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THE VIOLENT OPHELIA

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004750/00001

Material Information

Title: THE VIOLENT OPHELIA IMAGE'S NARRATIVE CONSTRUCTS IN COMIC BOOK ADAPTATIONS OF HAMLET
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Dunkelberger, Mary
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2013
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Shakespeare
Hamlet
Comic Book
Literature
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: There are aspects of Shakespeare's Hamlet that resonate with the shared human experience and remain relevant across time periods and cultures. Other aspects of the play, however, will likely alienate the reader. Adaptations are made to help bridge the gap between the contemporary reader and Hamlet. They contextualize and/or redefine what Hamlet is in the playtext to appeal to a particular culture or mindset. This thesis examines how the comic book form can use visual narrative to effectively or ineffectively redefine Hamlet for an adolescent audience. The first chapter addresses the potentially misleading nature of the primacy of image over Shakespeare's playtext in comic book adaptations of Hamlet. It begins by analyzing the covers of three comic book adaptations of Hamlet. All of the comics contain the same story and art, but advertise drastically different aspects of the Hamlet story. The first chapter also looks at Will Eisner's bold subversion of Hamlet's most famous soliloquy as he seeks to redefine Hamlet with the comic image. The second chapter narrows the focus of visual narrative in comic book adaptations of Hamlet to how the character of Ophelia is redefined by image and how this affects the reader's understanding of the Hamlet story. I segment Ophelia's image into three distinct treatments: she is given either the attributes of a child, teen, or adult. Each different portrayal of Ophelia indicates what aspects of Hamlet the visual narrative is attempting to convey. The teen representation indicates an effectively engaging and informative adaptation of Hamlet for an adolescent reader.
Statement of Responsibility: by Mary Dunkelberger
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2013
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Myhill, Nova

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2013 D9
System ID: NCFE004750:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004750/00001

Material Information

Title: THE VIOLENT OPHELIA IMAGE'S NARRATIVE CONSTRUCTS IN COMIC BOOK ADAPTATIONS OF HAMLET
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Dunkelberger, Mary
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2013
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Shakespeare
Hamlet
Comic Book
Literature
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: There are aspects of Shakespeare's Hamlet that resonate with the shared human experience and remain relevant across time periods and cultures. Other aspects of the play, however, will likely alienate the reader. Adaptations are made to help bridge the gap between the contemporary reader and Hamlet. They contextualize and/or redefine what Hamlet is in the playtext to appeal to a particular culture or mindset. This thesis examines how the comic book form can use visual narrative to effectively or ineffectively redefine Hamlet for an adolescent audience. The first chapter addresses the potentially misleading nature of the primacy of image over Shakespeare's playtext in comic book adaptations of Hamlet. It begins by analyzing the covers of three comic book adaptations of Hamlet. All of the comics contain the same story and art, but advertise drastically different aspects of the Hamlet story. The first chapter also looks at Will Eisner's bold subversion of Hamlet's most famous soliloquy as he seeks to redefine Hamlet with the comic image. The second chapter narrows the focus of visual narrative in comic book adaptations of Hamlet to how the character of Ophelia is redefined by image and how this affects the reader's understanding of the Hamlet story. I segment Ophelia's image into three distinct treatments: she is given either the attributes of a child, teen, or adult. Each different portrayal of Ophelia indicates what aspects of Hamlet the visual narrative is attempting to convey. The teen representation indicates an effectively engaging and informative adaptation of Hamlet for an adolescent reader.
Statement of Responsibility: by Mary Dunkelberger
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2013
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Myhill, Nova

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2013 D9
System ID: NCFE004750:00001


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THE VIOLENT OPHELIA: IMAGE'S NARRATIVE CONSTRUCTS IN COMIC BOOK ADAPTATIONS OF HAMLET BY MARY VERONICA DUNKELBERGER A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Humanities New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Professor Nova Myhill Sarasota, Florida May, 2013

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DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this work to my parents: Lloyd and Rosanne Dunkelberger. My purported father's love of literature and support of my education made me the writer and scholar that I am and will continue to be. My mother is my closest confidant and friend through even the most tempestuous events of my life, including the process of writing this thesis. I love you both very much. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS DEDICATION.....................................................................................................................ii TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................... iii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS..............................................................................................iv ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................................v INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 CHAPTER 1......................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 2......................................................................................................................30 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................52 BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................................................................................54 iii

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1 ................................................................................................................................1 Figure 2 ................................................................................................................................6 Figure 3 ..............................................................................................................................12 Figure 4 ..............................................................................................................................14 Figure 5 ..............................................................................................................................14 Figure 6 ..............................................................................................................................14 Figure 7 ..............................................................................................................................20 Figure 8 ..............................................................................................................................25 Figure 9 ..............................................................................................................................31 Figure 10 ............................................................................................................................31 Figure 11 ............................................................................................................................34 Figure 12 ............................................................................................................................34 Figure 13 ............................................................................................................................38 Figure 14 ............................................................................................................................38 Figure 15 ............................................................................................................................40 Figure 16 ............................................................................................................................40 Figure 17 ............................................................................................................................44 Figure 18 ............................................................................................................................44 Figure 19 ............................................................................................................................48 Figure 20 ............................................................................................................................48 iv

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THE VIOLENT OPHELIA: IMAGE'S NARRATIVE CONSTRUCTS IN COMIC BOOK ADAPTATIONS OF HAMLET Mary Veronica Dunkelberger New College of Florida, 2013 ABSTRACT There are aspects of Shakespeare's Hamlet that resonate with the shared human experience and remain relevant across time periods and cultures. Other aspects of the play, however, will likely alienate the reader. Adaptations are made to help bridge the gap between the contemporary reader and Hamlet They contextualize and/or redefine what Hamlet is in the playtext to appeal to a particular culture or mindset. This thesis examines how the comic book form can use visual narrative to effectively or ineffectively redefine Hamlet for an adolescent audience. The first chapter addresses the potentially misleading nature of the primacy of image over Shakespeare's playtext in comic book adaptations of Hamlet It begins by analyzing the covers of three comic book adaptations of Hamlet All of the comics contain the same story and art, but advertise drastically different aspects of the Hamlet story. The first chapter also looks at Will Eisner's bold subversion of Hamlet 's most famous soliloquy as he seeks to redefine Hamlet with the comic image. The second chapter narrows the focus of visual narrative in comic book adaptations of Hamlet to how v

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the character of Ophelia is redefined by image and how this affects the reader's understanding of the Hamlet story. I segment Ophelia's image into three distinct treatments: she is given either the attributes of a child, teen, or adult. Each different portrayal of Ophelia indicates what aspects of Hamlet the visual narrative is attempting to convey. The teen representation indicates an effectively engaging and informative adaptation of Hamlet for an adolescent reader. Nova Myhill Division of Humanities vi

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INTRODUCTION Figure 1. Sir John Everett Millais, Ophelia, 1851-52, oil on canvas, 762 x 1118 mm (Tate Britain, London). John Berger begins his famous 1972 critique of Western cultural aesthetics, Ways of Seeing with the simple observation that, Seeing comes before words. The child looks and recognizes before it can speak" (Berger, 1). On a basic level, it makes sense in an academic setting to appeal to the more familiar sense of sight to educate a learner on foreign or difcult concepts. The Classics Illustrated brand was the rst comic book publisher to capitalize the idea of using the comic image to aid adolescents' understanding of classic Western literature and held dominion over the market for multiple years. From what I have observed in my research of comic book adaptations of William Shakespeare's Hamlet the early 2000s saw an increase in comic book adaptations of canonized literature marketed as study guides for adolescents, presumably because of an increased demand for them. Hamlet, in particular, is not a text read for pleasure by adolescents; the language is archaic and the moral concepts complex. The 1

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comic book adaptations exist to inform the adolescent reader of the signicant aspects of Hamlet which hold a perceived cultural value in contemporary society. In order to present Hamlet (or any piece of literary work) in comic book form, the text must be denitively interpreted to some extent by image, and the relationship between image and the written word is not easily reconciled. Berger continues from the above quote: But, there is also another sense in which seeing comes before words. It is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding world; we explain that world with words, but words can never undo the fact that we are surrounded by it. The relation between what we see and what we know is never settled (Berger, 1). Berger acknowledges words can never truly represent the images they signify; but can images be used to dene words? The comic book versions of Hamlet seem to assume so, and for the purposes of this thesis so will I. Figure 1 depicts Sir John Everett Millais's famous painting of Ophelia's suicide, a beautiful piece of art, but a misleading representation of the cultural and literary signicance of Hamlet It is perhaps the most well-known image associated with Shakespeare's play: the character Ophelia listlessly sinks to her death as she sings, appearing nymph-like with surrounding brilliant foliage. Charlie O'Brien, (director of nineteenth century paintings at a London auction house) remarks that the painting "is an iconic image that everybody recognizes" (Savill, 1). An interesting aspect of this painting's indelible association with Hamlet is that it is a scene which never takes place on the stage; it is described by the queen, Gertrude. Another interesting point is if an image is regarded as quintessentially representative of Hamlet shouldn't it at least feature the titular character of the play? 2

