ERROR LOADING HTML FROM SOURCE (http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu//design/skins/UFDC/html/header_item.html)

FEMINIST METHODOLOGIES AND QUMRAN IDEOLOGIES

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004832/00001

Material Information

Title: FEMINIST METHODOLOGIES AND QUMRAN IDEOLOGIES RHETORICAL CRITICISM OF 1QS, THE COMMUNITY RULE SCROLL
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Mroz, Lacy
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2013
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Qumran
Dead Sea Scrolls
Feminist Methodology
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis critiques the scholarly method of imposing binary categories onto historical reconstruction. It examines sectarian attitudes toward the Temple in The Community Rule of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the complex relationship between the Qumran sect and Temple that binary systems conceal. Chapter One uses a feminist methodology to critique the categorical method and highlights the ways in which rhetorical analysis helps execute a feminist critical reading. Chapter Two highlights the limits and shortcomings of scholarship that relies on binary categories to understand Dead Sea Scrolls. Chapter Three applies rhetorical analysis to The Community Rule and investigates the complexities this scroll reveals regarding sectarian attitudes toward the Temple. This thesis argues that a feminist critical reading of The Community Rule reveals a complex relationship between the Qumran sectarians and the Temple-cult that the categorical method, by forcing things into simple categories, conceals from the scholarly eye. Furthermore, the evidence discussed in this thesis underscores the value of feminist methodologies in scholarship outside the field of gender studies.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lacy Mroz
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2013
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Marks, Susan

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2013 M9
System ID: NCFE004832:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004832/00001

Material Information

Title: FEMINIST METHODOLOGIES AND QUMRAN IDEOLOGIES RHETORICAL CRITICISM OF 1QS, THE COMMUNITY RULE SCROLL
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Mroz, Lacy
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2013
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Qumran
Dead Sea Scrolls
Feminist Methodology
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis critiques the scholarly method of imposing binary categories onto historical reconstruction. It examines sectarian attitudes toward the Temple in The Community Rule of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the complex relationship between the Qumran sect and Temple that binary systems conceal. Chapter One uses a feminist methodology to critique the categorical method and highlights the ways in which rhetorical analysis helps execute a feminist critical reading. Chapter Two highlights the limits and shortcomings of scholarship that relies on binary categories to understand Dead Sea Scrolls. Chapter Three applies rhetorical analysis to The Community Rule and investigates the complexities this scroll reveals regarding sectarian attitudes toward the Temple. This thesis argues that a feminist critical reading of The Community Rule reveals a complex relationship between the Qumran sectarians and the Temple-cult that the categorical method, by forcing things into simple categories, conceals from the scholarly eye. Furthermore, the evidence discussed in this thesis underscores the value of feminist methodologies in scholarship outside the field of gender studies.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lacy Mroz
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2013
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Marks, Susan

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2013 M9
System ID: NCFE004832:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

FEMINIST METHODOLOGIES AND QUMRAN IDEOLOGIES: RHETORICAL CRITICISM OF 1QS THE COMMUNITY RULE SCROLL BY Lacy Mroz A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Religious Studies New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degr ee Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Dr. Susan Marks Sarasota, Florida May, 2013

PAGE 2

ii Acknowledgments First and foremost, I would like to thank my family: My parents, Julie and Tony Mroz, for your endless love and support throughout the years. Thank you for encouraging me and pushing me to achieve everything I ever wanted in life so far. You taught me unconditional love, guided me through all of the tough times, and reminded me that I would always have a home, even if I was thousands of miles away. T hank you to my sister, Aubrey Mroz, for always giving me something to laugh about and for being the best little sister anyone could have asked for. You are my best friend. I would like to thank my thesis sponsor and advisor, Susan Marks, for all of the w ork that you've put in to turning the small idea I had in my third year into the thesis it is today. Academically, you taught me that the things I had to say were of import (and therefore, that I should never ever use passive voice), but on a more persona l level, you helped me grow and learn how to nourish my potential. Thank you to my committee members, Heather White and John Newman, for the time you spent reading my thesis and thinking about my ideas. But also for teaching such wonderful classes. Your co urses have served countless times as small reminders that concentrating in Religious Studies was the most fulfilling decision I've made in my academic career. I would like to thank my friends: Meg DeCordre and Angelina LaSalle for your endless comfort an d friendship. I am so happy that I know both of you and that we get to share lives on the same planet. Thank you for making me feel like I am invincible and thank you for your comfort when I find out I am not. You both are perfect and I will always cherish the moments we share, which are some of the silliest, happiest, and spiritually fulfilling moments I've had in my life. Thank you Keith Sommers, Rachael Haensly, Arielle Scherr, Jordan Campbell, Tyler Whitson, Zoe Rayor, Emily Adams, Laura Blackburn, and Margaret Wilson, as well, for the happiness and friendship that you all bring to my life. I am so lucky to have such wonderful friends like all of you. I would like to thank my partner, Jessa Baker Moss, for the abundance of love and happiness you bring m e. Thank you for always being there for me, especially during the most challenging moments in life. Thank you for making wonderful food, and introducing me to culinary worlds I previously had no knowledge of or appreciation for. Thank you for leaving some space on the shoe rack for me and for insisting that if we watched TV while we were supposed to be thesising, we watched good TV, like Game of Thrones. Thank you for having such a nicely decorated room which made thesising a little easier and for reading m y thesis countless times. You are a great friend, a great confidant, and a wonderful partner. You will always have my gratitude and adoration.

PAGE 3

iii Table of Contents Acknowledgments Abstract Introduction Chapter One 9 Chapter Two The Community Rule: 7 Chapter Three Old Evidence in The Community Rul e 4 Conclusion 5 0 Glossary 3 Appendix ...........................................................................................................................5 5 Bi bliography 67

PAGE 4

iv FEMINIST METHODOLOGIES AND QUMRAN IDEOLOGIES: RHETORICAL CRITICISM OF 1QS THE COMMUNITY RULE SCROLL Lacy Mroz New College of Florida, 2013 ABSTRACT This thesis critiques the scholarly method of imposi ng binary categories onto historical reconstruction. It examines sectarian attitudes toward the Temple in The Community Rule of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the complex relationship between the Qumran sect and Temple that binary systems conceal. Chapter One u ses a feminist methodology to critique the categorical method and highlights the ways in which rhetorical analysis helps execute a feminist critical reading. Chapter Two highlights the limits and shortcomings of scholarship that relies on binary categories to understand Dead Sea Scrolls. Chapter Three applies rhetorical analysis to The Community Rule and investigates the complexities this scroll reveals regarding sectarian attitudes toward the Temple. This thesis argues that a feminist critical reading of T he Community Rule reveals a complex relationship between the Qumran sectarians and the Temple cult that the categorical method, by forcing things into simple categories, conceals from the scholarly eye. Furthermore, the evidence discussed in this thesis un derscores the value of feminist methodologies in scholarship outside the field of gender studies. ___________________ Dr. Susan Marks Division of Humanitie s

PAGE 5

1 Introduction There are no primitive peoples. The field of Religious Studies teaches this ab ove all else. This thesis begins with the precise idea that thousands of years ago people developed complex ideas and nourished the unique ability to communicate them effectively to their peers, just as they do today. In 1947, two Bedouin shepherds discove red over eight hundred scrolls in the desert of Khirbet Qumran. Each of these scrolls, collectively called the Dead Sea Scrolls because of their proximity to the Dead Sea, present scholars with a unique glimpse of the life and practice of the Qumran sectar ians. Relatively well preserved and housed in jars, the scrolls date from the 3rd Century BCE to the 4th Century CE, dates that closely align with the Second Temple period. 1 They have captivated the minds of scholars and subsequently forged a new and thriv ing field of scholarship within religious studies. The authors responsible for the scrolls, their readers, and the community that secured them all provide exciting points of inquiry that not only challenge previous historical reconstructions regarding lif e at Qumran, but also test the limits of the methodologies we use to understand the ideas of those who lived in a historical moment so distant from our own. The recent evolution of the field makes it inevitable that Qumran scholars agree on very little. M any debates focus around the question of location. Is it safe to assume, for example, that the settlers at the Qumran community are responsible for the scrolls? 1 Vermes, 1961 revised 2011, 250 255.

PAGE 6

2 Does the location of the scrolls at Qumran necessarily mean that the Qumran settlers used them? Some scholars suggest that the Qumran caves served as a library for surrounding sects to catalog their texts and that these texts did not necessarily belong to the settlers at Qumran, regardless of their close location. On the other hand, archaeologists f ind much evidence that dismisses such assertions. 2 They point to numerou t, or Jewish ritual baths, found at the excavation site, offering support for the claim of sectarian authorship. 3 These correspond to the theme of ritual purity found t hroughout the Qumran corpus. The physical evidence at Qumran therefore matches the texts found at the site. Though the possibility that the caves served as a repository for surrounding sects cannot be overlooked, such a historical reconstruction requires t hat we read against a wealth of evidence that supports the Qumran authorship of the texts. T he location of the scrolls produces other questions that have not been answered so conclusively. This map illustrates the distance between the Qumran excavation si te and Jerusalem. The distance between the Qumran community and the Temple in Jerusalem spans a 2 Magness, 2 010. 3 Magness, 2010, 10.

PAGE 7

3 vast 30 miles. 4 While this distance may seem minimal in the age of modern transportation, in the Second Temple period, it constituted quite a long travel. There fore, The primary concern of this thesis centers about the relationship between the Qumran sectarians and the Jerusalem Temple. The Scrolls identify the founders of th e Qumran sect as a group of priests known as the Sons of Zadok (Zadokites), high priests in the time of David and Solomon. However, in the middle of the second century BCE the Zadokites lost control of the office of high priest and were soon replaced by a new group of priests, the Hasmoneans. 5 Archeologist Jodi Magness, in her work on the archaeology of the Dead Sea Scrolls, [Qumran] sect but also caused its members to do the m ost radical thing Jews could do at 6 Indeed, opposition to the temple cult becomes evident multiple times throughout the scrolls. The authors of many Qumran texts refer to the founder of their sect as the Teacher of Righteousness, and identify as Jonathan the Hasmonean. Such sentiments lend support to the scholarly claim of sectarian opposition to the Temple cul t. 4 I distinguish Temple, here with a capital T, from the lowercase temple, to denote the physical Temple in Jerusalem and by, extension, its governing authorities. Thus, throughout this thesis, the term Temple or Temple cult shal l be used in reference to the physical Temple or those who hold power over the physical Temple in Jerusalem. 5 Vermes, 1961, 250 255. 6 Magness, 2010, 10.

PAGE 8

4 remained stagnant across five centuries denies the sectarian any capability for fluidity or change. 7 Moreover, this generalization undermines the importance of the Jewish iden tity of the Qumran sect, an identity historically linked to the Jerusalem Temple. Such an assertion refuses to acknowledge the human ingenuity of the Qumran sectarians. Ultimately, generalizations that fail to account for the flexibility and evolution of the sect lose sight of a wealth of interesting, strategic negotiations that take place between different actors in order to maintain or change prevailing ideas and frameworks of thought. This thesis argues that as scholars isolate the Qumran community into categories that negate all complexity, they simultaneously conceal the most unique and interesting cult. Through reading The Community Rule and analyzing the way the author negotiates symbols of old with new, insider with outsider, shared ideas with distinct, we find a complex negotiating stance that challenges old models of a fixed identity and instead reveals the creation of a sectarian identity alongside a simultaneous preservation of a connection to th e Temple. We begin by considering the methods through which we can identify and understand these negotiations in sectarian terms without limiting them with generalizations or enclosed categories. 7 denote the order to connect the Qumran sectar ians with the Essenes. Klawans incorporates sectarian views of the

PAGE 9

5 As I became more familiar with the scrolls, I recognized T he Community Rule, or 1QS (hereafter referred to as The Rule ) as a potential site for these negotiations between a historical Jewish identity and the new sectarian ideology. 8 Scholars locate the audience of the text as those wishing to join the sectarian c ommunity at Qumran. It is important to The Rule it is also highly likely, perhaps even more likely, that the text was communicated orally instead and therefore the audience may have been listening t o The Rule instead of reading it. 9 Nevertheless, the scholarly assertion that The Rule was authored for newcomers implies that as we read it we watch a sectarian author negotiate the ideology of the sect in terms accessible to a Jewish practitioner, most l ikely one with a background in traditional Temple cult Judaism. 10 Thus, we gain understanding regarding the dichotomies that the author of the text recognizes as challenges, and we can watch as he negotiates his way through them. The Rule therefore invites relationship to the Temple cult for a potential new member. As we read The Rule that we keep the recent work of ritual theorist, Catherine B ell, in mind. Bell warns against the two part method of first creating a dichotomy and then suggesting that the practice of 8 See appendix for text of The Rule. 9 Vermes, 1961 revised 2011, 97. 10 It is uncl ear whether 1QS was written by one or multiple hands. While I will use the singular form behind the scenes of The Rule. Similarly, scholars are not cer tain of the gender of the author but evidence such as the masculine pronouns used throughout the text suggest a masculine worldview and therefore allow us to assume that the author was male. Therefore, I shall use masculine pronouns throughout this thesis to refer to the author of 1QS

PAGE 10

6 ritual works to bring the two back together. 11 Bell critiques the method of ritual anthropologist, Clifford Geertz, who creates a dic hotomy between thought and action and then suggests that ritual becomes the space where thought and action come back together. Bell argues that these theoretical constructions of binary systems, such as the one between thought and action, may be unwarrante d. Though this thesis investigates the criticism in that the focus here centers not on dichotomies that we create, but dichotomies that the author of The Rule creates or addr esses in the text. In fact, this thesis begins with highlights the limits of categorizing the sectarians into binary categories of either for or against the Temple c ult. Chapter One begins with a critique of the most prevalent method used to study the scrolls: the categorical. Using this method, scholars categorize the sectarians as either anti or pro Temple, leaving no room for the possibilities in between. This dis cussion focuses on the work of Maxine Grossman, who identifies this method as a product of the temporal distance between Qumran scholars and the Qumran sectarians. Grossman notes the ways in which scholars project their own ideas onto different times and p laces, thereby limiting themselves, and suggests a feminist critical methodology as an historical readers. The chapter then turns to the work of Carol Newsom and her proposed 11 Bell, 2009, 13.

