This item is only available as the following downloads:
UNCOVERING GIDE: DISCOVERING THREE FIGURES OF THE COUNTERFEITERS THROUGH TWO NINETEENTH CENTURY REALIST NOVELS BY KENNETH LEE A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Humanities New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Jocelyn Van Tuyl Sarasota, Florida May, 2013
ii Acknowledgements First and foremost, it will be my pleasure to thank my sponsorDr. Jocelyn Van Tuyl for her vital guidance and her faith in m feel as though this project would have been impossible if she were not there to support me and encourage my good ideas. Van Tuyl has taught be so much, and I will always be grateful. I would also like to thank my committee members Dr. Glenn Cuomo and Dr. Jos Alberto Portugal for reading this thesis and taking interest in my project. As a student who has not developed a rapport with many of the professors at New College, I will always appreciate their presence i n my academic life. There is nothing and no one in the world that could have replaced any of the friends I have met at New College, especially Kaley Soud, Sam Thornton, Emily Bolotin, el, Taylor Parker, James Carillo, Matthew Blackowiak, Addie Haris, Devin Kruger, Krystaal McClain, Victoria Jara, and JD Kelley. They supported both my good and bad habits that helped me keep it together throughout this year. Last but not least, I want to thank my family. My Mom, Dad, Grandma, and to thank my brother for understanding my situation and having patience with me. There is nothing more I could ask from the m.
iii Table of Contents Acknowledgements............................................................................................................. ii Table of Contents........................................................................................ ........................iii Abstract..................................................................................................................... ..........iv Introduction.............................................................................. ............................................1 Chapter One Bildungsroman, Subverting the Genre... ...................................... 6 Chapter Two ...........2 7 Chapter Three : Th Barthes ......................................... .........................................................................4 2 Conclusion....................................................... .................................................................. 57 Bibliography.............................................................................................................. ........6 0
iv UNCOVERING GIDE: DISCOVERING THREE FIGURES OF TH E COUNTERFEITERS THROUGH TWO NINETEENTH CENTURY REALIST NOVELS Kenneth Lee New College of Florida, 2013 Abstract Gide alludes to many other novels in his highly intertextual 1925 novel The Counterfeiters andovertly refers to Balzac's Old Man Goriot and Stendhal's The Red and the Black In this thesis, I juxtapose Stendhal's and Balzac's novels with Gide's to illuminate three prominent figures in The Counterfeiters : the Bildungsroman protagonist Bernard, the novelist character Edouard, and the narrator. My first chapter contrasts Bernard with two other Bildungsroman protagonists: Stendhal's Julien and Balzac's Rastignac. This contrast reveals how Bernard appears to conform to the traditional Bildungsroman yet ultimately breaks the mold of the genre. My seco nd chapter discusses last chapter characterizes The Counterfeiters' narrator thr ough contrast with the narrators of Stendhal's and Balzac's novels. Using Roland Barthes's concept of readerly and writerly texts, I argue that Gide's narrator places the reader and author on the same level of authority, while Stendhal's and Balzac's narra torsplace their reader on a level below
v the author. Through my intertextual examination of Gide's experimental novel, I reveal The Counterfeiters to be a novel about how novels function. Professor Jocelyn Van Tuyl
1 Introduction In this thesis, I will novel The Counterfeiters Gide plays not only with archetypal characters and narratives, but also with narrators and the act of narration in regards to reader expectations. We as readers have exp ectations that stem from our experience with literature and our invoking literary heritage through intertextual a llusions, but frustrates these expectations leading the reade r to unfamiliar and ambiguous plot points. Consequently, The Counterfeiters is a self aware novel; it points to literary traditions through characters commenting on their own situation and through untraditional narration. Moreover, I w ill illuminate my ana lysis of The Counterfeiters by reading it against the conventional plots and narrative techniques of Stendhal's 1831 novel The Red and the Black and Honor de Balzac's 1835 novel Old Man Goriot. These two novels are among many literary works referenced by Gid e, but they stand out from the others because of the context in which they are referenced. The Counterfeiters novel he classified his other works as either a sotie ( a short satirical, critical work) or (a short, highly focused narra tive about one character). The Counterfeiters is a combination of a sotie and a At its core, The Counterfeiters theorizes aboutnovels while importing numerous types of texts. For example, fictional journal entries, letters to characters, third perso n narration, and numerous literary allusions construct the narrative. At the same time, there are also references to real authors, real journals, and real events taken from news clippings. The
2 novel, therefore, can be seen as a bricolage a work that is ma de from various materials. In the case of The Counterfeiters the conglomeration of literary forms lends itself to these various materials. While Gide wrote The Counterfeiters, he kept The Journal of The Counterfeiters recording his ideas for the novel an d his experiences during the writing process.Edouard, one of the main characters, is an author in the process of writing a novel called The Counterfeiters which has an author as the main character. Furthermore, Edouard also keeps a journal where he record s his experiences and his ideas about his novel. Gide effectively uses Edouard to establish a mise en abyme a work that replicates itself or its structures within itself, such as a picture within a picture or a play within a play that proclaims that Th e Counterfeiters is interested in novels and literariness. T he Bildungsroman genre, w hich Gide plays on, is a coming of age story where a young protagonist matures while finding his/her place in society.Bernard Profitendieu is the young protagonist of The Bildungsroman narrative, andin Bernard's narrative, Gide explores what a Bildungsroman protagonist achieves. The novel begins in Paris when Bernard discovers he is a bastard. This event propels Bernard on his adventure with the novelist chara cter Edouard. On this adventure, Edouard plans to help his old friend Laura, who is pregnant with an illegitimate son, by taking her and Bernard to the the theme of th e bastard. This stay in the Alps composes the second part of the novel, and during their stay at the mountain resort, Edouard discusses the plan for his novel and the theories behind it. This discussion leads to a discourse about the nature of counterfeiti ng. In the third section, Edouard, Bernard, and Laura return to Paris where many of the
3 characters are thrown into emotional turmoil; Bernard, in particular, searches for his new place as a matured young adult. Edouard confronts Georges, a member of the co suicide, which follows Edouard's confrontation with Georges, are plot points based on two separate faits divers (news briefs). Boris' suicide signals that the narrative is beginning to end, but it is one of Edouard's journal entries that ends the novel; the The Counterfeiters The narrative lacks closure and leaves most events unresolved, unlike the ma rked resolutions of the other two nineteenth c entury realist novels referenced, Old Man Goriot and The Red and the Black Stendhal's The Red and the Black, published in 1831, is one of the foremost realist novels of the century. The novel is a Bildungsroma n by joining the clergy or by achieving his ambitions as a military hero, like Napoleon Bonaparte. Through Julien's story, the narrato r explores the conditions of Verr i tarts working for a Marquis, the setting changes to Paris, and the narrator explores the salons, excess, ennui ,and culture of 1830's Parisian society. Julien's tale ends tragically; after achieving his dream of becoming a lieutenant, he is executed for sho oting Madame de Rnal. The Counterfeiters also refers to Honor de Balzac's Bildungsroman Old Man Goriot. This novel is part of Balzac's famous project La ComdieHumaine a multi
4 volume, encyclopedic novel. Balzac wanted to capture a facet of human life i n each volume of his project. He observed and wrote about all social classes and every type of living situation in every area of France. Nevertheless, he was unable to finish La Comdie Humaine Old Man Goriot, published in 183 5, introduces the character E ug ne de Rastignac in Balzac's magnum opus. The novel follows Rastignac's entry into and experiences in high Parisian society. Furthermore, the people Eug neencounters and their unique characteristics are central to the novel They come from diverse backgr about to end. She helps Rastignac climb the social ladder, giving him the t -the surprising and humiliating end of her love affair with the nobleman -signals the end of Rastignac's Bildungsroman : his journey of befriending Old Man Goriot, ach ieving social mobility, and attempting to help Goriot reclaim the love of his two daughters. In the first chapter of my thesis, I will analyze Bernard as Bildungsroman hero. I and how the novel gives value the role of reading. Most of this chapter will be spent analyzing Bernard's Bildungsroman against those of Rastignac in Old Man Goriot and Julien in The Red and the Black Bernard's narrative resembles Rastignac's and Julien's narrative s but studying his lack of action and what propels his narrative, we can see that Gide is subverting the Bildungsroman as a genre. I will end my chapter with a discussion on how Bernard does not fit the mold of Bildungsroman protagonist very well, but embodies one through the frustration of conventions.
