. In the last month, how often have you found that you could not cope with all the things that you had to do? Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often
BODY MIND AND BELLY 49 7. In the last month, how often have you been able to control irritations in your life? Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often 8. In the last month, how often have you felt that you were on top of things? Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often 9. In the last month, how often have you been angered because of things that were outside of your control? Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often
BODY MIND AND BELLY 50 10. In the last month, how often have you felt difficulties were piling up so hig h that you could not overcome them? Never Almost Never Sometimes Fairly Often Very Often In this section of the survey, you will be asked about your dance experience, both current and past 1. What is the primary form of dance that you currently study and/ or practice? If you currently study more than one type of dance, please choose the form of dance you spend the most time practicing/ studying. Ballet Modern Dance Belly Dance Hip Hop Ballroom Dance Other
BODY MIND AND BELLY 51 2. Do you currently study/ practice any other form(s) of dance? If so, please list them here: 3. About how many hours per week do you spend practicing and performing (if applicable) your primary dance form? 0 5 hours 6 10 hours 11 15 hours 16 20 hours 21 25 hours 26 30 hours 31 35 hours 36 40 hours 40+ hours 4. How many years (or months if less than 1 year) have you been studying/ practicing your primary dance form? Months: Years: 5. How many years (or months if less than 1 year) have you been studying/ practicing dance in general? This includes past dance forms that you no longer study. Months: Years:
BODY MIND AND BELLY 52 6. Please select the statement below that best describes you as a dancer: I consider myself an amateur dancer I consider myself an ex perienced, but not professional, dancer I consider myself a professional dancer 7. If you consider yourself a professional dancer, for how many years (or months if less than 1 year) have you danced professionally? This includes all professional dance experience you have ever had. Months: Years: In this final section of the survey, you will be asked some demographic questions. Remember that all of your responses are anonymous, so please answer all questions honestly. 1. What is your age? 2. What gende r do you identify as? Male Female Other I prefer not to respond 3. Are you a citizen of the United States of America? Yes No
BODY MIND AND BELLY 53 Appendix B Recruitment letter used for the current study Hello, If you are receiving this message, it is because you are likely to fit the criteria for participation in my short research survey. As part of my undergraduate thesis work in reated a survey looking at body image, stress, and dance. If you currently dance, or have ever studied dance, and are 18 years of age or older, I urge you to take this survey. The survey should take no more than 10 minutes to complete. All of your response s will be completely anonymous, and no personally identifying information will be collected, used, or released. Your participation would be greatly appreciated. Here is the survey link: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/GFDXCMK Sincere Thanks, Rebecca Porzig firstname.lastname@example.org