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Ophelia has just 5 scenes on stage, half that of the only other female character, the aforementioned Gertrude (Bate, 1922). She holds 4 percent of the lines of the entire play, 1 percent less than Laertes and the same as Gertrude (Bate, 1922). Ophelia's lines are generally more responsive than contemplative, as opposed to Hamlet's, Polonius's, or even the plotting king and queen's lines. Ophelia is one of the most underdeveloped characters in the playtext, yet she provides inspiration for one of the most richly vivid images associated with Hamlet This is because Millais's Ophelia communicates in a visual narrative, individual from, (although inspired by) Hamlet 's plot. The viewer of the painting can come to understand Ophelia in ways that the reader of Hamlet does not have access to: her translucent skin and delicate features are angelic, her limp hands of praise are piteous yet deant as her ornate clothes pull her deeper into the clear water. It is this type of visual narrative that contemporary culture is most comfortable relaying information through to a massaudience, and it is this type of visual narrative that is being increasingly utilized to educate adolescents on literature. This thesis examines how visual narrative is utilized in the comic book form to subvert and redene the text of Hamlet so that the play is accessible to an adolescent audience. In doing this my hope is to better understand what the cultural signicance of Hamlet is as dened by the adaptations. My rst chapter examines how the comic book image's precedence over the play's written word can miseducate its intended audience. I examine three different covers of the same content to measure image's increasing authority against the playtext over time. I also examine Will Eisner's "Hamlet on a Rooftop," which explicitly attempts to appropriate Shakespeare's playtext to demonstrate 3

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image's narrative seniority to the comic book reader. My second chapter focusses on how images of Ophelia can indicate an effective portrayal of Hamlet through the comic book form. She has just enough presence in Hamlet 's plot to be relevant to any study guide of Hamlet but not enough characterization to dene her motives, attitudes, or appearances with any amount of certainty. The artists of the comic books seem to consistently generally interpret her in three ways. The adult Ophelia is dened by the minimal amount of text that concerns her. This utilization of image is disengaging to the adolescent audience as it relies to heavily on an understanding of the text. The teen Ophelia takes liberty with the text and relies on visual narrative for expression, which can more effectively hold an adolescent reader's interest. The child Ophelia embodies an archaic ideal of the heroine as innocent victim and is ineffective, alienating the reader. To redene Hamlet the work must either adapt or appropriate Shakespeare's playtext: "the rewrite,' be it in the form of novel, play, poem or lm, invariably transcends mere imitation, serving instead in the capacity of incremental literature, adding, supplementing, improvising, innovating. The aim is not replication as such, but rather complication, expansion rather than contraction" (Sanders, 12). I will mostly refer to the comics as adaptations, as they are explicitly concerned with explicating the culturally relevant and important features of the Hamlet story (for example: plot, characters, and social structures). I chose to focus on comic book adaptations as opposed to other forms of adaptation (literature, lm, etc.) because the comic book form, for the most part, assumes an adolescent audience. The comic books I discuss are aware of their function as adaptation for young readers; they are not advertised as Hamlet but rather as study guides for Hamlet Appropriation will be a term reserved for my analysis of 4

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Eisner's "Hamlet on a Rooftop" which acts in deance to its connection to Hamlet attempting to demonstrate image's dominance over Hamlet's most famous soliloquy. The comic book form I discuss in this thesis refers to a specic subcategory of the concept of "comics." Renowned comic book artist and comics scholar Scott McCloud denes comics as "Juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer" (McCloud, 9). It is important to clarify that the concept of comics does not include the relationship of image and text in its denition: "A great majority of modern comics do feature words and pictures in combination and it's a subject worthy of study, but when used as a denition for comics, I've found it to be a little too restrictive for my taste" (McCloud, 21). The comic books I discuss in this thesis feature images accompanied by text; some utilize Hamlet 's playtext, and others paraphrase it. All of the comics I discuss acknowledge Shakespeare's authorship of Hamlet but this is mostly used as a selling point in the education market. The comic book form lends itself easily to functioning as adaptation. Historically, the creation of comics was a collaborative process including writers, calligraphers, editors, colorists, and multiple artists. Later in the development of the comics industry the "partial script" method was used: "as comic books legitimized, authorship became more of a priority. The artist had a script with plot per page and the artist was allowed to create the rest" (Tondoro, 55). The comics industry has a communal approach to authorship in the creation of comic books. The artist and writer are in conversation, creating a cohesive final product. A comic artist's inclination to create art based on classic literature is a natural progression in the industry, but in doing so the artist and author are understood as 5

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having equal footing in presenting the story to the reader. It is eventually in the hands of the artist (when the author is absent) to represent the plot as he or she sees fit. Contemporary comics "bridge what once seemed to the educational world a chasm between low and high culture" (Perret, 72). The comic book adaptation of Shakespeare speaks directly to comics' ability to operate on different levels of literary discussion. The contemporary comic book faces a residual stigma from its explosion in popularity in the 1930s as being children's fodder, but this is an extremely limiting interpretation of comic books' potential. The concept of two-dimensional image accompanying the plays is not new. Earlier forms of images inspired and/or paired with the text Hamlet were respected as the work of artists in conversation with Shakespeare. They were generally highly regarded and reserved for the appreciation of the affluent, as Alan R. Young observes: the dissemination of images of [ Hamlet ] that occurred during the eighteenth Figure 2. Hamlet adpt. Steven Grant, illus. Tom Mandrake, Classics Illustrated 5 (New York: Berkeley/ First, 2009). 6

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century and on through the nineteenth took place through costly printed editions, together with large and expensive works of art, that may have only reached a small segment of society. (Young, 331) The images Young discusses in this quotation differ from comic books in that they had the benefit of representing only the most visually dynamic scenes of the play, even scenes that are not part of the play's onstage performance, like Millais's Ophelia. The comic book, however, must maintain a direct visual relationship with the action of the play, and Hamlet proves to be a challenge to translate into continuous, engaging imagery. The concern that the comic book adaptations ought to make Hamlet's plot accessible stems from the fact that the comics are mostly made for the education market. Nina daVinci Nichols comments on teaching Hamlet to young readers: [students] with slight experience of literature and none of drama nd it difcult to understand a play as a series of actions occurring in the present. Play, to them, is story. Even when curious about Hamlet, the cultural icon, they lack the skills needed to distinguish between subjective and objective responses to act, theme, and characterization. (Nichols, 95) The comic book form alleviates the stress of a student struggling with the concept of drama by providing the visual component of drama in a concise manner. The visual narrative of the comic book Hamlet speaks beyond the inuence of Shakespeare's play and utilizes an understanding of contemporary culture to dene the cultural and literary signicance of Hamlet Figure 2 is a panel from the 2009 Classics Illustrated edition of Hamlet. It shows a conation of images of Gertrude and Ophelia. Gertrude's eyes appear to weep into the image of the brook as she recounts Ophelia's 7

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death, symbolizing a direct emotional response from Gertrude over the piteous Ophelia gure. Shakespeare's words are broken up in speech bubbles and narrative boxes, which accentuate Ophelia's death as narrative that she does not control, and encourages the reader to survey the image fully. Of course, Ophelia's image directly references art history as a comic interpretation of Millais's painting of Ophelia. On one level the art historical reference is useful, because it contextualizes an iconic image as Hamlet for the adolescent reader. On another level, however, the image is misleading; it is not put in an art historical context, which could potentially lead the reader to understand the image as a comic book invention. The panel in Figure 2 demonstrates the comic book form's ability to communicate information to the reader beyond the text of Hamlet through image. When the general readership thinks of Hamlet there is a decent probability that the image of Millais's Ophelia or Hamlet holding up a skull comes to mind. Marion D. Perret notes that if the images most strongly associated with Hamlet are "physically static [then that] gives a clue to the difculty of translating this poetic tragedy into the visual language of a comic book" (Perret, 123). This is a fair point. Hamlet is often lauded by contemporary scholars for its philosophical musings and moral quandaries; at least more so than the spectacle of its performance. That said, Hamlet is rst and foremost a play; image is a part of its identity. The early actors of Hamlet seemed to have an objective similar to most of the modern comic book artists. The aim was more to further the plot and provide a spectacle than to fuss over philosophical intent of the words. Elizabethan stage historian Andrew Gurr provides this insight: In high speed repertory, through a stage trafc of little more than two hours, you did not dwell for long on Hamlet's agonizings about whether anything was to be, 8

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! or King Richard's grief over becoming nothing at Pomfret. The players lacked time or reason to indulge themselves in slow and lengthy meditations. Even if their fellows had the patience to wait through such longueurs the groundlings would not. (Gurr, 70) In the way that a performer must provide the visual expression of emotion and pacing for performance, the artist is challenged to meet Shakespeare part way in order to present Hamlet in comic book form. In doing so, the artist takes the poetry of Shakespeare and makes a definitive visual conclusion which dictates what the reader's reception of the text should be. This is useful for educating in a concise and engaging way, but the definitive nature of image can also easily misguide and misinform the reader. 9