5 In my second chapter, my analysis will turn to Edouard. I will explore how he creates expectations for his novel and his role as novelist by referencing a passage from The Red and the Black Likewi se, his reference to a phrase in Balzac's La Comdie Humaine gives evidence for an analysis of Edouard's theories on the novel. By contrasting Edouard's mode of writing against the modes of Stendhal and Balzac, the fact that Edouard will never write his no vel becomes clear Furthermore by contrasting Edouardwith his own author Gide Edouard's successes as an author are revealed to the reader, but remain unknown to Edouard. I will end my chapter by looking at Edouard's relationship with writing and his succ esses and failures as a novelist. In my third chapter, I will be comparing the narrators of the three novels I have discussed. In doing so, I will explore their intrusive characteristics, their knowledge, their limitations, and how they all point to the r eader. These similar themes place The Counterfeiters on the same literary continuum as The Red and the Black and Old Man Goriot ; however, these similarities also demonstrate how Gide is constructing an untraditional narrative for his novel. Part of my analy sis will use Roland Barthes' lens of to examine how the texts operate overall, paying attention to passages that distinguish the novels from each other. My conclusion will express how Gide is as interested in the reader of h is novel as he is in playing with literariness. By the end, the reader should be able to conceive many connections between The Counterfeiters and other novels, seeing that Gide takes from many sources.
6 Chapter One: Bildungsroman Subverting th e Genre In this chapter, I will examine how Gide experiments with literature, looking closely at Bernard's development as a Bildungsroman hero throughout The Counterfeiters A Bildungsroman around self pr or of Bildungsroman protagonist. However, while there are many other points in the novel where his role is made obvious, Gide uses conventions to open many avenues in his novel. Early in The Counterfeiters Bernard collects Edouard's suitcase from a cloak room and reads Edouard's journal. The journal propels Bernard into a new direction and an adventurewith Edouard by making him aware of Laura When he triump hantly obta Maintenant, valise, nous deux [ Now suit case a word with you ] Eug A nous deuxmaintenant [n ow, let us fight it out Le PreGoriot 309 ). Ras tignac is a Bildungsroman protagonist from Old Man Goriot, and Bernard'sovert literary allusion establishes himas a Bildungsroman protagonist. Thus the reader is invited to contrast Bernard's development with Rastignac's. Similarly, Stendhal's The Red and
7 th e Black another Bildungsroman is referenced in The Counterfeiters, giving evidence to liken Bernard to Julien Sorel. Rastignac and Julien are archetypal Bildungsroman protagonists and develop their professional and romantic lives in their narratives. Bot h begin their development with a debut in society, soon excelling in their career plots, all the while developing their love plots. Their careers stabilize them financially and their love plots are filled with obstacles. In their narratives, both character s mature emotionally and come to an acceptance of themselves by the end of their stories. Likewise, Bernard debuts in society after herealizes his illegitimate birth. He appears to follow the trajectory of anarchetypal Bildungsroman protagonist, but his car eer plot and love plot diverge fromJulien's and Rastignac's. Gide frustrates the reader's expectations about Bernard's trajectory by showing how Bernard is conscious of literary conventions, by leaving out specific characteristics of a Bildungsroman plot, a nd by demonstrating how Bernard changes from a rebellious youth to a young adult who returns to his startingpointinthe novel. Gide uses these frustrations to direct the reader, to emphasize the unfamiliar,and to reject the conventions of past works. Gide's subversion of the Bildungsroman and his attention to the reader make The Counterfeiters a self aware and self reflexive novel that is obviously reworking the Bildungsroman as a genre Revealing Expectations and Bernard as Reader Before we analyze Bernard 's trajectory in conjunction with Julien's and Rastignac's, it is important to note thatBernard is literary. In other words, he is well read and consciously alludes to many literary works. Literature consumes him and he admits
8 author's wordswould fit his situation and recites them. This awareness is demonstrated in the first scene o f The Counterfeiters addressed to his mother learns thing s to which he should not be privy, and expects someone to catchhim. The scene is suspenseful, full of potential for a melodramatic episode, and Bernard waits for cr eated from his literary knowledge, isfrustrated. Likewise, the reader's expectation is as well. Thus, by giving Bernard a high level of awareness, Gide signals the reader to look for frustrated expectations. The reader has literary knowledge just as Bernar d does, and with the frustration of literary expectations so early in the novel, Gide sets up the narrative to exploit conventions. This scene demonstrates how The Counterfeiters is self reflexive by highlighting the novel's awareness of its position as tex t, letting the novel reveal its tendency to frustrate to the reader. There are other events that can serve as a template for how to read the novel. When a drop of sweat falls onto the letter Bernard is holding, he jokes that the drop is correspondence, letters that are full of emotion are often marked with tears from the weeping writer. This convention appears in The Red and the Black when a letter from Madame de Rnal, one of 190 191). Through the tear like mark made by the drop of sweat, Gide observes how
9 conventions can be imitated.The drop only imitates a tear when Bernard indicates it is not a tear. When con ventions are imitated they make the reader aware of their existence instead of leaving evidence of an emotion al reader Bernard's comment on his drop of sweat brings up questions about how to read the novel, pointing out the many interpretiveavenues the re ader can take. What is presented in Gide's novel cannot be looked at in conventional ways.The reader has to reexamine what is presented. The remainder of the first scene can be read with this notionin mind. The first scene starts in medias res with Bernar focus on Bernard's actions instead of on the material letters. The reader only sees Bernard hiding his discovery, putting the letters er of the console The narrative's focus on hiding the letters, with the absence of their discovery, signals that they are not as important as other features of the scene.On the other hand, since what is writtenin the letters is never revealed, Gide leavespotential for the letters to become a complicated symbol and metaphor and gives theopportunity forthe reader to create meaning. The potential for meaning endswhen Bernard observes the letters, questioning observation points to the limited information they reveal, keeping the material letters meaningless. While they inform Bernard that he is an illegitimate childand help him decide to leave ho me, the letters themselves have nothing more to offer. It is not the material letters nor their content that the reader should focus on, but the act of reading and Bernard's role as reader. Reading is emphasized when Bernard reveals how he discovers the le tters. With thisemphasis, the reader is asked to acknowledge his/her role
10 through Bernard. Bernard's actions parallelthe reader's because, while the reader reads about Bernard's narrative, Bernard reads about himself: both figures read about Bernard in som e way. The Counterfeiters presentsthe reader tohim/herself in the novel he/she reads, demonstrating how the novel is self aware. This awareness that Gide presents is pervasive throughout Bernard's narrative, except in the beginning of his Bildungsroman plot. Bernard as Bildungsroman Protagonist After the first scene, Bernard follows the trajectory of a Bildungsroman protagonist by leaving his home to make his way in the world. He runs away to his best friend Olivier's house and spends the night there. That ni ght, Olivier asks into a new experience. He is no longer bound by old powe rs, which allows him to create experiences he could not have had before. Similarly, Balzac's Rastignac also dismisses build a career that does not rely on his pa rents' property (Balzac 28). Instead of tracked by the need to make though they are supporting him, and becomes a socialite. Rastignac makes his way into society to experience something new. Bernard's trajectory is similar to Rastignac's narrative, giving grounds to expect Bernard will enter into a new world, as Rastignac
11 enters the new world of high Parisian socie ty. It seems that Bernard is going act in the mode of an archetypal Bildungsroman protagonist. Bernard's trajectory strays from Rastignac's when Bernard proposes his own trajectory. After spending the night with Olivier, Bernard leaves his friend's house a nd Bernard's rejection of authority and exhibits his desire to start on a path that leads t o challenges and new experiences. On the other hand, his statement sets him apart from Rastignac, makingBernard a self conscious protagonist. Bernard desires to find obstacleswhile Rastignac does not realize he will encounter obstacles. Specifically, after meeting with Madame de Restaud, an important socialite, Rastignac recognizes that he (Balzac 58). His unexpected social awkwardness, as demonstrated in these quotes, become society (65). By making Bernard aware of his trajectory, consequently, Gide is making the reader aware of Bernard Bildungsroman protagonist. Through this awareness, Gide m akes Bernard's narrative seemingly transparent and predictable by having Bernard announce his role. Another way Bernard breaks from Rastignac's and even Julien's trajectory, something that makes him an unconventional Bildungsroman protagonist, is how he does not seem to have a specific goal to end his adventure. His self prescribed fate as an adventurer merely means Bernard wants to find obstacles, while the achievements and gains from overcoming obstacles are unknown. Julien is unlike Bernard because he has
12 ambitions. From the start of The Red and the Black it is clear that Julien idolizes Memorials of St. Helena, memoir about Napoleon's journey to and exile in Saint Helena (Stendhal 25). He asp ires though he wants to be a member of the military elite, he wants power and a high position miliarize himself with the repertoire of each theatre, memorize each twist and turn of the Parisian Labyrinth, know what is and isn't done, learn the language and appreciate the pleasures pecific they want to gain in their adventuresbut do not see their desires as their destinies. Bernard is a Bildungsroman protagonist, but does not have a clear trajectory within society. He knows he wants challenges, but does not know how to reachthem or wh at they will be. Gide leaves potential for anything to happen while denying the reader the ability to predict what Bernard will do, unlike Stendhal and Balzac. Bernard is looking for his purpose in the world. His mother's letters only inspire him to leave in this case he has no concrete goals, but is unable to admit it (198). His comment on Hamlet reveals that he lacks any purpose, reveals that heenvies Hamlet's defined purpose, and that he relates to the character's struggle with indecisiveness. There are open po ssibilities in his life, but he can only fill them with literature. This is a frustration of the
13 hapter (59). While before his trajectory seemed clear, his lack of action brings up questions about itsdirection. He is a traditional Bildungsroman protagonist who participates in conventions of the genre, yet does not follow them to anticipated outcomes. B y frustrating expectations, Gide is demonstrating how his novel is unpredictable, distancing himself from past literary works by subverting conventions. The similarities between the three protagonists can be seen through conventions, but Bernard's narrativ e is distinct because it strays from the similarities while presenting them. Because of frustrated expectations,the narrative loses momentum, emphasizing Bernard's difference from Julien and Rastignac. The reader can expect that Bernard is going to act as narrative for three chapters. This is completely unlike Rastignac and Julien. They are the main subjects for the entirety of their respective novels and gain momentum throughout their narratives. Rastignac, after meeting with his cousin Madame de Beausant, learns about the faux pas he made while interacting with a socialite, Madame de Restaud. By me eting his cousin, Rastignac learns about Parisian society. This first lesson on society Parisian society better (108). The reader can see Rastignac's new skill and progress, ev en properly using his resources (88). There is increasing momentum in Old Man Goriot ; Rastignac experiences financial gain quickly to progress up the social ladder, whereas Bernard disappears.