PAGE 11

7 method of rhetorical analysis as a means to get to know our text most efficiently and accurately. In Chapter Two I provide a brief history of the scholarship on The Rule and weigh my questions of how the Temple functions in this text against the most popular theories in Qumran Temple scholarship. It becomes clear that The Rule is a perfect example of the shortcomings of the categorical method, because this text, though rich with allusions to the Temple cult, remains largely unaddressed by those co relationship to the Temple. While one may be hard pressed to find scholarship specifically on The Rule this chapter looks at the models proposed by Qumran scholars whose work include references to The Rule and at the implications ab out the Temple ideology these reflect. This chapter serves to demonstrate the ways in which scholars limit the possibilities of The Rule in order to preserve the order of their models and The Rule into categories it surpasses. Chapt er Two ultimately illustrates the limits of the categorical method. Chapter Three consists of the application of rhetorical analysis that eschews binary categories and demonstrates the fascinating characteristics of the sectarian Temple ideology that these categories diminish. The application focuses on the primary terms of value in The Rule those terms either repeated throughout the text or given much terms based on their re petition and emphasis throughout the text, Chapter Three accounts for the possibility that the audience may have acted as listeners rather than readers. It

PAGE 12

8 focuses on those terms that the author consistently repeats or singles out and suggests that this re petition or, in other cases, emphasis, functions to grab the attention of the audience. Although this investigation concerns a single aspect of The Rule these terms of value rely on an understanding of other aspects that rhetorical analysis helps to uncov er, such as its genre and frame. This chapter analyzes the way the author of The Rule moves back and forth throughout the text between symbolic ideas shared by all Jews and those distinct to the sect. As a result, The Rule reveals a sectarian Temple ideolo gy that does not fit into a binary system of classifications. Finally, I underscore the importance that collective Jewish symbols have in communicating the new ideas of the sect as well as the relationship between old and new. I conclude by noting the key roles that symbols play in ritual and what implications these roles have for further exploration of The Rule and the rest of the Dead Sea corpus. The underlying goal of this thesis is to highlight the unique and complex negotiations that prove the sectaria ns much more adaptive and astute than previous research credits them. With this in mind, I now turn to my first chapter, and discuss the ways in which the categorical approach fails the Qumran sect and Dead Sea scholarship.

PAGE 13

9 Chapter One The Methodologi cal Shortcomings of Dead Sea Scholarship on Sectarian Temple Ideology They shall separate from the congregation of men of injustice and shall unite, with respect to the Law and possessions, under the authority of the sons of Zadok, the Priests who keep th e Covenant, and of the multitude of the men of the Community who hold fast to the Covenant. 1 And he shall undertake by the Covenant to separate from all the men of injustice who walk in the way of wickedness. For they are not reckoned in His Covenant. The y have neither inquired nor sought after Him concerning His laws that they might know the hidden things in which they have sinfully erred; and matters revealed they have treated with insolence. Therefore Wrath shall rise up to condemn, and Vengeance shall be executed by the curses of the Covenant, and great chastisements of eternal destruction shall be visited on them, leaving no remnant. 2 The Rule text of the Dead Sea library reflects a sectarian attitude of superiority in relation to the Jerusalem Templ expresses an attitude that presumably originates in the unique historical positioning of the sect. It empha sizes the competitive religious atmosphere that pervaded the historical moment and posed a significant challenge to newly developing religious formations and ideologies. 3 At its core, this challenge instituted the necessity of enticing new followers, witho ut whom a sect could not survive. The archaeological remains from Qumran suggest that the sectarians saw a marked degree of success in this endeavor. While 1 1QS.V.1 4, translation by Geza Vermes, 1961 revised 2011. 2 1QS.V.11 14. 3 Gartner, 1965, 14; Magness, 2010, 10.

PAGE 14

10 adjacent cemeter y, its workshops, and dining halls, a historian notes the resources 4 Hayim Lapin explains: The complex itself, particularly the water system, shows a substantial degree of sophistication -expertise I would associate with paid artisans rather than volunteer labor. It also required a massive amount of lime for plaster and considerable human effort and fuel. 5 architect personnel essential to these undertakings underscores the continuity of the sectarian need for followers. By situating themselves in stark opposition to the Temple in thei r rhetoric, and more importantly, doing so on the grounds of their own predominate righteousness, the sectarians presented themselves to outsiders as a provocative alternative to the Temple cult. The sectarian preoccupation with persuading outsiders that their ideology was not consistently throughout their scrolls. However, these sectarian ambitions towards growth and longevity had to function alongside a deep recognition of t he authoritative role of the Temple in Jewish ritual life. While the Hasmonean takeover and the expulsion of the Zadokites from the Temple may have created a crisis for some Jewish practitioners, there is no doubt that such an abrupt deviation from the Tem ple was possible not without 4 Magness, 2010, 105; Lapin, 2010 118: Lapin also notes the cost of producing manuscri pts in antiquity, manuscript like the Isaiah Scroll from Cave 1 (1 QIs ) would have carried a cost equivalent to several weeks 5 Lapin, 2010 119.

PAGE 15

11 reluctance. 6 This component greatly complicates historical reconstruction, especially when viewed against the backdrop of the robust collection of archeological evidence highlighting sectarian concerns with ritual purity. 7 The sectarians must have constructed their ritual baths in spite of the understanding that the Temple ordinarily exercised great authority over ritual practice. The combination of written and archaeological evidence generates a narrative in which the sectaria ns were simultaneously concerned with distinguishing themselves from the Temple, while nevertheless maintaining a strict Jewish ritual practice, practice over which ordinarily the Temple cult held quite a monopoly. These two competing concerns subsequently presented themselves for a It is not surprising then, that the scholarly debate concerning sectarian attitudes toward the Temple relies upon a theoretical consider ation of this negotiation. Yet to the presupposition that if the sectarians wished to be religiously competitive, their primary focus rested on establishing themselve s as opposed and superior to the Temple. In other words, presenting themselves as a competitive Jewish alternative demanded that the sect Conversely, if they wished to re tain the ritual authority widely associated with the Temple, they resigned themselves to the notion that, without constructing any stark contrasts between themselves and Temple authorities, they in turn relinquished all possibility of a competitive ideolog y. 6 7 Magness, 2010, 105: Magness notes the numerous or ritual baths, excavated at the Qu mran site and argues that these findings suggest a deep seated concern with ritual purity.

PAGE 16

12 cult requires the consideration of a negotiating stance that maintained both an a ffiliation with and a distinction from the Temple cult. The sectarian concern with ritual purity cult. The immediate advantages of this approach can be glimpsed when we read a few verses from prophetic literature: lyin g words, that cannot profit. Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and offer unto Baal, and walk after other gods whom ye have not known, and come and stand before Me in this house, do all these abominations? Is this house, whereupon My name is called, become a den of robbers in your eyes? 8 This excerpt from the Book of Jeremiah highlights that even the literature that contained the history of the Temple itself c ontains criticism of the Temple cult and this fact most acutely presents a third possible characterization of sectarian relationship to the Temple that a categorical approach conceals from the scholarly eye. Moreover, the quality of this relationship beco mes most salient in 4QMisqat Torah, cult. Interestingly enough, the MMT centers these grievances on the Temple integrity, adding powerful support to the priority of ritual p ractice. 9 The scholarly 8 Jeremiah 7:4 11 JPS 9 Regev, 2003, 44; See glossary for more on MMT.

PAGE 17

13 tendency of thinking in binaries conceals the central role negotiation plays in defining the sectarian relationship to the Temple cult and the function of symbols as tools for this negotiation. Abandoning the binary method is no sma ll task. It requires an approach that provides specific directions for taking up such an endeavor. The present work begins by developing what has been left out of Qumran scholarship. Feminist critical method provides an approach that challenges the assumpt ions and categories in the recent scholarly work. Therefore, I begin by explaining the feminist critical method, with support from its strongest advocate within Qumran scholarship, Dead Sea scholar Maxine Grossman, and note the utility of the application o f the feminist critical method outside of In addition, while Grossman gives a general framework for how to approach a text, understanding how to analyze what a text communicates to a reader remains an imperative endeavor. Therefore, the second part of this chapter discusses a methodological toolkit for rhetorical analysis. This section focuses heavily on the work of Carol Newsom and provides us with the tools to under stand how a text communicates to its audience. Grossman and a Feminist Critical Reading The dichotomous construction that has thus far characterized the debate about the sectarian relationship to the Temple regretfully constitutes the trend in earlier De ad Sea scholarship of working to position the Qumran community into familiar categories that in turn superimpose limits on the theological and liturgical possibilities for the community. Thus when something does not quite fit within the scholarly construct ions of Temple

PAGE 18

14 ideology, it is altogether too tempting to simply ignore it in favor of a clean, clear, classification. As a result, scholars trade away the features that compose the most interesting and valuable traits of the Qumran community in favor of s implicity and neatness. This approach disappoints not only because it diminishes the complexity of the Qumran scholarly community. Those who recognize the obstacles fac ing the sectarians navigating through the competitive religious climate of early Antiquity argue that the scrolls primarily reflect negative attitudes towards the Temple cult. Such a model of thinking and its long history can be observed, for example, in t he early work of Bertil strongly that it is the community that is now the foundation of truth, the house of truth 10 Gartner notes the authority of the Temple cult but, in his construction of the Qumran sect as anti Temple, places more priority in the sectarian desire to be religiously competitive. He therefore reads the scrolls in light of this assumption. As a result, allegiance to the collective, Temple based, Jewish identity and concludes his work with sweeping generalizations that tread dangerously close to equating the Qumran sectarians with early Christian sects. Alter natively, those who assign priority to the crucial role that the Temple played in first century Jewish ritual life characterize the sectarian attitude toward the Temple cult as less critical and more forgiving. Kare Fugsleth, for example, in his commentary on the similarities between the Qumran and Johannine Temple ideologies, uses an 10 Gartner, 1965, 24 While Gartner provides a nice example of the binary categorization at work, the early date of his work naturally locates the prevalence of the binary method at the origins of Qumran scholarship.

PAGE 19

15 alternative reading of the concern both communities had with the Temple tax in order to dismantle the idea of oppositional Temple er it was argued that the Qumran community opposed the institution of the temple tax, a practice that would clearly demonstrate their general opposition to the authorities in 11 Instead, Fuglseth suggests that Qumran members were merely involved in an internal debate concerning whether the daily sacrifice in the Temple should be paid for by public funds and therefore were deeply concerned with the Temple. 12 ainly does not discount a tumultuous relationship between sect and Temple. Moreover, this assertion rests on disproving only a single piece of evidence and requires that we ignore all other instances, of which there is no dearth, that imply a sectarian att itude of opposition toward the Temple. Thus, proponents of a less oppositional relationship of sect to Temple cult also ignore valuable evidence in favor of neat theories. This polarity undermines most scholarly conversations about sectarian attitudes towa rd the Temple and consequently counteracts the potential for progress. It suffocates Qumran scholarship. One scholar of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Maxine Grossman, takes a third approach. Her recent work, advocates the necessity of an interdisciplinary approach while it also highlights the setbacks of limiting categories. Grossman employs the methods of gender studies and feminist critical scholarship in order to examine the gender dynamics apparent in 1QSa or The Rule of the Congregation. She explains that the investigation of the constructions of gender in 1QSa potential impact of gender studies on our understanding of the texts and world of the 11 Fugsleth, 2005, 189. 12 Fugsleth, 2005, 189.