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CHAPTER 1 THE PITFALLS OF DEFINING HAMLET THROUGH THE COMIC IMAGE The Classics Illustrated comic book series represents the need for contemporary culture to edit and absorb as much information as possible through image. The series is comprised of comic book interpretations of literary classics, marketed as encouragement for young readers to engage with the original material as a selling point. The initial 1952 Classics Illustrated comic of William Shakespeare's Hamlet advises its reader in a black box under the nal panel (depicting Hamlet limp in Horatio's arms with a throne strewn with dead bodies visible in the background, yet no Fortinbras in sight): NOW THAT YOU HAVE READ THE CLASSICS Illustrated EDITION, DON'T MISS THE ADDED ENJOYMENT OF READING THE ORIGINAL, OBTAINABLE AT YOUR SCHOOL OR PUBLIC LIBRARY (Gilberton 1952, 44). Whether the series inspired a generation to read or not is a moot point, although the later incarnations of the comic books as study guides seem telling: the 1997 version of the Classics Illustrated Hamlet leaves out this nal statement to the reader, although the panels remain the same as the 1952 version. The original syndication featured mainly adaptations of novels like The Three Musketeers Moby Dick and The Last of the Mohicans Shakespeare's works weren't adapted by Classics Illustrated until the 1950 Julius Caesar was distributed, four years after the brand's inception. Julius Caesar also happened to be the rst play featured in the comic book series. This surprising delay in the brand's acknowledgment of Shakespeare could be attributed to the difculty of adapting plays into comic books. Comic book 10

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interpretations of plays are perhaps more difcult to scrutinize than novels because plays assume collaborations beyond the writer and reader. Where novels guide the reader through the action of the plot with description and detail, plays rely on dialogue. What would be the job of a group of people (to direct, to act, to design, etc.) is left for the artist of the comic to express, and with the added hurdle of a huge disparity between Elizabethan and contemporary English, Shakespeare's plays could potentially prove to be a comic adaptor's nightmare. The comic book form alters the reader's reception of the original text in innumerable ways, although the comics generally do not advertise as appropriation of the text. I mean by this use of appropriation, that the non-appropriative comics do not attempt to undermine Shakespeare, but utilize his authorial prestige and market the visual narrative as supplemental. Of the comics I will discuss, Will Eisner's "Hamlet on a Rooftop" (which maintains the original text but manipulates the breaking of lines and emotions expressed) is the only comic version of Hamlet to advertise appropriation. The character of Hamlet becomes a sneaker-clad bohemian split between love and moral obligation in Eisner's vision. Eisner's aim is to demonstrate the conversation of image and text, and what can be lost (or gained) in translation. It is an appropriation which does not ask for the reader to understand the text, but instead asks the reader to understand the image. This is markedly different from the intentions of the other contemporary comic book adaptations of Hamlet I will discuss, as "[m]ost are created for the education market. Pleasing textbook adopters and students who want to avoid reading a play is an editorial consideration, and in some cases the primary consideration" (Jensen, 1). If the 11

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Figure 3. Hamlet Classics Illustrated 99 (New York: Gilberton, 1952). comics' intentions are to titillate students, then it is interesting to look at the covers of the 1952, 1969, and 1997 Classics Illustrated editions of Hamlet Each of the three editions feature the same panels and dialogue, but the covers advertise drastically different features of the play. The covers take increasingly larger liberties with Hamlet's playtext over time in order to sell comics. The growing desire to market the Hamlet story through the comic book medium is indicative of a lack of faith in the appeal of the prestige of the play to an adolescent audience. Initially however, the comic book Hamlet advertised faithfulness to the playtext as a selling point. The 1952 cover advertises accuracy of interpretation of Shakespeare's text to appeal to an educated market and immediately puts forth the pivotal revenge plot of the play, the 1969 version attempts to redene Hamlet to appeal to a broader 12

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adolescent audience by advertising a love story, and the 1997 version attempts to succinctly summarize Hamlet's plot in a single image as a study guide although it references no specic point in the play. These covers indicate that as the comic tradition matures, the comic book's perceived literary value increases. For a contemporary middleclass adolescent to young adult comic reader, the artistic imagery holds equal value to the original text in its ability to affect and inuence the reader's understanding. The 1952 cover (shown in Figure 3) depicts the moment that the ghost of Hamlet's father gestures for Hamlet to follow him and separate from Horatio and Marcellus. The gure representing Hamlet is in the foreground of the cover; he is stumbling forward while looking up at his father with wide eyes and a corpse-like pallor. Hamlet is portrayed as a fully matured adult, no younger than 30. The apparition stands rmly on steps slightly higher than his son's position; his entire gure is in frame. The ghost is dressed in full armor with his sword hanging at his hip. The sword is centrally placed and larger than the Hamlet gure's sword, visually articulating the power dynamic and inuence of the ghost over Hamlet. The only exaggeration of the ghost is the gure's coloration; the gure is monotone in shades of gold which gives it a divine rather than macabre presence. The golden ghost's god-like appearance suggests a more epic take on the Hamlet story. Like Achilles in the Trojan War, Hamlet is summoned to his fate. The ghost is walking up steps, looking back and down at Hamlet's gure. The ghost's positioning gives him a domineering presence, but seeing the feet of the gure gives the ghost a humanity which is downplayed in later covers. No later covers of Hamlet comic books that I have 13

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Figure 4. Hamlet Classics Illustrated 99 (New York: Gilberton, 1969). Figure 5. Cinderella, Disney (1950) Figure 6. Davy Jones 14

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encountered portray the ghost's gure as solid with rm footing on the ground. Not only does this cover seem to take into consideration the theater tradition of Hamlet (as the ghost is usually played by an actor who delivers his lines standing before the other characters) but Shakespeare's original text suggests a more human-like apparition. In the text, when Hamlet cries out in shock and fear to his father's ghost he asks, .tell Why thy canonized bones, hearsed in death, Have burst their cerements, why the sepulcher Wherein we saw thee quietly interred Hath oped his ponderous and marble jaws to cast thee up again. (1.4.46-51) 1 Hamlet imagines his father's body escaping his burial dressings and tomb to appear before him. He is stressing that the ghost appears as his father's corpse did when it was buried, that is to say, human. Shakespeare's text describes the ghost as being a "dead corse, again in complete steel" (1.4.52); on the Elizabethan stage "[a] ghost wore a recognizable shroud" (Gurr, 53) not a suit of armor. The monochromatic coloration of the ghost perhaps alerts the viewer to the otherworldliness of the ghost as a shroud would, but the ghost's appearance in full armor is faithful to the text. The 1952 cover then, out of all covers to come later featuring the ghost, is the closest to the descriptions given in the original play. The moment Hamlet sees his father's ghost is a logical subject for the cover of the comic book as a statement of some the central themes of the play (namely, death and 15 1 This thesis uses editor Sylvan Barnet s First Signet Classics Printing (Second Revised Edition) for all Hamlet quotes.

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duty). The 1952 cover is easily imagined as an image lifted from the play. The space which the characters occupy is set-like in that it perfectly articulates the mood of the moment as a contemporary stage would do through light lters and set design. The background emotes the moment through the dark grey coloration of the skies and castle walls, which contrast with the ominous reddish sunlight at the horizon. The ghost is a human gure and is weighted by gravity to the ground just as Hamlet's gure is. This cover of Hamlet advertises the comic's faithfulness to Shakespeare's play. Both the 1952 and 1969 covers feature the brand's original trademark: "Featuring Stories by the World's Greatest Authors," which emphasizes the value of the original text over the representational artwork. The 1969 cover (see Figure 4) takes more artistic liberties than the literal interpretation of the play, with the result of asserting image's dominance in manipulation of the comic's reader. The 1969 cover clearly stylizes the gures and action of the cover for the purpose of appealing to a larger audience, devaluing the original text and asserting the narrative power of the comic's image. The scene on the cover most closely resembles Act 3 Scene 1 of the play. Figures that appear to represent the King and Polonius spy from behind a curtain on Hamlet and Ophelia. She is wearing owers in her hair, an act which does not occur in the play until Ophelia's madness sets in (4.5.154). The set itself is made up of warmly colored tiles; it draws the observer's attention to the gures rather than the background as the colors become more richly pigmented and lighter around the gures' heads. The rectangular ground tiles are utilized to accentuate the spatial depth of the setting as they become larger toward the bottom of the cover. There is a dramatic tension created from perspective, articulating relationships and actions of the characters 16

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portrayed. This type of visual narrative is a feature unique to drawing: its sentiment cannot be expressed in the same way a play or book would go about expressing it. This particular cover's sentiment is notably different from the narrative of the play; it is Ophelia in the foreground staring listlessly away from both the other gures and the observer of the cover rather than Hamlet. The artist utilizes a more realistic style in portraying Ophelia as opposed to the other characters. She is made to stand out to appeal to the female adolescent. The details of her features are carefully articulated yet standardized. The hair appears monotone and lacks dimension, although each strand of Ophelia's hair is articulated from her head to her eyelashes. Her hairstyle is straight and parted to the side (a style en vogue with young women of the late 60s). Her skin has a cool pallor which more closely resembles real esh than the stylized warmer skin tones of the other gures. The other gures also all have black hair, while Ophelia is a radiant blonde. The cover invites its intended audience to visually associate its image with mass media. Ophelia, with her bright eyes, pink lips, and rened symmetrical features, looks very similar to the titular character of Walt Disney's 1950 movie Cinderella (see Figure 5). This sort of association is possible for an author to create in a written work, but the image offers a more direct, accessible, and quick method of processing information. Limp white and red owers hang from Ophelia's hair and delicate hand, acting as a visual metaphor for her piteous plight. In this particular scene the stage directions in the play do not indicate that Ophelia has owers, but this feature is not acting in complete deance of the original text. The play strongly encourages the audience to draw a parallel between Ophelia and owers. Stage directions involving owers are included in her 17