14 Even though Julien's narrative progresses more slowly than Rastignac's, it still has more momentum than Bernard's. The narrator of The Red and the Black describes the lien's existence in Verrires (Stendhal 17). Despite Julien's narrative having so many details, it does progress quickly. Julien goes from newly hired tutor, to a raise in salary, to achieving the ires (109 110). The difference between Bernard and the other two protagonists demonstrates how Bernard's unconventional narrative comes from a conventional trajectory. Bernard's plot has the potential to be eventful, but he does not make strides in his journey, unlike Rastignac and Julien. Even when the novel uses conventions, it creates unexpected results to stay unpredictable. Bernard's debut does not lead to anything, unlike Rastignac's and Julien's. Bernard's trajectory echoes theirs, but he continue s to be a stagnant protagonist, not progressing in the narrative at all. After being absent for three chapters, Bernard reappears just as suddenly as he disappears. His reappearance continues to frustrate initial expectations, while also meeting them. In the middle of a description of the reunion between Olivier and his uncle experien : he by reaffirming Bernard's lack of purpose and direction. He wants to be an intrepid prot agonist, but is conflicted about leavinghis old life. Nevertheless, Bernard experiences something new by following Olivier because he is indirectly introduced to Edouard. By
15 having Bernard return to the narrative unexpectedly, Gide undermines the expectati ons of his own narrative by presenting exploration through the known; Bernard happens upon Edouard, happens to explore, through his best friend Olivier, someone familiar. Bernard seems to be propelled by randomness. A momentous event in his narrative is h is discovery of Edouard's journal in Edouard's suitcase. When he sees Edouard toss his cloak As the narrative progresses, the ticket leads Bernard to Edouard's suitcase and journal, resul ting in adventure. Bernard does not produce this opportunity to retrieve the ticket it is mere coincidence and randomness. Another event that happens to Bernard is his payment to the cloak room attendant. When he tries to pay, he realizes that he has not a a fifty centime bit, which the fact that preexisting conditions for its occurrence. By collecting Edouard's suitcase and reading his er letter, that Bernard reads as well, Laura convinces Edouard to come to Paris. This letter reveals to Bernard his own connection to Laura ; he deems this connection reason enough to help her.By propelling Bernard's narrative with randomness, Gide gives in cidental events more importance. Also, these random events and frustrated expectations call attention to
16 the role of the author who devises them. They highlight the act of writing and the role of the author because of their shocking effect on the reader, w ho then questions the novel further. Before Bernard's trajectory returns to the direction of an archetypal Bildungsroman protagonist again before he knows what to do his role as protagonist is reinforced while being denied. When obtaining the suitcase, Maintenant, valise, nous deux Old Man Goriot : A nous deuxmaintenant quoted in Walker 416; Le PreGoriot 309 ). In his statement Rastignac is addressing Paris, declaringthat even though he is down on his luc khe will not stay down(Balzac 257). He is ready to keep progressing in society, is wiser and more prepared statement, Bernard would mark his achievement with an air of gra ndeur and prove he is as accomplished as Rastignac if he did not end Bernard is not addressing Paris, but a piece of luggage. Both statements are made in very different contexts, causing Bernard to look foolish when evoking Balzac's melodrama. Even when Bernard tries to become a Bildungsroman protagonist, he fails to embody one acknowledge literature to describe his feelings. The Bildungsr oman protagonist role does not fit him completely; rather it becomes a parody in this instance. Gide makes the conventional role inadequate to completely describe Bernard. Surrounding the scene where Bernard obtains the suitcase, there are echoes of Balzac keeping Bernard's narrative in dialogue with Old Man Goriot. When Bernard interacts with the cloak
17 his well cut clothes... and that indefinable something in the whole appearance which denot 82). Bernard's appearance and bourgeois upbringing are an advantage. Likewise, provides (Balzac 52). This is a connection between customs of the societies that both characters live in, while there is a closer connection to the characters themselves. Rastignac's appearances cate that he was born into a bourgeois life (14). This connection keeps Bernard's narrative in dialogue with Rastignac's, while demonstrating how, even though Bernard strays from the Bildungsroman trajectory, he is still in the same role. Gide deliberately keeps Bernard in this role to subvert the Bildungsroman genre and to frustrate the reader, whichkeeps the narrative open enough to take Bernard's development in new directions. Gide, furthermore, creates echoes with The Red and the Black by playing on phys iognomy. This term refers to a pseudo science that ascribes personality traits to certain physical characteristics, and it is used heavily throughout Stendhal's novel. When Bernard accosts Laura the narrator explains that she would have been afraid if Ber nard convinced that the young man is trustworthy (Gide 128). She makes assumptions about Bernard's nature based on his physical characteristics. Likewise Julien base s his first impressions of people on their physical appearance. When he first meets the director of
18 someone, but Laura attributes to Bernard characteristics that c ome from unrelated evidence. Her assumptions cause her great shock when Bernard reveals that he knows Vincent and is aware of Laura's affair with this brother of Olivier's (Gide 128). Bernard does not seem so innocent anymore; he has personal knowledge tha t holds great power, enough to make Laura almost faint (128). This shock leads to a narratively involved scene that ends with Bernard's pleasant introduction (129). Laura's expectations are subverted when predictability is questioned. Gide demonstrates how Bernard is not predictable and is defying appearance, bringing into question his prescribed role. Similarly, almost all of Bernard's actions have brought his role of Bildungsroman protagonist into question. There is obviously more to Bernard than meets th e eye Plot After gaining momentum, Bernard's trajectory continues to resemble Julien's and Bernard is hired for his position (Gide 135). Both St endhal's and Gide's Bildungsroman protagonists share the same career, but that is all they share in their career plots. In The Red and the Black Julien is taken on as a tutor for the children of Monsieur 23). He is hired because is he qualified to teach Latin and becomes a secretary because have an employer and starts making money throu
19 achieve his ambition (138). In The Cou nterfeiters ,on the other hand, Edouard never makes it clear why he takes on Bernard as a secretary. He has no obvious qualifications, and yet is awarded the secretarial position without effort, while Julien and Rastignac use their skill to finance themselv allels other events of his life in how he gains a career with no effort and allows outside forces direct him. Even though Bernard's career plot and trajectory are similar to Julien's and Rastignac's, he still lacks perseverance over struggles which characterize their career plots. Gide does not emphasize Bernard's career. Bernard's career plot diverges further from expectations established by Julien's There are fewer challenges in Bernard's position than expected, even without cont rasting it with Julien's multiple positions. Bernard's trajectory takes another unexpected turn mentor or help Bernard at all; the young man even contests the novelist theories. Their relationship is collegial: one is not clearly above the other. Bernard does not develop through other people. He explores his own ideas and discovers his own book,
20 This enables Bernard to weigh what he finds on his own, making his own decisions. Edouard only guides the protagonist through his journals; they are t ools that Bernard uses as his own. Love and Sex in The Counterfeiters What all three protagonists have in common is the tie between their love plots and their careers plots. When Stendhal's Julien becomes tutor for the Mayor's children, he begins to deve lop an intimate relationship with Madame de Rnal, the mayor's wife. In Paris, he develops an intimate relationship with Mathilde, the Marquis' daughter, while working as the Marquis' secretary. Julien would not have become involved with Mathilde without h is career. Balzac's Rastignac, on the other hand, uses women to increase his filling his tale with false love, to help him achieve real love and a truly intimate relationship with Delphine, Old Man Goriot's daughter. Bernard goes with Edouard i toSwitzerland in order to deal with herillegitimate pregnancy. Bernard sees traveling with Edouardasthe best way for him to stay close to Laura, giving him the opportunit y to build a more solid relationship w ith her. Despite Bernard's commonalities with Julien and Rastignac, his love plot still strays from theirs. He wants to become Edouard's secretary to stay close to Laura and develop his relationship with her, while Ras tignac and Julien
