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POST TRAUMATIC STRESS IN UGANDAN ORPHANS AND ITS EFFECT ON WORKING MEMORY

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004807/00001

Material Information

Title: POST TRAUMATIC STRESS IN UGANDAN ORPHANS AND ITS EFFECT ON WORKING MEMORY
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Larumbe, Stephanie
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2013
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
Uganda
Working Memory
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a life altering disorder, which is characterized by three major symptoms: intrusion, avoidance and hyper-vigilance. These symptoms interrupt every day functioning including cognitive functioning such as working memory. Studies on veterans have found that a general decline in working memory is present in veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD as opposed to veterans without PTSD. Few studies have been conducted on working memory functioning in children with PTSD, and those that have been conducted have had variable results, and did not study the effect of the extent of trauma or individual trauma symptomology on working memory. The goal of the present study was to determine whether working memory and trauma symptomology in a population of Ugandan orphans with early childhood traumas were correlated. Forty orphans (21 female, and 19 males) from an orphanage in rural Kumi, Uganda were screened for childhood traumas and trauma symptomology, specifically aversion and intrusion symptoms. Participants each completed three working memory tests: an intentional picture memory task, an incidental picture memory task and a digit span task. PTSD symptomology was viewed both on a continuum and as static and analyzed in both situations. No differences were found in the working memory test scores of children with high PTSD symptomology versus those with low PTSD symptomology, nor did specific traumas experienced effect the test scores.
Statement of Responsibility: by Stephanie Larumbe
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2013
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Bauer, Gordon

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2013 L33
System ID: NCFE004807:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004807/00001

Material Information

Title: POST TRAUMATIC STRESS IN UGANDAN ORPHANS AND ITS EFFECT ON WORKING MEMORY
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Larumbe, Stephanie
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2013
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
Uganda
Working Memory
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a life altering disorder, which is characterized by three major symptoms: intrusion, avoidance and hyper-vigilance. These symptoms interrupt every day functioning including cognitive functioning such as working memory. Studies on veterans have found that a general decline in working memory is present in veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD as opposed to veterans without PTSD. Few studies have been conducted on working memory functioning in children with PTSD, and those that have been conducted have had variable results, and did not study the effect of the extent of trauma or individual trauma symptomology on working memory. The goal of the present study was to determine whether working memory and trauma symptomology in a population of Ugandan orphans with early childhood traumas were correlated. Forty orphans (21 female, and 19 males) from an orphanage in rural Kumi, Uganda were screened for childhood traumas and trauma symptomology, specifically aversion and intrusion symptoms. Participants each completed three working memory tests: an intentional picture memory task, an incidental picture memory task and a digit span task. PTSD symptomology was viewed both on a continuum and as static and analyzed in both situations. No differences were found in the working memory test scores of children with high PTSD symptomology versus those with low PTSD symptomology, nor did specific traumas experienced effect the test scores.
Statement of Responsibility: by Stephanie Larumbe
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2013
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Bauer, Gordon

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2013 L33
System ID: NCFE004807:00001


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! POST TRAUMATIC STRESS IN UGANDAN ORPHANS AND ITS EFFECT ON WORKING MEMORY BY STEPHANIE LARUMBE A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Social Sciences New College of Florida i n partial requirement for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the spons orship of Dr. Gordon Bauer Sarasota, Florida April, 2013

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PTSD and Memory Z B*%*' N *! 53(1.$/92P -$$<(.!*&!2(!7"&'!-*%6(!-"g1".!)%$7/ (9(3!&'*&!3((2(.! '$--$7 :$%!*!)%"(:!2$2(/&8!)(:$ %(!:"--"/6 7"&'!3*./(33!*/.!%(:-(,&"$/ *3!3'(! )(6*/!&$!35(*< ?!hY(!13(. &$!%1/!7'(/!&'(!%()(-3!,*2(?i!3 '(!&$-.!2(? h Y(!%*/! "/&$!&'(!)13'!7 (%(!7(!'*.!'$--$7(.!$1&!*%(*3!&$!'".(?!Y(!3-(5&!&'(%( j 7(! 35(/&!&'(!/"6'&3!&'(%( 8!(+(/!&'$16'!&'(%(!7(%(!)163!*/.!&'(! '(*&! */.!5($5-(! 7(%(!6(&&"/6!2*-*%"* ?!4:!,$1%3(!7(!7$1-.!'*+(!-"<(.!&'(!'$13(!21,'!)(&&(%! )1&!&'(!'$13(!7*3/A&!3*:(?!='(9!7$1-.!:"/.!9$1!&'(%(!*/.!<"--!9$1?!='(9!<"--(.! 29!,$13"/!)%$&'(%!&'(%(?!!='*&A3!7'9!7(!3&*9(.!"/!&'(!)13'?!Y(!7$1-.!'".(! &'(%(!1/&"-!" &!7*3!&"2(!&$!,$$<8!&'(/!7(!%*/!)*,
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PTSD and Memory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mP 8!,'"-.%(/!7"&'!5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%(33!2*9!31::(%! :%$2!*!+*%"(&9!$:!3925&$23!"/,-1." /6!"/&%1."/6!2(2$%"(38!'95(%+"6"-*/,(!*/.!*/! "/ *)"-"&9!&$!,$/,(/&%*&(! N;2(%",*/!I39,'$-$6",*-!;33$,"*&"$/ 8! 5?! bab P ? ='(3(!2*9! '"/.(%!&'(3(!,'"-.%(/A3!(+(%9!.*9!:1/,&"$/"/6!"/!3,'$$-!*/.!$&'(%!3$,"*-!3"&1*&"$/3?!! ;3!&'(!2$3&!"25$%&*/&!*35(,&!$:!3$,"*-!-":(! "/!-*&(!,'"-.'$$.!*/.!(*%-9!*.$-(3,(/,(! %(+$-+(3!*%$1/.!3,'$$-8!I=BKA3!(::(,&!$/!&'(3(!,'"-.%(/A3!,$6/"&"+(!:1/,&"$/"/6!"3! (35(,"*--9!"25$%&*/&?!M1%%(/&!3&1."(3!'*+(!+(%9!-"2"&(.!.*&*!$/!&'(!(::(,&!&'*&!I=BK! '*3!$/!,$6/"&"+(!:1/,&"$/?!U35(,"*--9!:(7!3&1."( 3!'*+(!)((/!,$/.1,&(.!$/!'$7!I=BK! "/!,'"-.%(/!*::(,&3!7$%<"/6!2(2$%9!*)"-"&9?!

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PTSD and Memory b #"61%(!Z ?!!K"3&%",&3!$:!D6*/.* NQ7()*e(8!Z\\\P ='(!:$--$7"/6 -"&(%*&1%(!%(+"(7!7"--!(L5-$%( 5%"$%!3&1."(3!$/ 2(2$ %9!"/! &%*12*&"e(.!,'"-.%(/!*/.!* .1-&3!7"&'!I=BK?!!=$!.$!&' "38!"&!"3!'$7(+(%!(33(/&"*-!&$! :"%3&!(L5-$%(!I=BK!"/!*!)"$-$6",*-!3(/3(8!*..%(33"/6!&'(!."*6/$3"3!$:!I=BK!*/.! 3&1."(38!7'",'!'*+(!:$1/.!+* %"$13!)"$-$6",*-!5%$,(33(3!&'*& *%(!3135(,&(.!&$!) (! %(35$/3")-(!:$%!&'"3!5%$-$/6(. 3&% (33!%(35$/3(?!!B1)3(g1(/&-98!&'" 3!&'(3"3! 7"--! (L5-$%(!-"&(%*&1%(!$/ .1-&!I=BK 8 7'",'!7"--!-(*.!"/&$!, '"-.'$$.!I=BK!*/.!&%*12*! */.!5%"$%!2(2$%9!3&1."(3!7"&'!&%*12*&" e(.!,'"-.%(/? ='"3!&'(3"3!*&&(25&3!&$!

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PTSD and Memory c 1/,$+(%!7'(&'(%!&'(!.(6%((!$:!&%*12*!.$(3 8 "/!:*,& 8 '*+(!*/!(::(,&!$/!&'(3(! ,'"-.%(/A 3!(+(%9.*9!7$%<"/6!2(2$%9!*)"-"&"(3 8 "/!*/!*&&(25&!&$!6*"/!*!)(&&(%! 1/.(%3&*/."/6!$:!&'(!(::(,&3!$:!5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%(33!$/!,'"-.%(/? "#$%!&'!()*+, ='(!:$1%&'!(."&"$/!$:!&'(!K"*6/$3&",!*/ .!B&*&"3&",*-!Q*/1*-!$:!Q(/&*-! K"3$%.(%3!NKBQ R @m P! .(:"/(3!5$3&&%*12* &",!3&%(33! ."3$%.(%!*3!h*!3(%"(3! $:! 3925&$23! &'*& :$--$7!&'(!(L5$31%(!&$!*/!(L&%(2(!&%*12*&",!3&%(33$%!"/+$+"/6!."%(,&!5(%3$/*-! (L5(%"(/,( $:!*/!(+(/&!&'*&!"/+$ -+(3!*,&1*-!$%!&'%(*&(/(.!.(*&' j!$%!$&'(%!&'%(*&!&$! $/(A3!5'93",*-!"/&(6%"&9j!$%!!7"&/(33"/6!*/ (+(/&!&'*&!"/+$-+(3!.(*&'!"/>1%9!$%!*! &'%(*&!&$!&'(!5'93",*-!"/&(6%"&9!$:!*/$&'(%!5(%3$/j!$%!-(*%/"/6!*)$1&!1/(L5(,&(.!$%!! +"$-(/&!.(*&'!8!3(%"$13!'*%2!$%!&'%(*&!$ :!.(*&'!$%!"/>1%9!(L5(%"(/,(.!)9 *!:*2"-9! 2 (2)(%!$%!$&'(%!,-$3(!*33$,"*&(3 i N ;2(%",*/!I39,' $-$6",*-!;33$,"*&"$/ 8! 5?! ba_P ? =$! )(!."*6/$3(.!7"&'!I= BK!*!5(%3$/!213&!(L5(%"(/,(!* &%*12*&",!(+(/&!*/.!(-","&!*! %(35$/3(!&$!&'(!(+(/&!"/+$-+"/6!'$%%$%8!"/&(/3(!:(*%!*/.O$%!'$5(-(33/(33?!@/! ,'"-.%(/!35(,":",*--9!&'(!%(35$/3(!213&!"/+$-+(!."3$%6*/"e(.!)('*+ "$% N)('*+"$%! &'*&!"3!,$25-(&(-9!"/*55%$5%"*&(!&$!&'(!3"&1*&"$/P ? B925&$23!213&!)(!5%(3(/&!:$%! 2$%(!&'*/!$/(!2$/&'!*/.! &'(9! 213&!,*13(!3"6/":",*/&!."3&%(33!$%!"25*"%2(/&!$:!* 5(%3$/A3!3$,"*-8!$,,15*&"$/*-! */.!$&'(%! "25$%&*/&!*%(*3!$:!:1/,&"$/"/6!"/!$%.(%!: $%! */!"/."+".1*-! &$!)(!."*6/$3(.!7"&'!IB=K? #1%&'(%2$%( 8 &'(!KBQ R @m!/$&(3!&'*&!& '(!,'*%*,&(%"3&",!3925&$23!$:!I=BK! "/,-1.(!5(%3"3&(/&!%( R (L5(%"(/,"/6!$:!&%*12*&",!(+(/&3!N$&'(%7"3(!
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PTSD and Memory d N ;2(%",*/!I39,'$-$6",*-!;33$,"*&"$/ 8! 5?! bal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bac P ?

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PTSD and Memory Y'"-(!&'"3!.(:"/"&"$/!$:!I=BK!" 3!/$7!6(/(%*--9!1/.(%3&$$.8!"&! 7*3!/$&! :1--9! %(,$6/"e(.!*3!*!."*6/$3*)-(!539,'"*&%",!."3$%.(%!1/&"-!&'(!&'"%.!(."&"$/!$:!&'(!KBQ! */.!&'(!&(/&'!(."&"$/!$:!&'(!@MK N@/&(%/*&"$/*-!M-*33":",*&"$/!$:!K"3( *3(3P 7(%(! 51)-"3'(. NZ\l^!*/.!Z\\b!%(35(,&"+(-9P ? =$!&'"3!.*98!'$7(+(%8!&'(%(!*%(!,$/&"/1(.! .()*&(3!$:!7'(&'(%! I=BK!"3!,1-&1%*--9!.(&(%2"/(. $%!3"25-9!*!3(%"(3!$:! 1/.(%3&*/.*)-(!%(*,&"$/3!&$!&%*12*!NJ"33$/8!a^^_P? ='(!.(:"/"&"$/!$:!*!&%*12*&",! (+(/& 8 :$% (L*25-( 8 2*9!)(!,1-&1%*--9!"/:-1(/,(.8!*3!,1-&1%(!'*3!&'(!,*5*,"&9!$:! 3'*5"/6!2$%*-3 8 +*-1(3 8 */.!( 2$&"$/*-!%(3$/*/,(?!W(/,(8!*/!(+(/&!&'*&!2*9!)(! '"6'-9!&%*12*&",!:$%!$/(!5(%3$/8!-"<(!&'(!.(3&%$9"/6!$:!*! %(-"6"$13!",$/ :$%!(L*25-(8! 2*9!/$&!)(!*3!&%*12*&" ,!&$!*/$&'(%!5(%3$/!7'$3(!,1-&1%(!.$(3!/$&!5-*,(!*3!'"6'!$:! */!"25$%&*/,(!$/!,(%&*"/!+*-1(3?! ;,,$%."/6!&$!&'(!.(:"/"&"$/!$:!I=BK!"/!&'(!KBQ R @m8! :$%!(L*25-(8!&'(!.(3&%$9"/6!$:!*!%(-"6"$13!",$/!$%!&(25-(!.$(3!/$&!8!.$(3!/$&!g1*-":9! *3!*!&%*12*&",!(+(/&!7'",' ,*/!,*13(!I=BK?!W$7(+(%8!&$!*!5(%3$/!7'$!:((-3!*3! &'$16'!*/!@,$/!$%!*!&(25-(!"3!.((5-9!-"/<(.!7"&'!&'("%!G$.8!"&A3!.(3&%1,&"$/!,*/!,*13(! &'(!3*2(!.(6%((!$:!&%*12*!&'*&! *!5(%3$/!2*9!:((-!7'(/!3(("/6!'*%2!.$/(!&$! 5(%3$/! 7'$!"3!,-$3(!&$!&'(2? M1-&1%(!*-3$!.( &(%2"/(3! (2$&"$/ *-!%(3$/*/,(8!7'",'!2*9! /:-1(/,(!*+ $".*/,(!3925&$23 8 *3!7(--!*3!&'(!3(+(%"&9!$:!I=BK!"&3(-:?!!@/!*!,1-&1%(!"/! 7'",'!,(%&*"/!*,&3!*%(!2$%(!'"6'-9!-$$<(.!.$7/!15$/!*/.!3&"62*&"e(.8 &'(!*+(%*6( I =BK!&%*12*&$-$69! :$%!&'"3!*,&!2*9!)(!3"6/":",*/ &-9!'"6'(%!&'*/!"/!*!,1-&1%(!"/!7'",'! "&!"3!/$&!*3!'"6'-9!3&"62*&"e(. NG(%3$/3!*/.!M*%-"(%8!Z\\aP? ='( ".(*!&'*&!I=BK!"3!3"25-9!*/!1/.(%3&*/.*)-(!%(*,&"$/!&$!&%*12*!'*3!*-3$! )((/!,'*--(/6(.!"/!*,,$1/&3!$:!."::(%"/6!3925&$2$-$69!*33 $,"*&(.!7"&'!I=BK!"/! .":: (%(/&!( %*3?!#$%!(L*25-(8!.1%"/6!&'(!;2(%",*/!M"+"-!Y*%8!7'(/!&%*12*!"/!2(/!