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madness and funeral scene. The queen even goes into bizarrely specic details of Ophelia's ower garlands (the hanging of which would lead to her demise): "Therewith fantastic garlands did she make / Of crow-owers, nettles, daisies, and long purples" (4.7.168-169). Laertes takes solace in the idea of Ophelia's body becoming owers at her funeral: "Lay her i' the earth, / And from her fair and unpolluted esh / May violets spring" (5.1.240-242). Ophelia and owers are both characterized as beautiful and ephemeral. The artist inuences the viewer's perception by choosing to use red and white in the coloration of the owers, suggesting the tension between passion and purity, respectively. It reads visually along the same lines as Hamlet's famous line to Ophelia: "Get thee to a nunnery" (3.1.121). Nunnery has a two-fold meaning: either a literal nunnery, or a whorehouse. While Ophelia's portrait takes up roughly a third of the entire cover, the title character is in the middle ground with an expression just as vacant as that of Ophelia. This Hamlet is different from the Hamlet on the 1952 cover. The 1969 Hamlet is given more boyish features: his rounded face is ushed and clean-shaven revealing a cleft chin. His features do not portray a tortured and murderous academic; this gure more closely resembles the late '60s, early '70s era heartthrob Davy Jones (see Figure 5). Hamlet's dress is also more princely; he wears gold adornments and his fussy costume is intricately layered. This charming Prince of Denmark's appearance is in contrast to the actions which he performs in the play. The comic image manipulates the well-known classic in a way which is inconsistent with the text, but appealing to the reader. This dichotomy of Hamlet's vapid innocence in the cover's image and the tormented madness behind his 18

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actions in the play is made obvious by the seemingly misplaced bejeweled dagger hanging at the gure's hip. The dagger is accentuated by the artist, as it is the only outlined image on the cover. With knowledge of the plot of the play, one can appreciate the dramatic tension from visual foreshadowing. The tip of the outlined dagger is obscured by Ophelia's left shoulder. The dagger appears to point in the direction of Ophelia's heart. The outlined dagger will be the instrument with which Hamlet will kill Ophelia's father, Polonius, whose gure hides behind a large drape; a position which clearly references the circumstances in which he will be murdered. Polonius is next to the king, who can be quickly recognized by the crown on his head and also, more subtly, by the ostentatious ring on the king's left hand ring nger. The ring is an obvious objectication of marriage to the contemporary audience. Not only is the cover mostly a portrait of Ophelia; it also references the events which will drive her to madness and death. This demonstrates the inclination to use image as summarization, which will dene the function of later Hamlet comic books as study guides. The 1952 cover faithfully represents a moment in the play and highlights the text's inherent themes of death and moral obligation, but the 1969 cover uses image as a way to redene Hamlet This cover invites its audience to view Hamlet through a different lens; one which favors the mild character of Ophelia and her love plot with Hamlet in hopes of attracting the female adolescent market. The next new cover to the original Classics Illustrated Hamlet is not created for another 30 years. Over those three decades society's perception of comic books evolved: "the comics industry of the [late 1980s and early 1990s] was under the spell of the graphic novel,' which brought a rather self-conscious sophistication to both the visual 19

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Figure 7. Hamlet Classics Illustrated 99 (New York: Acclaim Books, 1997). and textual elements of sequential storytelling" (Jones, 283). The Classics Illustrated brand experienced years of dormancy and failed revivals in the span of these decades. During the 90s the Classics brand redened its objective to meet the demands of its contemporary audience: the new series targeted a visually oriented young-adult audience that may have been adept at deconstructing the lm mythos of David Lynch but was apparently incapable of deciphering Moby Dick the [new] books were intended to some extent for use as reading tools" (Jones, 283). The 1997 version of Classics Illustrated Hamlet more or less maintains the same artwork (the original panels are 20

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rened and re-colored through graphic design) as the 1952 and 1969 comics, but the formatting and marketing of the comic changes as indicated by the cover. In 1996 New York publishing house Acclaim Comics entered a licensing agreement to republish Classics Illustrated comics. The comics were reformatted into smaller digest-sized books with spines and a more durable laminated cover. The product was a comic that would survive the wear-and-tear of student use and t comfortably inside a textbook for sly last-minute brush-ups before Lit class. The 1997 cover (Figure 7) depicts Hamlet leaning on a stone castle wall as he cradles his bloody sword. His gure seems to be emanating a sort of miasma as a ghoulish white hand (coming from out of frame) stretches, appearing to attempt to touch Hamlet's right shoulder. The cover art is colored in cool color tones, mostly blue, which is in stark contrast to the yellow font of the Classics Illustrated logo. Along with the cover "& Notes" and the brand's new motto "Your doorway to the classics" are in yellow font, advertising the comic book's potential use as study guide and/or replacement of the playtext. The 1997 cover is clearly made to appeal to the post-literate generation unfamiliar with Shakespeare's classic play. The cover art demonstrates how image can dictate without words. The 1997 cover uses color as a visual representation of an emotion or mood. Color in the two former covers is used to heighten the realism of the scenes they depict, not to incite an emotion in the observer. The coloration of Hamlet's gure is done in a hard-edged styling; his gure is cast in shadow, which is rendered in a true black. In contrast, the gure is stylistically outlined by a thin white line. The effect of this contrast is a visual tension indicative of the personal struggle of the prince which is central to the play's plot. The image succinctly communicates the dichotomy between Hamlet's past 21

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and current nature, which Claudius takes six lines to express to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern: Sith nor th' exterior nor the inward man Resembles that it was. What it should be, More than his father's death, that thus hath put him, So much from th' understanding of himself, I cannot dream of. (2.2.6-10) The cover image is even able to address the inuence of Hamlet's father's ghost on his descent into madness. The hand reaching from out of frame is white with a visible pale blue skeletal structure identifying the hand as dead and denoting the macabre nature of the play. This is a notably different handling of the ghost's gure than the 1952 cover's golden god-like interpretation. This hand is obviously not human, nor does its presence seem disturbing to the Hamlet gure, alluding to the possibility that the ghost is a gment of Hamlet's imagination: a contemporary interpretation. In the 1952 cover, the swords visually represent the hierarchy in the ghost's and Hamlet's relationship, but in the 1997 cover, only Hamlet is seen with a sword. Hamlet's bizarre, yet purposeful, cradling of the bloody sword visually suggests Hamlet's agency and satisfaction with his actions within the play; this cover seems to suggest that Hamlet is not threatened into the murders he commits by the inuence of his father's ghost. The coloration of the gures is such that it appears that the hand is emanating light which is cast on Hamlet's face. The hard-edged style of the illustration creates the effect of splitting the face in two. One half is black, and the other is revealed by the glow of the ghost, a representation of Hamlet's tortured ambivalence. Hamlet's expression is 22

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sternly contemplative; it indicates either maliciousness or concern. His appearance is unlike the previous two covers in that he is not by contemporary standards handsome; the reader is not meant to be attracted to the comic by the main character's charm or good looks. His hair is styled in a Prince Valiant-esqe bowl-cut, giving the gure a dated look. His clothes are understated, with the exception of a blood-red amulet that hangs from a necklace indicating nobility or wealth to the observer. The 1997 cover is not trying to make Hamlet relatable to a specic audience, unlike the 1969 cover, which clearly is attempting to appeal to young girls. It also does not literally interpret a scene from the play as the other covers do. By just looking at the cover of the 1997 Hamlet a reader completely ignorant to the original play can discern that it is a dark play, is set in the distant past, features a ghost, has a brooding main character of status, and some sort of violence. This cover demonstrates a faith that image can narrate Shakespeare without the words of the play in that it does not appear to assume a reader's familiarity with the plot. The 1952 and 1969 covers are scenes from the play; this third cover is more of a visual narrative on what the feeling and mood of the Hamlet story is. The assertion that image enhances the reader's experience of reading a classic text is central to the justication of using the comic book form in the education of youth in English and Literature. The comic book is by no means the rst medium in which attempts were made to make Shakespeare more accessible through the utilization of image. In fact, many agree that due to the theatrical aspect intended to supplement Shakespeare's texts, image is not only suitable but desirable in the study of his texts without the benets of being able to view a live-action play. Alan R. Young suggests in his 1998 essay Visual Images of Hamlet, 1709-1800 that "the visual illustrations 23

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produced between 1709 and 1800, particularly (but not exclusively) those appearing in printed editions, offer an additional and complementary perspective [to the original text]" (Young, 331). The same sentiment is mirrored in British publishing house Classical Comics's mission statement: True to the original vision of the authors, our books have been further enhanced by using only the nest artists giving you a truly wonderful reading experience that you'll return to again and again. Timeless stories, receiving our own original and exciting treatment; from Shakespeare to Dickens to Shelley to Bront‘ ... our range has something for everyone! (Wheeler, 1) It is a bold and awed assertion that the Classical Comics brand faithfully adheres to "the original vision of the authors," as author's intent is at best an assumption and at worst irrelevant. Regardless, the statement addresses the contemporary desire for education to be "original and exciting" to its students, implying an inherent lack of these traits in the words alone. It is then necessary for the comic book artist to determine what images will illuminate the text for his audience and what relation the images will have with the original text. Highly regarded comic artist and educator Will Eisner delineates a comic artist's inuence on the original text into two possible outcomes. He says, "The artist must decide at the outset what his input' shall be; to slavishly make visual that which is in the author's mind or to embark on a raft of the author's words onto a visual sea of his own charting" (Eisner, 112). Eisner creates an example of this inherent tension between author and artist in his short comic "Hamlet on a Rooftop" in his seminal comic textbook Comics and Sequential Art Eisner's Hamlet redenes the Hamlet story and in doing so 24