PAGE 20

16 13 disciplinary approach becomes immediately clear. Moreover, the results of her application of the feminist critical method highlight its importance both to the current undertaking and to the larger field of Qumran scholarship. Grossman locates the value of the feminist critical approach and its subsequent contribution to the exploration of sectarian constructions of familiar gender norms in the evidence from other times a nd places, but that we should instead be willing to query both the evidence and our own assumptions in the process of 14 Grossman, in effect, streamlines the feminist critical method, usually only studies, into its fundamental building blocks. In other words, Grossman proposes that scholars abandon their own cultural perspectives and put themselves in the shoes of historical readers. The result is a method called alternative historiography. Alternative historiography demands that scholars allow for numerous, even competing, interpretations within a religious tradition and the potential for these interpretations to change over time. 15 Some scholars have used this me thod, to reconcile the unfamiliarity 16 tool...which involves reading the target text as reader s at key points in its history would have, by reading the text alongside other contemporary texts. This tool draws on insights 13 Grossman, 2010, 231. 14 Grossman, 2010, 231. 15 Grossman, 2010, 231. 16 Grossma n, 2010, 231; Davila, 2010, 132.

PAGE 21

17 from the reader 17 Davila uses race the transmission of a particular text by reading the text and interpreting it the way each reader in the history of its transmission would have read it. Grossman utilizes this approach to construct a solid argument against the once widely held schola rly consensus that the authorities of the Qumran community were composed solely of male practitioners. She critiques the assumptions of scholarly reconstructions that privilege mindsets toward gender that are characteristic of the historical positions of g roups outside Rule of the Congregation constitutes her most persuasive evidence. Baumgarten argues that the clause found in Rule of the Congregation calling 18 At first family members testifying against each other and women witnessing in public. Moreover, his description of the interruptive nature of feminine pronouns in a text that elsewhere solely employs masculine pronouns is seemingly persuasive. 19 Yet Grossman defends the singularity of the Qumran sect and notes the different historical moments and ideas of the sect and rabbinic Judaism. Further, she argues that interruptive or inexplicable characteristic of the feminine pronoun within 17 Davila, 2010, 132. 18 Grossman, 2010, 236. 19 Grossman, 2010, 236.

PAGE 22

18 a text that is predominantly desc ribing males can be accounted for through a consideration of the androcentric nature of the text. She explains: From the perspective of an androcentric text, the normative actor is male, either explicitly gendered assumptions (of actual masculinity) or more androcentric context are incorporated into the normative male collective except on those occasions when they transgress that norm (by bearing children, for example, or by menstruating), then what we find in this text is exactly what we should expect to fin apparently inexplicable excurses into discussions of women. 20 This is not to say that Grossman necessarily argues against the idea of an exclusively male community. In fact, she does not favor eithe r argument. Instead she simply states, 21 While Grossman does not explicitly acknowledge that her conclusion prov ides a third alternative in the ongoing conversation regarding sectarian constructions of gender, such a propensity that eschews starkly defining characteristics within a binary set of choices without doubt constitutes a hallmark of contemporary gender stu dies. 22 The general applicability of alternative historiography, a fundamental building her method maintains value as a corrective solution to the problems that occur when examining any genre of evidence from a distant historical moment without considering 20 Grossman, 2010, 241. 21 Grossman, 2010, 231. 22 Butler, 1990.

PAGE 23

19 e to nges implicit in a feminist critical reading are no different from those facing other historical or literary readings of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Confronted with evidence from a very different time and place, we must try to make sense of its scriptural refere nces, its cultural claims, and 23 It follows that a natural requirement of a successful application of alternative historiography lays in a reconstruction of the socio political and religious climate of the time. Thus, th e feminist critical reading Grossman uses in her work results in alternative conclusions that implicitly oppose the scholarly tendency towards either or categorization. As a result, Grossman creates space that allows for fluidity and, in turn, gains the ab ility to negotiate new possibilities for the Qumran community. Therefore, facet of Dead Sea scholarship. Most usefully, her work provides theoretical support for cr iticism of the scholarly either or mentality that pervades conversations with regard to loose framework for evaluating sectarian Temple ideology and therefore sets the stag e for alternative conclusions that allow for new and more fluid understandings of sectarian identity. Later, when we investigate The Rule we will consciously evade binary categorizations and exercise caution in abstaining from projecting our own ideas ont o the 23 Grossman, 2010, 245.

PAGE 24

20 readers of another time and place. However, gaining the tools to place ourselves in the shoes of historical readers and understand our The Rule author requires that we learn how to read a text, decipher its motivations, and analyze how it communicate s these motivations to the audience. Rhetorical analyst Carol Newsom provides a toolkit for this endeavor. Carol Newsom executes a careful consideration and individual consideration of The Damascus Document and The Rule highlighting ways to approach each text, almost as if standing in the shoes of an historical reader. Essentially, she comments on what and how a text communicates through its use of symbols and language. Newsom begins with a quote from a fello w rhetorical analysts that greatly informs her work: Rhetoric is a mode of altering reality, not by the direct application of energy to object, but by the creation of discourse...The rhetor alters reality by bringing into existence a discourse of such a ch aracter that the audience, in thought and action, is so engaged that it becomes a mediator of change. 24 things with words...All speech has a rhetorical element in it, in th at it attempts to have 25 Newsom notes the motivations behind the rhetoric of mediate different situations and acknowledges the varying visibil ity of these intentions within each situation. The rhetoric of advertising exists to persuade audiences of their 24 Newsom, 2010, 198, citing rhetorician Lloyd Bitzer, 1968. 25 Newsom, 2010, 198.

PAGE 25

21 own desire to buy something being sold. It is careful, deliberate, and largely transparent. On the other hand, the teenager uses specific slang to persuade a peer group of his or her sign: the symbol uses its appearance, the singl e word STOP in capital letters against a red backdrop, not just to communicate a warning, but to enforce an actual command to drivers. It uses the well known symbolism of the color red and of capitalized letters to 26 The role that the appearance of the word analysis can be applied to any text, its usually confined space in oral traditions. 27 This example demonstrates the way in which words can hold very real meaning and allows for a clean segue into the most valuable aspect of her work: rhet orical analysis explicitly means that understanding a text, and by extension its author and readers, begins with asking what its motivations are, that is, what the text is trying to accomplish. ce as a rigid that serve to provide answers to our main questions regarding the motivation of the The Rule 28 1) What is the genre of the text in question? 2) How does t he text frame the issue with which its concerned? 3) What are the primary terms of value? 26 Newsom, 2010, 198. 27 Newsom, 2010, 198. 28 Newsom, 2010, 198.

PAGE 26

22 4) How does the text identify its author and its audience and the relationship between them? 5) What is the relationship between rationales on the one hand with metap hors and other tropes? 29 Newsom translates her approach towards the stop sign to The Damascus Document in the Dead Sea Scrolls. With regard to the first question of genre, Newsom explains that with a genre comes a certain amount of expectation from the read ers. 30 In other words, readers expect The fact that the Damascus Document opens with a long hortatory section, usually termed the Admonition, suggests to Newsom that th motivation and self understanding that would make the reader/listener receptive to the 31 By attributing ethical and religious understanding to the audience in the following passage: And now listen, all you w ho know righteousness and who understand the works of God, 32 the rhetorical positioning lessens the distance between the speaker and the audience and sets up an implicit contrast between those who possess this vital knowledge and those who do not. 33 Newsom c oncludes that the Damascus Document serves to reinforce the opposition to, evil. 34 29 Newsom, 2010, 199. 30 Newsom, 2010, 200. 31 Newsom, 2010, 202. 32 CD 1:1 2, translation by G. Vermes, 1961 revised 2011. 33 Newsom, 2010, 203. 34 Newsom, 2010, 203.

PAGE 27

23 readers expect different language from our text, The Rule which depicts the procedure for new members entering the community, than from Pesher Habakkuk, an exegesis on the Book of Habakkuk. 35 In the first case, readers might expect rules and regulations while, in the second, read ers expect commentary on, and novel interpretations of, a familiar text. Genres lay out the expectations for what the text is intended to do and what means it is likely to use. The second question regarding the frame of the text is one of the most interest ing 36 Instead of reading the Damascus Document for phrases that oppose the Temple, Newsom suggests that the absence of a symbolic temple provides enough ground to argue for a still intact identification with the Temple cult. 37 This example also suggests that we can read a text on an individual basis, balancing its context within the corpus with its distinct intention and message. In times of doubt, no harm arises from checking unusual findings against a rubric of general themes. Yet we must not be afraid to read against the grain and, more importantly, afford historical authors and their readers more agency than compulsive categorizations allow. When a text deviates from a theme that many assume to be the norm, we must err on the side that considers the deviation an intentional distinction to celebrate, rather than a mistake to overlook. Ultimat ely, a solid rhetorical criticism relies on meticulous attention to both what the text says and what it leaves out. primary terms repeated in speech can construe for the rea der a particular perspective 35 For more information on Pesher Habbakuk please see the glossary of this thesis. 36 Newsom, 2010, 189. 37 Newsom, 2010, 203.

PAGE 28

24 towards the social world. In part, this construction of perspective occurs as a result of the or concept serves to underscore its impo Pesher Habakkuk not only allows the author to construct the concept of an opponent, but also allows the author to alienate the reader from this opponent, presumably the Te mple cult. 38 In this way, the repetition arguably sets the stage for the unique sectarian interpretation of The Book of Habakkuk. 39 Thus, an important component of rhetorical analysis emerges -careful attention to repeated phrases and their implications. As Newsom applies her method to the Damascus Document The Rule and the Hodayot, the particular application of her fourth question is most interested in the perspective of the rhetoric. A text written in first person, for example, invites the reader to exper ience the thoughts and feelings of the author and therefore either suggests a close relationship, or the intent to make the readers more like the author. A text written in second person, however, such as The Rule suggests a more distant and authoritative role between author and audience. Newsom searches for rationales and metaphors within The Damascus Document and The Rule parties share many of the same assumptions, explicit argument s may be the preferred form of persuasion; but where worldviews are divergent, evocative metaphors, narratives, 40 The importance of this distinction becomes The Rule ; N ewsom notes the tendency 38 39 A decription of Pesher Ha bakkuk can be found in the glossary of this thesis. 40 Newsom, 2010, 200.

PAGE 29

25 of the author of The Rule to open in terms of values he shares with all Jews. Yet, as the in terms of specifically sectarian vocabulary and c 41 This characteristic of the text in fact leads Newsom to her conclusion about The Rule document: that it situates itself within the horizon of rival teachings. Newsom asserts that the rhetoric of The Rule reflects the historical position of the s ectarians, a moment characterized by incredible religious competition. 42 symbols suggest about the sectarian Temple ideology, her careful attention to the symbols used throughout each text provide i nsight into how ideologies can change over time and how the negotiation between old and new symbols can allow a smooth transition when refining ideologies. Newsom does not explicitly state that she reads these texts from the position of an historical reade description of the operation of replacing larger Jewish metaphors with sectarian ideas in Community Rule first require the ability to understand which arguments and primary terms would ap peal to a Jewish reader. Further, she emphasizes the complexities of perspe 43 Newsom accounts for the Jewish identities of sectarian readers and, perhaps even without thought, uses these identities as a lens for viewing the text. This demonstrates the priority of Je 41 Newsom, 2010, 200. 42 Newsom, 2010, 207. 43 Newsom, 2010, 200.

PAGE 30

26 methodology. As Newsom acknowledges the effects of religious competition on the sectarian identity and describes the negotiation that occurs between competition on one hand and respect for tradition on the other, her conclusions gain weight. However, since Newsom primarily considers the traditional Jewish symbols she finds in The Rule in contrast to those of surrounding sects and since she does not specifically focus on the Temple, she misses the implications of these symbols with regard to the sectarian attitudes toward the Temple. Additionally, investigating such traditional symbols as they relate to the Temple reveals a greater variety and greater consistency of allusions to this collective identity than Newsom is able to decipher. Thus, establish a connection with traditional Judaism but shortly thereafter get recast into and plentiful throughout The Rule. As will be seen in Chapter Three, this thesis argues that such a persistent return to symbols that align with the Temple and traditional Judaism suggest s a negotiating stance that equally prioritized the concepts and vocabulary of both privileging the readings of historical readers rather than our own. Now that we have a c oncrete method for reading a text, a method that focuses on the negotiation between different symbols and identities, we can begin our investigation of Community Rule. While scholarship dedicated to the study The Rule alone does not engage the Temple signi ficantly, Chapter Two discusses a few scholarly models that allude to The Rule and the Temple.