21 have non romantic motivations for following their careers. Gide plays with the Bildungsroman love plot in order to distinguish Bernard and his novel from past characters and past novels. This link with the career plot is the only similari ty Bernard's love plot has with the love plots of the two other novels. His love plot does not possess any obstacles, unlike Julien's and Rastignac's. The love Bernard feels is different from their love. Julien's love affair with Mathilde is very complicat ed, filled with obstacles from ignorance of Parisian love or how to court a Parisian woman. He speculates that Mathilde might love him, but and forth between a rejection of her potential love and a questioning of it occurs frequently. Mathilde also deceived myself, ca Julien's obstacles is the inconstancy in his relationship with Mathilde, who frequently his relat there f motivated by self interest, unlike Bernard's love (Balzac 142). Gide is playing with the typical love plot by leaving out obstacles and self interest in love. In the lov e plot, Bernard's emotional development is similar to Julien's. Before
22 develops emotion ally, moving past his old belie fs Unlike Bernard, Julien matures only hims another and when faced with his deathcan Julien find peace in his life and change his whole person (521). Bernard's maturing process does not happen all at once: his whole bei matures much earlier in his narrative, since Julien changes at the end of his, yet he still has more growth to go through. Bernard's maturing process seems to be beyond the narrative's scope. Even before his return to Paris, when he is talking with Laura, he cape is not arriving in the mountain resort, without a narrative describing his development. It is not possible to predict Bernard's emotional maturing, even though th is development is still part of the Bildungsroman protagonist's trajectory. It is as though by leaving out explanations, Gide rejects the conventional model for development, stating that conventions do not explain true development. Once Bernard has gone th rough his emotional development, his narrative takes a drastic turn from the Bildungsroman trajectory: this is caused by his relationship with Laura's younger sister Sarah. After a dinner party they attend along with Olivier and Edouard, they spend a night together in the same room. In the description of the next
23 While sex is accepted in The Counterfeiters sexual intimacy is not valued at all in The Red and the Black. Julien is so fervent that the slightest contact with Madame de Rnal's Sarah is more casual and meaningless. This diffe rence exhibits Gide's rejection of old conventions, which is further highlighted by how Sarah, to Bernard, is a substitute for her attracted to her, making the encounter even more superficial (Gide 296). Th r ough Bernard's insincere sexual encounter and through devaluing physical intimacy, The Counterfeiters is able to differentiate itself from other novels. The novel has not done what others have done before and cannot be interpreted in the same way reflecting the changes of the century. In the description of his morning departure, Bernard exhibits a lack of passion. However, his sexual encounter does have unexpected effects on him. Sex gives Bernard a an exaltation at once... ethereal, buoya nt, calm and Julien experiences intense, disruptive euphoria by merely touching his love, a full sexual experience balances Bernard, rejuvenates him. In the end, there is nothing of love in the encounter and it remains unimpor tant even though Bernard has lost his virginity in this encounter. This claim can be assumed since he has not referenced having any sexual experiences when Olivier discussed his first sexual experience (28). Bernard barely acknowledges his sexual encounte himself furtively from [Sarah's] arms... without one more kiss... a last lover's look... a
24 can find no place in the body of the book a book where the s tory of [Bernard's] life will affect Bernard in any way, while physical contact for Julien means so much. It seems as though Bernard's love plot is over without any satis faction. Gide contrasts Bernard's encounter with a different union between Edouard and Olivier. Gide rejects the conventions of heterosexual love that are presented in both The Red and the Black and Old Man Goriot, yet demonstrates them with the novel's ho mosexual couple, Edouard and Olivier. They are reunited on the same night that Bernard and Sarah have sex, but Olivier experiences sublime happiness. Earlier in the t kill himself (Gide 273). Thus, Olivier's love with Edouard is the greatest thing he can conceive. Gide uses conventions of happiness with an unconventional, homos exual couple to give importance to Olivier and Edouard's love and relationship. This also plays with conventions. Since happiness and love are absent from Bernard's trajectory, Bernard barely resembles a Bildungsroman protagonist any more. An unconventional couple supplants the heterosexual love role that Bernard should have fulfilled. Edouard and Olivier's relationship, in conjunction with Bernard's unconventional sexual experience, make it difficult to recognize Bernard as a Bildungsroman protagonist any mo re. With The Counterfeiters Gide is able to emphasize the progressiveness of his narrative by adjusting the role of the Bildungsroman protagonist. Bernard as Matured Adult
25 d case and who that, at back into his there are many pages of him reflecting on his situations introspectively.By deciding that he should r eturn to his old life,Bernard does not end his adventure in a new place, but he still follows the guidelines of the Bildungsroman by maturing return home means he does not become a heroic figure like Ras tignac or a martyr like Julien and solidifiesthe tension between Bernard's trajectory and the expectations placed on him, leaving his Bildungsroman narrative empty but open to many different interpretations. Throughout Bernard's narrative, Gide uses many conventions of a Bildungsroman a nd demonstrates how conventions do not lead to a particular set outcome. Bernard is a Bildungsroman protagonist, but does not achieve anything that conventional Bildungsroman protagonis ts achieve through their journeys He does not find true love, he does no t find a career, and he does not take a new place in society. Yet Bernard is always in dialogue with The Red and the Black and Old Man Goriot demonstrating how Gide wants to keep a familiar narrative to highlight the differences in The Counterfeiters and in Bernard. The young man isa unique character who makes his own decisions outside of
26 conventions: he does not take paths that have been walked before. Gide's novel is constantly challenging conventions, especially with Olivier and Edouard's relationship. Th e Counterfeiters cannot be read in the same way as other Bildungsroman e are read or other novels in general.
27 Chapter Two: A Novel's and Author's Relationship to their External World In this chapter, I will be discussing how Gide opens a dialogue about literature, writing, and authors through Edouard, a main character who is a novelist. This dialogue about literature is deliberately generated when Edouard overtly alludes to Stendhal's The Red and the Black and when he cites a phrase in Balzac's foreword t o La Comdie Humaine from The Red and the Black Stendhal 374). This allusion creates distinctions and reveals similariti es between While Edouard does not reference any of Balzac's fictions, he does quote Balzac in La Comdie Humaine faire concurrence l'tat civil' [rival the tat ci vil Garval 89). With this quote, Edouard places himself in opposition to Balzac and uses this opposition to contextualize his theories that critique the novel and representational literature. Edouard focuses on theories about the novel as oppo content. This concern reveals how literature relates to its external world, and the lack of works to which he alludes. The dialogue is also e mbedded within Edouard's relationship with his own author: create a mise e n abyme a term coined by Gide that describes a work of art that contains a
28 replication of itself, or its structures, within itself. Gide uses Edouard (his replicated self), his experience while writing The Counterfeiters an experience chronicled in his Journal of The Counterfeiters and The Counterfeiters itselfto discuss the novel's relationship with reality, or the world in which the fiction exists. The mise en abyme distinguishes Edouard from Gide and gives grounds to contrast Gide's novel with Edouard 's literary theories, journals, and conceptual novel, all of which constitute a large portion of The Counterfeiters. An author's relationship with his/her external world and with his/her work is exhibited when Edouard announces the conflict of his novelist character, the main character of his novel The Counterfeiters character as well: he is always full of conflict (Davies struggle to objectively capture his external world causes crises in his self perception, demonstrating how Edouard's work affects his character.Towards the end of the novel, Edouardfictionalizes a situation he is in and i ntends to use his fiction to influence his half nephew Georges. While his failed attempt to influence his external world echoes his failure to write his novel, the end of The Counterfeiters reveals the success of his journals insofar as Gide uses them to co nstruct his novel The Counterfeiters Georges is a member.