PAGE 14

PTSD and Memory l 7*3!/$&!6(/(%*--9!*,,(5&(.8!"&!7*3!7".(-9!%(5$%&(.!&'*&!2(/!%(&1%/"/6!:%$2!7*%! (L5(%"(/,(.!'(*%&!."::",1-&"(3!7'",'!,$1-.!/$&!)(!&%*,(.!)*,
PAGE 15

PTSD and Memory \ "25$%&*/,(!$:!)(-"(:3!*/.!(2$&"$/3!*)$1&!&'(!3(-:!*/.!&'(!7$%-.?!;,,$%."/6!&$!&'"3! 2$.(-8!3925&$23 $:!I=BK *%"3(!*3!*/!*.*5&"+(!2(,'*/"32!.1(!&$!*! 3'":&!"/!'$7! 5($5-(!7'$!'*+(!(L5(%"(/,(.!&%*12*!5(%,("+(!&'(!7$% N4e(%!n!Y("338!a^^bP?! ='(3(!%(35$/3(3! ,$2(!"/!&'(!:$%2!$:!(L,(33"+(!%(35$/3(! (-(2(/&3 &$!&%*12*8!31,'! *3!*+$".*/,(8!539,'$-$6",*-!%(*,&"+"&9 8 */.!%(3"3&*/,(?!M$6/"&"+( 539,'$-$6",*! &'($%"( 3!$:!I=BK!3&*&(!&'*&!&'(!3925&$23!$:!I=BK!*55(*%!.1(!&$!*!/*&1%*-!."::",1-&9! *33"2"-*&"/6!&$!&'(!(L5(%"(/,(!&'*&!,$2(3!:%$2!&%*12*!*/.!&'*&!,$/&%*.",&3!*! 5(%3$/A3!5%( R (L"3"&"/6!)(-"(:!*/.!2$.(-!$:!&'(!7$%-.!NJ"33$/8!a^^_P?! ;!,'*/6(.! 5(%,(5&"$/!$:!&'(!7$%-. 8!*!:((-"/6!&'*&!$/(!"3!/$!-$/6(%!3*:(8!2*9!,*13(!*.*5&"+(! 3925&$23!31,'!*3!*+$".*/,(!*/.!"/&%13"$/?!! ='( 2$.(-!'$-.3!&'*&!% (,$+(%9!$,,1%3! 7'(/!&'(!3&%(/6&'3!$:!&'(!*33$," *&"$/3!&$!&'(!&%*12*&",!(+(/&!*%( %(.1,(.!)9!*! ,$2)"/*&"$/!$:!.(3(/3"&"e*&"$/!*/.!*!3 1)3&"&1&"$/! $:!2$%(!*.*5&"+(!*33$,"*&"$/3 8! 5%$$:!$:!7'",'!"3!'(-.!"/!&'(!31, ,(33!%*&(3!$:!5%$-$/6(.!(L5$31%(!&'(%*5 "(3!
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PTSD and Memory Z^ $:!2(2$%9?!!#(*%!,*13(3!&'(!:"6'&!$%!:-"6'&!%(35$/3( 8 7'",'!"3!*33$,"*&(.!7"&'!&'(! '95(%*%$13*-!3925&$23!$: I =BK?!='(!*296.*-*8!7'",'!%(,("+(3!"/:$ %2*&"$/!*)$1&! (L&(%/*-!3&"21-" 8!"/"&"*&(3!&'"3!:"6'&!$%!:-"6'&!%(35$/3(!*/.!3"6/*-3!*-&(%*&"$/3!"/!3&%(33! '$%2$/(3!*/.!,*&(,'$-*2"/(3!NJ"33$/8!a^^_P? !! I*&"(/&3!7"&'!I=BK!'*+(!)((/!:$1/.! &$!'*+(!*/!$+(%3(/3"&"+"&9!$:! &'(! 95$&'*-*2", R 5"&1"&*%9 R *.%(/*! N WI; P *L"38!7'",'! -(*.3!&$!*!."3 R %(61-*&"$/!$:!,$%&"3$-8!7'",'! "/!%(&1%/! 2*9!'*+(!*.+(%3(!.(3&%1,&"+(! (::(,&3!$/!&'( )$.9?!K1(!&$!&'"38!4e(%!*/.!Y("33!Na^^bP! 3166(3&(.!&'*&!I=BK! 31::(%(%3 8 7'$!'*.!(L5(%"(/,(.!* -$/6 R &(%2! &%*12*&",!(+(/&!N31,'!*3!*!d!2$/&'! &(%2!*&!7*%P 8 7$1-.!(L'")"&!3925&$23!&'*& 7(%(!-*%6(-9!."::(%(/&!&'*/!&'$3(!7'$! $/-9!(L5(%"(/,(.!$/( R &"2( &%*12*&",!(+(/& N7"&/(33"/6!*!.(*&'P ?! )#-!.&//01$2/3' ='(!'"55$,*2513!'*3!%(,("+(.!*/!(L&(/3"+(!*2$1/ &!$:!*&&(/&"$ /!"/ &'(!%(*-2! $: I=BK!%(3(*%, '!"/!&'(!5*3&!&7$!.(,*.(3 ?!;! 3&1.9!)9!J%(2/(%!(&!*-?!NZ\\_P "/+(3&"6*&(.!&'(!."::(%(/,(3!"/!'"55$,*25*-!3"e(!)(&7((/!5(%3$/3!7"&'!&%*12*! "/.1,(.!I=BK!*/.!/$/ R &%*12*&"e(.!)1&!$&'(%7"3(!2*&,'(.!,$/&%$-!31)>(,&3 ?! @/!&'"3! 3&1.98! Z_!*.1-&!31%+"+$%3!$:!3(+(%(!,'"-.'$$.!3(L1*-!*/.O$%!5'93",*-!*)13(!7(%(! 2*&,'(.!7"&'!Z_!,$/&%$-3!:$%!'("6'&8!7("6'& 8 3(L 8 %*,( 8 */.!'*/.(./(33?!!='(!(L&(/&! $:!&'("%!,'"-.'$$.!*)13(!7*3!*33(33(.!7"&'!& '(!U*%-9!=%*12*!@/+(/&$%9!NU=@P ?! ;.."&"$/*--98! &'(9!7(% ( *33(33(.!:$%!I=BK 8 13"/6 ( "&'(%!*!I39,'"*&%",!"/&(%+"(7!$%! &'(!B,'(.1-(!:$%!;::(,&"+(!K"3$%.(%3!* /.!B,'"e$5'%(/"*!NB;KB R SP?!!QF@3 7(%(!&*<(/! $:!*--!5*%&","5*/&3 8 */.!21-&"5-(!%(3(*%,'(%3!"/.(5(/.(/&-9!2(*31%(.!&'(!2". R '"55$,*25*-!3(,&"$/8!&'(!&(25$%*-!-$ )(8!&'(!*296.*-* 8 */.!&'(!,*1.*&(!$:!(*,'! 5*%&","5*/&?!M'"-.'$$.!*)13(!5*&"(/&3!7(%(!:$1/.!&$!'*+(! */!*+(%*6(!$:! Zao!32*--(%!

PAGE 17

PTSD and Memory ZZ -(:&!'"55$,*25*-!+$-12(3!*/.!-*%6(%!-(:&!&(25$%*-!-$)(3!&'*/!&'(!,$ /&%$-3?!V$! 3"6/":",*/&!."::(%(/,( "/!&'(!3"e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e(! *55(/(.!"/!$&'(%!I=BK!5*&"(/&3!*3!7(--?!!='(9!7(/&!*3!:*%!*3!&$!3166(3&!&'*&!32*--(%! '"55$,*25*-!+$-12(!2*9!)(!*/!(::(,&! $:!.*2*6( )9!31%6(3!$:!6 -1&",$,$%&"$.3!$%! '95$,$%&"3$-"32?! @/!*!3"2"-* % 3&1.98! I*+"p! (&!*-? Na^^_P!3,%((/(.!&'(!'"55$,*25"!$:!Zc!M%$*&"*/! 7*%!+(&(%*/ 3 ."*6/$3(.!7"&'!,'%$/",!I=BK!7"&'!3"6/3!$:!.(5%(33"+(!3925&$23!*/.! */L"(&9?!=$!g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coP!&'*/!&'(!/$%2*-!,$/&%$-! 5*%&","5*/& 3?!='(!-(:&!

PAGE 18

PTSD and Memory Za '"55$,*2513!7*3!*-3$!32*--(%!)1&!&'(!."::(%(/,(!7*3!/$&!3"6/":",*/&8!/$%!7*3!&'(! ."::(%(/ ,(!)(&7((/!&'(!&$&*-!+$-12(3?!='(9!3166(3&(.!&'*&!:1&1%(!3&1."(3!3'$1-.!13(! ,$/&%$-38!7'",'!1/.(%7(/&!&'(!3*2(!&%*12*!)1&!.".!/$&!.(+(-$5!I=BK?! K(!J(--"3!(&!*-? NZ\\\P! ,$/.1,&(.!*!3"2"-*%!3&1.9! 7"&'!,'"-.%(/ 8 "/!*/!*&&(25&! &$! :"/.!* ."3,%(5*/,9!"/!'"55$,* 25*-!3"e(!)(&7((/!5*%&","5*/&3!7"&'!I=BK!*/.!&'$3(! 7"&'$1&!"&?!='(9!13(.! bb!2*-&%(*&(.!,'"-.%(/ */.!*.$-(3,(/&3!7"&'!I=BK!*/.! dZ! 2*&,'(.!'(*-&'9!,$/&%$-3!N2*&,'(.!:$%!*6(8!'("6'&8!7("6'&8!'*/.(./(33!*/.!6(/.(%P ?! ='(9!1/.(%7(/&!2*6/(&",!%(3$/*/,(!"2*6"/68!* 3!7(--!*3! ,$25%('(/3"+(!,-"/",*-! (+*-1*&"$/3 8 "/,-1." /6!,$6/"&"+(!*33(332(/&3!*/.! */*&$2",*-!2*6/(&",!%(3$/*/,(! "2*6"/6?!4:!&'(!bb!5*&"(/&3!7"&'!I=BK8![l!'*.!,$2$%)".!."3$%.(%3?!! I*%&","5*/& 3! 7(%(!(+*-1*&(.!7"&' *!&%*12*!"/&(%+"(7!&$! *33(3 3 :$%!I=BK8!*/.!, $25(&(.!&'(! +$,*)1-*%98!."6"&!35*/ 8!)-$,(,&!*3 3(2)-9!31)3(&3!$:!&'(!Y(,'3-(%! @ /&(--"6(/,(! B,*-( :$%!*/!(3&"2*&(!$:!@q?!! ;.."&"$/*-98! 5*%(/&3!,$25(&( g1(3&"$//*"%(3!%(6*%."/6! ."33$,"*&"+(!3925&$238!*/.!*)/$%2*-!)('*+"$%3?! M$25*%(. &$!&' (!,$/&%$-3 8 &'(! 5*%&","5*/& 3!7"&'!I = BK!'*.!32*--(%!"/&(%,%*/"*-!*/.! ,(%()%*-!+$-12(3!*3!7(--!*3!*!32*--(%!2". R 3*6"&&*! *%(*!$:! &'(! ,$%513!,*--$312?! W$7(+(%8!"/!,$/&%*3&!&$! I*+"p! (&!*-? Na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

PAGE 19

PTSD and Memory Z[ '"55$,*25*-!3"e(!*/.!1-&"2*&(-9! 3166(3&!&'*&!&%*12*!'*3!."33"2"-*%8!":!/$&!$55$3"&(8! (::(,&3!$/!,'"-.%(/!*3!,$25*%(.!&$!*.1-&3! NK(!J(--"3!(&!*-?8!Z\\\P ?!!! @/!&'("%!,$25%('(/3"+(!-"&(%*&1%(!%(+"(7 $/!2*6/(&",!%(3$/*/,(!"2*6"/6 $:! I=BK!5*&"(/&3 8!Y*/6!*/.!r"*$!Na^Z^P! *-3$! :$1/.!g1"&(!*!)"&!$:!,$/&%*.",&$%9! -"&(%*&1%(!"/!&(%23!$:!&'(!3&1."(3!:$1/.!$/!'"55$,*25*-!3"e( ?!!@/!3$2(!I=BK!+(&(%*/38! '"55$,*25*-!+$-12(!7*3!:$1/.!&$!)(!lo!32*--(% )"-*&(%*--9 8!7'"-(!$&'(%!3&1."(3! :$1/.! &'(!+ $-12(!&$!)(!32*--(% $/-9!$/!&'(!-(:&!3".(?! @/!,'"-.%(/ 8 *!Zao!.(,%(*3(!"/! '"55$,*25*-!+$-12(!7*3!$)3(%+(. 8 7'"-(!"/!$&'(%!3&1."(3!/$!,'*/6(!7*3!$)3(%+(.?!! 4/(!3&1.9!(+(/!3166(3&(.!&'*&!,'"-.%(/!7"&'!I=BK!'*+(!*!6%(*&(%!'"55$,*25*-! +$-12(!&'*/! &'("%!'(*-&'9 ,$25*%"3$/3?! Y*/6!*/.!r"*$ Na^Z^P! ,$/3".(%(.!&'(!5$33")"-"&9!&'*&!32*--!'"55$,*25*-!3"e(! 2*9!)(!*!%"3
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PTSD and Memory Zb 7"&'!&'(!m"(&/*2!Y* %!m(&(%*/3!; 33$,"*&"$/!'*+(!&1%/(.!&$!&7"/!3&1."(3!"/! 7'",'!&'(! '"55$,*25*-!3"e(3!$:! )$&'!I=BK R 5-*61(.!m"(&/*2!Y*%!+(&(%*/3!*/.!&'("%!1/ R &%*12*&"e(.!&7"/3 7(%(!2(*31%(. ?! G"-)(%&3$/!(&!*-?!Na^^_P!,$/.1,&(. $/(!$:!&'(3(! &7"/ 3&1."(3! "/!7'",'!&'(9!*"2(.! &$!. (&(%2"/(!&'(!."%(,&"$/*-"&9!$:!&'(!%(-*&"$/3'"5!)(&7((/!32*--!'"55$,*2513!3"e(! */.!I=BK8! :$1/.!"/ 5%(+"$13!3&1."(3?!m"(&/*2!+(&(%*/3!*/.!&'("%!2$/$e96$&",!&7"/3! 7(%(!%(,%1"&(.!13"/6!&'(!m"(&/*2!U%*!=7"/!NmU=P!F(6"3&%9?!!4:!&'(3(8!Zl!+(&(%*/3! 7(%(!."*6/$3(. 7" &'!I=BK8!7'"-(!&'("%!,$2)*& R 1/(L5$3(.!&7"/3!7(%(!/$&?!='(%(! 7(%(!/$!I=BK!3925&$23!:$1/.!"/!&'(!%(2*"/"/6!a[!+(&(%*/3!*/.!&'("%!,$2)*& R 1/(L5$3(.!&7"/3?!;--!5*%&","5*/&3!7(%(!:%((!$:!,$2$%)".!539,'$-$6",*-!."3$%.(%38!$%! $&'(%!3"6/":",*/&!*)/$%2*-"&"(3?! ; --!5*%&","5*/&3!7(%(!&(3&(.!:$%!6(/(%*-!.(2$6%*5'",3!*/.!6"+(/!*!hM1)(!*/.! I*5(%!=(3&i!&$!*33(33!+"31$35*&"*-!:1/,&"$/!*3!5*%&!$:!*!-*%6(%!*33(332(/&!)*&&(%9! 7'",'!(25-$9(.!2$%(!3&*/.*%.!2(*31%(3!$:! /(1%$539,'$-$6",*-!:1/,&"$/?! B1) 3(g1(/&-9!'"55$,*2513!+$12(!7*3!*33(33(.!+"*!QF@!"2*6(!*,g1"3"&"$/!*/.! +$-12(&%",!*/*-93"3?!!='(!%(31-&3!3'$7(.!&'*&!)$&'!&'(!I=BK!+(&(%*/3 */.!&'("%! &7"/3!5(%:$%2(.!3"6/":",*/&-9!7$%3( $/!&'(!,$/:"61%*-!,1(!5%$,(33"/6!&'*/!&'(!/$/ R I=BK!+(&(%*/3!*/.!&'("%!&7"/3?!!B(+(%"&9!$:!I=BK 3925&$2$-$69!7*3!5$3"&"+(-9! ,$%%(-*&(.!&$!5(%:$%2*/,(!$/!&'(!M1)(!*/.!I*5(%!=(3&? ='(!*1&'$%3!3166(3&! *--$,(/&%", 35*&"*-!5%$,(33"/6!.(,%(2(/&3!"/!,'%$/",!I=BK!m(&(%*/3 2(*/"/6!&'*&! &'(3 (!5* & (/&3!-"<(-9!'*+(!."::",1-&"(3!7'(/!*!%(:(%(/,(!:%*2(!"3!)*3(.!$ /!&'(! (L&(%/*-!(/+"%$/2(/&!*/.!"/.(5(/.(/&!$:!$/(A3!,1%%(/&!-$,*&"$/!"/!"&8!31,'!*3!*! ."%(,&"$/!$:!h/$%&'i!"/3& (*.!$:!h%"6'& ? i !! ='(3(!.(:","&3!7(%(!5$3"&"+(-9!,$%%(-*&(.!7"&'!

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PTSD and Memory Zc )$&'!I=BK!3(+(%"&9!*/.!*!.(,%(*3(!"/!'"55$,*25*-!+$-12(?!@/&(%(3&"/6-98!&'("%!/$/ R ,$2)*&!(L5$3(.!&7"/3!3'$7!&'(!3*2(!2(2$%9!.(:","&3!*/.!,$%%(-*&"$/3!*3!&'("%! )%$&'(%38!3166(3&3!&'*&!I=BK!2"6'&!)(!%(-*&(.!&$!5%( R (L"3&"/6!,$/:"61%*-!,1( N*! 1/"g1(!3&"21-13! & '*&!,$/3"3&3!$:!&7$!$%!2$%(!,$2)"/(.!3&"21-"P 5%$,(33"/6!.(:","&3! .1(!&$!32*--(%! '"55$,*25*-!3"e(!&'*&!5%(."35$3(!&'(!+(&(%*/3!&$!,'%$/",!I=BK?! G"-)(%&3$/!(&!*-?!Na^^aP!,$/.1,&(.!*/$ &'(%!&7"/!3&1.9!&$!(L*2"/( 7'(&'(%!32*--! '"55$,*25*-!3"e(!"3!*!5%(,1%3$%!&$!I=BK 8 %*&'(%!&'*/!*!,*13(!$:!"&?!!@/!&'"3!3&1.98!&'(9! &(3&(.![^!2$/$e96$&",!&7 "/!5*"%3!"/!*!,*3(!,$/&%$-!.(3"6/!3&1.9?!='(!3&1.9!%(,%1"&(.! Z_!I=BK!&7"/!5*"%3!N$/(!7"&'!I=BK!*/.!$/(!7"&'$1&P!*/.!a[!/$/ R &7"/!5*"%3!:%$2! &'(!m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e(!7*3! :$1/.!&$!)(!32*--(%!"/!)$&'!&'(!I=BK!+(&(%*/!*/.!&'(!1/(L5$3(.!&7"/!"/!*--!,*3(3!"/! &'"3!3 &1.98!)1&!&'(%(!7*3!/$!."::(%(/,(!:$1/.!)(&7((/!&'(!)%$&'(%3!%(6*%.-(33!$:! (L5$31%(!$%!I=BK!3&*&13?!!!G"-)(%&3$/!(&!*-?!3166(3&38!&'*&!"/!,$/&%*3&!&$!$&'(%!3&1."(38!