PAGE 31

27 Chapter Two Community Rule : Evidence Left Out The work of Bertil Gartner and Kare Fuglseth provide examples of the categorical method that scholars use to und erstand the Dead Sea Scrolls and the polarity that dominates scholarly conversations regarding the sectarian relationship with the Temple cult. 1 Chapter One focused on a critique of this method and noted how it proves detrimental to the sectarian community and to Qumran scholarship. While recent scholarship on the Dead Sea Scrolls departs from categorizing the entire corpus into one ideology or another, the categorical method nevertheless remains a constant hindrance throughout Qumran scholarship, particula rly as we seek to understand the sectarian relationship to the Temple. I selected The Rule as the focus of this study because it represents the culmination of everything the categorical method continues to disregard. As I noted earlier in this work, schola rs locate the audience of The Rule as potential candidates interested in membership in the sect. Because of this orientation, the text provides a unique opportunity to understand how the sectarian author of The Rule relationship to the Temple in ways accessible to newcomers. 2 Yet even though the text contains numerous references to the Temple, very little scholarship has investigated what The Rule reveals about sectarian Temple ideology. This thesis argues that The Rule reveals evidence that falls outside of the binary categories of either pro or anti Temple. As this chapter will demonstrate, the scholarly reliance upon binary systems to 1 For the discussion of the work of Gartner and Fugsleth, and the binary systems they create, please refer to Chap ter One. 2 Vermes, 1961 revised 2011, 97; For a more complete discussion of the audience of The Rule, please see the Introduction to this work.

PAGE 32

28 understand the sectarian attitude towards the Temple results in models that leave texts like The Rul e unspoken for and suggest the need for a methodological reform. Many texts of the Qumran corpus offer evidence that complicates scholarly understandings of the sectarian worldview. The singularity of The Rule and the significant challenge it continuously poses to applications of the categorical method emphasizes the need for more fluid considerations of the Dead Sea Scrolls. While scholarship from the last decade reflects an important departure from the original categorization of the entire Qumran corpus a s either pro or anti Temple, ultimately this progress serves to illustrate the remaining misconceptions that exist in spite of such advances. Recent scholarship on the sectarian Temple ideology represents the beginning of a shift away from the categorie s that once designated the entirety of the Qumran corpus. Aharon Shemesh and Cana Werman recognized a distinct change in interpretive authority in the Dead Sea scrolls, providing the impetus for their new approach to Qumran Temple ideology. Contrary to the traditional classifications of the entire Dead Sea corpus as defined by the single sectarian motivation of proving themselves better or more righteous than those affiliated with the Temple, Shemesh and Werman recognize a variation in interpretive authorit y throughout the scrolls and, therefore, challenge the rigidity of this sectarian concern. 3 The primary accomplishment of such a shift in thinking lays in the space it allows for the ideology of the sect to change over time. Unfortunately, they do not stu dy The Rule. Nevertheless, the fluidity with which these scholars began to consider Qumran texts also proves valuable to historian Eyal Regev and his similar work considering 3 Shemesh and Werman, 2003.

PAGE 33

29 different sectarian notions of purity found in Torah (hencef orth, MMT ) and the texts dated after the MMT, including The Community Rule The work of MMT, including The Rule, reflect the beginning of sectarian opposition to the Temple, while the texts dating prior may reflect a more amicable relationship. 4 This focus on change allows for the possibility of a variety of attitudes, making future studies such as my own thesis possible.. The MMT is a text composed of a sectarian calendar; a series of ritual prescriptions; and finally, an exhortation that suggests the document addresses an opposing group that had grown lax in their ritual practice. 5 The MMT purity, Regev argues, reflects complex notions of purity that a co llapsed framework of pure and impure fails to consider. Rather, these concerns fall into two categories: those focusing on ritual purity and those focusing on moral purity. Distinguishing between the two allows Regev to move beyond the sharp criticism foun d in the MMT with regard to the ritual impurity of the Temple. He thereby reveals the underlying fear of the moral desecration that would result from such impurity. As a result, Regev gains the insight with which to construct a more complicated sectarian a ttitude towards the Temple that earlier, more reckless, categorical scholarship concealed. The MMT 6 In other words ac cording to Regev, at the time of the MMT and the Temple had yet to be severed and the sect still had hopes of reconciliation. However, the texts that date later than the MMT show that this desire to reconcile 4 Regev, 2003, 240. 5 The MMT is available to read in the Glossary of this thes is. 6 Regev, 2003, 244.

PAGE 34

30 e ventually faded. 7 Regev creates a socio political narrative whereby, after withdrawing from the Temple, the sectarians composed the MMT as a means for reconciliation. This attempt at reconciliation, however, eventually proved fruitless. Regev suggests that the Temple cult must have cared little about the ritual proscriptions of the sectarian group. Thus, according to Regev, the shift in interpretive authority suggested by Shemesh and Werman, and the anti Temple cult attitude found in later scrolls, result f rom the Temple MMT Regev's work therefore separates the sectarian temple ideology into genres of pre and post MMT His study opens exciting possibilities but unfortunately, the implica tion concerning Community Rule remains unchanged. According to this model, Community Rule bears witness to the severance of the sectarian relationship to the Temple and therefore belongs in the category of texts that emphasize sectarian opposition to the T emple cult. timeline. Scholars agree that MMT follows the common literary model of an epistle. Nevertheless, uncertainty remains as to whether the addressee was, in fact, a Temple in his recognition of varying attitudes toward purity and the Temple, much like Shemesh and Werman. These three scholars represent a significant scholarly shift away from generalized characterization of the sectarian attitudes toward the Temple. Their careful reading of the texts and attention to different authoritative genres begins to allow for a more fluid relationship between the sectarians and Temple cult. Neverth eless, the models they propose still suggest that The Rule, without doubt, reflects an anti Temple attitude. 7 Regev, 2003, 244.

PAGE 35

31 More recently one historian has gone one step further and challenged the stability sectarian Temple ideologies in The Damascus Document and The Community Rule, posing a particular 8 Kapfer argues that variation still exists even between the texts that Re gev, Shemesh, and Werman categorize as decidedly anti Temple. She explains that while the Damascus Document still acknowledges offerings of ram and other material sacrificial offerings (well known practices of the Temple cult), The Community Rule instead f ocuses on the idea of symbolic sacrifice in the form of prayer. 9 In short, Kapfer argues that within the Damascus Document, contrary to The Community Rule a temporary substitute for the profaned temple had not yet coalesced 10 By extension, the rejection of the Temple had not yet coalesced in its entirety either. Kapfer argues that The Community Rule is distinct from the Damascus Document in its portrayal of the Temple. While I am uncomfortable with her conclusions that The Rule reflects a sectarian detachment from the Temple, her conclusion that The Rule is distinct from the Damascus Document paves the way for my thesis. Nevertheless, Kapfer's work illustrates two important priorities for my thesis. First, the shift in ritu al ideology Kapfer discovers between her two texts underscores the basic tenant of Grossman's feminist methodology, that accurate historical reconstruction carries the requirement that scholars read with historical readers and allow the fluidity for a comm unity to change over time. 11 Kapfer achieves success through identifying 8 A description of The Damascus Document is available in the glossary. 9 Kapfer, 2007,169. 10 Kapfer, 2007, 171. 11 For full discussion of feminist methodology and/or alternative historiography, see Chapter O ne.

PAGE 36

32 individual cases that do not quite fit into the models earlier scholars had proposed. Yet, as Kapfer continues and characterizes The Rule as an anti Temple text instead of simply empha sizing its distinction from The Damascus Document she falls into the same familiar trap of categorizing texts into binary categories. With regard to the Dead Sea corpus, it becomes imperative that we consider each text in its own right, as a representatio n of the sectarian disposition towards the Temple in a singular historical overarching themes and ideologies throughout the corpus constitutes a worthwhile endeavor, the valu e and fruitfulness of this scholarly practice deteriorates as we sacrifice unique and interesting deviations from these general themes in favor of simplicity and neatness. As a result, implicit in a feminist critical methodology, or alternative historiogra phy, lies the assertion that scholars must read texts case by case and celebrate their unique qualities regardless of the challenges these qualities pose to the categories we uphold. Secondly, Kapfer's work highlights the insights that attention to symbo lism can offer. While the Damascus Document references material sacrifice (the ram offering, for instance) as a symbolic form of atonement that remains consistent with Temple cult sacrificial practice, The Rule replaces this symbolism with the notion of th e symbolic form of prayer. 12 Thus, since The Rule deviates from material sacrifices preformed by the Temple cult, Kapfer asserts the text reflects decidedly anti Temple attitudes. Kapfer asserts a strong relationship between sectarian ritual practice and t he sect's Temple ideology. However, while Kapfer argues that the sectarians deviate from the Temple cult 12 Kapfer, 2007, 169.

PAGE 37

33 with regard to everything from authority to atonement, she pays little attention to how the sect achieves this. In other words, Kapfer focuses only on the presence of new symbols of authority, purity, and atonement, and loses sight of the careful negotiation this change in ideology requires. By inquiring what The Rule intends for its audience and how the text communicates these changes in symbolism conce rning the traditional Temple and the new sectarian, rhetorical criticism uncovers the complexities in the relationship of the sect to the Temple cult, complexities that cannot be confined to the little space the categorical method has to offer.

PAGE 38

34 Chapter Thr ee Old Evidence in The Rule Made New ...the Council of the Community shall be established in truth. It shall be an Everlasting Plantation, a House of Holiness for Israel, and Assembly of Supreme Holiness for Aaron. They shall be witnesses to the Truth at the Judgment...It shall be that tried wall, that precious cornerstone, whose foundations shall neither rock nor sway in their place. 1 The Rule highlights the sectarian identification as a holy community set apart from all others with a salience and consi stency that leaves little room for challenge. The text contains a plethora of statements that lend credibility to arguments of scholars who categorize the sect as presenting a competitive ideology and assert that the scrolls highlight an oppositional relat ionship to the Temple cult. 2 Chapter One used the work of method of rhetorical criticism as a way of eliminating these assumptions by stepping into the shoes of historical readers. Chapter Two highlighted the beginnings of new scholarship which allows us to glimpse the possibility of looking at The Rule through other lenses besides the categorical the Temple cult. Thi s thesis argues that the categorical lens conceals the unique negotiations and complexities of the sectarian attitude towards the Temple. Reading The Rule without the limits of binary categories reveals that while the author emphasizes the veness throughout the text, his consistent return to symbols that intrinsically connect with the historical Temple suggests a negotiating stance that equally connect ion with the Temple cult. 1 1 QS VII.1 8; translated by Gza Vermes, 1961 revised 2011 2 For more on the sectarian concern with religious competition see Chapter One.

PAGE 39

35 The Rule contains a wealth of information regarding sectarian organization and ideology. The key themes and components fall into three different sections. 3 Columns one through four focus on entry into the Covenant and the spirit columns five through nine establish the statutes relating to the Council of the Community, or the leaders of the Community; and columns nine through twenty one describe the role I will limit my reading of The Rule to just symbolism throughout the text, revealing what the Temple ideology The Community Rule communicates to an audience of newcom ers. criticism and her categories: primary terms of value; genre; frame; relationship between author and audience; and the presentation of the relationship between rationale s and room for others to develop this methodology to include all five. I focus on the symbolism in the primary terms of value of The Rule analysis of the most repetitive and emphasized terms becomes especially important when considering the audience of the text as listeners instead of readers. Repeated phrases and words associated with high value draw the attention of the audie nce, regardless of whether the audience reads the text or hears it. As I investigate these terms, while consciously eschewing the categorization of the Qumran sectarians as either anti or pro Temple cult, the text naturally illuminates a complex sectarian Temple ideology that the categorical method conceals from the scholarly eye. 3 See Appendix for entire text.

PAGE 40

36 Law The Rule At first glance, this repetition offers clues regarding the genre of the text. This striking focus on law earned the attention of early scholars, who first published the text under the title The Manual of Discipline. 4 However, although the text contains a penal code, the very first lines of Community Rule complicate the idea of the text serving as a literal la w book or rulebook. The text reads: [The Master shall teach the sai]nts to live {according to the Book} of The Rule, that they may seek God with a whole heart and soul and do what is good and right before Him as he commanded by the hand of Moses and throug h all His servants the Prophets... 5 of a social hierarchy we might expect from a rulebook. Similarly, the curious choice of that the text addresses the Master of the community, rather than his congregation. 6 In other words, the text provides a set of general guidelines for the Master or leader of the community to follow and, simultaneously, establishes his position within the s ect. However, as the text continues, He shall admit into the Covenant of Grace all those who have freely joined to the counsel of God... confront the audience with a new perspective on the motivation of the text. There is no 4 Burrows, 1951, The Dead Sea Scrolls. 5 1 QS I.1 8. 6 Vermes 1961, 250 255.