29 Edouard, S tendhal, and Balzac The Red and the Black brings Gide's and Stendhal's novels into dialogue, revealing the similarities between The Red and the Black st mirror travelling down the road. Sometimes it reflects the blue of the heavens to the eye, anything that happens to me has there is a distinction between literature and journaling. Socially conceived, literature is assumed to be a coherent piece of work, to possess a narrative with convincing characters, and intended to be read by others. On the other hand, there is journaling which and analyze his experiences. One does not need to write with literary concerns when journaling. Journaling is not bound by expectations that govern the novel, it does not need to tie everything together with an overarching theme or subject, and it is not always intended for others to read: the writing process and what is written are for benefit of the writer. Despite these differences, the mirror metaphors from Stendhal and Edouard reveal that writing and journaling both reflect what is put before the mirror. Gide does not oppose Stendhal's ide a that a novel reflects, but Gide does oppose the more narrow scope of Stendhal's idea; it is not only literature that reflects but any sort of the writing is a product of the world in which it is written. However, there are differences between what the tw The Red and the Black For
30 who is responsible for creating what is reflected (Stendhal 374). For Edouard, his journals help him interpret his character. Writing gives words to his experiences, characterizing his life. This defining process reveals himself to himself, causing Edouard striking illustration of... the revelation o f a character through his own words, so that character analysis by the author is replaced by a form of direct and involuntary self character because Edouard always re It is also through Edouard that Gide expands on Stendhal's ideas of literature; Gide uses writing to look at authors' relationships to their work. The Red and the Black 374). However, the mirror does not create these bad aspects of the world ; it would be else is. In contrast, Edouard is very visible in the mirror he creates, charac terizing himself almost exclusively. Literary writing and life writing can be pointed in any direction, meaning there is nothing in life that writing cannot reflect. Gide does not reduce the tendhal and Edouard,
31 Gide is able to present how The Red and the Black can still reveals its author. Through this presentation, Gide is able to reveal how all novels reveal their author, even if the author attempts to step out of the reflection. While Edoua rd's journals have all of the characteristics of a reflective novel, he the proper function of the novel is to rival the tat civil tat civil was a gover nment archive that recorded important events in an individual's life mainly birth, death, and marriage tat civil 's] particular logic... into [the] La Comdie Humaine (Garval 92). The goal of the pr oject is to present individual characters in a way that records every event of their lives and to reference the lives of others characters, recording them as well. In fact, as Garval has argued, La Comdie Humaine's nderings of itself, through its tremendous capacity for self project to surpass the government archive (92). While the tat civil documents events, La Comdie Humaine continually references the lives of all its characters, revealing events that have not been written about directly. These references produce an illusion that these characters have real lives, and implicitly claim to represent these lives in greater detail than the tat civil While both Balzac and S tendhal want to capture reality, their strategies differ. Stendhal wants to show society to those in society by writing a novel that serves as a mirror, while Balzac wants to replicate society within a world of his own creation, and then display this world to society. At their core, both authors intend to replicate and
32 Edouar d has no interest in his novel reflecting the world or in creating one; he vehemently rejects Balzac's oeuvre tat civil 186). I will be like no other, and that previous conceptions of literature will not be applicable to his work. He also states that he wants to move past representation, to go b eyond the archival work on which Balzac prided himself. Ironically, representational writing is all Edouard does because the only work of his present within The Counterfeiters is his journal. Edouard's novel proves to be impossible to produce because his c onceptions and all other novels that past representing the real; he plans to write a novel that is, simultaneously, true and not true, particular and general (187). These desires alr eady prove that Edouard will never be able write his ideal novel: it is impossible to unify these opposing concepts. Despite plan, and that he could never capture his external theoretical planning tha
33 away from his target when trying to approach it (Davies 275). The characters, and even perhaps the readers, theorized (Gide 189). There are inescapable conventions in literature, and Edouard is proven to be foolish in trying to avoid them: literature must, by definition, be art. On the other hand, his literary project. The Theory and Content of a Novel The complexity of Edouard's novel and his lack of progress demonstrate the problems in ignoring the narrative content of a novel. Edouard takes no action to write his which never seem to make it onto the page, Gide reveals the differences between the creative and the theoretical process es. Edouard understands this difference as well: he and concepts and that these experiences will become the narrative content of his novel. basic views on the novel are the same, the main difference [is] 275 276). Ed ouard cannot write his novel because he solely conceptualizes his novel's relation to its external world, thinking he can write a novel that emerges on the same literature
34 however, ends up believing precisely what Edouard believes not Edouard the essential c haracteristics of reality through fiction, Shelton simply proves, through her experience and cannot express it as literature can. The creative process of a novel cannot b e solely conceptual and theoretical; either the novel will not be written or it will become estranged and sterile. Edouard remains ignorant of his lack of progress because of how he perceives his journals and because of the separation between the creative and the theoretical in his of his recorded thoughts and experiences, yet his journals are separate from his novel. While Edouard wants to use his journals as raw material for the narrative content of his novel, reduces novels by analyzing their relation to their external world, and thus ignores the narrative content of each individual work. Ironically, Edouard sees every novel as behaving in the same way: each work is as unoriginal as the last. He criticizes other y but dooms himself to failure by trying to create a novel with a different relationship to reality. Within The Counterfeiters criticism reduces content into abstractions that cannot be expanded into literature.