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PTSD and Memory Zd 32*--(%!'"55$,*25*-!3"e(!2*9!)(!5%$+(/!&$!,$/3&"&1&(!*!5%( R (L"3&"/6!+1-/(%*)"-"&9! :*,&$%!:$ %!5*&'$-$6",*-!%(35$/3(!&$!3&%(33? 0%(2(/!(&!*-?!Na^Za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g1(/,(3!$:!I=BK? 0*3*"! (&!*?!Na^^lP!3&1."(.!&'(!QF@3 $:!Zl!I=BK!7*%!+(&(%*/3!*/.!&'("%! 1/(L5$3(.!2$/$e96$&", ,$ R &7"/38!*/.!ac!V$ / R I=BK *::-",&(. 7*%!+(&(%*/3!*/.!&'("%! 1/(L5$3(.!,$ R &7"/3!13"/6!*!+$L(R )*3(.!2$%5'$2(&%9!N*/!*1&$2*&(.!(L*2"/*&"$/! $:!3&%1,&1%*-!)%*"/!."::(%(/,(3!13"/6!3&*&"3&",*-!5*%*2(&%",!2*55"/6!&(,'/"g1(3P?!! ='(!%(3(*%,'(%3!5%(.",&( .!*!-$7!6%* 9!2*&&(%!.(/3"&9!"/!, $2)*&!(L5$3(.!&7"/3!7"&'! I=BK!,$25*%(.!&$! ,$2)*& (L5$3(.!&7"/3!7"&'$1&!I=BK?!!='(!QF@!"2*6(3!&*<(/!"/!*! 5%(+"$13!3&1.9!13"/6!&'(!3*2(!3*25-(!7(%(!3(62(/&(.!"/&$!G%(9!Q*&&(%8!Y'"&(! Q*&&(%8!,(%()%$35"/*-!:-1".!*/.!3<1--!*/.!3,*-5!*/.!(+* -1*&(.!:$%!5(%,(/&*6(!$:!6%*9! 2*33?!='(!m(&(%*/3!7"&'!I=BK!7(%(!:$1/.!&$!'*+(!_!-$,"!7"&'!-$7(%!6%*9!2*&&(%! &'*/!/$ / R I=BK!m(&(%*/3?!#$1%!$:!&'(3(!-$,"!7(%(!*3!5%(.",&(.!*/.!7(%(!-$,*&(.!"/!

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PTSD and Memory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a^ &' ,(/&1%9 &'(!'"55$,*2513!7*3!(3&*)-"3'(.!*3!&'(!3&%1,&1%(!"/!,$/&%$-!$:!&'(! *1&$/$2",! /(%+$13!393&(2?!='(!*296.*-*!7*3!"/,-1.(.!"/!&'"3!393&(2!)1&!7*3!/$&! 3((/!*3!*!2*>$%!3&%1,&1%(!1/&"-!Z\cd!7'(/!Y("3<%*/&e!5%$5$3(.!&'*&!*296.*-*! -(3"$/3!."33$,"*&(!&'(!*::(,&"+(! $%!%("/:$%,"/6!5%$5(%&"(3!$:!3&"21-"!:%$2!&'("%! 3(/3$%9!%(5%(3(/&*& "$/?!='"3!(-","&(.!*!3(%"(3!$:! 3&1."(3!&'*& (3&*)-"3'(.!&'*&!&'(! 296.*-*!5-*93!*!2*>$%!%$-(!"/!&'(!*,g1"3"&"$/!*/.!(L5%(33"$/!$:!,$/."&"$/(.!:(*%? J%(2/(%!(&!*-?!Na^^cP!,$/.1,&(.!$/(!31,'! 3&1.9!" /+(3&"6*&"/6!&'(!%$-(!$:! &'(! *296.*-*!.1%"/6!&'(!*,g1"3"&"$/!$:!:(*%?!!='( 9!.".!&'"3!13"/6!*!3*25-( $:!l!7$2(/!

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PTSD and Memory Zl 7"&'!(*%-9!,'"-.'$$.!%(-*&(.!I=BK!*/.!ZZ!7$2(/!7"&'$1&!*)13(!$%!I=BK?!! I*%&",5*/&3!7(%(!:%((!$:!*/9!,$2$%)".!"--/(33(38!2(.",*&"$/!13(8!31 )3&*/,(!*)13(! */.!7(%(!."*6/$3(.!7"&'!I=BK 13"/6!&'(!B&%1,&1%*-!M-"/",*-!@ /&(%+"(7!:$%!KBQ R @m?!! U*%-9!,'"-.!'$$.!&%*12*!7*3!*33(33(.!13"/6!*/!U*%-9!=%*12* @/+( /&$% 9!3(-: R %(5$%&! 2(*31%(!&$!*33(3 3 5'93",*-8!(2$&"$/*8 */.!3(L1*-!*)13( ?! ='(9! 1/.(%7(/&!*!3<"/! ,$/.1,&*/,(!2(*31%(2(/& 8 *3!7(--!*3!*!IU=!3,*/!2(*31%(2(/&!$:!,(%()%*-!)-$$.! :-$7!.1%"/6!'*)"&1*& "$/8!*,g1"3"&"$/ 8 */.!(L&"/,&"$/ ,$/."&"$/3 ?!!@/!&'(!'*)"&1*&"$/! ,$/."&" $/ 8 5*%&",5*/&3!7(%(!%(5(*&(.-9!(L5$3(.!&$!*!)-1(!3g1*%(!$/!*!3,%((/?!K 1%"/6! &'(!:(*%!* ,g1"3"&"$/! ,$/."&"$/! (L5$31%(!&$!&'(!)-1(!3g1*%(!7*3!5*"%(.!7"&'!*/! (-(,&%",!3'$,
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PTSD and Memory Z\ 3,%"5& ,$/."&"$/3!!"/!&'(! %"6'& R 3".(. -"2)",!N"/,-1."/6!!*2$/6!$&'(%!3&%1,&1%(3!&'(! '"55$,*2513!*/.!&'(!*296.*-*P8!5*%*-"2)",!*/.!+" 31*-!*%(*3?!@&!7*3!*-3$!:$1/.!&'*&! ;296.*-*!*,&"+*&"$/!7*3!5$3"&"+(-9!,$%%(-*&(.!7"&'!I=BK!3925&$2!3(+(%"&9?! B"2"-*%!%(31-&3!7(%(!:$1/. "/!*!B'"/!(&!*-?A3! N a^^b P 3&1.9! $:!,(%()%*-!)-$$.! :-$7!.1%"/6!&'(!%(,$--(,&"$/!$:!5(%3$/*-!&%*12*&",!(+(/&3!$:!Z_!m"(&/ *2!+(&(%*/3! 7"&'!I=BK!*/.!Z \!7"&'$1&!I=BK?!W(%(!&'(9!13(.!2*-(!,$2)*&!+(&(%*/3!*/.!:(2*-(! / 1%3(!+(&(%*/3!7'$!7(%(!,$/&%$--(.!:$%!'*/.(./(33!*/.!,$2$%)".!."3$%.(%3?!! I*%&","5*/&3!7(%(!(+*-1*&(.!:$%!I=BK!3925&$2$-$69!*/.!1/.(%7(/&!IU=!3,*//"/6! &$!$)3(%+(!&'( %!,(%()%*-!)-$$.!:-$7?!B"2"-*%!&$! F*1,'!(&!*? NZ\\dP 8! */!"/,%(*3(!"/! ,(%()%*-!)-$$.!:-$7!7*3!$)3(%+(.!"/!&'(!*296.*-* 8! &'$16'!&'"3!"/,%(*3(!7*3!$/-9! $)3(%+(.!"/!&'(!-(:&!*296.*-*!"/ 2*-(!,$2)*&!+(&(%*/3!*/.!/$&!"/ &'(!:(2*-(!/1%3(! +(&(%*/3!7'$!7(%(!*-3$ &(3&(. ?!='(!,$%%(-*&"$/!)(&7((/!* 296.*-*!)-$$.!:-$7!*/.! 3(+(%"&9!$:!I=BK!3925&$23!7*3!/$&!&(3&(.!"/!&'"3!3&1.9? B'"/!(&!*? ,$/.1,&(.!*/$&'(%!3&1.9!"/!a^^d8!"/!7'",'!&'(9!&(3& (. Zc!7$2(/! 7"&'!'"3&$%"(3!$:!3(L1*-!*)13(8!$:!7'",'!l!'*.!I=BK!*/.!_!.".!/$&?!I *%&","5*/&3!7(%(! ,$/&%$--( .!:$%!'*/.(./(33!*/.!13(!$:!2(.",*&"$/ 8!*/.!2*&,'(.!:$%!*6(!*/.!9(*%3!$:! (.1,*&"$/?!I*%&","5*/&3!5%(5*%(.!7%"&&(/!.(3,%"5&"$/3!$:!)$&'!/(1&%*-!*/.!&%*12*&",! 3,%"5&3!*/.! &*5( R %(,$%.(. &'(3(! :$%!5-*9)*,
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PTSD and Memory a^ 5*%&","5*/&3!%*&( &'(!"/&(/3"&9!$:!(*,'!(2$&"$/!&'(9!:(-&?!!I*%&","5*/&3!7"&'!I=BK! *.!3"6/":",*/&-9!'"6'(%!'(*%&!%*&(3!*/.!3"6/":",*/&-9!'"6'(%!%*&"/63!$:!(2$&"$/3!31,'! *3!:(*%8!*/6(% 8 */.!3*./(33 8 &'*/!.".!&'(!6%$15 3!7"&'$1&!I=BK?!!;296.*-*!'95(% R %(35$/3"+"&9!7*3!:$1/.!"/!&'(!5*%&","5*/&!7"&'!I=BK!)1&!/$&!"/!&'(!5*%&","5*/&3! 7"&'$1&!I=B K? 4+(%*-8 3&1."(3!3((2(.!&$!:"/.!*/!"/,%(*3(.!'95(%%(35$/3"+"&9!$:!&'(! *296.*-*!"/!5($5-(!7"&'!I=BK!.1%"/6! )$&'!:(*%!*,g1"3"&"$/! */.!.1%"/6!(L5$31%(!&$! &%*12*&",!3&"21-"?! 4&'(%!3&1."(3!"/+(3&"6*&(.!&'(! ,'*/6(!"/ &'(!(::(,&!$:!I=BK!$ / &'(! *296.*-*!+$-12(? F$ 6(%3!(&!*? Na^^\P!2(*31%(.!&'( 296.*-*!+$-12( 3!$: ac!5($5-(!7'$! (L5(%"(/,(.!&'(!=$<9$!B1)7*9!B*%"/!*&&*,
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PTSD and Memory aZ G*/e(-!Na^^_P!1 3(.!21-&" R 2$.*-!/(1%$"2*6(%9!$/![b!'(*-&'9!*.1-&3!7'$! 7(%(!("&'(%!7"&'"/!Z?c!2"-(3!$:!$%!2$%(!&'*/!a^^ 2" -(3 *7*9!:%$2!&'(!Y$%-.!=%*.(! M(/&(%3!$/!\OZZO^Z?!!4:!&'(3(![b!*.1-&3 8 Z_!7(%(!(L5$3(.!&$!&'(!(+(/&3!$/!\OZZ! N2(*/"/6!&'*&!&'(9!-"+(.!7"&'"/ Z?c!2"-(3! $:!&'(!Y$%-.!=%*.(!M(/&(%3P!*/.!Z_!7(%(! 1/(L5$3(.!N5($5-(!7'$!-$3&!-$+(.!$/(3!"/!&'(!Y$%-.!=%*.(!M(/&(%!*/.!&'(!I(/&*6$/! 7(% (!(L,-1.(.P?!K*&*!7(%( ,$--(,&(.!)(&7((/!bZ!*/.!bl!2$/&'3!*:&(%!\OZZO^Z?! I*%&","5*/&3!7(%(!(+*-1*&(.!7"&'!*/!*%%*9!$:!."::(%(/&!2(*3 1%(3?!='(9!7(%(! (+*-1*&(.!:$%!-":(&"2(!"/,".(/,(!$:!&%*12*&",!(+(/&38!,1%%(/&!I=BK8!*/L"(&9!-(+(-38!*3! 7(--!*3!I=BK!*&!7$%3&!&%*12*?!!=%*12*!3925&$23!7(%(!*33(33(.!7"&'!W$%$7"&e!(&! *? A3!NZ\_\P!@25*,&!$:!U+(/&3!B,*-(?!#1/,&"$/*-!2*6/(&",!%(3$/*/,(!"2*6"/6! N:QF@P! .*&*!7 (%(!$)&*"/(.!"/!*!3&*/.*%."e(.!* 296.*-*!%(35$/3"+(/(33!*33*9!NJ%("&(%!(&!*-?8! Z\\dP8!"/!7'",'!5*%&","5*/&3!+"(7(.!6%*9 R 3,*-(.!5",&1%(3!$:!*,&$%3!7"&'!:(*%:1-! +(%313!,*-2!:*,(38!7'"-(!&'("%!*296.*-*8!*2$/6!$&'(%!)%*"/!%(6"$/3 8 7*3!)("/6! $)3(%+( .!:$%!*,&"+"&9?!@&!7*3!:$1/.!&'*&!&'$3(!5*%&","5*/&3!7'$!-"+(.!*&!*!,-$3(%! 5%$L"2"&9!&$!&'(!7$%-.!&%*.(!,(/&(%!'*.!3"6/":",*/&-9!-$7(%!6%*9!2*&&(%!+$-12(!"/! &'(!*296.*-* 8 *3!7(--!*3!$&'(%!)%*"/!3&%1,&1%(3 8 7'(/!,$25*%(.!&$!&'(!,$/&%$-3?!!;! /$/ R -"/(*%!N:"%3 & R $%.(%!g1*.%*&",P!*33$,"*&"$/!)(&7((/!&'(!&$&*-!/12)(%!$:!&%*12*3! (L5(%"(/,(.!"/!*! -":(&"2( 8!*296.*-*!6%*9!2*&&(%!+$-12(!*/.!*296.*-*!:1/,&"$/*-! %(*,&"+"&9 7*3!:$1/. ?!;.."&"$/*--9!"&!7*3!:$1/.!&'*&!&'(!6%*9!2*&&(%!+$-12(!$:!&'(! -(:&!*296.*-*!.(,%(*3(.!3"6 /":",*/&-9!7"&'!"/,%(*3"/6! %(*,&"+"&9!&$!:(*%:1-!:*,(3?!;! 5$3&!' $,!*/*-93"3!$:!5*%&","5*/&3!7"&'!'"6'(%!+(%313!-$7(%!-(+(-3! $:! &%*12*!(L5$31%(! %(+(*-(.!*33$,"*&"$/3!)(&7((/!&'(!*296.*-*!6%*9!2*&&(%!+$-12(8!*296.*-*! :1/,&"$/*-!%(*,&"+"&9!*/.!*/L"(&9?!='(3(! %(31-&3!3166(3&!&'*&!&%*12*!(L5$31%(!5-*93!*!

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PTSD and Memory aa ,*13* -!%$-(!"/!,'*/6(3!&$!)$&'!)%*"/!3&%1,&1%(!*/.!:1/,&"$/8!"/,-1."/6!/$/,-"/",*-! *.1-&!5$51-*&"$/3?!!D/-"<(!%(3(*%,'!.(*-"/6!7"&'!&'(!'"55$,*25138!&'"3!*%&",-(!3((23! &$!"/.",*&(!&'*&!6%*9!2*&&(%!+$-12(!"/!&'(! *296.*-*!"3!,*13(.!)9!&%*12*&",!(+(/&3! %*&'(%!&'*/!*!5%(."35$3"&"$/!:*,&$%? Y$$/!*/.!W(.6(3!Na^^lP!,$25"-(.!&'(!.*&*!:$1/.!"/!aZ!3&1." (3!$:!QF@! :"/."/63!"/!,'"-.%(/!7"&'!I=BK!*/.!*.1-&3!7"&'!,'"-.'$$.!2 *-&%(*&2(/&!%(-*&(.! I=BK?!!;%&",-(3!7(%(!,'$3(/!$/!&'( )*3"3!$:!*+*"-*)"-"&9!$:!*296.*-*!* /.! '"55$,*2513!QF@!.*&*8! */.!":!&'(9!,$/&*"/(.!)$&'!.*&*!:$%!*!I=BK!6%$15!*/.!*! '(*-&'98!/$/ R 2*-&%(*&(.!,$/&%$-!6%$15?!F(-(+*/&!.*&*!7(%(! (L&%*,&(.!:%$2!&'(! 3&1."(3!*/.!2(&* R */*-93"3!7*3!,$/.1,&(.!&$!,*-,1-*&(!&'(!(::(,& 3"e(3!$:!&'(! ,$2)"/(.!.*&*8!(L,-1."/6!$/-9!&'(!*.1-&!3*25-(!:$%!&'(!*296.*-*!*/*-93"3 *3!$/-9! $/(!3&1.9!'*.!3&1."(.!* 296.**!+$-12(!"/!*.1-&3!7"&'!*!'"3&$%9!$:!, '"-.'$$.!*)13(?!! ='(!%(31-&3!"/.",*&(.!*!%(.1,(.!)"-*&(%*-!'"55$,*25*-!+$-12(!"/!&'(!*.1-&3 8 ) 1&!/$&! &'(!<".3 8 7"&'!I=BK!*3!,$25*%(.!&$!&'(!1/&%*12*&"e(.!,$/&%$-38!3166(3&"/6! '"55$,*25*-!.(:","(/,"(3!2*9!/$&!)(!*55*%(/&!1/ &"-!*.1-&'$$.?!G%(*&(%!-(:&!&'*/ %"6'&!*296.*-*!*/.!'"55$,*25*-!+$-12(3!7 (%(!*55*%(/&!"/!)$&'!&'(!5*%&","5*/&3 7"&'!I=BK!*/.!&'$ 3(!7"&'$1&8!&'$16'!I=BK!"3!*33$,"*&(.!7"&'!*!-(33(/(.!*296.*-*! *3922(&%9!"/!*.1-&3?!4&'(%7"3(!/$!."::(%(/,(3!"/!*296.*-*!+$-12(!7(%(!:$1/.! )(&7((/! 5*%&","5*/&3 7"&'!I=BK!*/.!&'(!,$/&%$-!6%$15?!='"3!:"/."/6!7*3!2"%%$%(.! )9!J%(2/(%!(&!*? A3!3&1.9!Na^^cP8!*/. 3166(3&3!&'*&!* 296.*-*!+$-12(!2*9 /$&!)(!*3! *::(,&(.!)9!IB=K!*3!' "55$,*25*-!+$-12(!3((23!&$!)(?! ='(3(!3&1."(3!3((2!&$!"/.",*&(!&'*&!I=BK!"3! *33$,"*&(.!7"&'!32*--(%! 296.*-*!3" e(8!&'$16'!&'(9!.$!/$&!"/.",*&( &'(!."%(,&"$/*-"&9!$:!&'"3!%(-*&"$/3'"5?!