PAGE 41

37 disconnect. The text therefore establishes a dichotomy between those inside the 7 These phra ses lead to the general scholarly consensus that The Rule describes the process for outsiders to enter the community. Note that this consensus does not deny that The Rule served a purpose as rulebook, but rather adds complexity to its function. First, we must consider that our modern conceptions of a rulebook might not be congruent with that of a Qumran sense of the word, the term rulebook indicates a normative, legally b inding set of written regulations, but surprisingly, in The Rule there is never reference to written rules in the 8 Instead, the text informs the audience that a man can enter the according to the judgment of the rabbim, 9 Historian Sarianna Metso therefore proposes that the text served as a recording of 10 own cultural perceptions onto a text, aiming instead to account for discontinuities in a text, I do not find such a disparity between the modern day co that described in The Rule. Contemporary judicial proceedings are, after all, quite similar to those described in The Rule. 7 1QS I.6 7. 8 Metso, 2004, 322. 9 1QS VI 8 13. 10 Metso, 2004, 333.

PAGE 42

38 decision making, authority ultimately lies in the han ds of a judge and jury. Moreover, nonetheless for educating potential members of the community. In other words, even if the text catalogs the judicial decisions of the past in stead of presenting a legally binding code of conduct, it nevertheless provides the audience with a reference point for judicial decision making with specific regard to entering the community. Therefore, The Rule ext with the specific goal of educating newcomers wishing to join the sectarian community. The opening lines of Community Rule compose the first of many lessons that construct an insider outsider dichotomy, positioning the audience as separate and divided from the sect. As the text continues, the emphasis on this dichotomy sharpens. When the author On joining the Community, this shall be their code of behavior with respect to all of t hese precepts. 11 audience as outsiders to the community. 12 The repeated emphasis o n conditional clauses becomes more striking. It compounds what the text does not talk about. In other words, the author of The Rule reveals his motives not only through the conditions he goes out of his way to assert, but also through the topics upon which he remains relatively silent. Surprisingly, the text lacks any reference to purification ritual. While this may seem irrelevant at first, when we recall that ritual purification constitutes a defining characteristic of the Qumran sect, the failure to men tion purification when writing about 11 IQS. V.7. 12 For additional examples of such conditional clauses see IQS I.10; I.15; I.20; V.8; and V.20.

PAGE 43

39 the rules of the community presents itself as a rather odd feature. Perhaps this omission signifies that the author of The Rule assumes an audience with a preliminary understanding of common ritual purification. In othe r words, the historical conventionality of purification through the act of bathing might conceivably eliminate the need for the author to expound upon the topic. Challenging this possibility, however, the penal code of The Rule stresses that newcomers shou ld not be concerned with the regulation or code of ritual purification. The text states that outsiders: ...shall not enter the water to partake of the pure Meal of the men of holiness, for they shall not be cleansed unless they turn from their wickedness. 13 The author uses the single mention of ritual purification to explicitly exclude those who are not yet members of the community from the act of physical purification. The text judges the reader as unfit for ritual purification and therefore challenges t he notion of a shared understanding of ritual purification between author and audience. Instead, the omission of ritual practice, except to exclude outsiders, suggests a conscious effort on part of our The Rule author to avoid disclosing communal purificat ion practices to outsiders. In this way, the author writes to maintain the separation of the audience from the community and further perpetuate the insider outsider dichotomy. expect ations of alienation and makes the divide between author and audience apparent. This type of alienation perpetuates the insider outsider dichotomy and may support the idea of the sect opposing the Temple. However, when we sharpen the focus on these first p assages of The Rule, 13 1QS V.14

PAGE 44

40 different function. The text specifies that the Master shall teach the newcomers so that they may follow the Commandments given to Moses. It reads: that they may seek Go d with a whole heart and soul and do what is good and right before Him as he commanded by the hand of Moses and through all His servants the Prophets... 14 Many scholars note the prominence of Moses and the repeated references to the literature of the Hebrew Bible in order to establish the Jewish identity of the sect. Among them, Alex P. Jassen highlights these references while noting the distinct way in which the sect understands the role of a Prophet. 15 from Deuteronomy (6:18; 12:28; 13:19). While the expression elsewhere in the Hebrew The Rule draws, generally refers to adherence to Deuteronomic law. 16 Strengthening this asserti on, a later passage in the Rule reads: He shall undertake by a binding oath to return with all his heart and soul to every commandment of the Law of Moses. 17 Thus, the very first exhortation to the audience of The Rule urges adherence to the Torah and its d 18 While The Rule may create an insider outsider dichotomy, the very first lines draw on concepts familiar with presumably all Jews and certainly those of the Temple cult. Moreover, by drawing a parallel between sectarian and mosaic law, the author emphasizes the authority of The Rule. 14 1QS I.1 5. 15 Jassen, 2008, 307 33 7 16 Jassen, 2008, 314. 17 IQS V. 8 10. 18 Jassen, 2008, 308.

PAGE 45

41 the text from the Temple cult, they simultaneously draw on symbols that establish the authority of the sect within the shared historical connection shared by all Jews. The term similarities the y share. This dual function of the most important term within The Rule also extends to the particular way in which the sectarians keep the Law, or as The Rule Covenant The Rule uses in the first five columns, placing the importance of the Covenant at the forefront of the ry function seems to involve separating proselytes from members of the community. The first instance of the term appears in I.15: All those who those who embrace The Rule shall enter into the Covenant before God to obey all His commandments so that they ma y not abandon Him during the dominion of Belial because of fear or terror or affliction. 19 The passage reinforces the importance of the Law by asserting that the primary concern lso equates those who embrace the Rule subsequently suggests that those outside the sect fail to follow the Law with precision and 19 1QS I.15.

PAGE 46

42 requires entrance into the community. If you are not a part of the community, you are not again, the author uses this term to reference a shared history and one with which t he vast majority of Jews were presumably familiar. By equating entrance into the community with fulfilling a Covenant, the author communicates the sectarian goals in a manner accessible to outsiders. The author frames the community within the biblical hist ory at times both to separate and to unite outsiders with members of the community. A closer look at this concept may be helpful to better grasp the full functionali ty of this term and the way the author negotiates between its different meanings. We concede that the text denies outsiders participation in the Covenant. However, the author also makes an important distinction concerning what the text does not say. Throug hout that the Covenant is new. In other words, the text makes no mention of a new Covenant, a Covenant different from the one of the Hebrew Bible. Instead, entrance i n the community requires a proper and righteous fulfillment of the Covenant, namely a strict adherence to 20 Rather, the activi ty here most likely involves the explication of the proper application of the legislation found in the Torah. This stinction from the Temple, he negotiates this distinction within the framework of a history the two share. 20 Jassen, 2008, 322

PAGE 47

43 which another text, the MMT, served as an epistle from the sect to the Te mple cult airing between proper and false adherence to the Covenant should not surprise us. 21 Furthermore, we see this distinction made several times in the Rule, perhap s most clearly when the text reiterates: They shall separate from the congregation of the men of injustice and shall unite, with respect to the Law and possessions, under the authority of the Sons of Zadok, the Priests who keep the Covenant, and of the mul titude of the men of the Community who hold fast to the Covenant. 22 The sectarian rejection of the way in which outsiders follow the Law forms the cult. juxtaposes insiders and outsiders, and then strengthen this dichotomy in order to pit righteous and wicked against each other. While the framing of the term within a collective historical context al lows for some complexity with regard to the relationship between the sect and Temple, we must still confront the insider outsider dichotomy at its Many scholars sect and the Temple cult. 23 At first glance, it is hard to move past such sharp language found in T he Rule. One particularly divisive passage reads: 21 22 1QS V. 1 3. 23 See Chapter One discussion of methodological failures and Chapter Two discuss ion of Gartner, Shemesh distinction from the Temple based

PAGE 48

44 For it is He who created the spirits of Light and Darkness and founded every action upon them and established every deed [upon] their [ways]. And he loves the one everlastingly and delights in its works for ever but the counsel of the other He loathes and for ever hates its ways. 24 divi sion between the two becomes stark and almost insurmountable. Hardly a pair exists that oppose each other more than light and darkness. However, the text, in revealing some of the theological views of the Qumran sect, complicates this opposition. Jonathan Klawans, using writings by Josephus, considers the different themes in The Rule in order to identify the theology of the Dead Sea Scrolls with that of other contemporary groups. As a means of situating the theology of the The Rule document, Klawans draws u pon and contrasts the three major sects of ancient Judaism: the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes. Klawans evaluates the theology of The Rule and concludes that the Dead Sea 25 In other words, Klawans argues that the Qumran sectarians share a theological understanding similar to the Essenes, who undermined human agency and emphasized the ultimate power of God in deciding worldly events and actions. We must note, however, that many scholars of primarily upon their own predominating righteousness leads scholars to reconstruct a tumultuous relationship between the Temple cul t and Qumran sectarians. 24 1QS. III.25 IV.1. 25 Klawans, 2010, 267.

PAGE 49

45 historical moment echoes some of the methodological failures I critique in this thesis. both useful and limiting, writing: We should take it not as gospel truth, and not as the account of an match perfectly with an insider account. The simplified description can introduce us to the data; it can guide our interpretation, but it cannot govern our understanding of it. 26 Given Klawans' self conscious admission of the limits of his methodology, combined predeterminist theology should at least be considered. 27 sectarian author of The Rule ar guably diminishes responsibility of the Temple cult for their own wickedness. In other words, this passage suggests that ultimately God chooses those who will fulfill the Covenant and challenges the idea of a full sectarian condemnation of the Temple cult. The members of the Temple cult may be destined to walk in injustice, while the members of the sect assert that God ordained them to walk in the light. Nevertheless, a member of the Temple cult may become Son of Light while a priest in the sectarian commun ity may stray into the darkness -only time will tell. There exists no absolute divide between the Temple cult and the sectarians. Such a suggestion fulfill the Covena 26 Klawans, 2010, 274. 27 1QS. III.25 IV.1.

PAGE 50

46 complexities we can see in the sectarian theology of the Covenant and in the framing of the term throughout the text. The author uses the fulfillment of the Covenant to distinguish the sectar ians from the Temple cult, but also help the audience locate sectarian authority within a larger history and theology. As we turn to the term between the sectarians and th e Temple cult weakens even more. Exile and Expulsion Exile and expulsion constitute the two most extreme punishments for turning against the community or straying from the Covenant. Of the twenty three different rules found in The Rule resulting in punis hment in case of transgression, only five result in exile or expulsion. The terms therefore hold a significant amount of value to both author address exclusion. Most important to this investigation of the sectarian Temple ideology, one transgression that results in expulsion pertains to those who have been members of the community for ten years. The passage reads: If, after being in the Council of the Community for ten full years, the spirit of any man has failed and he has departed from the Congregation to walk in the stubbornness of his heart, he shall return no more to the Council of the Community. 28 Here the author admits that someone who not only enters into the Covenant and vows to adhere to Mosaic Law, but also one who lives with the community for ten years, can transgress the Law and immediately become an outsider. In other words, the text notes 28 1QS. VII. 23 25.

PAGE 51

47 that while being a member of the community al lows a practitioner to enter into the Covenant, unless that membership consists of full adherence to the Law without failure, it the challenge of a rigid divide between sectarian and Temple cult. The text ultimately conveys that even a member of the Community can be a Son of Darkness. The implications of this passage hold incredible importance for understanding the relationship of the sectarians to the Temple and provide more persuasive evidence to challenge the idea of a stark divide between the two. While the sect criticized the Temple cult for its failure to adhere to Mosaic Law, one of its members could very well make the same mistake. Moreover, just like our previo us terms, the ideas of expulsion and exile stem again from a shared history and help the audience frame the sect within a collective history. We do well to note the different occurrences of exile and expulsion in traditional -the first exile in the 29 By contrast, those who abandoned the covenant and chose their own 30 In relationship to The Rule Shemesh, who catalogues these occurrences of exile and notes their continuity where other scholars have not, writes 31 Like the unintentional sins in the shared Jewish history, the mos t severe transgressions of The Rule receive the punishment of exile or exclusion, which atones for them. In The Rule, exile usually takes the form of exclusion 29 Shemesh, 2002, 55. 30 Shemesh, 2002, 54. 31 Shemesh, 2002, 54.