35 Edouard's External World full of depth because he creates the mise en abyme through The Counterfeiters one in which he exists (Gid e 73). Furthermore, while Gide wrote The Counterfeiters he kept The Journal of The Counterfeiters to record ideas and thoughts just as Edouard keeps a journal while writing his novel. Furthermore, just like Gide, Edouard intends to Counterfeiters (187). Gide places a character who could represent himself in The Counterfeiters while Edouard subject for a Journal of The Counterfeiters in wh decrystallization e traced back to Stendhal, who describes two lovers at the hight of their love, as being crystallized in that euphoria (Gide 417). Edouard wants to investigate the deterioration of the crystals holding the lovers. The fictional novelist wants to go beyond what past authors have examined. These replications are not exact, however; Edouard is not an exact replica of his author, as is exhibited by Edouard's inability to write his Counterfeiters Edouard does manage to write one piece of his novel. However, he does not consider it a part of his novel because it only appears in his journals.In his Counterfeiters
36 187 188, 188). In other words, Edouard's character wants to capture reality but can do so only through subjective experience; his own observations can never become objective, but he desires acts presented by reality difficulty in tampering with real facts... it seems to [h im] impossible to change a single and an equally exaggerated desire to make th e work he is writing une somme of his life of his own character; he disagrees with other characters who believe his novelist character resembles himself (Gide 188). By unintentionally planning to create a mise en abyme ,Edouard complicates the mise en abyme of The Counterfeiters adding more layers to Gide's novel. While Edouard is unable to write his own novel, he is essential to the Even thou gh Edouard complicates The Counterfeiters he is not aware of his is in this belief that the complexities of Edouard's conflict emerge. The fictional novelist thin d desires
37 exemplifying his and his novelist character's conflict: Edouard s ees an ideal reality but then realizes it is not ideal. As a result of his conflict, Edouard is unable to believe much write[s] in spite of [himself] and [in] which [he] d (124). This quote reveals an ignorance of self, a conflict that is not discussed in relation of his character that he himself does not even know. When he understands that he does not understand himself, he feels as though the acknowledgement of not understanding is enough: Edouard never questions the accuracy of his reflection in his journals. There is no attempt to solve this confli character becomes less and less separated from his literary project and from his role as failed novelist. While Gide demonstrates literature's relationship to what it captures, he also exhibits the effect of writing on the author. As has been stated, Edouard's journal, his 71). The novelist does not try to capture an objective reality: his journals are used to expand his own experience. Edouard's observations of himself, through writing, cause a new way, outside of himself yet still himself, confusing his self perception. The experience of non
38 understand how a person who acts is the same as the person who is watching the act, and who wonders in astonishment and doubt how he can be actor and watcher at the same experiencing his actions: the two roles are bound together while still being sep arate. All of Edouard seems to be built off of his writing, making his character inherently connected to his journals, expanding his character every time he writes. It is his subjective interpretations of his external world that make his character; the obj ective world he wishes to capture does not seem to affect him at all. Edouard's relationship with Laura exemplifies how his external world affect s his writing and consequentl that was not dir can re something given or an 'essence'... but as a creation of the self, by free choice, in a situa his writing and himself slaves to reality. Gide demonstrates, through Laura's indirect influence, how his novelist character is consumed by his journals and constantly subject to the shifts in his world. Edouard's Successes and Failures
39 There are parts of The Counterfeiters where Edouard believes he is in control and is able to express exactly what he desires in his novel. In one scene, Edouard confronts Georges about being pa rt of a group that circulates counterfeit coins, but does so by writing a passage of his novel and giving it to Georges to read. In this confrontation, Edouard hides his knowledge of Georges' illegal activities in order to reveal his knowledge to Georges i n the passage. Edouard believes that by doing so he will shock creation of a mise en abyme of his own narrative The passage Edouard writes has two characters, Audibert and Hildebrant. Audibert the novelist character who represents Edouard committed thievery (Gide 363). The act of theft makes Eudolfe a fictional representation of Georges. Just like E (363). After this fictional discussion, both of Edouard's characters decide that the best way to get i nformation out of Eudolfe is to write a passage about their conversation and give it to Eudolfe to read (363). Audibert decides to take the same course of action as Edouard. Edouard replicates his narrative flawlessly, creating a mise en abyme of his own. Ye t this replication does not signify the success of the novelist; as an act in the world, this replication fails to discipline or influence Georges. The boy sees right through Edouard's es Edouard to think Counterfeiters world, but his attempt to do so undermines his literary project. Gide presents the creative
40 process and creative products as things that cannot affect the external world if intended to do so directly. Literature cannot directly create action and can only put things on display. The end of Edouard's narrative do es and does not come full circle. A major event in The Counterfeiters near the end of the novel,is the suicide of the schoolboy Boris. In [his] (Gi de 394). Coming from a character who has been replicating the novel he is in, this rejection of replication is a surprising development. Edouard fails as a reality, which he hopes to represent (394). Edouard's narrative does not seem to end when The Counterfeiters ends. He plans to meet Bernard's younger brother Caloub and continue his narrative. Edouard wraps nothing up, he just leads the narrative into suspension by endin g at the start of a new endeavor. In this way Gide refuses to conform to the conventions of closure, defying the expectation that Edouard will continue to replicate Counterfeiters and demonstrates the flexibility of the novel. There is no set form inclusion of closure. Edouard's failures as a novelist are apparent ; in one regard, however, he is a successful author. The last chapter of The Counterfeiters consists of Edouard's last journal entry. Thus, Edouard prominently but unwittingly displays himself as an author at the end of The Counterfeiters Counterfeiters Gide emphasizes the substantial amount o f material Edouard contributes. novel. Gide uses correspondence between characters and press clippings notably the
41 suicide and the counterfeiting gang to create cont ent for his narrative. The multitude of sources demonstrates the value Gide places on everyday events and on a wide range of sources that can be used to construct a novel: nothing is un suited to be fictionalized. how the novelist character does not himself to himself and are important to his character, he is never able to turn his entries about his everyday life into his ideal n ovel. It seems as though Edouard could use his journals to write a novel that is distinct in approach from the works of Balzac and Stendhal, but even so, he could never capture an objective reality. Edouard does not have any access to this objective realit y; he is only affected by his subjective reality. There is no part of Edouard that is inherent, it seems. He is always subject to change through the act of journaling, making him less of a character and more of an ongoing reaction to his external world and the process of writing. Even when he thinks he has control of a situation, he is undermined by himself and others. Thus, much of The Counterfeiters novel.
42 Chapter T hree: The Gidian Narrator Revealed Against Stendhal's Narrator, Balzac's, and Barthes In this chapter, I will examine the narratorof Gide's Counterfeiters, comparing and contrasting his characteristics with the characteristics of the narrators from Stendh al's The Red and the Black and from Balzac's Old Man Goriot Gide's narrator is distinct from bothStendhal's and Balzac's narrators For one, Gide's narrator is neither omniscient nor omnipresent while Balzac's and Stendhal's narrators are omniscient; thes e claims can be proven through each narrator's own narration. While Gide's narrator is distinct, all three narrators can be characterized as intrusive narrators: each narrator breaks out of the frame of their novel. Both Stendhal's and Balzac's narrators i ntrude by explaining that they are withholding information, and both give similar explanations for why they hide this information. On the other hand, Gide's narrator says something different as to why he withholds information, opening a dialogue about his authority over the narrative. In their intrusions, the narrators reveal the fabrication of their novel, but Gide's narrator does not reveal this overtly. This subtle revelation demonstrates how Gide separates his novel from Stendhal's and Balzac's. Gide's narrator demonstrates his ability to look into the character's minds, but only inconsistently. He loses access to Bernard's thoughts, which proves that the narrator's limitations change throughout The Counterfeiters While there could be doubts about The G idian narrator's reliability, an examination of the biases of Stendhal's narrator reveals how Gide's narrator is reliable.
43 Portrait of the Narrators The narrator of The Counterfeiters is not omniscient. In an early chapter, where Olivier's brother Vince nt goes to the house of Robert de Passavant (Edouard's literary rival), the narrator says: I am not very sure how [Passavant] and Vincent became the narrator does not know how their relationship developed (37). This lack of knowledge demonstrates how the narrator does not know everything about the events recounted in the narrative and that he is not omniscient. The narrator of The Red and the Black is of Verr i hypothesizes the futu re, making himself appear omniscience (Stendhal 87). Even if there is some proof Furthermore, by giving background information about characters, Balzac's narrator fu rther reveals that Gide's narrator is untraditional. Balzac's narrator reveals each (Balzac 11). Gide does not reveal to the reader everything about his characters beca use his narrator does not know the complete history of the characters, demonstrating that a non omniscient narrator creates an unconventional narrative. By highlighting what his narrator lacks, Gide sets The Counterfeiters on the same continuum as The Red and the Black and Old Man Goriot only to further separate his novel from other two. There are spatial limitations placed on Gide's narrator, preventing him from being omnipresent. When the narrator wants to shift the narrative from one character to anoth er,