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Figure 8. "Hamlet on a Rooftop," Comics and Sequential Art (Tamarac, Fl: Poorhouse Press), 113. Will Eisner, 1985. 25

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exerts a power over the narrative through image. The aforementioned Classical Comics are publicized as images supplementing the original text; they appear to attempt to "slavishly make visual" Shakespeare, but increasingly lose sight of this in favor of appealing to a certain audience. Eisner's subversion of this concept suggests that image and text are of equal validity in dening and portraying a story. In just the rst two panels the imagery of the comic communicates much more about the character and plot than the written word. The Hamlet character is dressed in contemporary clothes. He looks reminiscent of a 70s era hippie with shoulder-length hair parted in the middle, and open vest revealing a bare chest, and a headband across his forehead. In no way is Eisner suggesting that this character is a noble, or from the presumed time period in which Hamlet is set (the background is clearly a contemporary cityscape). This portrayal of Hamlet is in direct deance of Shakespeare's Hamlet who, if nothing else, is the Prince of Denmark. Eisner's Hamlet is slumped over a chimney; the debris and smog in the setting denotes a feeling of desolation and dirtiness. Hamlet has a crazed wide-eyed look which contradicts his relaxed posture, conveying to the reader a sense of unease and giving the appearance of madness. The hotly debated question of whether the titular character of Shakespeare's Hamlet was insane or not is apparently answered with a resounding yes within the rst two panels of Eisner's rendition. As comics and Shakespeare professor Jason Tondoro observes: "Eisner's answers do not come from within the text. They rewrite and appropriate the text to nd answers not originally offered" (Tondoro, 58). Eisner acknowledges the tension between his choice in imagery and the original text in guiding the reader through his drawing's intended effect. While Eisner's Hamlet is 26

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reciting the phrase "Thus does conscience make cowards of us all. ." (Eisner, 113) the perspective is aerial. Hamlet sits on the ledge of the rooftop with the city in full view behind him. Eisner explains, "The use of a long-shot, here is meant to reinforce realism and in that way try to deal with the problem of putting Shakespeare's language in the mouth of such a man" (Eisner, 119). Eisner is using imagery to justify his distortion of the famous play by acknowledging Hamlet's generalization "of us all" as a statement applicable to those beyond the connes of the action of the play. "Hamlet on a Rooftop" embodies how the text of Hamlet can be transposed and redened by image, perhaps because image requires a more concrete interpretation of a story's plot than the nuances of the written word. In terms of Shakespeare in comic book form, meter is often sacriced for less static characters both physically and emotionally. This is similar to how it would be performed on stage, but the added element of being able to see the words on the page makes the chosen breaking of the lines more signicant. Shakespeare's iambic meter is retained visually by the breaking of lines in the following section of the soliloquy: Whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take up arms against a sea of trouble And by opposing end them. To die, to sleep (3.1.56-60). In Figure 8, Eis ner's Hamlet slumps his back over a brick chimney in the rst panel on the page depicting this portion of the soliloquy; a posture Eisner calls "Submission to a heavy' thought" (Eisner, 114). This casual, even crass posture speaks to this Hamlet's 27

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lack of nobility or princely grace. The lines in the speech bubble of the rst panel are broken up thusly: WHETHER TIS NOBLER IN THE MIND TO SUFFER THE SLINGS AND ARROWS OF OUTRAGEOUS FORTUNE (Eisner, 114). The arrangement of the words highlights the innitive of the sentence and resembles an hourglass on the page reinforcing urgency or awareness that Hamlet must make his decision whether or not to kill his uncle and (in the case of this adaptation) his mother. The next panel depicts Hamlet's face cast in darkness while he reveals a concealed knife as he looks to the sky with a contorted and disturbed expression. This menacing shift of Hamlet's comportment is accompanied by the single word "OR ." (Eisner, 114). This is an example of the image effectively dominating the reader's understanding of the text. Generally the word "or" is nothing more than a conjunction, but in the panel it's a minatory change in mood. It's as though Hamlet has snapped into becoming a selfrighteous murderer from a defeated philosopher and the word "or" comes to represent this change for this interpretation of the soliloquy. "Hamlet on a Rooftop" appropriates Shakespeare's text; it subverts its most famous speech with image. Eisner illuminates new possibilities of how the reader can interpret the text of Hamlet Although Eisner's visual articulation of this soliloquy in Hamlet may not guarantee a passing grade on a 10th grade English test on the play, it does demonstrate that the comic image holds authority in the interpretation of text even 28

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as well known and understood as Hamlet The multiple covers of the Classics Illustrated Hamlet demonstrate an increasing condence in image's ability to both titillate and inform, even if the cover is misrepresenting the contents of the comic book. The 1952 cover focuses on the play's revenge plot's impetus with a relatively literal interpretation of the playtext, the 1969 cover presents the play from a more pop-culturally relevant angle, and the 1997 cover uses visual narrative to relate the plot and motivations of the main character in the play. They have evolved from stagnant imagery lifted from the play to images which utilize form, color, and lining to communicate more clearly the Hamlet story to appeal to adolescents. 29

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CHAPTER 2 THE COMIC BOOK OPHELIA Ophelia's character inspires different graphic depictions and representations of her plight. Feminist theorist Steve Henderson acknowledges that portrayal of Ophelia can be problematic. He says, "the irony continues in that a play such as [ Hamlet ], which supposedly fathoms the human psyche, does not reveal much at all about the two major female characters. They act either as a theatrical balance to the male characters or as a sounding board for their ne speeches and actions" (Henderson, 2). Regardless of what little arguments on her character can be derived from the text, the interesting aspects of Ophelia are how others portray and perceive her, be it the words of characters within the play, actors, directors, or comic book artists. The images of her appear greatly dened by the characteristics of either the child, teen, or adult stage of life, which not only denes her character but inuences the reader's interpretation of the Hamlet story as a whole. In my rst chapter I discuss how the comic image dictates to readers how they are intended to receive the work. I have found that by looking at Ophelia's portrayal through image in the graphic novel, one can determine what aspect of Hamlet the reader is meant to understand from reading the comic book; a child Ophelia attempts to elicit sympathy from the reader through image, a teen Ophelia attempts to elicit empathy from the reader through image, and the adult Ophelia does not attempt to supplement the reader's feelings towards Ophelia as its concern is the reader's comprehension of the plot of Hamlet The adult and child representations of Ophelia indicate adaptations of Hamlet that bore and alienate the adolescent reader, respectfully. The teen Ophelia indicates a more effective adaptation tailored to the taste of the contemporary adolescent. 30

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Figure 9. Hamlet adpt. Naunerle Farr, illus. E.R. Cruz, Pendulum Illustrated Classics (1980); rpt. Lake Illustrated Classics (1994), 30. Educational Insights. Figure 10. Hamlet adpt. Sam Willinsky, illus. Alex A. Blum, Classics Illustrated 99 (New York: Gilberton, 1952). 31

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! The original Classics Illustrated drawn by Alex A. Blum and Illustrated Classics drawn by E.R. Cruz both feature representations of Ophelia that display the characteristics of adults. As an adult, Ophelia exists within the connes of the text. If Ophelia does not convey a strong sense of character, the comic could potentially disengage the adolescent reader. The Ophelias of both comics have sexually matured adult bodies. The original Classics Illustrated accentuates Ophelia's sexuality with an off-the-shoulder ensemble; however, this sensuality does not translate into her body language, which is rigid and linear. Ophelia is not presented as particularly innocent or vivacious; she is dened by her passivity in this sort of depiction. Her hair is bound and facial expression is mostly vacant (although no perhaps no more vacant than that of any other characters in these particular comics). The panels which depict Act 4 Scene 5 of Hamlet (Ophelia's "mad scene") in the original Classics Illustrated and the Illustrated Classics both depict a surprisingly emotionally and physically contained mad Ophelia. Figure 9 is a panel from the Illustrated Classics adaptation which paraphrases the play text to appeal to an educational market. The Illustrated Classics image of Ophelia utilizes a theatrical trope to signify Ophelia's emotional state: the rst quarto instructs in its stage directions that Ophelia's hair is to be let down in her madness scene "as Alan C. Dessen, among others, has pointed out, to Shakespeare's audience, loose hair on a woman, in and of itself, was a conventional theatrical sign of madness" (Aasand, 36). Ophelia's posture is curious in nature compared to her comportment in the rest of the comic, but her appearance is not the shocking and disturbing image of a mad Ophelia the text suggests her to be. Her hair is down as a mass of luxurious golden waves, her costuming is not in the least disheveled, 32