PAGE 52

48 from the Meal of the Congregation. On the other hand, the ultimate punishment for a deliberate v iolation is to be cut off, expelled. Thus we find that another of the most valuable terms in The Rule refers to a collective history familiar to all Jews and a history that the sect shares with the Temple cult. Moreover, while expulsion and exclusion both result from not adhering to the Covenant and Law, in this particular case, the author of The Rule chose not to emphasize a sectarian symbol but instead capitalized on the power which the symbolism of exile shared with that of Jewish history in order to co mmunicate the gravity of transgressing The Rule Therefore, the author does not negotiate here between a distinct sectarian Instead he uses the traditional Jewish mean ing in order to emphasize the authority of The Rule. The notion that the author presumably found the language of traditional Temple Judaism more authoritative than a distinct sectarian interpretation of exile therefore challenges the stability of a rigid d ivide between the Qumran sectarians and the Temple cult. Applying a rhetorical analysis to The Rule while consciously avoiding binary categorizations reveals many interesting conclusions about the text. Some of these conclusions add support to old eviden for example, solidified the function of The Rule as a legal text and helped put to rest arguments weighing the text as either a judicial record or law manual. Yet emphasizing the agency of the Qumran auth or and analyzing the way the author negotiates between traditional Jewish and distinct sectarian symbols in order to communicate the meaning of different terms to the audience allows new evidence to surface. At times referencing a

PAGE 53

49 collective history and sh ared symbology could have seemed unintentional, or even inevitable, and perhaps we might have gotten away with disregarding unfamiliar evidence in favor of maintaining the models laid out by previous scholarship. Yet the most important evidence this thesis of shared Jewish symbols that intrinsically relate to the Temple cult functions primarily to give authority and meaning to sectarian symbols. The author's deliberate inclusion of symbolic meani ngs that echo back to a collective history therefore adds support to the notion of a dual sectarian concern with maintaining both a distinction from and connection to the Temple cult. This construction of the relationship between the sect and the Temple su ggests that it was full of negotiations between past and present, righteous and immoral, light and dark, negotiations that cannot fit into limited categories that deprive the sectarians of the very complexities that make them so unique.

PAGE 54

50 Conclusion The h istorical climate of the Second Temple period demanded that the Qumran sectarians maintain both a distinction from and connection to the Jerusalem Temple and its authorities. In order to survive in this competitive religious atmosphere, the sect needed to simultaneously convince newcomers both of their connection to Temple cult Judaism and of the predominating righteousness of sectarian practice. They had to negotiate between two important identities: the identity entrenched in traditional Judaism, which he ld all authority over Jewish ritual practice, and the one of the alienated sectarian. This thesis asserts the methodological failure of Qumran scholarship which employs the categorical method as a tool for reconstructing the sectarian relationships to the Temple. This scholarship inevitably privileges one identity over the other, and thereby diminishes the most unique qualities of the sectarian attitudes towards the Temple. This thesis argues that a feminist methodology that calls upon scholars to put thems elves in the shoes of historical readers allows us to appreciate the negotiation between different identities rather than privileging one over the other. I have shown that using rhetorical analysis to The Rule reveals a complex and unique relationship of sect to Temple cult that the categorical method suppresses. While Grossman provided the critical orientation for this thesis, Carol Newsom's literary toolkit for rhetorical analysi s allowed me to structure my investigation of The Rule

PAGE 55

51 of The Rule consistently negotiated its approach to its audience using traditional Jewish symbols intrinsically related to the Temple, shaping them into the distinct meanings of these terms in The Rule s the priority of preserving the sectarian relationship with the Temple. More importantly, this negotiation repeatedly functioned to communicate the authority of the sect within a Jewish collective history. In other words, the author used the history of th e Temple that relied solely upon this shared history to establish the authority of sectarian law and declined to include any distinct sectarian meanings. Such an interesting maneuver provides an illustration of the precise complexities and distinctions of sectarian Temple ideology that binary systems, categorizing the sectarian disposition as either pro or anti Temple, undermine and diminish. The singularity of T he Rule causes two main questions to emerge. First, since the author of The Rule writes to an audience of newcomers, it should not surprise us that the remaining passages of Community Rule contain a description of the ritual procedure for entering the comm unity. The new member must educate himself or herself in the Law of Moses for ten years before he or she may learn the particular practices of the Community role then, does this ritual play in negotiating old symbols with new, shared symbols with distinct, traditional symbols with the sectarian? Does the ritual for entrance into the sect reveal any new complexities in relationship between the sectarians and the Temple cult?

PAGE 56

52 Secondly, where else can we find use for the feminist critical method? This thesis demonstrates that the method need not be confined to its familiar realm of women's or gender studies. When we leave out the feminist critical method from the study of the Qumran, we also leave out a wealth of possibilities that may offer the most accurate and fascinating avenues into sectarian life in Second Temple Qumran.

PAGE 57

53 Glossary A Note on Translating and Brackets: Although the texts of the Dead Sea Scro lls are well preserved, many are missing pieces and some even had to be pieced back together as if they were puzzles. The state of some of these texts often makes translation difficult. Therefore, sometimes the particular translations of 1QS used throughou t this thesis contain different brackets. Ex: [The Master shall teach the sai]nts to live (?) { according to the Book } of The [Rul]e... Geza Vermes, who is responsible for the translations throughout this thesis, explains that he uses different br ackets to indicate the way he has translated the text: Phrases appear between { }. Hypothetical but likely reconstructions are placed between [ ] and glosses necessary for 1QS (The Community Rule) : is a way to abbreviate The Community Rule. The Community Rule is one of over eight hundred Dead Sea Scrolls belonging to the Qumran sectarians. The text contains three key themes and sections. Columns one through four through nine establish the statutes relating to the Council of the community, or leaders of the Community; and columns nine through twenty one desc ribe the role of the Master, or teacher, and record the Master's Hymn. See also Qumran CD (The Damascus Document): The Damascus Document is a rule text that is very similar to the community rule. It contains twenty columns in two main sections: the Admon ition, or advice, and the Laws. One significant difference between CD and 1QS is that CD the sect's leader, while 1QS makes no mention of such a figure. Mikvah: ew word that refers to a bath built into the ground and used for the purpose of Jewish ritual purification. MMT (Misqat Ma'aseHa Torah) : The MMT is also one of the Dead Sea Scrolls. It is sometimes referred to as the Halakhic Letter or the Works of the L aw text. The text takes shape in the form of a letter, as if the author is addressing an outside group. Furthermore, the text emphasizes the author's concerns about ritual sacrifice and proper ritual procedure. Pesher Habakkuk : Pesher Habakkuk is a relat ively complete scroll containing commentary on and interpretation of the first two chapters of The Book of

PAGE 58

54 Habakkuk. It contains a copy of Habakkuk in its familiar biblical order with the ) after each verse. Qumran: Qumran (Arabic: Khirbet Qumran) is an archaeological site located on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea. Archaeologists excavated the site in the 1950s and found a complex of buildings believed to have been built by the D ead Sea sectarians whose scrolls were found in caves just south of Qumran.

PAGE 59

55 Appendix Figure 1. Text of 1QS translated by G. Vermes in 1961, revised 2011. This translation 1QS I [The Master shall teach the sai]nts to live (?) { according to the Book } of The [Rul]e, that they may seek God with a whole heart and soul, and do what is good and right before him as He commanded by the hand of Moses and all his servants the prophets ; that they may love all that he has chosen and hate all that he has rejected; (5) that they may abstain from all evil and hold fast to all good; that they may practice truth, righteousness, and justice upon earth and no longer stubbornly follow a sinful heart and lustful eyes, committing all manner of evil. He shall admit into the covenant precepts, that they may be joined to the counsel of God and may live perfectly before h im in accordance with all that has been revealed concerning their appointed times, and nce. All those who freely devote themselves to his truth shall bring all their knowledge, powers and possessions into the community of God, that they may purify ways of perfection and all their possessions according to his righteous counsel. They shall not depart from any command of God concerning their times; they shall be neither (15) early nor late for any of their appointed times, they shall stray neither to the righ t nor to the left of any of his true precepts. All those who embrace the Community Rule shall enter into the covenant before God to obey all his commandments so that they may not abandon him during the dominion of Belial because of fear or terror or afflic tion. On entering the covenant, the priests and Levites shall bless the God of salvation Then the priests shall recite the favours of God manifested in hi s mighty deeds and shall declare all his merciful grace to Israel, and the Levites shall recite the iniquities of the children of Israel, all their guilty rebellions and sins doing the dominion of Belial. And after them, all those entering the covenant sha have strayed! We have [disobeyed!] We and our fathers before us have sinned and (25) done wickedly in walking [counter to the precepts] of truth and righteousness. [And God has] judged us and our fathers also; II but he has bestowe d his bountiful mercy on us

PAGE 60

56 and preserve you from all evil! May he lighten your heart wi th life giving wisdom and grant you eternal knowledge! May he raise his merciful face towards you for (5) because of all your guilty wickedness! May he de liver you up for torture at the hands of the vengeful avengers! May he visit you with destruction by the hand of all the wreakers of revenge! Be cursed without mercy because of the darkness of your deeds! Be damned in the shadowy place of everlasting fire! May God not heed when you call on him, nor pardon you by blotting out your sin! May he raise his angry face towards you for vengeance! May there be no peace for you in the mouth of those who hold fast g, all those entering the covenant this covenant while walking among the idols of his heart, who sets up before himself his stumbling block of s in so that he may backslide! Hearing the words of this 19), whereas his spirit, parched (for lack of truth) and water (15) wrath and his zeal for his precepts shall consume him in everlasting destruction. All the curses of the covenant shall cling to him and God will set him apart for evil. He shall be cut off from the midst of all the songs of light, and because he has turned aside from God on account of his idols and his stumbling block of sin, his lot shall be shall answer and sa Thus shall they do, year by year, for as long as the dominion of Belial endures. The priests shall enter first, ranked one after another according to the perfection of their (20) spirit; then the Levites; and thirdly all the people one aft er another in their thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, that every Israelite may know his place in the community of God according to the everlasting design. No man shall move down from his place nor move up from his allotted position. For according to the holy design, they shall all of them be in a community of truth and virtuous humility, of loving kindness (25) and good intent one towards the other, and (they shall all of them be) sons of the everlasting company. No man [shall be in the] community of his truth who refuses to enter [the covenant of] God so that he may walk in the stubbornness of his heart, for III his soul detests the wise teaching of just laws. He shall not be counted among the upright for he has not persisted in the conversion of his life. His knowledge, powers, and possessions shall not enter the council of the community, for whoever ploughs the mud of wickedness returns defiled (?). He shall not be justified by that which his stubborn heart declares lawful, for seeking the ways of l ight he looks towards darkness. He shall not be

PAGE 61

57 reckoned among the perfect; he shall neither be purified by atonement, nor cleansed by purifying waters, nor sanctified by seas and rivers, nor washed clean with any ablution. Unclean, unclean shall he be. Fo r as long as he despises the precepts of God (5) he shall receive no instruction in the community of his counsel. For it is through the spirit of true counsel concerning the ways of man that all his sins shall be expiated, that he may contemplate the ligh t of life. He shall be cleansed from all his sins by the spirit of holiness uniting him to His truth, and his iniquity shall be expiated by the spirit of uprightness and humility. And when his flesh is sprinkled with purifying water and sanctified by clean sing water, it shall be made clean by the humble submission of his soul to all the precepts of God. Let him then order his steps to walk perfectly in all the ways commanded by God concerning the times appointed (10) for him, straining neither to the right nor to the left and transgressing none of His words, and he shall be accepted by virtue of a pleasing atonement before God and it shall be to him a covenant of the everlasting community. The Master shall instruct all the sons of light and shall teach the m the nature of all the children of men according to the kind of spirit which they possess, the signs identifying their works during their lifetime, their visitation for chastisement, and the time of their reward. (15) From the God of knowledge comes all that is and shall be. Before ever they existed he established their whole design, and when, as ordained for them, they come into being, it is in accord with his glorious design that they accomplish their task without change. The laws of all things are in h is hand and he provides them with all their needs. He has created man to govern the world, and has appointed for him two spirits in which to walk onto the time of his visitation: the spirits of truth and injustice.Those born of truth spring from a fountain of light, but those born of injustice spring from a source of darkness. All the children of righteousness are ruled by the Prince (20) of Light and walk in the ways of light, but all the children of injustice are ruled by the Angel of Darkness and walk i n the ways of darkness. The Angel of Darkness leads all the children of righteousness astray, and until his end, all their sin, iniquities, wickedness, and all their unlawful deeds are caused by his dominion in accordance with the mysteries of God. Every o ne of their chastisements, and every one of the seasons of their distress, shall be brought about by the rule of his persecution; for all his allotted spirits seek the overthrow of the sons of light. But the God of Israel and his angel of truth will succou r all the sons of light. For it is He who created the spirits of Light and Darkness and founded every action (25) upon them and established every deed [upon] their [ways]. And he loves the one IV everlastingly and delights in its works for ever; but the c ounsel of the other He loathes and forever hates its ways. These are their ways in the world for the enlightenment of the heart of man, and