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PTSD and Memory a[ ='(9!' *+(!*-3$!"/.",*&(.!'("6'&(/(.!*296.*-*!%(35$/3"+"&9!&$!)$&'!&%*12*&",! %(2"/.(%3!*/.!6(/(%*--9!*::(,&"+(!3&"21-"?!;.."&"$/*--9!3(+(%*-!3&1."(3!'*+(!:$1/.!*! 5$3"&"+(!%(-*&"$/3'"5!)(&7((/!I=BK!3925&$2!3(+(%"&9!*/.!*296.*-*!*,&"+*&"$/?! *%9-''!.0920:-'!$:7!()* + ;3!2$3&!&7"/!3&1."(3!$/!'"55$,*25*-!3"e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a^^_P!7%$&(!*!%(+"(7!$:!/ (1%$"2*6"/6! 3&1."(3 8 7'",'!3166(3&(.! 32*--(%!'"55$,*25*-!+$-12(3!"/!5*&"(/&3!7"&'!IB=K! */.! .(,%(*3(.!*,&"+"&9!"/!&'(! 2(."*-!5%(:%$/&*-!*/.!*/&(%"$%!,"/61-*&(!*%(*3!&$!)(!,$%%(-*&(.!7"&'!"/,%(*3(.! *,&"+"&9!"/!&'(! *296.*-*?!@& 7*3 8 &'(%(:$%( 8 3166(3&(.!&'*&!I=BK!"3!,*13(.!)9!*!:*"-1%(! $:!&'(!2(."*-!5%(:%$/&*-!*/.!*/&(%"$%!,"/61-*&(!/(&7$%<3!&$!%(61-*&(!&'(!*296.*-*8! 7'",'!,*13(3!'95(% R %(*,&"+"&9!"/!%(35$/3(!&$!&'%( *&?!V(6*&"+(!:((.)*,
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PTSD and Memory ab :%$2!5*3&!2*-&%(*&2(/&!(L5(%"(/,(3?!!='(!,'"-.%(/!7(%(!,$25*%(.!&$!Z^! /$/ R &%*12*&"e(.!,'"-.%(/!7"&'!$+(%!*/L"$13!."3$%.(%!*/.!ab!'(*-&'9!,$/&%$-38!2*&,'(.! :$%!*6(8!6(/.(%8!=*//(%!3&*6(8!'("6'&!*/.!7("6'&?!#$1%&((/!$:!&'(! 5*%&","5*/& 3!7"&'! I=BK!*/.!l!$:!&'(! 5*%&","5*/& 3!7"&'!*/L"$13!."3$%.(%!'*.!,$2$%)".!539,'"*&%",! ."3$%.(%3 ?!!=7(/&9 R :$1%!'$1%!1%"/(!3*25-(3!7(%(!,$--(,&(.!:%$2!*--! 5*%&","5*/& 3?! ='(3(!1%"/(!3*25-(3!7( %(!(+*-1*&(.!:$%!,$%&"3$-!-(+(-3!*/.!,*&(,'$-*2"/(! ,$/,(/&%*&"$/3!N(5"/(5'%"/(8!/$%(5"/(5'%"/(8!*/.!.$5*2"/(P?!='(!&(3&3!9"(-.(.! (-(+*&(.!/$%(5"/(5'%"/(!*/.!.$5*2 "/(!-(+(-38!*3!7(--!*3!*/!"/,%(*3(!"/!1%"/*%9!:%((! ,$%&"3$-!*/.!(5"/(5'%"/(!"/!&'(!2*-&%(*&(.!,'"-.%(/?!!='(3(!%(31-&3!3166(3&!&'*&!5$3& R &%*12*&",!3&%(33!"/!2*-&%(*&(.!,'"-.%(/!"3!*33$,"*&(.!7"&'!*-&(%*&"$/3!$:!)"$-$6",*-! 3&%(33!393&(23?! S"/.*1(%! (&!*-? N a^^cP :1%&'(%!(L*2"/(.!&'(!%(-*&"$/3'"5!)(&7((/!,$%&"3$-! -(+(-3!*/.!I=BK!"/!*.1-&3?!='(9!2(*31%(.! 3*-"+*%9!,$%&"3$-!-(+(-38! /(1%$539,'$-$6",*-!:1/,&"$/!*/.!'"55$,*25*-!+$-12(!"/!*!3*25-(!$:!Za!5$-",(! $::",(%3! 7"&'!I=BK */.!Za!5$-",(!$::",(%3!7"&'$1&!I=BK8! 2*&,'(.!:$%!*6(!*/.!6(/.(%?!! S"/.*1(%!(&! *? "/&(/.(.!&$!(L*2"/(!&'(!%(-*&"$/3'"5!)(&7((/!32*--(%!'"55$,*25*-! +$-12( 8 */.!,$%&"3$-!-(+(-38!-(*%/"/68!2(2$%9!*/.!*&&(/&"$/!5(%:$%2*/,(!"/! 5*%&","5*/& 3!7"&'!I=BK!*3!,$25*%(.!&$!&'$3(!7"&'$1&!"&?!! I*%&","5*/& 3!" /!&'"3!3&1.9! 7(%(!."*6/$3(.!*,,$%."/6!&$!KBQ R @m!,%"&(%"*!"/!*/!"/&(%+"(78!*/.!7(%(!:%((!$:! ,$2$%)".!."3$%.(%3!*/.!'*.!/$!'"3&$%9!$:!.%16!*/.!*-,$'$-!*)13(?!UL,-13"$/!,%"&(%"*! *-3$!"/,-1.(.!-(:& R '*/.(./(33!*/.!539,'"*&%",!2(.",*&"$/?! I*%&","5*/& 3!'*.!&'%(( 3*-"+*%9!,$%&"3$-!3*25-(3!&*<(/T!$/(!"/!&'(!2$%/"/68! $/(!*&!bT^^!52!*/.!$/(!*&!)(.&"2(?!!;.."&"$/*--98!(*,'! 5*%&","5*/& ,$25-(&(.!*!MmS=

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PTSD and Memory ac NM*-":$%/"*!m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e(!*/.!2(2$%9! :1/,&"$/!.(,%(*3(.!"/!I=BK! 5*%&","5*/& 38!*/.!,$%&"3$-!-(+(-3!"/,%(*3(.8!&'(%(!7*3!/$! ,$%%(-*&"$/!)(&7((/!*!.(,-"/(!"/!'"55$,*25*-!3"e(!*/.!("&'(%!2(2$%9!:1/,&"$/!$%! ,$%&"3$-!-(+(-3?! M",,'(&"8!W$7(8!F$6$3,'!*/.!=$&'!Na^Z^P!&(3&(.!&'(!, $%&"3$-!-(+(-3!*/.!:*-3(! %(,$6/"&"$/!2(2$%9!$:![Z_!,'"-.%(/!*&&(/."/6!*!%(,%(*&"$/ *-!3122(%!,*25! .(3"6/(.!:$%!-$7 R "/,$2(!2 *-&%(*&(.!N/tZb[P!*/.!/$/ R 2*-&%(*&(.!N/ tZ_bP!,'"-.%(/?! @/!&'(!3&1.98!,'"-.%(/!7'$!'*.!)((/!2*-&%(*&(.!7(%(!'95$&'(3"e(.!&$!(L'")"&!("& '(%! '95$ R $%!'95(% R ,$%&"3$-"328!*3!7(--!*3!-$7(%!2(2$%9!3,$%(3?!!U*,'!,$/3(/&"/6!,'"-.! 7*3!6"+(/!*!M*-":$%/"*!m(%)*-!S(*%/"/6!=(3& R M'"-.%(/!NMmS= R MP!*/.!&'(!I(*)$.9! I",&1%(!m$,*)1-*%9!=(3& R @@@!NIIm= R @@@P8!*/.!7*3!1-&"2*&(-9!(+*-1*&(.!)9!&'("%!,*25! ,$1/3(-$ %3!:$%!)('*+"$%*-!3925&$2$-$69?!B*-"+*!3*25-(3!7(%(!&*<(/!:%$2!&'(! ,'"-.%(/!(*,'!2$%/"/6!*/.!&'(/!*/*-9e(.!13"/6!*!'"6' R 3(/3"&"+"&9!(/e92(! "221/$*33*9!&$!.(&(%2"/(!&'(!,$%&"3$-!-(+(-3?!!

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PTSD and Memory ad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g1(?!!='(!3&1.9!&(3&(.!Za!'(*-&'9! ,$/& %$-3!*/.! ZZ!,$2)*& +(&(%*/3!7"&'!I=BK?! I*%&","5*/& 3!:$--$7(.!*!35(,":",!-$7! 2$/$*2"/(!."(&!:$%!*&!-(*3&![!.*93!)(:$%(!&'(!3&1.98!*/.!:*3&(.!:$%!Zc!'$1%3!5%"$%!&$! &'(!3&*%&!$:!&'(!3&1.9?!I*%&","5*/&3!'*.! *! ,*&'(&(%!5-*,(.!"/!&'("%!-12)*%! 315%*,'/$".!35*,(!& $!*--$7!:$%!&'(!7" &'.%*7*-!$:!MB#?!;.."&"$/*--98!) -$$.!3*25-(3! 7(%(!&*<(/!*/.!*!ab R '$1%!1%"/(!&(3&!7*3!5(%:$%2(.?!!='(!%(31-&3!"/.",*&(.!&'*&! 2(*/!,$%&",$&%$5'"/!%(-(*3"/6!'$%2$/(!NMFWP!-(+(-3!7(%(!3"6/":",*/&-9!'"6'(%!"/! 5*&"(/&3!7"&'!I=BK!&'*/!"/!&'(!,$/ &%$-38!&'$16'!/$!,$%%(-*&"$/!7*3!:$1/.!)(&7((/! MFW!-(+(-3!*/.!I=BK!3925&$23?!!I=BK!3925&$23!*/.!ab R '$1%!1%"/*%9!,$%&"3$-! (L,%(&"$/!9"(-.(.!*!/(6*&"+(!,$%%(-*&"$/?!='(3(!%(31-&3!"/.",*&(!&'*&!I=BK!+(&(%*/3! '*+(!*!'"6'(%!)*3*-!MFW!,$/,(/&%*&"$/!*/.! -$7(%! ab R '$1%!,$%&"3$-!(L,%(&"$/?! I$3& R &%*12*&",!3&%(33!'*3!)((/!:$1/.!&$!'*+(!+*%9"/6!)"$-$6",*-!(::(,&3!$/! &'$3(!7'$!31::( %!:%$2!"&?!Q*/9!5($5-(!7"&'!I=BK (L'")"&!*!32*--(%!,%*/"*-!+$-12(!

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PTSD and Memory a_ &'*/!/$/ R *::-",&(.!"/."+".1*-38!(35(,"*--9!"/!&'(!*296.*-*!*/.!&'(!'"55$ ,* 2513?! W$7(+(%8!%(3(*%,'!3((23!&$!"/.",*&(! &'*&!32*--(%!'"55$,*2513!*/.!*296.*-*! +$-12(3!*%(!/$&8!*3!5%(+"$13-9!&'$16'&8! 3$-(-9! *!%(31-&!$:!.*2*6(!.1(!&$!3&%(33 8 )1&! "/3&(*.!*!5%(.(&(%2"/"/6!:* ,&$%!&$!I=BK8!*3!"/.",*&(.!)9!&7"/3!3&1."(3!$/!&'(! '" 55$,*2513!$ :!+(&(%*/3!N(?6?8!G"-)(%&3$/!(&!*-?8! a^^_P ?! @:!&'(!+$-12(!$:!&'(3(! 3&%1,&1%(3!&%1-9!'*.!*!/(6*&"+(!(::(,&!$/!,$6/"&"+(!*)"-"&"(38!&'(/!&'(3(!,$6/"&"+(! .(:","&3!7$1-.!)(!*55*%(/&!)(:$%(!&%*12*&"e*&"$/8!7'",'!"3!/$&!&'(!,*3(?!Y'*&!&'(/! ,*13(3!&'(!.(,-"/(!"/! 2(2$%9! *)"-"&"(3!&'*& '*3!)((/!7"&/(33(.!"/!I=BK!5*&"(/&3]!!;3! 3166(3&(.!)9!&'(!)"$-$6",*-!2$.(-!$:!I =BK!2(/&"$/(.!)9!J"33$/!Na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a^^dP?! ()*+!$:7!;-2 095 Y'"-(!2(2$%9!.(:","&3!'*+(!*-7*93!)((/!/$&(.! *3! 3925&$23!$:!I=BK8!&'(! (L&(/&!$:!&'"3!.(:","(/,9!7*3!/$&!%(3(*%,' (. 1/&"-!&'(!(*%-9!Z\\^3?!4/(!$:!&'(!:"%3& 3&1."(3 &$!.$!3$8! J%(2/(%!(&!*-?!NZ\\[P 8 ,$25*%(.!&'(!2(2$%9!:1/,&"$/!*/.! "/&(--"6(/,(!$:!m"(&/* 2!+(&(%*/3!7"&'!I=BK! 7"&'!&'*& $:!'(*-&'9 2*&,'(. ,$25*%"3$/! 5*%&","5*/& 3 ? ;3!-(3"$/3!"/!&'(!'"55$,*2513!'*.!5%(+"$13-9!)((/!

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PTSD and Memory al *33$,"*&(.!7"&'!3'$%& R &(%2!2(2$%9!.(:","(/,"(38 */.!5 *&"(/&3!7"&'!I=BK!'*+(!)((/! :$ 1/.!&$!'*+(!32*--(%!' "55$,*25"8 J%(2/(%! (&!*-? A3 3&1.9! &(3&(. 7'(&'(%! 5*&"(/&3 7"&'!I=BK!3'$7(.!&'(!3*2(!3'$%& R &(%2!2(2$%9!.(:","(/,"(3 )9!,$25*%"/6!&'(2!&$! *!2*&,'(.!,$/&%$-!6%$15? =7(/&9 R 3"L m"(&/*2!Y*%!+(&(%*/3!7"&'!5%( R ."*6/$3(.!,$2)*& R %(-*&(.!I=BK! */.!Zc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d!m"(&/*2!,$2)*&! +(&(%*/3!7"& '!I=BK!*/.!*!,$25*%"3$/!3*25-(! $:!Zc!*%29!V*&"$/*-!G1*%.!(/-"3&((3! 7'$! %(5$%&(.!/$!&%*12*&",!(+(/&3!$%!3&%(33 R %(-*&(.!3925&$23?! I*%&","5*/& 3!7(%(!

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PTSD and Memory a\ (L,-1 .(.!:$%!'"3&$%"(3!$:!539,'$3"38 31)3&*/,(!*)13(!7"&'"/!d!2$/&'3!$:!&'(!3&1.98! ,(/&%*-!/(%+$13!393&(2!."3$%.(%3!*/.!'(*.!"/>1%"(3!%(31-&"/6!"/!*!-$33!$:! ,$/3,"$13/(33?!!I*%&","5 */&3!7(%(!(+*-1*&(. :$%!I=BK!7"&'!&'(!Q"33"33"55"! B,*-( :$%! M$2)*&!F (-*&(.!I=BK 8 *3!7(--!*3!7"&'!*!3&%1,&1%(.!,-"/",*-!"/&(%+"(7?!!J$&'!6%$153! 7(%(!&'(/!6"+(/!*!)*&&(%9!$:! ,$6/"&"+(!&(3&38!"/,-1."/6!&'(!. "6"&!35*/!31)&(3&8!*/.!&'(! +"31*-!2(2$% 9!35*/!31)&(3 &!$:!&'(!Y(,'3-(%!Q (2$%9! B,*-( ? m(&(%*/3!7"&'!I=BK!5(%:$%2(. 7$%3( &'*/!&'(!,$/&%$-3!$/! )$&'!&'(!:$%7*%.! */.!)*,<7*%.!+"31*-!2(2$%9!35*/!31)&(3& 38!*/.!&'(!:$%7*%.!. "6"&!35*/!31)&(3&! "/.",*&"/6!*!,$6/"&"+(!.(,-"/(!"/!+( &(%*/3!7"&'!I=BK?!W$7(+(%8!&'(! ,$/&%$! 3*25-(!"/! &'"3!3&1.9!7*3!/$&!*/!*6(!*55%$5%"*&(!,$25*%"3$/8!*3!&'(3(!,$/&%$-3!7(%(! ,$/3".(%*)-9!9$1/6(%!&'*/!&'(!+(&(%*/3?! m*3&(%-"/6!(&!*-?!!Na^^aP! ,$%%(,&(.!&'"3!*6(!."3,%(5*/,9!"/!&'("%! 3&1.9!7"&'! m"(&/*2!Y*%! +(&(%*/3 */.!*-3$! "/,$%5$%*&(.!,$/&%$-!:$% 5%"$%!(.1,*&"$/!-(+(-3!*/.! "/&(--"6(/,(?!! ;!,$/&"/1$13!+"31*-!2(2$%9!&(3& 8!*2$/6 $&'(%!3,*-(3 8 7*3!6"+(/! &$!ad! 2*-( m"(&/*2!7*%!+(&(%*/3! 7'$!7(%(! ."*6/$3(.!7"&'!I=BK8!*/.!a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PTSD and Memory [^ B$.",!(& *-?!Na^^_P!*33(33(.!ac 7*%!+(&(%*/3!."*6/$3(.!7"&'!I=BK 8 *3!7(--!*3! a[!2*&,'(.!,$/&%$-! 5*%&","5*/& 3!:$%!3'$%& R &(%2!2(2$%9!*)"-"&"(3!N&'$16'!c! 5*%&","5*/&3 */.!a!,$/&%$-3!7(%(!-*&(%!(L,-1.(.!:%$2!&'(!*/*-93"3!.1(!&$!(L,((."/6-9! -$7!3,$%(3!$/!&'(! F(9 R 43&(%%"(&'!M$25-(L!#"61%(!=(3 &!NF4M#= P 8!"/.",*&"/6!+"31$ R ,$/3&%1,&"$/*-!"25*"%2(/& N*/!"25*"%2(/&!"/!&'(!*)"-"&9!&$!2(/&*--9!+"31*-"e(! $)>(,&3P ?!! I*&"(/&3!7(%(!*33(33(.!13"/6!&'( F4M#= 8!,$/3"3&"/6!$:!,$598!"22(."*&(! %(,*-8 */.!.(-*9(.!%(,*--!&(3&3!*/.!&'(!J(/&$/!m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a^^b P %(5$%&(. $/(!$:! &'(! :(7!3&1."(3!&$!,$/&%*.",&!&'(! *33(%&"$/!&'*&!I=BK!.(,%(*3(3!2(2$%9!:1/ ,&"$/!"/!*.1-&!+(&(%*/3?!='(9 ,$/.1,&(.!*! 3&1.9!"/!7'",'!&'(!3*25-(3!7(%(!,*%(:1--9!,'$3(/!&$!2"/"2"e(!&'(!"25*,&!$:! ,$2$%)".!.(5%(33"$/8!31)3&*/,(!*/ *-,$'$-!*)13( ? !! I=BK!*/.!3(+(%"&9!7(%(! *33(33(.!13"/6!*!M-"/","*/!;.2"/"3&(%(.!I=BK!B,*-( NM;IBP ? ='(!3*25-(3!"/,-1.(.! ab!'(*-&'9!*/.!7(-R (.1,*&(.!m"(&/*2!2*-(!,$2)*&!+(&(%*/3!7"&'!5$3 &&%*12*&",! 3&%(33!."3$%.(%8!N,$/&%$--(.!:$%!,1%%(/&!.(5%(33"$/!*/. %(,(/&!*-,$'$-!$% .%16! *)13( P */.!a[!/$/ R &%*1 2*&"e(.!,$25*%"3$/!5*%&","5*/&3 8!2*&,'(.!:$%!*6(8!6(/.(%8! '"55$,*25*-!+$-12(!*/.!(.1,*&"$/!-(+(-? J$&'!&'(!M*-" :$%/"*!m(%)*-!S(*%/"/6!F (3&!