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and her facial expressions leaves her mouth agape but her eyes half-lidded and calm. The image of Ophelia in Figure 9 in no way would elicit Laertes' reaction in the text upon seeing his sister insane for the rst time: O heat, dry up my brains! tears seven times salt, Burn out the sense and virtue of mine eye! By heaven, thy madness shall be paid by weight, Till our scale turn the beam. O rose of May! Dear maid, kind sister, sweet Ophelia! (4.5.154-168). Laertes's reaction in the Illustrated Classics edition is instead, "Do you see this? I will have revenge!" (Cruz, 49). This version of comic adaptation of Hamlet is not concerned with the internal motivation or emotional response of the characters but with concisely furthering the plot. The same can be said for the original Classics Illustrated version of 4.5 (Figure 10), except that this particular adaptation is concerned with utilizing the original text, along with advancing the plot. The original Classics Illustrated Ophelia's hair remains bound throughout the comic for continuity. Her owers come to represent her madness to the reader instead. Blum and adaptor Sam Willinsky show a lack of faith in image's ability to communicate and narrate to the reader. Ophelia is denied expressing her insanity through emotion. Her expression from what can be seen is mildly distressed at best. The comic does not give a close-up of Ophelia's face as she sings in her madness, which would foster empathy through intimacy between Ophelia and the reader. Instead the narrative box in the rst panel of the scene in Figure 10 succinctly explains that Ophelia is "insane" and her reasons for being so. Ophelia's image (and indeed the image 33

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Figure 11. Hamlet adpt. Sam Willinsky, illus. Alex A. Blum, Classics Illustrated 99 (New York: Gilberton, 1952). Figure 12. Hamlet adpt. Naunerle Farr, illus. E.R. Cruz, Pendulum Illustrated Classics (1980); rpt. Lake Illustrated Classics (1994), 30. Educational Insights. 34

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of all characters in this adaptation) then functions primarily as a vessel for the play's words. Cruz and Blum appear not to want their readers to be distracted by sexuality or burdened with seeking out their own postulations for character motivation. The adult Ophelia in her limited expressiveness and understated appearance embodies this concern. In a similar fashion to Ophelia's "mad scene," Act 2 Scene 1 of Hamlet poses an interesting challenge for the comic book artist. Hamlet bursting in on Ophelia while she is sewing is not a moment shown on stage, yet the image of the scene is easily incorporated in the comic form as a ashback. In the comics in which Ophelia is a child or teen, this scene is exploited for sexual tension and/or to elicit sympathy for Ophelia from the reader, but in the original Classics Illustrated and Illustrated Classics (which represent Ophelia drawn as adult) the images are more supportive of the text than the possibilities in which the text can be manipulated by image. Illustrated Classics is the only comic adaptation of those which I will discuss in this chapter to present the scene without a ashback drawing (Figure 12). Instead the scene is presented as it would be seen in performance: Ophelia narrates the encounter. The comic utilizes cinematic closeups to break up Ophelia's narration, but the style in which the Illustrated Classics Hamlet is drawn does not allow for a wide range of emotion from Ophelia's facial expressions. The most dynamic expressions in Ophelia's three close-ups in Figure 12 are her gesticulations, which aid her narration of the story, not in signifying her emotional response. Her pointing in the rst close-up aids in orienting the listener of her story: the story she is telling happened in a separate time ("I was sewing") and place ("my room"). In the second panel Ophelia is describing Hamlet's face and in doing so touches her own, 35

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as though indicating she will be imitating his facial expressions as she does in the third panel as her gaze turns toward her father and intensies (but again, this is Hamlet's expression that she is imitating, not her own). The original Classics Illustrated depiction of 2.1 (Figure 11) allows the reader visual access to Hamlet's intrusion, but it is purely for expository reasons, which support the comic's focus on text and plot over characterization. Ophelia is mostly denied her narration; the rst panel on the page is a summary of her story to her father: "AS DAYS PASS, A STRANGE MADNESS, PART REAL AND PART FEIGNED, COMES OVER HAMLET. ONE DAY, HE ENTERS OPHELIA'S ROOM AND SHOCKS HER BY HIS STRANGE BEHAVIOR. SHE REPORTS THIS TO HER FATHER ... (1952 Gilberton, 11). This comic is seemingly uncomfortable with leaving anything unexplained, although the nature of the madness of the characters is ambiguous in the play text alone. This scene functions in the play as the rst indication of Hamlet's growing madness and allows the viewer and other characters to postulate the nature of it (what the comic calls, "part real and part feigned"). Similar to the way that the reader's perspective is detached in the cover of original Classics Illustrated (discussed in my rst chapter), the action of the comic is portrayed as though it is happening on a stage. Hamlet dominates the ashback's frame standing centrally and posing in a dramatically distressed manner, because he is what is being described. Ophelia narrates, "AS I WAS SEWING, LORD HAMLET, NO HAT UPON HIS HEAD, HIS STOCKINGS FOULED, PALE AS HIS SHIRT, AND WITH A LOOK SO PITEOUS IN PURPORT COMES BEFORE ME ..." (1952 Gilberton, 11). The original Classics Illustrated is concerned with establishing Hamlet as the hero of the play and therefore the 36

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importance of this unseen scene is Hamlet's actions and not Ophelia's reaction to him. What could be utilized as a moment of tension visually is a single still-frame of an overtly theatrical Hamlet (body turned toward the viewer, stroking his up-turned furrowed brow) accompanied by a description of his appearance, which as it turns out, is fairly incongruous. With the exception of having "NO HAT UPON HIS HEAD," Blum's Hamlet has intact stockings, no noticeable pallor, and a look more deant than "PITEOUS." The only visual indication of Hamlet being out of sorts is his slightly opened blouse revealing a portion of his bare chest. Hamlet is sensual and heroic because the comic is portraying a more direct interpretation of the text. Hamlet is the character to which the audience is given the most access to mentally, emotionally, and visually. The comic is reecting this visually by having Hamlet dominate a scene in which he is not even physically present. The drawings in the comic adaptations featuring the adult Ophelia use image in ways which are generic and theatrical in nature: a sort of attempt at a standardization of how Hamlet may appear to an audience in any given performance. This leads to a vapid Ophelia; the possible complexities of her motivations fall by the wayside as her image functions mainly as a vessel for the text. Comic adaptations of Hamlet are not, however, dened by this extremely limited interpretation of the plot. The original Classics Illustrated dates back to 1952 when (as I discuss in my rst chapter) the comic image is subordinate to the original text. The Illustrated Classics Hamlet is marketed towards edgling readers, to whom it would be most productive to present Hamlet 's plot in its most basic interpretation. As the comic form and its potential readers mature, however, a reasoning behind Ophelia's motivations becomes a possible and necessary. Ophelia is 37

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Figure 13. Hamlet adpt. Richard Appignanesi, illus. Emma Vieceli, Manga Shakespeare (New York: Amulet, 2007). Figure 14. Hamlet adpt. Richard Appignanesi, illus. Emma Vieceli, Manga Shakespeare (New York: Amulet, 2007). 38

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perhaps a character most easily played as childlike, showing no signs of ulterior motives (unlike most of the play's characters) and representing the death of an innocent in the play's story structure. The child Ophelia stems from contemporary popular culture's tendency to use Ophelia as a stand-in for the ignorant and inept. Dr. Thomas G. Plummer, a professor of Germanic and Slavic languages titles his observation of the obsessive need of some students to be explicitly led in their education as "Ophelia syndrome" in a lecture given to professors in fields other than English Literature. He cites that "Ophelia is worse than naive. She is chronically ignorant, chronically dependent, and chronically submissive. She is an adult who chooses to be a baby, one who does not know her own opinions and who would not express them to an authority if she did" (Plummer, 1). Ophelia's portrayal in Manga Shakespeare: Hamlet is representative of a child. The Manga Shakespeare Ophelia, drawn by Emma Vieceli, elicits sympathy through her childlike attributes and actions, which represents her innocence to the reader. The traditional Japanese comic book form, manga commonly features unrealistically proportioned characters. Ophelia is no different. She is the character with the biggest eyes and most childlike gestures. Figure 13 depicts the Manga Shakespeare rendering of a portion of Ophelia's rst scene, in which she is advised to stave off Hamlet's affections by her brother and father. In the original text, Ophelia's best exercise of volition and her only response in this scene to exceed two lines is this, I shall the effect of this good lesson keep, As watchman to my heart. But, good my brother, Do not, as some ungracious pastors do, Show me the steep and thorny way to heaven; 39

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Figure 15. Hamlet adpt. Steven Grant, illus. Tom Mandrake, Classics Illustrated 5 (New York: Berkley/First, 1990). Figure 16. Hamlet adpt. Steven Grant, illus. Tom Mandrake, Classics Illustrated 5 (New York: Berkley/ First, 1990). 40

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Whiles, like a puff'd and reckless libertine, Himself the primrose path of dalliance treads, And recks not his own rede (1.3.45-51). This passage gives the reader the slightest insight into a socially aware Ophelia. She is confronting her brother with the possibility of hypocrisy, insinuating that she and her brother should be held to the same standards. As this passage of Hamlet supports, the viewpoint of Ophelia as free-willed is valid and it is a notion the readers are denied access to in this scene in Manga Shakespeare: Hamlet The comic book adaptation has the use of omission at its disposal. Ophelia winks as she playfully salutes her brother which incites an affectionate noogie, making his stern advice seem not only normal, but welcomed by Ophelia in Figure 13. Her admonition to her brother in the original text is completely omitted. Ophelia's lack of contemplation and immediate compliance in this adaptation indicate a lack of volition, which makes her eventual madness the fault of external characters and actions driving her to such a state, leaving her innocent. Ophelia's appearance is sexualized by her long owing hair, large breasts, and revealing outt in Manga Shakespeare. The artist tempers this overt sexuality with a childish demeanor with the effect of an innocently oblivious Ophelia: victim to her appearance's sexual suggestiveness. Ophelia looks at her brother with large dewy eyes and a wide smile in his embrace as their father approaches in Figure 13. Surrounding the brother and sister are a repetitive pattern of lamb-like rams and fences. In this particular manga adaptation (like most of the other comic books I will discuss) Ophelia's character is placed in a background with nature imagery, mainly owers (Figure 14), more than any 41