PAGE 62

58 so that all the path of true righteousness may be made straight before him, and so that the fear of the laws of God may be instilled in his heart: a spirit of humility, patience, abundant charity, unending goodness, understanding, and intelligence; (a spirit of) mighty wisdom which trusts in all the deeds of God and leans on his great lovingkindness; a spirit of discern ment in every purpose, of zeal for just laws, of holy (5) intent with steadfastness of heart, of great charity towards all the sons of truth, of admirable purity which detests all unclean idols, of humble conduct sprung from an understanding of all things and of faithful concealment of the mysteries of truth. These are the counsels of the spirit to the sons of truth in this world. And as for the visitation of all who walk in this spirit, it shall be healing, great peace in a long life, and fruitfulness, together with every everlasting blessing and eternal joy in life without end, a crown of glory and a garment of majesty in unending light. But the ways of the spirit of falsehood are these: greed, and slackness in the search for righteousness, wickedness a nd lies, haughtiness and pride, falseness and (10) deceit, cruelty and abundant evil, ill temper and much folly and brazen insolence, abominable deeds (committed) in a spirit of lust, and ways of lewdness in the service of uncleanness, a blaspheming tongu e, blindness of eye and dullness of ear, stillness of neck and heaviness of heart, so that man walks in all the ways of darkness and guile. And the visitation of all who walk in this spirit shall be a multitude of plagues by the hand of all the destroying Angels, everlasting damnation by the avenging wrath of the fury of God, eternal torment and endless disgrace together with shameful extinction in the fire of the dark regions. The times of all their generations shall be spent in sorrowful mourning and in b itter misery and in calamities of darkness until they are destroyed without remnant or survivor. The nature of all the children of men is ruled by these (two spirits), and during (15) their life all the hosts of men have a portion of their divisions and w alk in (both) their ways. And the whole reward for their deeds shall be, for everlasting ages, according established the spirits in equal measure until the final age, and h as set everlasting hatred between their divisions. Truth abhors the works of injustice, and injustice hates all the ways of truth. And their struggle is fierce in all their arguments for they do not walk together. But in the mysteries of his understanding, and in his glorious wisdom, God has ordained an end for injustice, and at the time of the visitation he will destroy it forever. Then truth, which has wallowed in the ways of wickedness during the dominion of injustice until the appointed time of judgment shall arise (20) in the world for ever. God will then purify every deed of man with his truth; he will refine for himself the human frame by rooting out all spirit of injustice from the bounds of his flesh. He will cleanse him of all wicked deeds with t he spirit of holiness; like purifying waters he will shed upon him the spirit of truth (to cleanse him) of all

PAGE 63

59 abomination and injustice. And he shall be plunged into the spirit of purification, that he may instruct the upright in the knowledge of the most high and teach the wisdom of the sons of heaven to the perfect of way. For God has chosen them for an everlasting covenant and all the glory of Adam shall be theirs. There shall be no more lies and all the works of injustice shall be put to shame. Until n ow the spirits of truth and injustice struggle in the hearts of men and they walk in both wisdom and folly. According to his portion of truth so does a man hate injustice, and according to his inheritance in the realm of injustice so is he wicked and so ha tes truth. For God has established the two spirits in equal measure until the (25) determined end, and until the renewal, and he knows the reward of their deeds from all eternity. He has allotted them to the children of men that they may know good [and ev il, and] that the destiny of all the living may be according to the spirit within [them at the time] of the visitation. V And this is a rule for the men of the community who have freely pledged themselves to be converted from all evil and to cling to all his commandments according to his will They shall separate from the congregation of the men of injustice and shall unite, with respect to the Law and possessions, under the authority of the sons of Zadok, the priests who keep the covenant, and of the multi tude of the men of the community who hold fast to the covenant. Every decision concerning doctrine, property, and justice shall be determined by them. They shall practice truth and humility in common, and justice and uprightness and charity and modesty in all their ways. No man shall walk in the stubbornness of his heart so that he strays after his heart and eyes and evil inclination, but he shall (5) circumcise in the community the foreskin of evil inclination and of stillness of neck that they may lay a foundation of truth for Israel, for the community of the everlasting covenant. They shall atone for all those in Aaron who have freely pledged themselves to holiness, and for those in Israel who have freely pledged themselves to the House of Truth, and for those who join them to live in community and to take part in the trial and judgment and condemnation of all those who transgress the precepts. On joining the community, this shall be their code of behaviour with respect to all these precepts. Whoever appr oaches the council of the community shall enter the covenant of God in the presence of all who have freely pledged themselves. He shall undertake by a binding oath to return with all his heart and soul to every commandment of the law of Moses in accordance with all that has been revealed over it to the sons of Zadok, the priests, keepers of the covenants and seekers of his will, and to the multitude of the men of their covenant who together have freely pledged themselves to his truth (10) and to walking in the way of his delight. And he shall undertake by the covenant to

PAGE 64

60 separate from all the men of injustice who walk in the way of wickedness. For they are not reckoned in his covenant. They have neither inquired nor sought after him concerning his laws that they might know the hidden things in which they have sinfully erred; and matters revealed they have treated with insolence. Therefore wrath shall rise up to condemn, and vengeance shall be executed by the curses of the covenant, and great chastisements of eternal destruction shall be visited on them, leaving no remnant. They shall not enter the water to partake of the pure meal of the men of holiness, for they shall not be cleansed unless they turn from their wickedness: for all who transgress his word are unclean. Likewise, no man shall consort with him in regard to his work or property lest he be burdened with the guilt of his sin. He shall (15) indeed keep away from him in all things: as it is written, Keep away from all that is false (Exod. xxiii, 7). N o member of the community shall follow them in matters of doctrine and justice, or eat or drink anything of theirs, or take anything from them except for a price; as it is written, Keep away from the man in whose nostrils is breath, for wherein is he count ed? (Isa. ii, 22). For all those not reckoned in his covenant are to be set apart, together with all that is theirs. None of the men of Holiness shall lean upon works of vanity: for they are all vanity who know not his covenant, and he will blot from the w orld over them that despise his word. All their deeds are defilement before him, and all their property unclean. But when a man enters the covenant to walk according to all these precepts that (20) he may be joined to the holy congregation, they shall exam ine his spirit in community with respect to his understanding and practice of the law, under the authority of the sons of Aaron who have freely pledged themselves in the community to restore his covenant and to heed all the precepts commanded by him, and o f the multitude of Israel who have freely pledged themselves in the community to return to his covenant. They shall inscribe them in order, one after another, according to their understanding and their deeds, that everyone may obey his companion, the men o f lesser rank obeying his superior. And they shall examine their spirit and deeds early, so that each man may be advanced in accordance with his understanding and perfection of way, or moved down in accordance with his distortions. They shall rebuke one an other in truth, humility, and charity. Let no man address his companion with anger, (25) or ill temper, or obdu[racy, or with envy prompted by] the spirit of wickedness. Let him not hate him [because of his uncircumcised] heart, but let him rebuke him on the very same day lest VI he incur guilt because of him. And furthermore, let no man accuse his companion before the congregation without having admonished him in the presence of witnesses. These are the ways in which all of them shall walk, each man with his companion, wherever they dwell. The man of lesser rank shall obey the greater in matters of work and money. They shall eat in common and bless in common and deliberate in common. Wherever there are ten men of the Council of the community there shall no t lack

PAGE 65

61 a priest among them. And they shall all sit before him according to their rank and shall be asked their counsel in all things in that order. And when the table has been (5) prepared for eating, and the new wine for drinking, the priest shall be the Vrst to stretch out his hand to bless the first fruits of the bread and wine. And where the ten are, there shall never lack a man among them who shall study the law continuously, day and night, concerning the right conduct of a man with his companion. And the congregation shall watch in community for a third over every night of the year, to read the book and to study the law and to bless together. This is the Rule for an assembly of the congregation Each man shall sit in his place: the priests shall sit f irst, and the elders second, and all the rest of the people according to their rank. And thus shall they be questioned concerning the law, and concerning any counsel or matter coming before the congregation, each man bringing his knowledge to the council o f the community. (10) No man shall interrupt a companion before his speech has ended, nor speak before a man of higher rank; each man shall speak in his turn. And in an assembly of the congregation no man shall speak without the consent of the congregati on, nor indeed of the guardian of the congregation. Should any man wish to speak to the congregation, yet not be in a position to question the council of the community, let y command him to speak, he shall speak. Every man, born of Israel, who freely pledges himself to join the Council of the community shall be examined by the Guardian at the head of the congregation concerning his understanding and his deeds. If he is fitte d to the discipline, he shall admit (15) him into the covenant that he may be converted to the truth and depart from all injustice; and he shall instruct him in all the rules of the community. And later, when he comes to stand before the congregation, they shall all deliberate his case, and according to the decision of the Council of the congregation he shall either enter or depart. After he has entered the council of the community he shall not touch the pure meal of the congregation until one full year is completed, and until he has been examined concerning his spirits and deeds; nor shall he have any share of the property of the congregation. Then when he has completed one year within the community, the congregation shall deliberate his case with regard to his understanding and observance of the law. And if it be his destiny, according to the judgment of the priests and the multitude of the men of their covenant, to enter the company of the community, his property and earnings shall be handed over to the bu rsar of the congregation who shall register it to his account and shall not spend it for the congregation. He shall not (20) touch the drink of the congregation until he has completed a second year among the men of the community. But when the second year h as passed, he shall be examined, and if it be his destiny, according to the judgment of the congregation, to enter the

PAGE 66

62 community, then he shall be inscribed among his brethren in the order of his rank for the law, and for justice, and for the pure meal; hi s property shall be merged and he shall over his counsel and judgment to the community. These are the rules by which they shall judge at a community (Court of) inquiry according to the cases If one of them has lied deliberately in matters of property, he shall be excluded (25) from the pure meal of the congregation for one year and shall do penance with respect to one quarter of his food. Whoever has answered his companion with obstinacy, or has addressed him impatiently, going so far as to take no accoun t of the dignity of his fellow by disobeying the order of a brother inscribed before him, he has taken the Law into his own hand; therefore he shall do penance for one year [and shall be excluded]. If any man has uttered the [most] venerable name VII even though frivolously, or as a result of shock or for any other reason whatever, while reading the book or blessing, he shall be dismissed and shall return to the Council of the community no more. If he has spoken in anger against one of the priests inscribed in the book, he shall of the congregation. But if he has spoken unwittingly, he shall do penance for six months. Whoever has deliberately lied shall do penance for six mo nths. Whoever has deliberately insulted his companion unjustly shall do penance for one year and shall be excluded. Whoever has deliberately deceived his companion by word or by deed shall do (5) penance for six months. If he has failed to care for his co mpanion, he shall do penance for three months. But if he has failed to care for the property of the community, thereby causing its loss, he shall restore it in full. And if he be unable to restore it, he shall do penance for sixty days. Whoever has borne m alice against his companion unjustly shall do penance for six months/one year; and likewise, whoever has taken revenge in any matter whatever. Whoever has spoken foolishly: three months. Whoever has interrupted his companion whilst speaking: ten days. (10 ) Whoever has lain down to sleep during an assembly of the congregation: thirty days. And likewise, whoever has left, without reason, an assembly of the congregation as many as three times during one assembly, shall do penance for ten days. But if he has d eparted whilst they were standing he shall do penance for thirty days. Whoever has gone naked before his companion, without having been obliged to do so, he sure do penance for six months.