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PTSD and Memory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e(!'*3!*!3"6/":",*/&! /(6*&"+(! (::( ,&!$/! 2(2$%9? ()*+!$:7!<#&879-: ;!6%(*&!2*>$%"&9! $:!&'(!%(3(*%,'!$/!5$3&!&%*12*&",!3&%(33!(L"3&"/6!&$.*9!.(*-3! 5%"2*%"-9!7"&'!*.1-&38 *3!21,'!$:!&'(!%(3(*%,'!'*3!)((/!:1/.(.!&'%$16'!+(&(%*/! *33$,"*&"$/3!*/.!'*3 8 31)3(g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PTSD and Memory [a +(&(%*/38!35(,":",*--9!*.1-&!2*-(3?!!I$3&& %*12*&",!3&%(33!"3!*!.()"-"&*&"/6!"--/(33!&'*& ,*/!)(!:$1/.!*,%$33!3(L(3!*/.!*6(! 6%$153 */.!"3!/$&!,$/:"/(.!&$!+(&(%*/3?!M'"-.%(/8! )9!&'(! 3'((%!/*&1%(!$:!&'("%!"//$,(/,(!*/.!.1(!&$!&'("%!-*,
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PTSD and Memory [[ ,$25-(&(!*!F(+"3(.!@ 25*, &!$:!U+(/&3! B,*-( NK9%(6%$+!n!`1-8!Z\\cP *3!7(--!*3!*! F(+"3(.!U+(/&3! B,*-( 8!7'",'!7*3!,%(*&(.!35(,":",*--9!:$%!&'"3!3&1.9 ?!!='(!U +(/&3! B,*-( %(+(*-(.!&'*&!*!2*>$%"&9!$:!&'(!,'"-.%(/!7 "&/(33(.!3$2($/(! )("/6!<"--(.!NddoP8! (L5(%"(/,(.!.(*&'!"/!&'("%!:*2"-9!N_loP8!)(-"(+(.!&'*&!&'(9!7$1-.!."(!N\^oP 8 */.!*! :(7!'*.!&$!'".(!1/.(%!.(*.!)$."(3!NZcoP?!='(!3 '$%&(/(.!:$%2!$:!&'(!@25*,&!$:! U +(/&3! B,*-( 8!7'",'!7*3!13(.!$/!Z 8 l[^!$:!&'(3(!,'"-.%(/8!3'$7(.!'("6'&(/(.!(+(-3! $:!"/&%13"$/!*/.!*+$".*/,(!)('*+"$%3?!!M'"-.%(/!-"+"/6!$1&3".(!$:!3'(-&(%3!7(%(!:$1/.! &$!'*+(!)((/!(L5$3(.!&$!:(7(%!&%*12*38!)1&!3'$7 (.!2$%(!5$3&&%*12*&",!%(*,&"$/3?!! ='( %(31-&3!7(%(!3"2"-*%!&$ &'$3(!$:!='*)(&!*/.!m$3&*/"3 NZ\\\P 8! */.!:1%&'(%! 3166(3 & (. &'*&!&'(!3$,"*-!3155$%&!$:!6%$15!3'(-&(%3! -$7(%(.!&'(!/12)(%!$:! 5$3&&%*12*&",!%(*,&"$/3!(L5(%"(/,(.!)9!&'(3(!,'"-.%(/? B,'**-!*/.!U-)(%&!Na^^dP! *-3$ 3&1."(.!,'"-.%(/!$:!6(/$,".(8! )1&!.".!3$!13"/6 *! -$/6"&1. "/*-!*55%$*,'!&$!2(*31%"/6!I=BK ? ='(9!(+*-1*& (.! F7*/.*/!* .$-(3,(/&3!Z^! 9(*%3!*:&(%!(L5$31%(!&$!7*%!"/!F7*/.*?!!!I%"$%!3&1."(3!"/!+*%"$13!7*% R *::(,&(.!*%(*3 8! 31,'!*3!&'*&!)9!K 9 % (6%$+ (&!*-?!Na^^^P8 :$1/. &'*&!-*%6(!5(%,(/&*6(3! $:!,'"-.%(/!"/! &'(3(!*%(*3!(L'")"&(.!3925&$23!$:!I=BK?!!I%"$%!&$!&'"3!3&1.9 8!'$7(+(%8! "/+(3&"6*&"$/3!$:!I=BK!'*.!)((/!-"2"&(.!&$!%(-9!3$-(-9!$/!5*%(/&*-!%(5$%&3 ?! @/! &'"3! 3&1.98!539,'$-$6"3&!&'(%(:$%(!"/& (%+"(7(.!,'"-.%(/!&'(23(-+(3?!!@ &!7*3!'95$&'(3"e(.! &'*&!'"6'(%!-(+(-3!$:!&%*12*!7$1-.!5%$.1,(!*!6%(*&(%!%"3
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PTSD and Memory [b F7*/.*/!6(/$,".(!7(%(!"/&(%+"(7(.!*)$1&!&'("%!7*%!(L5(%"(/,(3!*/.!(+*-1*&(.!:$%! I=BK!3925&$23!*/.!3&%(33!%(35$/3(3?!!='(%(!7*3!*!)*-*/,(.!.*&*!,$--(,&"$/!3$!&'*&! *55%$L"2*&(-9!c^o!$:! (*,'!6(/.(%! 7*3 %(5%(3(/&(.!:%$2!)$& '!&'(!$%5'*/*6(!*/.! :%$2!,'"-. R (.!'$13('$-. 3?!='(!"/&(%+"(78!*3!7(--!*3!*/!U+(/&! B,*-( */.!*/!@25*,&!$:! U+(/&! B,*-( NW$%$7"&e8!Y"-/(%!n!;-+*%(e8!Z\_\P 7(%(!13(.!&$!2(*31%(!I=BK! 3925&$23!*/.!&%*12*!(L5(%"(/,(8!7'"-(!*!.( 2$6%*5'",! 3,*-( 7*3!13(.!&$!2(*31 %(! 3"25-(!.(2$6%*5'",3? ='(!3&1.9!,$/:"%2(.!"&3!'95$&'(3(3j! 5*%&","5*/& 3!-"+"/6!"/!,'"-. R -(.! '$13('$-.3!7(%(!2$%(!+1-/(%*)-(!&$!I=BK8!*3!7(%(!&'$3(!7'$!'*.!)((/!)(&7((/! &'(!*6(3!$:!l!*/.!Z[!.1%"/6!&'(!$1&)%(*
PAGE 41

PTSD and Memory [c +*%"*)-(8!7 "&'!3$2(!"/.",*&"/6!*!.(,-" /(!"/!7$%<"/6!2(2$%9!7'"-(!$ &'(%3!3'$7(.!/$! .(,-"/(!*&!*--? I(%%9 (&!*-? NZ\\cP!*%61( &'*&!&%*12*&"e( .!,'"-.%(/!*%(!3(/3"&"e(.!&$ /(1%*-! %(35$/3(!5*&&(%/38!7'",'!*%(!*33$,"*&(.!7"&'!& '("%!&%*12*&",!(L5(%"(/,(3?!I(%%9!(&! *-? NZ\\cP!*-3$! *%61( &'*&!"/!&'(! .(+(-$5"/6!)%*"/!&'"3!3(/3"&"e*&"$/! 2"6'& '*+(!*/! (::(,&!$/!/(1%*-!393&(23! */.!%(31-&!"/!,(%&*"/!&%*"&3!&'*& .(&(%2"/(!&'(!:1/,&"$/*-! ,*5*,"&9!$:!&'(!)%*"/?!='(9!*%61(!&'*&!)(,*13(!&'(!) %*"/!'*3!,%"&",*! 5(%"$.3!$ :! .(+(-$52(/&!"/!-*&(!"/:*/,9 */.!(*%-9!,'" -.'$$.8!&'(!)%*"/3!$:!9$1/6!,'"-.%(/!*/.! "/:*/&3!*%(!2$%(! 313,(5&")-( &$!1/131*-!(L5(%"(/,(3!&'*/!&'(!2*&1%(!)%*"/?!M'"-.%(/! 7"&'!&%*12*!)(,$2(!2$%(!3(/3"&"e(.!&$!&'(!:(*%!%(3 5$/3(8!*/.!I(%%9!(&!*-?!3166(3& &'*&!,'"-.%(/!7"&'!&%*12*!3925&$23!*%(!"/!*!h5(%3 "3&"/6!:(*%!3&*&(i!*33$,"*&(.!7"&'! &'(!:"6'&!$%!:-"6'&!%(35$/3(?!K1(!&$!&'"38!,'"-.%(/!(L'")"&!3925&$23!$:!'95(% R *%$13*-! :$--$7(.!)9!."33$,"*&"$/8!*/.!*&&(/&"$/!.(:","&3?!!='(!* 1&'$%3!*%61(!&'*&!,'"-.%(/! 1&"-"e(! *.*5&"+(!2(,'*/"323!"/!&'(!:*,(!$:! *! &'%(*&8 7'",'!*%(!"/&(%/*-"e(.!*/.! $%6*/"e(!&'(!.(+(-$5"/6!)%*"/?!W$7(+(%8!7'(/!&'(3(!3925&$23!5(%3"3&8!*!+*%"(&9!$:! /(1%$539,'"*&%",!3925&$23!%(31-&!*/.!5(%3"3&!:$%!*!-":(&"2(? ='(!3&1.9!"25-"( 3 &'*&! "& "3!&'(%(:$%(!"25$%&*/&!&$!3&1.9 &'( (::(,&3!&'*&!I=BK!,*/!' *+(!$/!&'(!,$6/"&"+( :1/,&"$/!$:!,'"-.%(/8!3$!&'*&! "/&(%+(/&"$/!5%$6%*23!,*/!)(!"25-(2(/&(.!7'",'!,*/! '(-5!*)*&(!&'"3!,$6/"&"+(!.(,-"/(?! U"3(/!*/.!G$$.2*/ NZ\\lP!(L*2"/(.!-"&(%*&1%(!$/!,'"-.!2(2$%9!"/!%(35$/3(! &$!(9(7"&/(33!,*3(3!*/.!,$2)"/(.!&'(2!&$!3&1. 9!'$7!&%*12*!*::(,&3!,'"-.%(/A3! 2(2$%9!*/.!3166(3&")"-"&9?!!;2$/6!2*/9!'95$&'(3(3!*/.!(L*25-(3!*3!&$!7'9! &%*12*!2*9!*::(,&!,'"-.%(/A3!2(2$%9!$%!3166(3&")"-"&98!&'(9!*%61(!&'*&!I=BK!"3!*!

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PTSD and Memory [d 6$$.!(L*25-(!$:!'$7!&%*12*!,*/!/( 6*&"+(-9!"/:-1(/,(!2(2$%9?!!S"<(! I(%% 9!(&!*-?! NZ\\cP8!&'(9 *%61( &'*&!&'(!2*>$%!3925&$23!$:!I=BK u %( R (L5(%"(/,"/6!3925&$23! N31,'!*3!:-*3')*,< 3 "/&%1."/6!&'$16'&3!*/.!/"6'&2*%(3P8!*+$".*/&!3925&$23! N*+$".*/,(!$:!&%*12*!%(-*&(.!,1(38!3$,"*-!7"&'.%*7*! $%!*2/(3"*!$:!&'(!(+(/&P8!*/.! 95(% R *%$13*! 3925&$23!N"%%"&*)"-"&98!'95(% R +"6"-*/,(8!."::",1-&9!,$/,(/&%*&"/6!*/.! ."::",1-&9!3-((5"/6P v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a^^aP!&(3&(.!Zb!,'"-.%(/!7"&'!I=BK!*/.!Zc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PTSD and Memory [_ 35((.8! */.! *)3&%*,&!% (*3$/"/6O(L(,1&"+(!:1/,&"$/"/6 7*3!*.2"/"3&(%(.!&$!(*,'! 5*%&","5*/& ?! ='(!%(31-& 3 "/.",*&(. &'*&!&'(! 5*%&", "5*/& 3!7"&'!I=BK!5(%:$%2(.!7$%3(!"/!b! $1&!$:!d!$:!&'(!)*&&(%"(3 8 "/,-1."/6!*&&(/&"$/?!W$7(+(%8!"/!3&*%
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PTSD and Memory [l @/!*!3"2"-*%!3&1.98! `*3"$%! ,$2$%)".!."3$%.(%38!*3!7(--!*3!-*/61*6(!5%$:","(/,9!*/.!@q?!='(!&% *12 *&"e(.!6%$15! 7*3!:"%3&!6"+(/!*!, '"-.'$$.!I=BK!"/+(/&$%9!"/!*!3&%1,&1%(.!"/&(%+"(7!*/.!a\! $:!&'(! &%*12*&"e(.!9$1&'! 7(%(!".(/&":"(.!*3!I=BK!5$3"&"+(!7'"-(!da!7(%(!I=BK!/(6*&"+ (?!! ='(!9$1&'!7(%(!*33(33(.!:$% 2(2$%9!*)"-"&"(3!7"&'!&'(!Y".(!F*/6(!;33(332(/& $:! Q(2$%9!*/.!S(*%/"/6!NYF;QSP ? @&!7*3!:$1/.!&'*&!9$1&'!7"&'!IB=K!5(%:$%2(.! 3"6/":",*/&-9!-$7(%!$/!&'(!YF;QS!&'*/!.".!/$/ R &%*12*&"e(.!,$/&%$-! 5*%&","5*/& 3?!! B"2"-*% &$!Q$%*."!(&!*-? NZ\\\P 8!&'(!9 $1&'!7"&'!I=BK! "/!&'"3!3&1.9 5(%:$%2(.!7$%3(! $/!&'(!+(%)*-!2( 2$%9!5$%&"$/3!$:!&'(!YF;QS!&'*/!)$&'!&'(!/$/ R &%*12*&"e(.! ,$/&%$-3!*/.!&'(!&%*12*&"e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
PAGE 45

PTSD and Memory [\ m"(&/*2!+(&(%*/3!"/!&'( B5(,"*-!#$%,(3 8! '*+(!&*<(/!&'"3!"/&$!*,,$1/&!)1&!"&!'*3!/$&! 9(&!)((/!(L5-$%(.!"/!,'"-.%(/A3! 3&1."(3!$/ I=BK!*/.!Q(2$%9?! )#-!<399-:%!*%375 ='(! ,1%%(/&!3&1.9! *..%(33 (. *!:(7!$:!&'(!6*53 "/!5*3&!, '"-.%(/A3!I=BK!3&1."(38! 7'",'!.". /$&!&*<(!"/&$!,$/3".(%*&"$/ &'(!+*%"*&"$/3!"/!-(+(-3!$:!&%*12*!(L5(%"(/,(! $%!."::(%"/6!-(+(-3!$:!I=BK!3 925&$23!5%(3(/&?! @/!&'"3!3&1.98!I=BK!"3!*55%$*,'(.! 7"&'!&'(!".(*!&'*&!"&!"3!*!,$/&"/112!%*&'(%!&'*/!*!)-*,
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PTSD and Memory b^ ,'"-.%(/ N_P */.!&'(!$%5'*/3 N[[P!7'$ -"+(.!"/!&'(!3*2(!.$%2"&$%"(3!*/.!7(/&!'$2(! &$!(L&(/.(.!:*2"-9!:$%!&'(!'$-".*93?! ='(!)$*%."/6!3,'$$-!,'"-.%(/!7(%(!$%"6"/*--9! "/&(/.(.!&$!2*<(!15!*!,$/&%$-!6%$15!)1&! *3! &'"3!3*25-(!7*3!*3!&%*12*&"e(.!*3!&'(! $%5'*/38!&'(!&7$!6%$153!7(%(!,$2)"/(.?! ;--!,'"-.%(/!&(3&(.!7(%(!5*%&!$:!*! 35$/3$%(.!5%$6%*2!?-:%!*1$8-@! ='(!U+(/&!B,*-(!N K9%(6%$+!( &!*-?8!a^^^P "3!*!Zc R "&(2!3,*-(! .(3"6/(.!&$!*33(33!&'(!/*&1%(!*/.!(L&(/&!$:!(L5$31%(!&$!+*%"$13!&%*12*&",!(+(/&3! .(*-"/6!7"&'!6(/$,".(!3"&1*&"$/3!* /.!(+(%9.*9!&%*12*3!N31,'!*3!-$33!$:!5*%(/&3!*/.! (L5$31%(!&$!7*%&"2(!*&%$,"&"(3?P ='(!U+(/&!B,*-(!2*9!)(!3((/!"/!;55(/."L!J? )#-!<#&8 79-:A'!B -?&'-7!C2/$1%!0D!>?-:%!*1$8-!E* F G H @ =' ( M' "-.%(/A3! F(+"3(.!@ 25* ,&!$:!U +(/&3!B,*-( "3! */ l R @&(28!b R 5$"/&! 3,*-( 8! 7'",'!2(*31%(3! *+$".*/,(! */.!"/&%13"$/ 8!7'",'!*%( &7$!$:!&'(!"/.",*&$%3!$: I=BK? N;55(/."L!MP! @&!"3! )*3(.!$/!&'(!$%"6"/*-!@25*,&!$:!U+(/&!B,*-(!N W$%$7"&e8!Y"-/(%!n!;-+*%(e8!Z\_\P8!