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other character. The initial effect is a mood of levity, but the background images of the owers foreshadow Ophelia's madness scene and emphasize her ephemerality. In the context of aiding the portrayal of Ophelia as innocent, nature imagery reinforces Ophelia's moral purity; her purity, like virgin land, is only compromised by others' greedy use of her. The background of the rams in Vieceli's panel reinforces Ophelia's need to be led like a sheep lacking its own thought, and the fences her limited agency in the Hamlet story. These submissive undertones are evident in Classics Illustrated 's 2009 comic book adaptation of Hamlet as well. Although perhaps just as sexualized, Tom Mandrake's portrayal of Ophelia is not as childlike as the Manga Shakespeare 's doe-eyed one. The 2009 Classics Illustrated Ophelia articulates her childishness through her body language. Figure 15 is Classic Illustrated 's 2009 interpretation of the same scene previously discussed in Manga Shakespeare. All of Ophelia's discussion about Hamlet with Laertes is omitted, and with it Ophelia's challenge of her brother's virtue is also excluded from Classics Illustrated's Hamlet Ophelia does not make eye contact with her father. She turns away from his gaze in the second panel like a guilty child. Her speech bubble is noticeable lower than Laertes's and Polonius's, which further articulates her sheepishness. In the fourth panel (the rst of a series of three panels in the lower right corner) of Figure 15 Ophelia's head is directed downward with an expression of slight fear on her face as she is surrounded by images and the words of Polonius. Manga Shakespeare 's Ophelia expresses dependency in her physical closeness with Laertes. The 2009 Classics Illustrated Ophelia is similarly dependent on Polonius, as expressed by the 42

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leitmotif in last panel of Figure 15 and Figure 16 in which Ophelia and her father join hands. Manga Shakespeare: Hamlet and the 2009 Classics Illustrated Hamlet are drawn in drastically different styles yet their images of Ophelia are markedly similar. The Ophelias both have long waving light hair parted in the middle, which creates an aesthetic similar to the appearance of a halo, further articulating Ophelia's innocence. The Ophelias are also both sexualized. Although the Ophelia of the 2009 Classics Illustrated is wearing a less revealing dress than the Manga Shakespeare interpretation, Ophelia is as sexual in appearance as the comic's pseudo-period styling will allow. Mandrake's Ophelia has large breasts, bee-stung lips, and low-cut dresses. The 2009 Classics Illustrated Hamlet is printed in color and in each scene in which she appears Ophelia is either dressed in green or surrounded by green foliage (Figures 15 and 16) which (to a similar end as Manga Shakespeare: Hamlet 's tendency to depict Ophelia surrounded by owers) suggests to the reader that Ophelia's character is the most naturally pure. The child Ophelia is meant to be sympathized in a way one might understand a cut ower: used for her beauty, fated to an untimely demise, and devoid of free will. It is easy to think of Ophelia as a character that is inuenced (plot-wise) externally and puts forth nothing internally in the story of Hamlet The comics in which Ophelia is drawn with the features and mannerisms of a teenager attempt to illuminate fresher interpretations of the Hamlet story and Ophelia's place in it. They accentuate the limitations and ambiguity of the moral sphere of Hamlet 's Denmark by giving Ophelia her own voice through image. The teenage Ophelia in comic books has her own hand in her actions and fate as expressed in her transition into madness. The teenage Ophelias of 43

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Figure 17. Hamlet Neil Babra, No Fear Shakespeare (New York: Spark Publishing, 2008). Figure 18. Hamlet adpt. Adam Sexton, illus. Tintin Pantoja, The Manga Editions (Hoboken: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2008). 44

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Sparknotes's No Fear Shakespeare: Hamlet and Hamlet: The Manga Edition have the appearances of adolescent girls. They are matured and attractive, yet not overtly sexualized as their child and adult counterparts are. The Sparknotes Ophelia drawn by Neil Babra has a slim and gawky build; she has developed breasts, but they are concealed by conservative dresses. Her hair is seen both styled and down (simply parted in the middle) even before her madness scene, subtly suggesting individual taste and authority over her own appearance. The Manga Edition 's Ophelia as drawn by Tintin Panjota is dressed in such a way that her body-type is indiscernible. She is also the only Ophelia of all of the comic versions of Hamlet I discuss that has short dark hair as opposed to the seemingly standard long blonde fare. The Manga Edition 's Ophelia wears a head garment reminiscent of the coif and veil worn by nuns. Ophelia's character displays more volition without overt sexuality to hide behind. Act 3 Scene 1 of Hamlet proves to be an excellent opportunity for image to express Ophelia's ownership of her emotions and motivations. This is the rst scene in the play in which Hamlet and Ophelia interact, and for all intents and purposes should be a stressful and emotionally charged moment for Ophelia. Not only is Ophelia confronting her heart's desire but she's also trying to discern whether or not Hamlet loves her in front of her father and the king of Denmark, who states before the interaction, Her father and myself (lawful espials) Will so bestow ourselves that, seeing unseen, We may of their encounter frankly judge And gather by him, as he is behaved, If't be th' afiction of his love or no 45

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! That thus he suffers for (3.1.32-37). To top it off, Hamlet's reaction to Ophelia's questions not only includes his brash denial of his love for her but also allusions to a possible sexual relationship all while being scrutinized by two extremely inuential men in Ophelia's life. The child and adult Ophelias more or less idly take Hamlet's emotional abuse, but for the teenage Ophelia this scene is a breaking point. Figure 17 is a page from the Sparknotes Hamlet ; the rst panel depicts a familiarly comported Ophelia: sheepish, looking away from Hamlet with a hunched and defeated posture. Ophelia looks as though she is purposefully backing away from Hamlet. Her speech bubbles up to the nal panel are amorphous compared to Hamlet's rounded or sharp-edged bubbles, signifying her chastened state. Hamlet invades Ophelia's personal space by unceremoniously throwing the love letters she has brought to defend her claim that he loves her. This prompts her to turn to face Hamlet and upon further verbal abuse from him, Ophelia nally breaks her decorum. The Sparknotes' Ophelia image contextualizes the sentiment of her words in the text. The original line at this point in Hamlet and Ophelia's exchange is, "Heavenly powers, restore him!" (3.1.143) to which Sparknotes adds "to what he was" (Babra, 86) for clarity. The line could easily be taken as Ophelia displacing blame for Hamlet's cruelty from him to ambiguous "Heavenly powers" as she cannot fathom his dishonesty, but her orientation and expression in the image demonstrate an acknowledgement of Hamlet's culpability. The nal panel of Figure 17 depicts Ophelia's face contorted in anger; Hamlet has driven her to a breaking point. Her speech bubble reects her fury with its serrated edges. Although her words are not directly accusatory, she is facing Hamlet 46

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(presumably looking directly at him). Ophelia's emotions are placed before her beauty in the teenage depiction of Ophelia. The Manga Edition Hamlet also utilizes Act 3 Scene 1 as a visual breaking point for Ophelia (Figure 18). This Ophelia proves to be the most assertive of those which I discuss; although Hamlet's affronts are cruel, Ophelia challenges him with physical aggression. Instead of allowing Hamlet to break into her personal space (as he does with the love letters in the Sparknotes adaptation) Ophelia, eyes wide and mouth agape, latches onto Hamlet's arm. When Hamlet further insults her, she lashes out, slicing Hamlet's eye with her cross necklace. Of course one would generally think there would be a dire consequence from cutting the prince of Denmark's eye open in front of one's father and the king, but the rest of the comic progresses without any acknowledgment of the wound. The violent act turns Hamlet's right eye black for the duration of the comic book, which creates a profound inuence visually on the reader's understanding of Hamlet's madness. In the Hamlet story The Manga Edition creates, Ophelia is allowed to act out in such a way without repercussion because there is an understood empathy between the reader and Ophelia. The teenage Ophelia relates to the reader, rather than relying on the text or making Ophelia's character a clichŽ. The adolescent reader of the teenage Ophelia comic books does not need to understand Elizabethan decorum. Hamlet is needlessly badgering Ophelia in this scene. It is logical then for her to react strongly to Hamlet's instigating. The teenage Ophelia's aggression makes her passive death scene particularly challenging to envision. Although Ophelia's suicide takes place off stage, Queen 47

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Figure 19. Hamlet Neil Babra, No Fear Shakespeare (New York: Spark Publishing, 2008). Figure 20. Hamlet adpt. Adam Sexton, illus. Tintin Pantoja, The Manga Editions (Hoboken: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2008) 48