44 shifting from one character description to another might be a narrative strategy, the narrator's comment about Bernard reveals that it is not only a technique, but a limitation ] dined that evening or even if is not at the specific place where Bernard would have had dinner; the narrator cannot be everywhere at once. The narrator's lack of total knowledge and his spatial limitations reveal how the narrative of The Counterfeiters is itself limited. Thus, the narrator appears more like a character because he is just as constrained as one of the characters. For example, at the beginning of cha pter four, the narrator tracks Vincent's every movement porte cochre any events that occur outside the frame of Vincent's narrative (36). These limitations raise the possibility that knowledge. While Gide's narrator cannot present the events with total knowledge as Balzac's and Stendhal's narrators can, all three share similarities: each narrator is intrusive. An intrusive narrator is one that breaks out of the frame of the novel to make their own commentary on the narrative; often these intrusions will address the reader, a figure Anto (Gide 24). This statement is intrusive because the narrator comments on himself, a figure
45 outside of the plot. The action in the narrative stops so that the narrator can comment on his lack of knowledge. An intrusion in Old Man Goriot appears when the narrator would require a description so lengthy it would delay the main interest o f this story, explicitly says what he skips in his description and explicitly states his reasons for doing so. He is obliged to the reader and must avoid losing the re ader's interest; it is the narrator's duty to keep the reader interested in the narrative. The narrator of The Red and the Black couple hundred pages, I haven't the heart to sub ject you to the tedium and astute maneuvering (201). Thus, it can be seen how each narrator is intrusive and how Gide plays with certain conventions. Even though Gide's narrator shares the characteristic of intrusiveness with the other two narrators, Gide is still able to distinguish his narrator. Gide's narrator does not hide information as th e other two narrators do and even admits that there are parts of the narrative he wants to skip but cannot. When Bernard first meets Laura, the narrator points but he 129). It is clear that Balzac's and Stendhal's narrators can chose what they include in the narrative and that Gide's narrator must relay as much of the narrative as he can. While Stendhal's and Balzac's narrators are dedicated to the reader's entertainment and interest,
46 Gide's narrator is dedicated to the narrative. Everything in The Counterfeiters that can be relayed must be relayed in order to create a coherent narrative. These intrusive narrators all point self consciously to the fabrication of their narratives, in at least one of their intrusions. In The Counterfeiters the narrator reveals all try narrative by revealing how there will be predictable plot points later. In other words, there is a set path that the reader is going down and the narrator p oints to this fact In Old Man Goriot the narrator foregrounds the fabrication of the novel more overtly than f the physical book to the forefront of the reader's mind t hereby reminding us that the story is fabricated, written by the author. The narrator of The Red and the Black also revealing that the narrative is written and thus, fabricated (Stendhal 17). It seems that all three intrusive narrators, by stepping outside of the frame of the narrative, reveal the frame and bring to the reader's attention the fact that the novel is fabricated. Even so, Gide does not reveal his no vel's frame as overtly as do Stendhal and Balzac. Gide is less concerned about bringing attention to the physical book than Stendhal and Balzac; by subtly revealing his novel's frame, Gide reveals his interest in the conventions of narratives. Gide subtly highlights narrative conventions through his narrator's inconsistency as well. The narrator proves he has access to Bernard's mind after he describes Bernard
47 thought and reveals that he has direct access to Bernard's mind. However, when the narrator describes the interactions between Edouard and Bernard, he reveals that he a kind of stran ge inexplicable constraint weighed upon them.... (I confess I don't like the narrator does not know why Bernard and Edouard stop talking to one another, which reveals he cannot look into the characters' minds at this point. Gide changes his narrator's limitations throughout The Counterfeiters This inconsistency calls into doubt the agency of the narrator. Additionally, the reliability of Gide's and Stendhal's narrators can be put into of opinion creates doubt about the narrator's reliability because he judges the character, as a reader might. In the creation of this doubt, the narrator tries to create complicity with the reader, demonstrating his similarities with him/her. The reliability of Stendhal's narrator is more ambiguous than Gide's. A fter a scene where the Marquis' daughter Mathilde thinks about Julien and her relationship with him, Stendhal's narrator reveals seen as the narrator simply explaining his perspective, but it can also bring the narrator's reliability into question, Stendhal's this same type of confession to t he reader. Both narrators are transparent in their narration; both confess their biases in order to inform the reader of them, explaining how
48 their perspective colors the narrative. With the narrators' biases revealed, the reader can find the narrators' bi ases and understand that the narrators' perspectives and emotions have colored the narrative. These preemptive confessions encourage the reader to trust the narrators who are making themselves transparent. Readerly and Writerly Texts In this section, I will be examining all three novels in the light of Barthes's concepts of readerly and writerly texts. In S/Z Barthes explains that every novel can fit into the category ofeither readerly or writerly and that each text creates a distinct role for its reade many interpretations of the text are already given to the reader (Barthes 4). The writerly text places its reader into the active role of writer. While not literally writ ing the text, the reader is the creator of interpretations, making their own meaning for the text. While nonical works (5, 5, 4). Readerly texts separate the reader from the author, resulting in a reduced number of text in a new way (5). Barthes different interpretation of the text, and the writerly text has an infinite number of stantly be re written, Richard Howard
49 xt will become a readerly one. In a writerly From this definition of Barthes's concept, it is clear that Old Man Goriot and The Red and the Black are readerly. However, S tendhal's novel has writerly moments while Balzac's novel does not. The Counterfeiters on the other hand, is primarily a writerly text, even though it does exhibit some readerly qualities. In examining Old Man Goriot ,I will not how the use of dramatic iron y and theatrical metaphors proves that the novel is readerl y placing the reader in a restricted role. Unlike Old Man Goriot,The Red and the Black contains writerly moments; Stendhal's narrator presents alternatives to Julien's narrative and reveals how thes e alternative narratives might arise. In these passages, where the reader is supplied with alternative narratives While these writerly moments exist, Stendhal's novel is readerly overall. A metaphor that compares t he reader to a traveler also reveals the reader's restricted position in Stendhal's novel. The Counterfeiters does not create a separation between author and reader. This lack of separation can be seen when a new narrator, who exhibits similarities with Gi de, the author, appears in The Counterfeiters A metaphor that echoes The Red and the Black comparing the reader to a traveler, brings together author and reader. The reader is able to experience the text in a more direct way than a readerly text because of the narrative's structure. The reader is the only constant in Gide's novel, has considerable scope for interpretation, and may have as much authority as the narrator or author. Balzac's Old Man Goriot can be seen as a readerly text by the novel's narrat ive strategy. Early in the novel, the narrator explains that Madame de Beausant, Rastignac's
50 intimate relationship (Balzac 61). However, the narrator then reveals that this man is 62). In this passage, the narrator creates dramatic irony, and one can see how there is no interpretation that can c hange how the events will unfold. In other words, the reader must interpret the nobleman's betrayal and deceit as negative actions, making Balzac's novel readerly. The reader of a readerly text cannot take an active role; in Old Man Goriot the reader is fully played Balzac characterizes his narrative as a theatrical performance. This characterizat ion is The reader can only passively watch narrative events unfold and play out before him/her, and this forced passivity causes Old Man Goriot to be a readerly text. The reader, as readerly text (Barthes 5). In Old Man Goriot the reader can only take a passive stance in his/her interpretation; the novel does not allow any other sta nce. authorship of the narrative or attribute the creation of the narrative to Balzac. This the creation of Old Man Goriot (Balzac 10). This remark claims that a character within
51 the novel i s the source of the novel, making it seem as though the reader and Balzac may not be separate dby their roles The reader, as an observer, takes a passive role in the narrative; Balzac could be seen as just a recorder of Rastignac's actions, taking a passiv e role in the creation of the narrative. However, Balzac's role is active, and the narrator their insensitivity firmly on the author, accusing him of passage reveals his/her lack of satisfaction. This is characteristic of a readerly text that forces its reader to Old Man Goriot's reader can either fulfill the text's prediction or not: the reader's role is restricted in the text. Unlike Goriot The Red and the Black does have writerly qualities while still being a readerly novel. There are points where Stendhal's narrator will announce an truths of Parisian society would at this point in his stor y have been woken up by cold way described. When the reader sees Julien's these moments are relatively rare in the novel, demonstrating t hat Barthes's categories for texts are not mutually exclusive. One metaphor characterizes The Red and the Black as a readerly text. The narrator
52 is metaphor places the reader into the role of follower. The reader is assumed to feel what annot see The Red and the Black (Barthes 5). The reader lacks the perspective that reveals the entire landscape of the novel. There are many aspects of the novel, but the reader is only privy to a limited number of them and can only make limited interpretations. In The Counterfeiters a narrative strategy not used in Old Man Goriot or The Red and the Black. The narrator of it is the established narrator presenting himself in a new way. Certain parallels between this chapter's narrator and Gide cause us to identify the narrator with Gide. The narrator novel, Gide kept the Journalof T he Counterfeiters where he recorded his thoughts and ideas about the novel. Many of the entries in his Journal are about his characters. The chapter's narrator reveals that he has journal entries about Bernard and this revelation causes this narrator to re semble Gide. While it is clear that Gide creates resemblance with this narrator through their similar writing habits, one cannot claim that the chapter's narrator is Gide, causing the author The Counterfeiters The re ader is able to explore the author's role in detail.