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PTSD and Memory bZ 7'",' "3!*!7(-R &(3&(.! Zc R 5$"/&!3,*-(! &'*&!'*3!)((/!7".(-9!13(.!*3!*!2(*31% (!$:! 3&%(33!"/!%(35$/3(!&$!&%*12*&",!(+(/&3!:$%!2$%(!&'*/![^!9(*%3?!='(!@UB!'*3!)((/! .(2$/3&%*&(.!&$!'*+(!'"6'!"/&(%/*-!,$/3"3&(/,9!NM%$/)*,'!*-5'* :$%!"/&%13"$/!*/.! *+$".*/,( t!^?ld */.!^?da8!%(35(,&"+(-9P8! &(3& R %(&(3&!%(-"*)"-"&9 N:$%!"/&%13"$/!*/.! *+$".* /,(!&'(3(!7(%(!^?l_!*/.!^?_\!*:&(%!*!7((<8!*/.!^?cd!*/.!^?_b!*:&(%!*!9(*%P ? @&! '*3!*-3$!)((/!:$1/.!&$!'*+(!'"6'!,$%%(-*&"$/!)(&7((/!)$&'!"/&%13"$/! N%t^?bd8! 5w?^^ZP! */.!I=BK 8! */.!;+$".*/,(!*/.!I=BK! N%t ^?[Z8!5w?^^ZP? ;.."&"$/*--9!&'(3(! %(31-&3!%(:-(,&!&'(! 13(!$:!&'(!@25*,&!$ :!U+(/&3!B,*-(!"/!*!+*%"(&9!$:!, 1-&1%(38! "/,-1."/6! 3&1."(3!7"&'!,'"-.%(/! NB1/."/8!a^^aP ? ='(!M'"-.%(/A3!F (+"3(.!+(%3"$/!$:!&'"3 3,*-(8!)9!&'(!M'"-.%(/!*/.!Y*%! #$1/.*&"$/8! 7*3!%(+"3 (.!&$!(L,-1.(!"&(23!7'",'!'*+(!)((/!2"3"/&(%5%(&(.!)9 ,'" -.%(/!"/!&'(!5*3& N*3!3((/!"/!3&1."(3!)9!)$&'!`1-(8!Z\\a!*/.!K9%(6%$+!(&!*?8 Z\\dP! *3!&'(!$%"6"/*-!3,*-(!7*3!/$&!"/&(/.(.!:$%!,'"-.%(/?!='(!3,*-( &'(%(:$%(!,$/&*"/3!$/-9! l!"&(23 8 7'",'!7(%(!,$/.(/3(.!&$!%(:-(,&!&'(!1/.(%-9"/6!:*,&$%!3&%1,&1%(8!*3! $55$3(.! &$!&'(!$%"6"/*-!3 ,*-(A3!Zc "&(23 ? ='"3!3,*-(!"3!.(3"6/(.!:$%!, '"-.%(/!l 9(*%3!$:! *6( */.!*)$+(!7'$!*%(!*)-(!&$!%(*.!"/.(5(/.(/&-9?! ='(!3,*-(!,$%%(-*&(3!'"6'-9!7"&'! &'(!Zc R "&(2!+(%3"$/ 8!7'",'!*-3$!2(*31%(3!*%$13*-!N%t!^?\c8!5 w?^^ZP8!*/.!"&!'*3!)((/! :$1/.!& '*&!&'(!,$2)"/( .!3,$%(!N*+$".*/,(!*/.!" /&%13"$/ P $:!Z_!$%!2$%(!'*3! 2"3,-*33" :"(.!:(7(%!&'*/ Z^o!$:!,'"-.%(/!NM'"-.%(/!$:!Y*%!#$1/.*&"$/8!Z\\lP ? @&!3'$1-.!)(!/$&(.!&'*&!7'"-(!&'"3!2(*31%(!"3!*!+*-".!2(*31%(!$:!5$3& R &%*12*&",!3&%(33!3925&$23!N35(,":",*--9!* +$".*/,(!*/.!"/&%13"$/P8!"&!3'$1-.!/$&8!*/.! "3!/$&!"/!&'"3!,*3(8!13(.!*3!*!2(*31%(!$:!I=BK?!!I*%&","5*/&3!7'$!3,$%(.!'"6'-9!$/!

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PTSD and Memory ba &'"3!3,*-(8!'*+(!*/!"/,%(*3(.!-"<(-"'$$.!$:!'*+"/6!I=BK! N$/-9!Z^o!*%(!2"3,-*33":"(.P! )1&!*3!&'"3!"3!/$&!*!."*6/$3"/6!&$$-8!I=BK! *//$& )(!,(%&*"/?! C:%-:%&0:$8 "09I&:6!;-2095!)-'% ?! ='(! "/&(/&"$/*! 7$%<"/6!2(2$%9!&(3&!"3! *!+"31*-!5",&1%(!2(2$%9!&(3&8!7'",'!7*3!,%(*&(.!:$%!&'(!51%5$3(!$: &'"3!&'(3"3?!@&!"3! )*3(.!$/!*! 2(2$%9!&(3&!)9! Y*6/(%!NZ\_bP )1&!7*3!2$.":"(.! :$%!&'(!51%5$3(!$:!&'" 3! 3&1.9!3$ *3!&$ )(!2$%(!,1-&1%*--9!*55%$5%"*&( &$! ,'"-.%(/!:%$2! %1%*-!D6*/.* N;55(/."L!KP ?!;.."&"$/*--98!"&!7*3! 3'$%&(/(.!&$!'*-:!*3!2*/ 9 &%"*-3!&$! *,,$22$.*&(! &'( 3'$%&(/(. *&&(/&"$/!35*/!$:!,'"-.%(/!NM$7*/!(&!*-? 8 a^^dP! */.!&'(!-(/6&'!$:!&'(! &$&*-!(L5(% "2(/& ?! ;3!"/! Y*6/(% A3! NZ\_b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PTSD and Memory b[ 5%$)(3 ? Q*&(%"*-3!"/,-1.(.!$/( -*%6(!5",&1%(!5%$)(!,*%.!7"&'!5",&1%(3!$:!&'(!&(3&! */"2*-38!*/.!3(+(/!$)>(,&!5%$)(!,*%.3!$:!&'(!$)>(,&38!7'",'!'*.!)((/!$/! &'(!3*2(! ,*%.3!*3!&'(!*/"2*-!"2*6(3?! +&6&%!*/$:!)-'% ? = '(!."6"&!35*/!&(3& "3!*!&(3&!13(.!&$!2(*31%(!7$%<"/6! 2(2$%9!"/!&'(!:$%2!$:!/12)(%!3&$%"/6!,*5*,"&9?!I*%&","5*/&3!*%(!5%(3(/&(.!7"&'!*! 3(%"(3!$:!."6"&38!7'",'!&'(9!*%(!&$-.!&$!2(2$%"e(?!='("%!*/37(%3!* %(!&'(/!*33(33(.! :$%!&'(!-$ /6(3&!35*/!$:!2(2$%"e(.!."6"&3 NM$/7*98!a^^cP ?! @/!&'"3!(L5(%"2(/&8! c!3(&3! $:!Z^! %*/.$2-9!6(/(%*&(.!/12)(%3!*/.!$/(!5%*,&",(!&%"*! 7(%(!,$/.1,&(. ?! (901-739! U*,'!,'"-.!*&&(/.(.!*/!"/."+".1*-!3(33"$/!7"&'!&'(!(L5(%"2(/&(%!*/.!*! &% */3-*&$%!"/!*!,(/&%*-!)1&!"3$-*&(.!%$$2!$:!&'(!$%5'*/*6(?!!='(!3&1.9!7*3!(L5-*"/(.! */.!,'"-.%(/!7(%(!*6*"/!*3<(.!:$%! *33(/&!&$!5*%&","5*&(?!D5$/!*3 3(/&!)("/6!6"+(/8!&'(! (L5(%"2(/&(%!*.2"/"3&(%(.!*!.(2$6%*5'",!g1(3&"$//*"%(?! ;!2*-(!2"..-( R *6(.! D6*/.*/!,*%(& *<(%!:%$2!&'(!$%5'*/*6(! N*3!5(%!%(g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e$/&*-8!)1&!(+(/-9!35*,( %$7!"/! : %$/&!$:!&'(!

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PTSD and Memory bb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PTSD and Memory bc *--$7"/6!(*,'!,'"-.!&$!6$!*&!*!/*&1%*-!5*,(?!D5$/!,$25-(&"$/!$ :!&'(!&*3<8!(*,'!,'"-.! 7*3!&'*/<(.8!*/.!6"+(/!*!32*--!6":&?! B-'38%' !"#$%&'()*#+& !! ='(!2(*/!/12)(%!$:!&%*12*&",!(+(/&3!(L5(%"(/,(.!)9!&'(!,'"-.%(/! */.!%(,$%.(.!)9!&'(!(+(/&!3,*-(!7*3![?bab!NBKt!Z?ll8!%*/6(t!^ R lP ? ;!)%(*<.$7/!$:! &'(!&%*12*&",!(+(/&3!( L5 (%"(/,(. */.!'$7!&'(9!%(-*&(!&$!&'(!*+(%*6(3!$:!&'(!@25*,&! $:!(+(/&!3,*-(!*/.!&'(!&'%((!2(2$%9!&(3&!3,$%(3 2*9!)(!3((/!"/!=*)-( Z!)(-$7?! ! !

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PTSD and Memory bd =*)-( Z -#)$&.!'/&)$0&-#1234&5#6%&'(23#6&74&.$08"809)*& 53)91)%8(&!" #$%6& & & ='(!,'"-.X V12)(%! $:! M'"-. %(/ Q(*/!@UB Q(*/! @/&(/&"$/*! Q(2$%9 Q(*/!! @/,".(/&*-! Q(2$%9 Q(*/ K"6"&! B5*/ Y*3!*!+",&"2!$:!*/! *&&*,1%(.!7"&'!*! 7(*5$/ '+$%, )$(* & '$, Y"&/(33(.!*!5(%3$/! )("/6!<"--(. c ",$& )$' )$& '$, Y"&/(33(.!*!2*33*,%( Z '& ) ) '$( Y"&/(33(.!&'(!21%.(%! $:!'"3!2$&'(%O:*&'(% a ",$% &$% *$% ) J(-"(+(.!&'*&!&'(9! 7$1-.!."( Zc "#$#) )$ (, &$(, '$* W*.!&$!'".(!:%$2!:(*%! $:!.*/6(% ZZ '"$+# )$#" ($(' '$# W*.!&$!'".(!1/.(%!*! .(*.!)$.9 Z ", ) & '$( S$33!$:!Q$&'(% Z_ '+$*% )$%) &$#& '$, S$33!$:!#*&'(% [Z '+$(& )$(" &$*" '$, S$33!$:!B")-"/6 Zd "($*) )$*) &$)" '$* &

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PTSD and Memory b_ 5:#&.1;)(%&2<&!"#$%&' ( )*# ?! R !! ='(!@25*,&!$:!U+(/&!B,*-(!7*3!3,$%(.!13"/6!&'(! 3&*/.*%."e(.!3,$%"/6!393&(2?!='(!:$1% R 5$"/&!3,*-(!7*3!3,$%(.!3$!&'*&!*--!h/$&!*&!*--i! */37(%3!%(,("+(.!/$!5$"/&38!*--!h%*%(-9i!*/37(%3!%(,("+(!Z!5$"/&8!!h3$2(&"2(3i! */37(%3!%(,("+(.![!5$"/&3!*/.!h$:&(/ i!*/37(%3!%(,("+(.!c!5$"/&3 ?!='(!3,$%(3!:$%!*--! "&(23!$/!&'(!3,*-(!7(%(!3122(.!:$%!*!&$&*-!@25*,&!$:!U+(/&!B,$%(? N;2(%",*/! ;,*.(29!$:!I(."*&%",3!I1)-",*&"$/ 8 a^Z^P?!='(!2(*/!3,$%(!:$%!&'(!@25*,&!$:!U+ (/&! B,*-(!7*3!Zl?[^!NBKt!d?c_8!% */6(!^ R alP8!7'",'! "3!*) $+(!&'(!-$7(%!-"2"&!!:$%! *,,1%*&(-9!."*6/$3"/6!,'"-.%(/!7"&'!I=BK N M'"-.%(/!$:!Y*%!#$1/.*&"$/8!Z\\lP? ='(! 3,*-(!7*3!:1%&'(%!."+".(.!"/&$!"&(23!5(%&*"/"/6!&$!"/&%13"$/!*/.!*+$".*/,(!*/.! 3,$%(.!3(5*%*&(-9!:$%!)$&'?!B5(,":",*--98!&'(!*+(%*6(!3,$%(!:$%!"/&%13" $/!3925&$23! 7*3!l?c!NBK tb?al8!%*/6(!^ R ZdP8 7'"-(!&'(!*+(%*6(!3,$%(!:$%!*+$".*/,(!3925&$23!7*3! \?l!NBKt[?_8!%*/6(!^ R ZdP8!)$&'!$:!7'",'!"/.",*&(.!&'*&!&'(!*+(%*6(!,'"-.!2"6'&!)(! ."*6/$3(.!7"&'!I$3&!=%*12*&",!B&%(33?! & .$%#$%82$)* & -#1234&5#6% ? R ='(! "/&(/&"$/* 2(2$%9!&(3&!7*3!3,$%(.!$/!&'(!)*3"3!$:! /12)(%!$:!,$%%(,&!*/"2*-!-$,*&"$/3!%(2(2)(%(.!$1&!$:!&'(!_!&%"*-3?!='(!*+(%*6(! 3,$%(!:$%!&'"3!&(3&!7*3![?_ac!NBKt!Z?c[dP? ='(3( 3,$%(3!*%(!,$25*%*)-(!&$!&'$3(! :$1/.! )9! Y*6/(%!NZ\_bP8!7'$3(! %1%*! B $1&'!;2(%",*/ 5*%&" ,"5*/&3!3,$%(.!*/ *+(%*6(!$:!a?dd!,$%%(,&?! .$(80#$%)*&-#1234 & %)6=+ ='(! @/,".(/&*-!2(2$%9 &*3(,&3 &$!*/"2*-3 8!7'",'!7* 3!'"6'(%!&'*&!&'*/!&'(!*+(%*6(!3,$%(! "/!Y*6/(%A3!NZ\_bP!3&1.9 8 "/!7'",'!&'(!,'"-.%(/!"/!&'(!%1%*-!3(&&"/6!7(%(!$/-9!*)-(!

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PTSD and Memory bl &$!%(,*--!*/!*+(%*6(!$:!Z?b8!*/.!&'$3(!"/!&'(!1%)*/!3(&&"/6!7(%(!$/-9!*)-(!&$!%(,*--!*/! *+(%*6(!$:!a?l!,$%%(,&-9!2*&,'(.!"&(23 ? >8?8%& ';)$& %#6%+ && ='(!."6"&!35*/!&(3&!7*3!3,$%(.!)9!,*-,1-*&"/6!&'(!-$/6(3&!3(g1(/,(! $:!/12)(%3!%(2(2)(%(.!"/!(*,'!&%"*-?!='(!,'"-.%(/ %(2(2)(%(.!*/!*+(%*6(!$:!a?db! NBKt!?b^l8!%*/6(!Z?d R bP!/12)(%3!"/!3(g1(/,(? @233#*)%82$)*&>)%) + & ;3!7*3!(L5(,&(.8!*!3"6/":",*/ &!,$%%(-*&"$/!7*3!:$1/.!)( &7((/! &'(!U+(/&!B,*-(! */.!&'(!@25*,&!$:!U+(/&!B,*-(T!% N[lPt?[d\cZ8!5t ?^Zl\ ?!='$16' &'"3! ,$%%(-*&"$/!7*3!/$&!g1"& ( *3!'"6'!*3!"&!7*3!"/! NK9%(6$%+8!a^^^P8!"&!3'$73!&'*&! ,'"-.%(/!7'$!(L5(%"(/,(!2$%(!&%*12*3!3,$%(.!'"6'(%!$/!&'(!"25*, &!$:!(+(/&!3,*-(! &'*/!&'$3(!7'$!'*.!(L5(%"(/,(.!-(33!&%*12*3?! ='(!&$&*-!3,$%(!:$%!&'(!@25*,&!$:! U+(/&!B ,*-(!7*3!/(6*&"+(-9!,$%%(-*&(.!7"&'!&'(!/12)(%!$:!9(*%3!&'(!,'"-.%(/!'*.! -"+(.!"/!&'("%!, 1%%(/&!-"+"/6!3"&1*&"$/3T!% N[lPt R ?b[c_[8!5t ?^aZ\ ? B5(,":", *--98! )$&'! "/&%13"$/!3925&$23!N% N[lPt R ?[dZd^8!5t ?^^b\P!*/.!*+$".*/,(!3925&$23 N% N[lPt R ?[cbc_8!5t ?^ablP! .(,%(*3(.!7"&'!&"2(! -"+"/6!"/!&'("%!,1%%(/&!-"+"/6!3"&1*&"$/?!! ;.."&"$/*--9 8 &'(!(+(/&!3,*-(!,$%%(-*&(.!5$3"&"+(-9!7"&'!6%*.(! N% N[lPt?[[ac^8! 5t ?^[dZP! )1&!.". /$ & ,$%%(-*&(!3"6/":",*/&-9!7"&'!*6( N% N[lP t?a[ab^8!5t ?Zb\^ P?!@/! ,$/&%*3&!&$ 7'*&!7*3!'95$&'(3"e(. 8! /$/( $:!&'(!&'%((!&'(!2(2$%9!&(3&!3,$%(3!7(%(! 3"6/":",*/ &-9!,$%%(-*&(.!7"&'!&'(!U+(/&!B ,*-(!/$% &'(! @25*,&!$:!U+(/&!B ,*-( *3!2*9!)(! 3((/ "/!=*)-( a!)(-$7?