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Gertrude recounts the event with a great amount of detail: There, on the pendent boughs her coronet weeds Clambering to hang, an envious sliver broke; When down her weedy trophies and herself Fell in the weeping brook. Her clothes spread wide; And, mermaid-like, awhile they bore her up: Which time she chanted snatches of old tunes; As one incapable of her own distress, Or like a creature native and indued Unto that element: but long it could not be Till that her garments, heavy with their drink, Pull'd the poor wretch from her melodious lay To muddy death (4.7.172-83). This bizarrely detailed death has captivated artists for years. Sir John Everett Millais's pre-Raphelite painting of the Ophelia's suicide (Figure 1), which I present in the introduction, is a prime example. The 2009 Classics Illustrated nearly replicates the painting for its child-like Ophelia's death scene (Figure 2) as the gure looks nothing if not helpless and pure. The teenage Ophelias of Sparknotes and The Manga Edition attempt to redene and subvert this iconic notion of Ophelia's drowning The Sparknotes Ophelia's death scene (Figure 19) is reminiscent of the Millias in that Ophelia is on her back sinking to her death, but it extends beyond the pretty picture of Ophelia singing her hymns. It show's Ophelia taking her nal breaths submerged underwater attempting to sing, 49

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skeletons are a chilling reminder to the reader of the ephemerality of human esh, and Ophelia's cockeyed expression cements her sanity's demise as well as her body's. Although The Manga Edition utilizes the original play-text, the image accompanying the text tells a different manner in which Ophelia dies (Figure 20). Here Ophelia very purposefully throws herself off an outcropping of rocks. She has no "coronet weeds" decorating the surrounding trees. The idea of an accidental death is eradicated completely in the image, making Gertrude's words merely hearsay. Both depictions of Ophelia's death challenge the original description in the play, granting Ophelia an authorial authority which she is often denied in previous moments in the play. What Ophelia's character in the text of the play lacks in substance, it well makes up for with intrigue. When mere narration won't do, the short-handed response to dealing with Ophelia seems to be making her innocent and ignorant, but that somehow seems insufficient as well. Hamlet appears to partially agree with this sentiment as he projects his generalizations about women onto Ophelia: I have heard of your paintings too, well enough; God has given you one face, and you make y ourselves another: you jig, you amble, and you lisp, and nick-name God's creatures, and make your wantonness your ignorance (3.1.144-48). At least one aspect of Hamlet's assertion rings true: there is no one denable portrayal or "face" of Ophelia, or any Hamlet character for that matter. Elaine Showalter notes in her seminal feminist text on Ophelia that "[t]here is no true' Ophelia for whom feminist criticism must unambiguously speak, but perhaps only a Cubist Ophelia of multiple 50

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perspectives, more than the sum of all her parts" (Showalter, 238). What Ophelia does not say in words, she can be made to express through image and in doing so creates a new perspective and understanding of Hamlet These perspectives of Ophelia and interpretations of Hamlet are not all equally effective in appealing to an adolescent audience. The adult Ophelias indicate a general treatment of images of the characters of Hamlet as mere vessels for Shakespeare's playtext. They do not invite the adolescent reader to engage the play on a personal level. The child Ophelias similarly disengage the reader by portraying an archaic ideal of femininity which situates the Hamlet story in another distant place and time, alienating the reader. The teen portrayals of Ophelia most effectively engross and educate the reader. The teen Ophelia indicates the publisher's faith in the comic image to communicate alongside and not subordinate to or against the original playtext. 51

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CONCLUSION The rhetoric of our Western contemporary society is largely one of image, and it's beyond the consumer culture of billboards and magazines. The demand for the comic book image as study guide is indicative of image's use in teaching literature the art of the written word. It is then important to acknowledge the visual narrative being communicated to adolescents in the form of these comic book study guides, to discern the trajectory of how literature will be taught to future generations. This thesis begins the process of examining the pitfalls and triumphs of the comic book images' relationship with the playtext of Hamlet My rst chapter examines how the primacy of image over the written word can potentially mislead the adolescent reader. The Classics Illustrated covers and Will Eisner's "Hamlet On a Rooftop" reveal more about how contemporary culture interacts with the play, rather than the signicance of the play itself. Of course, Hamlet's cultural signicance cannot be quantied in denitive terms. I measure the success of the comic books as equal parts reader engagement and faithfulness to the plot and culturally signicant aspects of the playtext. In my second chapter, I attempt to gauge the comic books' effectiveness in representing Hamlet via the prism of the character of Ophelia. The comic books seem to consistently represent what I distinguish as either a child, teen, or adult Ophelia. The teen representation proves to be the most useful adaptation for the purposes of engaging and educating an adolescent audience. If given more time to explore related academic texts and develop the ideas and opinions I begin to form in this thesis, I would like to familiarize myself with more art history, and Western ethnography. There is a long art historical tradition of paintings of 52

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Ophelia; The Millias Ophelia, although probably the most famous, is not the rst painting to feature Ophelia and there have been countless more since its creation. My second chapter almost exclusively examines Ophelia's comic image yet I do not use any literature on her image or literary reputation through history to distinguish how the comic Ophelia functions in a denable or unique way. I also think more research on the female body in art would inform my argument in favor of the desexualized Ophelia in a productive way. I feel because of my lack of background in art history, my assumptions on the primacy of image over text remain more a matter of opinion. I would also like to understand contemporary Western society's consumer culture and image's pivotal role in advertisement. The comic books are commodities made to meet a demand and each publishing house that creates a comic book adaptation of Hamlet is making very deliberate choices in what is being communicated through visual narrative. At this point, I feel that, although my thesis addresses a signicant relationship between text and image, it is largely speculative and general. It touches on multiple different disciplines without delving into what historical and social factors are playing into the multiple adaptations. 53

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Aasand, Hardin L. Stage Directions in Hamlet: New Essays and New Directions Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2003. 36. Print. Appignanesi, Richard, William Shakespeare and Emma Vieceli. Manga Shakespeare: Hamlet New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2007. Print. Babra, Neil, and William Shakespeare. Hamlet New York: Sparknotes, 2008. Print. Bate, Jonathan. "Introduction to Hamlet ." Introduction. Complete Works New York: Modern Library, 2007. 1922-3. Print. Berger, John. "Chapter 1." Ways of Seeing London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1972. 1. Print. Blum, Alex A., William Shakespeare, and Sam Willinsky. Classics Illustrated: Hamlet. New York: Gilberton, 1952: 99. Print. Blum, Alex A., William Shakespeare, and Sam Willinsky. Classics Illustrated: Hamlet. New York: Gilberton, 1969: 99. Print. Blum, Alex A., William Shakespeare, and Sam Willinsky. Classics Illustrated: Hamlet. New York: Acclaim, 1997: Print. "Classical Comics Bringing Classics to Life." Classical Comics Bringing Classics to Life. 1. Web. 14 Dec. 2012. Cruz, E.R., Naunerle Farr, and William Shakespeare. Illustrated Classics: Hamlet Irvine, CA: Saddleback Educational, 2006. Print. Eisner, Will. Comics & Sequential Art Tamarac, FL: Poorhouse, 1985. 112-9. Print. Feilds, Gary, Steven Grant, Tom Mandrake, and William Shakespeare. Classics Illustrated: Hamlet. New York: Papercutz, 2009. Print. Gurr, Andrew, and Mariko Ichikawa. Staging in Shakespeare's Theatres Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. 53-70. Print. Henderson, Steve. "Hamlet: A Feminist Argument." About.com Classic Literature 2. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. Jensen, Michael P. "Comic Book Shakespeare, Part II." Shakespeare Newsletter 57.1 (2007): 2. Print. 54

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Jones, William B. Classics Illustrated: A Cultural History Jefferson, NC: McFarland &, 2011. 283-5. Print. McCloud, Scott. Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art New York: HarperPerennial, 1994. 9-21. Print. Perret, Marion D. "More Than Child's Play: Approaching Hamlet Through Comic Books." Approaches to Teaching Shakespeare's Hamlet 161-164. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2001. MLA International Bibliography 72-123. Web. 28 Aug. 2012. Plummer, Thomas G. "Diagnosing and Treating the Ophelia Syndrome." Lecture. Delta Phi Alpha. Salt Lake City. 5 Apr. 1990. BYU Magazine. Brigham Young University, Jan. 1991. 1. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. Sanders, Julie. Introduction. Adaptation and Appropriation London: Routledge, 2006. 12. Print. Savill, Richard. "Mystery of Location of Millais' Ophelia Solved." The Telegraph [London] 30 June 2010, Art News. 1. Print. Sexton, Adam, and Tintin Pantoja. Shakespeare's Hamlet: The Manga Edition Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Pub., 2008. Print. Shakespeare, William, and Sylvan Barnet. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark 3rd ed. New York, NY: Penguin Group, 1998. Print. Showalter, Elaine. "Representing Ophelia: Women, Madness, and the Responsibilities of Feminist Criticism." Boston: St. Martin's Press, 1994. 238. Print. Tondro, Jason. Superheroes of the Round Table: Comics Connections to Medieval and Renaissance Literature Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2011. 55-8. Print. Wheeler, Jo. "Classical Comics Bringing Classics to Life." Classical Comics Classical Comics Ltd., 2009. 1. Web. 28 Apr. 2013. Young, Alan R. "Eighteenthand Nineteenth-Century Visual Representations of the Graveyard Scene in Hamlet." Eds. Hardin L. Aasand and Eric Rasmussen. Madison, NJ; London, England: Fairleigh Dickinson UP; Associated UP, 2003. 189-213. Print. 55


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