PAGE 67

63 Whoever has spat in an assembly of the congregation shall do penanc e for thirty days. Whoever has been so poorly dressed that when drawing his hand from beneath (15) his garment his nakedness has been seen, he shall do penance for thirty days. Whoever has guffawed foolishly shall do penance for thirty days. Whoever has dr awn out his left hand to gesticulate with it shall do penance for ten days. Whoever has gone about slandering his companion shall be excluded from the pure meal of the congregation for one year and shall do penance. But whoever has slandered the congregati on shall be expelled from among them and shall return no more. Whoever has murmured against the authority of the community shall be expelled and shall not return. But if he has murmured against his companion unjustly, he shall do penance for six months. Sh ould a man return whose spirit has so trembled before the authority of the community that he has betrayed the truth and walked in the stubbornness of his heart, he shall do penance for two years. During the first year he shall not touch the pure meal of th e congregation, and during the second year he shall not touch the drink of (20) the congregation and shall sit below all the men of the community. Then when his two years are completed, the congregation shall consider his case, and if he is admitted he sh all be inscribed in his rank and may then question concerning the law. If, after being in the Council of the community for ten full years, the spirit of any man has failed, so that he has betrayed the community and departed from the congregation to walk in the stubbornness of his heart, he shall return no more to the Council of the community. Moreover, if any member of the community has shared (25) with him his food or property which .... of the congregation, his sentence shall be the same; he shall be ex[ pelled]. VIII In the Council of the community there shall be twelve men and three priests, perfectly versed in all that is revealed of the law, whose works shall be truth, righteousness, justice, loving kindness and humility. They shall preserve the faith in the land with steadfastness and meekness and shall atone for sin by the practice of justice and by suffering the sorrows of affliction. They shall walk with all men according to the standard of truth and the rule of the time. When these are in Israel, the Council of the community shall be established in (5) truth. It shall be an everlasting plantation, a house of holiness for Israel, an assembly of supreme holiness for Aaron. They shall be witnesses to the truth at the judgment, and shall be the elect of goodwill who shall atone for the land and pay to the wicked their reward. It shall be that tried wall, that precious corner stone, whose foundations shall neither rock nor sway in their place (Isa. xxviii, 16). It shall be a most holy dwelling for Aaron with everlasting knowledge of the covenant of justice, and shall

PAGE 68

64 oUer up sweet fragrance. It shall be a house of perfection and truth in Israel that they (10) may establish a covenant according to the everlasting precepts. And they shall be an agreeable offering, atoning for the land and determining the judgment of wickedness and there shall be no more iniquity. When they have been confrmed for two years in perfection of way in the foundation of the community, they shall be set apart as holy within the C ouncil of the men of the community. And the interpreter shall not conceal from them, out of fear of the spirit of apostasy, any of those things hidden from Israel which have been discovered by him. And when these become members of the community in Israel according to all these rules they shall separate from the habitation of unjust men and shall go into the wilderness to prepare there the way of him; as it is written, Prepare in the wilderness the way of ...., make straight in the desert a path for our God (Isa. xl, 3). This (path) (15) is the study of the law which he commanded by the hand of Moses, that they may do according to all that has been revealed from age to age, and as the prophets have revealed by his Holy Spirit. And no man among the members o f the covenant of the community who deliberately, on any point whatever, turns aside from all that is commanded, shall touch the pure meal of the men of holiness or know anything of their counsel until his deeds are purified from all injustice and he walks in perfection of way. And then, according to the judgment of the congregation, he shall be admitted to the Council and shall be inscribed in his rank. This rule shall apply to whoever enters the community. And these are the rules which the men of perfect holiness shall follow in their commerce with one another Every man who enters the Council of holiness, (the council of those) who walk (20) in the way of perfection as commanded by God, and who deliberately or through negligence transgresses one word of t he law of Moses, on any point whatever, shall be expelled from the Council of the community and shall return no more; no man of holiness shall be associated in his property or counsel in any matter at all. But if he has acted inadvertently, he shall be exc luded from the pure meal and the Council and they shall interpret the rule (as follows). For two years he shall take no part in (25) judgment or ask for counsel; but if, during that time, his way becomes perfect, then he shall return to the (court of) inq uiry and the council, in accordance with the judgment of the congregation, provided that he commit no further inadvertent sin during two full years. IX For one sin of inadvertence (alone) he shall do penance for two years. But as for him who has sinned del iberately, he shall never return; only the man who has sinned inadvertently shall be tried for two years, that his way and counsel may be made perfect according to the judgment of the congregation. And afterwards, he shall be inscribed in his rank in the c ommunity of holiness. When these become members of the community in Israel according to all these

PAGE 69

65 rules, they shall establish the Spirit of holiness according to everlasting truth. They shall atone for guilty rebellion and for sins of unfaithfulness, that they may obtain loving kindness for the land without the flesh of Holocausts and the fat of sacrifice. (5) And prayer rightly offered shall be as an acceptable fragrance of righteousness, and perfection of way as a delectable free will offering. At that time the men of the community shall set apart a house of holiness in order that it may be united to the most holy things and a House of community for Israel, for those who walk in perfection. The sons of Aaron alone shall command in matters of justice and property, and every rule concerning the men of the community shall be determined according to their word. As for the property of the men of holiness who walk in perfection, it shall not be merged with that of the men of injustice who have not purified thei r life by separating themselves from iniquity and walking in the way of perfection. They shall depart from none of the councils of the law to walk in all the stubbornness of their hearts, (10) but shall be ruled by the primitive precepts in which the men of the community were first instructed until there shall come the prophets and the messiahs of Aaron and Israel. These are the precepts in which the master shall walk in his commerce with all the living, according to the rule proper to every season and a ccording to the worth of every man He shall do the will of God according to all that has been revealed from age to age. He shall measure out all knowledge discovered throughout the ages, together with the precept of the age. He shall separate and weigh the songs of righteousness according to their spirit. He shall hold firmly to the elect of the time according to his will, as he has (15) commanded. He shall judge every man according to his spirit. He shall admit him in accordance with the cleanness of his h ands and advance him in accordance with his understanding. And he shall love and hate likewise. He shall not rebuke the men of the Pit nor dispute with them. He shall conceal the teaching of the Law from men of injustice, but shall impart true knowledge an d righteous judgment to those who have chosen the way. He shall guide them all in knowledge according to the spirit of each and according to the rule of the age, and shall thus instruct them in the mysteries of marvellous truth, so that in the midst of the men of the community they may walk perfectly together in all that has been revealed to them. This is a time for the preparation of the way into (20) the wilderness, and he shall teach them to do all that is required at that time and to separate from all those who have not turned aside from all injustice.

PAGE 70

66 These are the rules of conduct for the Master in those times with respect to his loving and hating Everlasting hatred in a spirit of secrecy for the men of perdition! He shall leave to them wealth and e arnings like a slave to his Lord and like a poor man to his master. He shall be a man zealous for the precept whose time is for the day of revenge. He shall perform the will of God in all his deeds, and in all his dominion as he has commanded. He shall fre ely delight in all that befalls him and nothing shall please (25) nothing except his command. He shall watch always [for] the judgment of God, and shall bless his maker [ for all his goodness] and declare [his mercies] in all that befalls. He shall bless him [with the offering] of the lips X at the times ordained by him: at the beginning of the dominion overnight, and at its end when it retires to its appointed place; at th e beginning of the watches of darkness when he unlocks their storehouse and spreads them out, and also at their end when they retire before the light; when the heavenly lights shine out from the dwelling place of holiness, and also when they retire to the place of glory; at the entry of the monthly seasons on the days of the new moon, and also at their end when they succeed to one another. Their renewal is a great day for the holy of holies, and a sign for the unlocking of everlasting mercies at the beginni ng of seasons in old times to come.

PAGE 71

67 Bibliography The Jewish Quarterly Review 95 (3) (Summer): pp. 509 529. crolls and Its Dead Sea Discoveries 14 (1) (03): 1 24. Dead Sea Discoveries 11 (2): pp. 174 190. Bau Journal of Jewish Studies 46 (1) (Spring): 112. Bell, Catherine. 2009. Ritual Theory Ritual Practice. Oxford University Press, USA Bitzer, Lloyd. 1968. The Rhetorical Situation P hilosophy and Rhetoric, 1 1 14. Dead Sea Discoveries 16 (2) (01/01): 254 73. Dead Sea Discover ies 17 (3) (11): 361 86. Burrows, 1956. The Dead Sea Scrolls. New York, 1955. Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble.: Feminism and the subversion of identity New York: Routledge, 2006 Dead Sea Discoveries 1 (3) (Nov.): pp. 265 284. Crawford, Sidnie White. 2000. The Temple Scroll and Related Texts Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. Journal of Biblical Literature 104 ( 1) (Mar.): pp. 39 55. Rediscovering the Dead Sea Scrolls: An Assessment of Old and New Approaches and Methods.

PAGE 72

68 Ed. Maxine Grossman. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Pub. pp. 12 8 144. Dead Sea Discoveries 6 (2) (07): 148. priestly Legal Authority: A Dead Sea D iscoveries 6 (2) (07): 109. Journal of Jewish Studies 44 (1) (Spring93): 46. 2005. Johannine Sectarianism in Perspective: A Sociological, Historical, and Comparative Analysis of Temple and Social Relationships in the Gospel of John, Philo,and Qumran Leiden: Brill. Bertil E. 1965. The Temple and the Community in Qumran and the New Testament: A Comparative Study in the Temple Symbolism of the Qumran Texts and the New Testament Cambridge: University Press. Rediscovering the Dead Sea Scrolls: An Assessment of Old and New Approaches and Methods. Ed. Maxine Grossman. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Pub. pp. 229 245. ---------2002. Reading for History in the Damascus Document: A Methodological Model. Leiden etc.: Brill. The Contribution of 4QInstruction a Currents in Biblical Research 7 (3) (06): 376 416. RAIN (10) (Sep. Oct.): pp. 5 6. Tradition. Dead Sea Discoveries 10 (1) (03): 59 80. Dead Sea Discoveries 6 (1) (03): 11.

PAGE 73

69 nd the Site of Khirbet Journal of Near Eastern Studies 57 (3) (Jul.): pp. 161 189. AJS Review 32 (2) (Nov.): pp. 299 334. --------The Presentation of Prophets as Ancie Journal of Biblical Literature : 127:2. pp. 307 337. Dead Sea Discoveries 14(2) (07): 1 52 77. Journal of Biblical Literature 74 (3) (Sep.): pp. 141 146. Rediscove ring the Dead Sea Scrolls: An Assessment of Old and New Approaches and Methods. Ed. Maxine Grossman. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Pub. pp. 264 283. Rediscovering the Dead Sea Scrolls: An Assessment of Old and New Approaches and Methods. Ed. Maxine Grossman. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Pub. pp. 108 127. Magness, Jodi. 2003.The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdm ans Pub. --------Rediscovering the Dead Sea Scrolls: An Assessment of Old and New Approaches and Methods. Ed. Maxine Grossman. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Pub. pp. 89 107. Martinez, Flore Near Eastern Archaeology 63 (3) (09): 172. Torah' (dead sea scroll 4QMMT) Rhetoric Review 29 (3) (07): 221 38. Dead Sea Discoveries 11 (3) (11): 315 35.

PAGE 74

70 Milgrom, Jacob. 1978. "'Sabbath' and 'Temple City' in the Temple Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (232) (Autumn): pp. 25 27. The Biblical Archaeologist 41 (3) (Sep.): pp. 105 120. Journ al of Bible and Religion 27 (4) (Oct.): pp. 284 290. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 49 (2) (Apr.): pp. 135 144. --------Rediscovering the Dead Sea Scrolls: An Assessment of Old and New Approaches and Methods. Ed. Maxine Grossman. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Novum Testamentum 10 (1) ( Jan.): pp. 43 61. Israel Exploration Journal 51 (1): pp. 48 56. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 13 (1) (04): 61. purification Israel Exploration Journal 55 (2): pp. 194 204. Temple in Early Christianity in Light of Ancient Harvard Theological Review 97 (4) (10): 383 411. Dead Sea Discoveries 10 (2) (01/01): 243 78. Dead Sea Discoveries 8 (2) (07): 169 81.

PAGE 75

71 A Reconsideration of the End of Dead Sea Discoveries 15 (1) (03): 67 78. Sect." The Biblical Archaeologist 53 (2) (Jun.): pp. 64 73. Ex pulsion and Exclusion in the Community Rule and Dead Sea Discoveries, Vol. 9, No. 1 (2002), pp. 44 74 Dead Sea Discoveries 10 (1) (03): 104 29. Smith, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (284) (Nov.): pp. 1 16. Stone, Michael E. 1984. Jewish writings of the Second Temple period: Apocrypha Pseudepigrapha, Qumran, Sectarian Writings, Philo, Josephus Assen,Netherlands: V an Gorcum. Vermes, Geza. 1961 revised 2011. The Complete Dead sea Scrolls in English Revised Edition. London: Penguin Classics. Journal of Biblical Literature 124 (3(Fall): pp. 401 417. time: The 490 year Scheme in Second Temple Dead Sea Discoveries 13 (2) (07): 229 55. 2010. Dualism in Qumran London: T & T Clark International. Journal of Biblical Literature 131 (2) (Summer2012): 271 88.


ERROR LOADING HTML FROM SOURCE (http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu//design/skins/UFDC/html/footer_item.html)