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PTSD and Memory b\ =*)-( a @233#*)%82$6&A)$0&;&")*9#6B&2<&-#1234&5#6%&'(23#6&C$0&53)91)&'()*#6 & & Q(2$%9!=(3& !"#$%&'()*# & .1;)(%&2<&!"#$%&'()*# & @/&(/&"$/*! Y$%<"/6! Q(2$%9 +DEFDG & A +EH B & +DGHFG & A +EI B & @/,".(/&*-!Y$%<"/6!Q(2$%9 +JJGDI & N ?b_ P +KILGJ & A +JF B & & K"6"&!B5*/ +JDFDD & A +FI B & +DEMLI & A +EM B & +&'13''&0: ='(!6$*-!$:!&'(!5%(3(/&!3&1.9!7*3!&$!(+*-1*&(!&'(!(::(,&!&'*&!)$&'!,'"-.'$$.! &%*12*!*/.!I=BK!3925&$2$-$69!'*.!$/!2(2$%9?!!M$/&%*%9!&$!7'*&!7*3!5%(.",&(.8! &'(!2(2$%9!&(3&!3,$%(3!:$%!&'(!,'"-.%(/!"/!&'"3!3&1.9!7(%(!:$1/ .!&$!)(!"/.(5(/.(/&! $:!*6(8!6%*.(8!&%*12*3!(L5(%"(/,(. 8 */.!&%*12*!3925&$2$-$69?!='"3!3((23!&$!)(! ,$/&%*%9!&$!5%"$%!2(2$%9!3&1."(3!)9! U"3(/!*/. G$$.2* /! NZ\\lP!*/.!Q$%*."!(&!*-?! NZ\\\P 8!7'",'!:$1/.!&'*&!,'"-.%(/!7"&'!I=BK!'*.!-$7(%!2(2$%9!3,$%(3!&'*/! ,'"-.% (/!7"&'$1&!I=BK ?!='(!%(31-&3!7(%(8!'$7(+(%8! 3"2"-*%!&$! &'$3(! :$1/. )9! J((%3! */.!K(!J(--"3!Na^^a P8! 7'(%(!/$ 3"6/":",*/&!."::(%(/,( "/!2(2$%9!3,$%( 3!)(&7((/! I=BK!5*&"(/&3!*/.!/$/ R I=BK!5*&"(/&3!7(%(!:$1/.?! @/!J((%A3!*/.!K(!J(--"3A!3&1.98! &'(! *1&'$ %3!* %61(.!& '*&!)$&'!&'(! ,$2$%)".!."3$%.(%3!$:!&'(!5*%&","5*/&3!*/.!&'(!32*--! 3*25-(!3"e(!2*9!'*+(!'*. */!(::(,&!$/!&'(!%(31-&3?!S"<(7"3(8!"& 5$33 ")-(!&'*&!&'(!-*,
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PTSD and Memory c^ ;.."&"$/*--98!"/! 5%"$%!3&1."(3 8 5*%&","5*/&3! 7(%(! ("&'(%!3,%((/(.!)9! 539,'$-$6"3&3!$%!'*.!5%(+"$13 -9!)((/!."*6/$3(.!7"&'!I=BK8!*--$7"/6!I=BK!&$!)( &%(*&(.!"/!*! .",'$&$2$13 2*//(%!3$!&'*&!5*%&","5*/&3!7(%(!("&'(%!,$/&%$-3!7"&'$1&! I=BK!$% 5*%&","5*/&3!7"&'!I=BK?!!;! 35(,&%12!$:!3925&$2$-$69!7*3!/$&!&*<(/!"/&$! ,$/3".(%*&"$/!*/.!*--!5*&"(/&3!7"&'!I=BK!7(%(!&%(*&(.!*3!(g1*--9!&%*12*&"e(.? ='(!5*%&","5*/&3!"/!&'(!,1%%(/&!3&1.9!'*.!/$&!)((/!5%(+"$13-9!."*6/$3(.!*3! '*+"/6 I=BK?!!='(!%(3(*% ,'(%8!7'$!7*3!/$&!*!,-"/",*-! 539,'$-$6"3&8 "/3&(*. (+*-1*&(.! 5*%&","5*/&3!*-$/6!*!,$/&"/112!$:!&%*12*!*/.!3&%(33 ?!='"3!7*3!.1(8!"/!5*%&8!&$!*!-*,
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PTSD and Memory cZ 2"/.!"/!,'"-.%(/!&'*/!"/!*.1-&3!*/.!6%(*&(%!*.*5&"+(!2(,'*/"323!"/!&'(!:*,(!$:! &'%(*&!*3!7*3!3166(3&(.!)9!I(%%9!(&!*-?!NZ\\cP?!!='(!,'"-.%(/!&(3&(.!"/!&'"3!3&1.9!&'*&! (L'")"&(.! I=BK!3925&$23 7(%(!&%*12*&"e(. 8 */!*+(%*6( 8 $:!l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a^^a P8! 3&1."(.!,'"-.%(/!7"&'"/!&'%((!9(*%3!$:!&'("%! &%*12*&",!(+(/&3?!!='(!3*25-(!$:!,'"-.%(/!"/!&'"3!3&1.9!'*.!3"2"-*%!"/&%13"$/! 3925&$2$-$69!&$!&'*&!:$1/. "/!J((%3!*/.!K( J (--"3!Na ^^aP8! &'$16'!&'(9!'*.!)((/! &%*12*&"e(.!:$%!21,'!-$/6(% 8 $/!*+(%*6( 8 &'*/!&'(!,'"-.%(/!"/!&'("%!3*25-(?! @&!"3! 5$33")-( &'*&!&'(!(/.1%"/6 5%(+*-(/,( $:!"/&%13"$/!3925&$23 8 "/!7'",'!&'(!,'"-.%(/! &'"/$%!3925&$2!$:!I=BK8!'95(% R *%$13*-8!7*3!/$&! 2(*31%(.?!@&!"3!5$33")-(!&'*&!'95(% R *%$13*-!2*9!'*+(!*!-*%6(!(::(,& $/!'$7!7(--!*!

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PTSD and Memory ca ,'"-.!"3!*)-(!&$!% (&*"/!*/.!%(5-",*&(!"/:$%2*&"$/? @/!:1&1%(!3&1."(38 &'"3!3925&$2!2*9! )(!&(3&(.! 3$!*3!&$!.(&(%2"/(!7'(&'(%!"&!.$(3!"/.((.!'*+(!*/!(::(,&!$/!2(2$%9 ? ;/!*.."&"$/*-!-"2"&*&"$/ $:!&'"3!3&1.9!7*3!&'(!U+(/&!B,*-(?!='(!5*%&",1-*%! U +(/&3!B,*-(!13(.!:$%!&'"3!3&1.9!7*3!*.*5&(.!:%$2!*!M'"-.!$:!Y*%!#$1/.*&"$/!*/.! 2*9!/$&!'*+(!*,,1%*&(-9!*33(33(.!&'(!&%*12*!(L5(%"(/,(.!)9!(*,'!$:!&'(3(!,'"-.%(/?! Y'"-(!3$2(!$:!&'(!,'"-.%(/!"/!&'(!3*25-(!'*.!(L5(%"(/,(.!&'(!*&%$,"&"(3!$:!6(/$,".(! */.!%()(! *,&"+"&98!7'",'!7(%(!5%$)(.!:$%!$/!&'(!U+(/&!B,*-(8!*!6%(*&!/12)(%!$:!&'(! ,'"-.%(/!'*.!/$&?!@/3&(*.8!2*/9!$:!&'(3(!,'"-.%(/!7(%(!$%5'*/3!("&'(%!)(,*13(!$:!&'(! -$33!$:!*!5*%(/&!*&!,'"-.)"%&'8!$%!.1(!&$!.(*&'!)(,*13(!$:!"--/(338!W@m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a^^aP! %(+"(7!$:!&'(!M'"-.%(/A3!F(+"3(.!@25*,&!$:!U+(/&3!B,*-(8!&'(!%(-*&"$/3'"5!)(&7((/! &'(!*+$".*/,(!,$25$/(/&!$:!&'(!2(*31%(!*/.!1/,$/3,"$13!.(/"*-3!'*+(!/$&!9(&!)((/! (L5-$%(.? S *3&-98! 13"/6!&'"3!3,*-(!5%(3(/&3!&'(!%"3
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PTSD and Memory c[ (::","(/,9!$:!&'"3!3,*-(!'*3!/$&!)((/!&(3&(.!"/!D6*/.*8!&'$16 '!"&!'*3!)((/!13(.!&'(%(! 5%(+"$13-9!NK(%-19/ (&!*-?! 8!a^^b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e(.!,$/&%$-!6%$15!2"6'&!*-3$!)(!)(/(:","*-!*3!*!,$25*%"3$/!&$!.(&(%2"/ (! 7'(&'(%!3,$%( 3 +*%9!*3!7".(-9!"/!*!/$/ R &%*12*&"e(.!3*25-(!*3!7(--? @/!,-$3"/68!&'(!,1%%(/&!3&1.9!.".!/$&!:"/.!,$%%(-*&"$/3!)(&7((/!2(2$%9!&(3&! 3,$%(3!*/.!&'(!(L&(/&!$:!I=BK!3925&$2$-$698!"/.",*&"/6!&'*&!&'(!'"6'-9!&%*12*&"e(.! ,'"-.%(/!"/!&'"3!3*25-(!7(%( %(-*&"+(-9!1/*::(,&(.!"/!&(%23!$:!7$%<"/6!2(2$%9! *)"-"&"(3!*/.!5(%:$%2(.!+(%9!3"2"-*%-9!&$!&'("%!1/ R &%*12*&"e(.!$%!-(33!&%*12*&"e(.! 5((%3?!@:!%(3(*%,'(. :1%&'(% 8!"&!"3!5$33")-(! &'*&!$/(!2"6'&!6*"/!*!:1--(%! 1/.(%3&*/."/6! $:! &'(!(::(,&!$:!5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%( 33!$/!&'(!,$6/"&"+(!5%$,(33(3!$:!,'"-.%(/?! =$!)(6"/! &$!7$%
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PTSD and Memory cb F(:(%(/,(3 C1#38()$&N64(:8)%38(&C662(8)%82$+& AJHHLB & >8)?$26%8(&)$0&'%)%86%8()*&-)$9)*&2<&-#$%)*& >86230#36/&L%:�+&O)6:8$?%2$/&>@P&C 1#38()$&N64(:8)%38 (&C662(8)%82$+& & LEG Q LEM+ & J*<(%8!K?G?8!Y(3&8!B?;?8!V",'$-3$/!Y?!U?8!U<'*&$%8!V?V?8!0*3,<$78!E?Y?8 W"--8!0?0?8!J%1,(8! ;?J?8!4%&'8 K?V?8!n!G(%*,"$&"8!=?!K?8!NZ\\\P?!B(%"*-!MB#!M$%&",$&%$5"/ R F(-(*3"/6! W$%2$/(!S(+(-3!*/.!;.%(/$,$%&",*-!;,&"+"& 9!"/!M$2)*&!m(&(%*/3!Y"&'! I$3&&%*12*&",!B&%(33!K"3$%.(%?! C1#38()$&R293$)* & 2<&N64(:8)%34 Zcd8!clc x cll? J((%3!B ? F? 8 K(J(--"3!Q ? K ? Na^^aPT!V(1%$539,'$-$6",*-!:1/,&"$/!"/!,'"-.%(/!7"&'! 2*-&%(*&2(/& R %(-*&(.!5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%?!;2!E!I39,'"*&%98!Zc\T! b l[ R bld? J"33$/8!E?!@?!Na^^_P?!I$3& R &%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%? & S-RP&S38%86:&-#08()*& R293$)*/ & IIL N_c\_P8 _l\ R _\[? J%("&(%8!W?8!U&,$::8!V?8!Y'*-(/8!I?8!0(/(.98!Y?8!J1,
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PTSD and Memory cc 5'93",*-!*/.!3(L1*-!*)13( y *!5%(-"2"/*%9!%(5$%&? & S82*2?8()*&N64(:8)%34/ & LJ NZP8! a[ R [a?!.$"T!Z^?Z^ZdOB^^^d R [aa[N\dP^^Zda R r ? J%(2/(%8!E?K?8!m(%2(&&(/8!U?8?!B,'2*'-8!M?8!(&!*-?!Na^^cP?!I$3"&%$/!(2"33"$/! &$2$6%*5'",!"2*6"/6!$:!/(1%*-!,$%%(-*&(3! $:!*!:(*%!*,g1"3"&"$/!*/.!(L&"/,&"$/! 5*%*."62 "/!7$2(/!7"&'!,'"-.'$$.!3(L1*R *)13( R %(-*&(.!5$3& R &%*12*&",! 3&%(33!."3$%.(%?! N64(:2*+&-#0+&IF T!_\Z x l^d ? M",,'(&&"8!K?8!W$7(8!Q?!S?8!F$6$3,'8!#?!;?8!n!=$&'8!B?!S?!Na^Z^P?!='(!(::(,&3!$:! 2*-&%(*&2(/&!*/.!/(1%$(/. $,%"/(!%(61-*&"$/!$/!2(2$%9!5(%:$%2*/,( ?!M'"-.! K(+(-$52(/&8!lZNcP8! Zc^b R ZcZ\ ? M'(2&$)8!M?!Q?8!J*1(%8!G?!J?8!V(--(%8!G?8!W*2*.*8!F?8!G-"33$/8!M?8!n!B&(+(/38!m?!NZ\\^P?! I$3& R &%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%!*2$/6!35(,"*-!:$%,(3!m"(&/*2!+(&(%*/3?! Q"-"&*%9!Q(.","/(8! Zcc8!Zd x a^? M$/7*98!;?F?;?8!0*/(8!Q?E?8!J1/&"/68!Q?#?8!W*2)%",<8!K?C?8!Y"-'(-28!4?8!n!U/6-(8!F?Y?! Na^^cP?!Y$%<"/6!2(2$%9!35*/!&*3<3T!;!2(&'$.$-$6",*-!%(+"(7!*/.!13(%A3! 61".(?!I39,'$/$2",!J1--(&"/!n!F(+"(78!Za8!_d\ x _ld? M$7*/8!V?8!#%"3&$(8!V?Q?8!U --"$&8!U?Q ?8!J%1//(%8!F?I?8!n! B*1-&38!E?B?!Na^^dP?!B,$5(!$:! *&&(/&"$/8!,$/&%$-!$:!*&&(/&"$/8!*/.!"/&(--"6(/,(!"/!,'"-.%(/!*/.!*.1-&3?! -#1234&)$0&@2?$8%82$/&ILAMB j!Z_cb R Z_dl? K(!J(--"38!Q?K?8!J*128!;?!B?8!!J"%2*'(%8!J?8!0(3'*+*/!Q?!B?8!U,,*%.!M?!W?8!J$%"/6!;?!Q8! E(/< "/38!#?!E?8!n!F9*/8!V?!K?!NZ\\\P!K(+(-$52(/&*-!=%*12*&$-$69!I*%&!@T! J"$-$6",*-!B&%(33!B93&(23?! S82* 2?8()* & N64(:8)%34/&LF TZac\ x Za_^?