53 This author narrator reveals that the author does not have any more control than statements reveal that Olivier and Bernard's plots are in conflict they are in the wrong roles and that the author has no control over Lilian's or Vincent's actions, making it seem as though the au thor has no control over his characters. This lack of agency could illuminate Gide's experience while writing his Counterfeiters but our conceptions of an author suggests that Gide has agency over his characters. However by changing this appearance withi n the novel, Gide blurs fiction and reality. In doing so, the narrator gives the impression that Gide is a readerly writer; he has as little control as the reader. There is The Counterfeiters a writerly text ( Barthes 4). The reader, in his/her position within The Counterfeiters can begin the characters, the author cannot establish a preset meaning for his characters' actions Thus, the reader is able to interpret the novel in the same way an author can. The author narrator presents a metaphor that can be seen as an interpretation of the reader of a writerly text. He starts his chapter with a metaphor that echoes Stendhal, c down and looks about him before continuing his journey, which henceforward lies all der of a readerly text as a traveler on the flatlands with limited perspective, the chapter's narrator compares the author to someone on a journey,who has an overview of the narrative and able to see how the rest of the narrative will unfold. However, ther e is another layer to
54 this metaphor that describes the reader of a writerly text: the reader is taken on this journey as well. Because the reader and author have the same perspective and agency, the reader too sits atop the hill, allowing him/her access to almost of the novel's entrances. Another way the reader access es the novel's entrances is through the text's ouard describes his interactions with a young boy, and realizes that the boy is his half nephew Georges. As narrator's voice is absent. But at this moment, Bernard is surprised and stops reading Edouard's journals; thus, the narrator takes a moment to describe Bernard, and just like Bernard, the reader is forced to stop reading Edouard's j ournals as well: the re ader's experience is parallel to Bernard's. This parallel experience allows the reader to make his/her own interpretation of the text without the interpretation supplied by the narrator. The narrative is producing an experience, not just describing it. Thu making his/her own interpretations about Bernard's experience an experience the reader shares (Barthes 4). within the narrative. T is guiding the reader through the narrative, demonstrating the readerly qualities of the text. The reader is not producing anything and becomes a product of the narrative: a follower. This mode is not The Counterfeiters' dominant mode, but it does reveal that literature cannot completely avoid having readerly qualities.
55 Another characteristic of the writerly text is the suspension of the narrative. This suspension occurs when there is no ac tion within the text itself, but when the reader can journals. Between one chapter consisting of Edouard's journals and another chapter consisting of the same, there is a p All this that I have been saying is only to put a little air between the pages of this journal. Now that Bernard has got his breath back again, we will return to it. He once more dives Gide 115). The suspension of the narrative occurs not because anything happens, but because the narrator wants to remind the reader of his existence by creating allows t he reader of The Counterfeiters a moment to predict what comes next instead of experiencing Bernard's action. While the narrator is guiding the reader into a moment of suspension, the narrator is not constraining the reader: he/she has few restraints in hi s/her interpretation. Suspension characterizes the end of The Counterfeiters as well. The narrator disappears right before the final chapter and one of Edouard's journal entries ends the novel. There is no action in the last chapter because Edouard is ref lecting on past events in his journal entry. While it seems like action is taking place in the narrative, the action has already passed for the characters and is being recounted by Edouard. The reader is left at the end of the novel without a guide and wit h no direction. Gide intended for his sense of closure but with the appearance of a nar rative that can be continued. Edouard's
56 the novel with the potential for a new narrative (397). Thus, it is possible that the reader could continue the narrative; the novel has trained the reader to see further than the present, allowing him/her to carry out the rest of the narrative. Gide's novel does seem not to end at the last chapter, leaving the reader to his/her own interpretation and perhaps speculations about fu ture events. It is clear that the narrator is a tool of the author to direct the reader, and it appears that Gide understands this. The Counterfeiters narrator brings up many questions about the narrative, considering that he is neither omnipresent nor o mniscient. Old Man Goriot's and The Red and the Black's narrators do not create these questions about the events because they clearly present everything about the narrative that the reader needs to know, in their judgment. Gide's narrator, except in how he presents his opinions of characters, is distinct from Stendhal's and Balzac's narrators. The Red and the Black and Old Man Goriot do not create independent readers. As a readerly text, Balzac makes the reader a spectator who watches the Parisian tragedy p lay out before him/her. Stendhal, also, does not give his reader very much freedom in his/her interpretations, even though he does give him/her writerly moments. The reader of The Counterfeiters is on an equal footing with the author, able to create his/he r own meaning for most of the text. Even when the text ends, the reader could feasibly continue the narrative though his/her own interpretations or inventions.
57 Conclusion In this thesis, I have read The Counterfeiters against the nineteenth century rea list novels Old Man Goriot and The Red and the Black, to which Gide alludes to through Bernard and Edouard. In my first chapter, I observed Bernard as Bildungsroman protagonist, contrasting his narrative against the narratives of Rastignac and Julien. Many of Bernard's plots follow the trajectory of Julien's and Rastignac's plots; however, Gide creates these similarities only in order to frustrate the reader's expectations and create a self conscious novel. In my second chapter, I examined Edouard as a nove list and as a diarist, contrasting his approaches to writing with Balzac's and Stendhal's. In trying to write a completely untraditional novel, Edouard reveals his failures as a novelist. His successes as a writer are found only in his journals; however, E douard writes a portion of own, successful novel The Counterfeiters In my third chapter, I characterized Gide's narrator by comparing him with Stendhal's and Balzac's, disc overing how Gide's narrator creates an untraditional narrative by avoiding conventional narrative strategies. Then I examined all three novels through Barthes's lens of readerly and writerly texts, concluding that Old Man Goriot is completely readerly, tha t The Red and the Black is dominantly readerly with writerly moments, and that The Counterfeiters is prevailingly writerly with rare readerly moments. Gide's Counterfeiters as a novel rich with complex intertextual references, can be profitably read agai nst many other works of fiction. While I have looked only at The Counterfeiters' relationship to realism, another nineteenth century literary movement,
58 French romanticism, is referenced when Gide's characters travel to the Swiss Alps. In romanticism, the A wanted to return. Gide, on the other hand, represents the mountains as cold and sterile through the lack of action during his characters' visit to the Alps and Edouard's discussion of his theoretical novel. In the Alps, The Counterfeiters' narrative is filled with analysis and barely any of the characters discuss the mountains as environment. Gide uses a romantic symbol in order to create difference with the romantics: Gide is moving past their conventions. The Alps have very little importance in The Counterfeiters ; however, Thomas Mann's 1924 novel The Magic Mountain puts much more emphasis on the mountains than does Gide.Mann finished The Magic Mountain one year before Gide published The Counterfeiters, and there are obvious similarities between the two novels. Mann's novel is a Bildungsroman following the main character Hans Castorp, and most of the narrative takes place in a sanatorium high up in the Swiss Alps. Even though Gide does n ot focus on the Alps as environment, both his and Mann's characters have intellectual discussions on the Alps. Through these discussions, disease, time, and music become major themes in The Magic Mountain :the Alps serve a similar purpose in both novels. Ma nn, just like Gide, creates an unconventional Bildungsroman by makingHans' development a non because his conscious and unconscious meld together: Mann questions the truth of linear development.Reading Mann's novel against Gide's would be a fruitful endeavor and could illuminate how both authors play with the Bildungsroman as a genre.
59 shed light on The Counterfeiters The playful and experimental use of the narrator in this intrusion can be seen in John Fowles' 1969 novel The French Lieutenant's Woman. responds in chapter thirteen (Fowles 94). Fowles' author narrator directly comments on the narrative and makes many of the same claims as Gide's auth or narrator, exclaiming that he has no control over his characters. Additionally, Fowles' author narrator discusses authors and authorship more directly than Gide, even referencing modern authors and thinkers by name, such as Barthes ; byhaving so many simi larities, The Counterfeiters could very profitably be read against Fowles' novel. Andr Gide's experimental novel, as a precursor to the self reflexive and literarily self conscious postmodern novel, is concerned with novels and draws many connections wit h other works. While the novel encourages the creation of these connections, t he intrusive nature of The Counterfeiters offers many other opportunities for comparison with other w orks from many periods of time. by many other scholars, there are many aspects of the novel that can still be explored. There is no single analysis that can completely unravel The Counterfeiters
60 Bibliography Balzac, Honor de Old Man Goriot. Trans. Olivia McCannon. New York: Penguin Group, 2011. Print. --. Le PreGoriot Paris: Garnier Fr res, 1963. Print. Barthes, Roland. S/Z Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux Hill and Wang, 1974. Print. haracter in Les Faux Monnayeurs. Modern Language Review 69. 4 (1974): 770 778. Print. ouard, the Man and the Novelist. Australian Journal of French Studies 19.3 (1982): 266 287. Print in Nineteenth Century French Literary Culture Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2004. Print. Gide, Andr. The Counterfeiters Trans. Dorothy Bussy. New York: Vintage Books Random House, 1973. Print. Bildungsroman Genre: Grea t Expectations, Aurora Leigh, and Waterland Press 1996. The Victorian Web Web. 21 Oct 2012. Howard, Richard. Preface. S/Z By Roland Barthes. Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux Hill and Wang, 1974. i x xii. Print.
61 The Counterfeiters Chimeres: A Journal of French and Italian Literature 13.2 (1980): 69 80. Print. Stendhal. The Red and the Black Trans. Roger Gard. London: Penguin Group, 2002. P rint. French Studies: A Quarterly Review 40. 4 (1986): 413 426. Print.