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PTSD and Memory cd K(!J(--"38!Q?!K?8!!0(3'(,*/!Q?B?8!!M-*%<8!K?J?8!!M*3(98!J?E?8!G"(..8!E?V? 8!J$%"/68!;?Q?8! #%13&%*,"8!0?8!*/. F9*/8!V?K?!NZ\\\ P?!K(+(-$52(/&*-!&%*12*&$-$69!5*%&!@@T! )%*"/!.(+(-$52(/&?!! S82*2?8()* & N64(:8)%34&LFAJDBP& Za_Z R Zalb? K(%-19/ @? 8!J%$(<*(%&!U?8!B,'19&(/!G?8!n =(22(%2*/!U?!Na^^bP?!I$3& R &%*12*&",!B&%(33! "/!#$%2(%!D6*/.*/!M'"-.!B$-."(%3? T)$(#%/& IEI AHLJKB /& ldZ x ld[? K 9 % (6%$+ 8! ;?8!G15&*!S?!8G>(3&*.!F?!n!!Q1<*/$'(--"!U?!Na^^^P?!=%*12*!UL5$31%(!*/.! I39,'$-$6",*-!F(*,&"$/3!&$!G(/$,".(!*2$/6!F7*/.*/!G(/$,".(!4%5'*/3?!E?!$: =%*12*&",!B&%(338!Z[NZP8! [ R aZ? K9%(6%$+8!;?8!01&(%$+*,8!G?!n!J*%*&'8!;?NZ\\dP!#*,&$%!*/*-93"3!$:!&'(!@25*,&!$:! U+(/&! B,*-(!7"&'!,'"-.%(/!"/!7*%?! '()$08$)"8)$&R293$)*&2<&N64(:2*2?4/&IE/&IIH IFD+ K9%(6%$+8!;?8!n!`1-(8!Y?!NZ\\cP? B,%((/"/6 2(*31%(3T &'( .(+(-$52(/& $: &'( DV@MU# 3,%((/"/6 )*&&(%9 ?!I*5(%!*&!='(!#$1%&'!U1%$5(*/!M$/:(%(/,(!$/! =%*12*&",!B&%(33!NQ*9P8!I*%" 3? U"3(/8!Q?!n!G$$.2*/8!G?!NZ\\lP!=%*12*8!Q(2$%9!*/.!B166(3&")"-"&9!"/!M'"-.%(/?! K(+(-$52(/&!*/.!I39,'$5*&'$-$69?!Z^T!_Z_ R _[l? G*/e(-8 J?S? 8!0"28!I?8!G-$+(%8!G?W?8!n =(25-(8!U? N a^^l P F(3"-"(/,( *:&(% \OZZT 21-&"2$.*! /(1%$"2*6"/6 (+".(/,( :$% 3&%(33 R %(-*& (. ,'*/6( "/ &'( '(*-&'9 *.1-& )%*"/ ? U#9328 1)?# b^ T _ll x _\c ? G(%3$/3!*/.!M*%-"(%!NZ\\aP?!I$3& R =%*12*&",!B&%(33!K"3$%.(%T!='(!W"3&$%9!$:!*!F(,(/&! M$/,(5&?! 5:#&S83%86:&R293$)*&2<&N64(:8)%34/&JEJ T!_ba R _bl? G"-)(%&3$/8!Q?!Y?8!Y"--"3&$/8!B?!0?8!I*1-138!S?!;?8! S*3<$8!V?!J?8!G1%+"&38!=?!m?8!B'(/&$/8!Q?! U?8!???!?! n 4%%8!B?!I?!Na^^_P?!M$/:"61%*-!,1(!5(%:$%2*/,(!"/!".(/&",*-!&7"/3! ."3,$%.*/&!:$%!5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%T!='($%(&",*-!"25-",*&"$/3!:$%!&'(!

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PTSD and Memory c_ %$-(!$:!'"55$,*25*-!:1/,&"$/? & S82*2?8()*&N64(:8)%34/ & EK NcP 8!cZ[ R ca^?!.$"T! Z^?Z^ZdO>?)"$539,'?a^^d?Za?^a[ G"-)(%&3$/8!Q?8!B'(/&$/8!Q?8!M"3e(73<"8!;?8! 0 *3*"8!08!S*3<$8!V?8!4%%8!B?8!n I"&2*/8!F?! Na^^aP!B2*--(%!'"55$,*25*-!+$-12(!5%(.",&3!5*&'$-$6",!+1-/(%*)"-"&9!&$! 539,'$-$6",*-!&%*12*?! U)%&U#9326(8 8!cNZZP8Zaba?!.$" TZ^?Z^[lO//\cl 0*3*"8!0?8! `*2*3(!W?8!G")(%& 3$ /8!Q?8!B'(/&$/8!Q?8!F*1,'!B?!n I"&2*/! F?Na^^lP?U+".(/,(!:$%!*,g1"%(.!5%(61*/*-!*/&(%"$%!,"/61-*&(!6%*9!2*&&(%!-$33! :%$2!*!&7"/!3&1.9!$:!,$2)*& R %(-*&(.!5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%?! S82*& N64(:8)%34 8!d[8!cc^ R ccd? 0(*/( =?!Q?8! #*"%)*/<8 E?!;?8 M*..(--8! E?Q?8! n! C"2(%"/68 F?=? NZ\l\P?! @25-$3"+(! N:-$$."/6P!&'(%*59!%(.1,(3!3925&$23!$:!I= BK!"/!m"(&/*2!,$2)*&!+(&(%*/3?! S #:)"823&5:#3);4 8!a^N a P8 abc R ad^? 0%(2(/8!Y? B?8!0$(/(/8!0?!M?8!;:*%"8!V?8!n S9$/38!Q?!E?!Na^ZaP?!=7" /!3&1."(3!$:! 5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%T!K"::(%(/&"*&"/6!+1-/(%*)"-"&9!:*,&$%3!:%$2! 3(g1(-*(? & U#932;:)31)(2*2?4/ & EK NaP8!db_ R dc[?! S"/.*1(%8!F?8!4-::8!Q?8!+*/!Q(">(-8!U?!M*%-"(%8!@?!n! G(%3$/38!J?!Na^^cP?!M$%&"3$-8!-(*%/"/68! 2(2$%9!*/.!*&&(/&"$/!"/!%(-*&" $/!&$!32*--(%!'"55$,*25*-!+$-12(!"/!5$-",(! $::",(%3!7"&'!5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%?! S82*&N64(:8)%34 ?!c\TZ_Z R Z__? Q$%*."!;?8!K$$3&8!W?!=*6'*+"8!Q?!n!`1-(8!Y?!NZ\\\P?!U+(%9.*9!Q(2$%9!K(:","&3 "/! M'"-.%(/!*/.!;.$-(3,(/&3!7"&'!I=BKT!I(%:$%2* /,(!$/!&'(!F"+( %2(*.! J('*+"$%*-! Q(2$%9!=(3&?!E?!M'"-.?!I39,'$-?!b^NZPT![c_ R [dZ ?

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PTSD and Memory cl Q7()*e(8!B?Q?V?!NZ\\\P!M$1/&%9!I*3&1%(O#$%*6(!F(3$1%,(!I%$:"-(3T!D6*/.*?!@/! V220& )$0&C?38(9*%93#&2<&%:#&W$8%#0&U)%82$6+& F(&%"(+(.!Q*%,'!Z^8!a^Z[8!:%$2 '&&5TOO777?:*$?$%6O*6O;GIO;GIMO.$,OM$1/5 %$:O16*/.*O16*/.*?'&2? V(9-*/8!=?!M?8!S(/$,"8!Q?8!F$&'-"/68!E?8!Q(&e-(%8!=?!E?8!B,'1::8!V?8!K18!;?8!?!?!?!Q*%2*%8!M?!F?! Na^^bP?!;&&(/&"$/8!-(*%/"/6!*/.!2(2$%9!"/!5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%? & R293$)*&2<&53)91)&)$0&'%3#66/&JG NZP8!bZ R bd?!.$"T! Z^?Z^a[OJTE4=B ?^^^^^Zbd_c?_cdld?(( 4e(%8!U?!E?8!n!Y("338!K?!B?!Na^^bP?!Y'$!.(+(-$53!5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%(33! ."3$%.(%] & @933#$%&>83#(%82$6&8$&N64(:2*2?8()*&'(8#$(#/ & JI NbP8!55?!Zd\ R Z_a? I*+"p!!S?8!G%(61%(<8!F?!F*.$38!Q?!J%<>*z"p8!J%*><$+"p8!{"2(/&"/ R I*+"p8!@?8!@+*/",!G?8! I*+-"|*!G?!n!0*-$13(
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PTSD and Memory c\ ,"/61-*&(!6%*9!2*&&(%!.(/3"&9!*33$,"*&(.!7"&'!'"3&$%9!$:!5$3& R &% *12*&",! 3&%(33!."3$%.(%? & N64(:8)%34&X#6#)3(:P&U#93281)?8$?/ & JGL N[P8!aZ^ R aZd?!.$"T! Z^?Z^ZdO>?53,9,'%(3/3?a^^\?^d?^^Z B,'**-8!B?!n!U-)(%&?!U? Na^^dP!=(/!`(*%3!;:&(%!&'(!G(/$,".(T!=%*12*!M$/:%$/&*&"$/! */.!I$3&&%*12*&",!B&%(33!"/!F7*/.*/!;.$-(3,(/&3?!E$1%/*-!$ :!=%*12*&",! B&%(33?!Z\NZPT!\c R Z^c? B '"/ 8!S?Q?8!Q ,/*--9 8 F?E?8! 0 $33-9/ 8 B?Q8 (&!*-?! N Z\\_ P ;!5$3"&%$/!(2"33"$/!&$2$6%*5'",! 3&1.9!$:!3925&$2!5%$+$,*&"$/!"/!I=BK?! C$$+&U+Z+&C()0+&'(8+ laZT!caZ x ca[? B '"/ 8!S?Q?8!4 %% 8! B?I?8! M *%3$/8!Q?;? 8!(&!*-?! N a^^b P F(6"$/*-!, (%()%*-!)-$$.!:-$7!"/! *296.*-*!*/.!2(."*-!5%(:%$/&*-!,$%&(L!.1%"/6!&%*12*&",!"2*6(%9!"/!2*-(!*/.! :(2*-(!m"(&/*2!+(&(%*/3!7"&'!I=BK?! C3(:+&Y#$+&N64(:8)%34 dZT!Zdl x Z_d? B$.",8!S?8!;/&(,(+",8!m?8!J%"&+",8!K?8!n!@+<$3",8!V?!Na^^_P!B'$%& R &(%2!Q(2$%9!"/ M%$*&"*/ Y*%!m(&(%*/3!7"&'!5$3&&%*12*&",!B&%(33!K"3$%.(%?!M%$*&!Q(.!E?! blaNa^PT!Zb^ R Zbc? B1/."/8!U?8!;/.8!Q?!Na^^aP!@25*,&!$:!U+(/&!B,*-(T!539,'$2(&%",!5%$5(%&"(3?!! S38%86:& R293$)*&2<&N64(:8)%34P Z^^8!a^c R a^\? ='*)(&8!;?!;?!Q?8!n!m$3&*/"38!I?!NZ\\\P?!I$3& R &%*12*&" ,!B&%(33!F(*,&"$/3!"/!M'"-.%(/!$:! Y*%?! R293$)*&2<& @:8*0&N64(:2*2?4&)$0&N64(:8)%34/&LDAIB T![lc R [\Z? D..$8!Q?8!m*3&(%-"/68!E?!E?8!J%*"-(98!0?8!n!B1&<(%8!I?!J?!NZ\\[P?!Q(2$%9!*/.!*&&(/&"$/!"/! ,$2)*& R %(-*&(.!5$3& R &%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%!NI=BKP? R293$)*&2<& N64 (:2;)%:2*2?4&)$0&S#:)"823)*&C66#661#$%/&JF NaP8!b[ R ca? D6*/.*!W"3&$%",*-!="2(-"/(?!Na^ZaP?!F(&%"(+(.!$/!Q*%,'8!Za8!a^Z[8!:%$2! '&&5TOO777?16*/.*2"33"$/?/(&O*)$1&16O'"3&"2(-"/(?'&2-?

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PTSD and Memory d^ m*3&(%-"/68!E?!E?8!K1<(8!S?!Q?8!J%*"-(98!0?8!M$/3&*/38!E?!@?8!;--*"/8!;?!V?8 n!B1&<(%8!I?!J?! Na^^aP?!;&&(/&"$/8!-(*%/"/68!*/.!2(2$%9!5(%:$%2*/,(3!*/.!"/&(--(,&1*-! %(3$1%,(3!"/!m"(&/*2!+(&(%*/3T!I=BK!*/.!/$!."3$%.(%!,$25*%"3$/3? & U#932;64(:2*2?4/&JE NZP8!c R Zb?!.$"T!Z^?Z^[_O^l\b R bZ^c?Zd?Z?c `*3"<8!;?8!B*"6'8!I?8!4)(%:"(-.8!F?8!n!W*-*2 */.*%"38!I?!Na^^dP ? I$3&&%*12*&",!B&%(33! K"3$%.(%T!Q(2$%9!*/.!S(*%/"/6!I(%:$%2*/,(!"/!M'"-.%(/!*/.!;.$-(3,(/&3? & S82*2? 8()*&N64(:2*2?4 ?!dZN[PT![la R [ll? `1-(8!Y?!NZ\\aP ? I$3&!=%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%!"/!,'"-.!31%+"+$%3!$:!3'"55"/6! ."3*3&(%3T!='(!3"/<"/6!$:! &'(!}E15"&(%}? & R+&N64(:2%:#3+&N64(:2621)%8(6 8!c_8!a^^ R a^c? Y*6/(%8!K?!;?!NZ\_bP?!='(!.(+(-$52(/&!$:!3'$%& R &(%2!*/.!"/,".(/&*-!2(2$%9T!*! ,%$33 R ,1-&1%*-!3&1.9? @:8*0&>#"#*2;1#$%/&LFAKBP [l\ R [\d? Y*/68!C?8!n!r"*$8!C?!I?!Na^Z^P?!Q*6/(&",!%(3$/*/,(!"2*6"/6!3&1. 9!$:!'"55$,*2513! 3&%1,&1%*-!*-&(%*&"$/3!"/!5$3& R &%*12*&",!3&%(33!."3$%.(%T!;!)%"(:!%(+"(7! N&%*/3-*&(.!+(%3"$/P? & !)6%&C68)$&C3(:8"#6&2<&N64(:8)%34/ & KD N[P8!Z[l R Zbb? Y$$/!# ? S ? 8! n! W(.6(3 8 K ? Y ? Na^^lP?!W"55$,*25*-!*/.!*296.*-*!+$-12(3!"/!,'"-.%(/! */.!*.1-&3!7"& '!,'"-.'$$.!2*-&%(*&2(/& R %(-*&(.!5$3&&%*12*&",!3&%(33! ."3$%.(%T!*!2(&* R */*-93"3? [8;;2()1;96 Zl T!_a\ x _[d? !

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PTSD and Memory dZ ;55(/."L!;?! Demographics Questionnaire J(-$7!"3!*!3(%"(3!$:!.(2$6%*5'",!g1(3&"$/3?!I-(*3(!:"--!"/!$%!,"%,-(!&'(!*/37(%!&$!(*,'!g1(3&"$/3!"/ &'(! )$L!$/!&'(!-(:&!$:!&'(!g1(3&"$/? Number: Date: Z?!!!!Y'*&!"3!9$1%!*6(] `(*% 3 XX !!!!! a?!!! Y'*&!"3!9$1%!3(L]!NI-(*3(!,"%,-(!$/(P Q!!!!!!!!!!!!# [?!!!Y'*&!"3!9$1%!-"+"/6!3"&1*&"$/]!NI-(*3(!,"%,-(!$/(P Y"&'!#*2"-9 4%5'*/*6( 4&'(%T! NUL5-*"/Pfffffffffffffffffffffffff b?!!W$7!2*/9!9(*%3!'*+(!9$1!)((/!-"+"/6!"/!&'"3!3"&1*&"$/] `(*%3 XX c? !!! Y'*&!"3!9$1%!(&'/","&9O7'*&!%(6"$/!.".!9$1!$%"6"/*&(! :%$2] d?!!! Y'*&!"3!9$1%!%(-"6"$/] _?!!Y'*&!6%*.(!-(+(-!*%(!9$1!,1%%(/&-9!$/!"/!9$1%! (.1,*& "$/]! l?!! Y'*&!-*/61*6(!.$!9$1!2$3&!,$22$/-9!35(*
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PTSD and Memory da ;55(/."L!J?! Events Scale J(-$7!"3!*!-"3&!$:!7*%!%(-*&(.!(+(/&3!&'*&!2*9!'*+(!)((/!(L5(%"(/,(.!)9!*!,'"-.!"/!*!7*%!3"&1*&"$/?! I-(*3(!%(*.!&'(!g1(3&"$/3!&'$%$16'-9!*/.!*/37(%! &'(2!)9!2*%<"/6!9(3!$%!/$? Number: Date: Z? W*3!&'(!,'"-.!)((/!"/>1%(.!7"&'!*!7(*5$/] `(3 V$ a? W*3 &'(!,'"-. )((/!%*5(.] `(3 V$ [? W*3 &'(!,'"-. )((/!+",&"2!$:!*/!*&&*,1%(.!7"&'!*!7(*5$/] `(3 V$ _? W*3 &'(!,'"-. 7"&/(33(.!*!5(%3$/!)("/6!<"--(.] `(3 V$ l? W*3 &'(!,'"-. 7"&/(33(.!*!2*33*,%(] `(3 V$ \? W*3 &'(!,'"-. 7"&/(33(.!&'(!21%.(%!$:!'"3O'(%!2$&'(%!$%!:*&'(%] `(3 V$ Z^? K". &'(!,'"-. )(-"(+(! &'*&!&'(9!&'(23(-+(3!7$1-.!."(] `(3 V$ ZZ? K".!&'(!,'"-. '*+(!&$!'".(] `(3 V$ Za?!K".!&'(!,'"-. '*+(!&$!'".(!1/.(%!.(*.!)$."(3] `(3 V$ Z[?!K".!&'(!,'". -$3(!'"3O'(%!2$&'(%] `(3 V$ Zb?!K". &'(!,'"-. -$3(!'"3O'(%!:*&'(%] `(3 V$ Zc?!K".!&'(!,'"-.!-$3(!*/9!)%$&'(%3!$%!3"3&(%3] `(3 V$

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PTSD and Memory d[ ;55(/."L M? C R IES 8 Revised Child Impact of Event Scale Below is a list of comments made by people after stressful life events. Please tick each item showing how frequently these comments were true for you during the past seven days. If they did not occur during that time please tick the not at all' box. Number: Date: ! Not at all Rarely Some times Often In Av 1. Do you think about it even when you don't mean to? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 2. Do you try to remove it from your memory? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 3. Do you have waves of strong feelings about it? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 4. Do you stay away from reminders of it (e.g. places or situations) [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 5. Do you try not talk about it? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 6. Do pictures about it pop into your mind? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 7. Do other things keep making you think about it? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 8. Do you try not to think about it? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Children and War Foundation, 1998

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PTSD and Memory db ;55(/."L!K? Y$%<"/6!Q(2$%9!= (3&!I",&1%(!B&"21-"!M*%.3 !

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PTSD and Memory dc ;55(/."L K!,$/&?! @/&(/&"$/*! Y$%<"/6!Q(2$%9!=(3&!I",&1%(!B&"21-13!M*%.3 !! !!


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