ERROR LOADING HTML FROM SOURCE (http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu//design/skins/UFDC/html/header_item.html)

DIE BRUCKE

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004699/00001

Material Information

Title: DIE BRUCKE A BRIDGE TO ARTISTIC REVOLUTION
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Albiez, Claire
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2013
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Art History (Modern)
German Studies
German Expression
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Die Kunstlergruppe Brucke, or the Bridge artist movement, had as its goal the creation of a new form of art in Germany. From 1905 to 1913, its members pushed artistic boundaries and shocked the bourgeois class and even stuffier upper class with their bold and aggressive style. They incorporated Post-Impressionistic influences, exotic references, and differing media in order to create their works. They were highly optimistic about the future and subscribed to the German Expressionist concept of man's necessity of returning to nature. Taken as a whole, die Brucke successfully forged a revolutionary approach to art.The first chapter explores the denial of the painting as the most respected form of art, for die Brucke artists placed high importance on media that would be considered craft during their day. The second chapter discusses their novel approaches to the nude as a purer interpretation of the human body, which was now free of the shame associated with it at the German art academies. The third chapter analyzes their preference for simple subjects and the everyday person over traditional subjects of the day, focusing on intimate settings and the capturing of contemporary scenes of ordinary life. The final chapter examines their different responses to natural landscape versus cityscape, or the concept of the connection between man and nature versus the evils of the metropolis. I first became interested in die Brucke in 2005, when I saw the exhibit Brucke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus (The Bridge and Berlin: 100 Years of German Expressionism) at the Neue Nationalgalerie in Berlin. During my semester studying in Berlin in spring 2012, I saw the group's works at the Brucke-Museum and conducted research on primary sources related to the group. I translated these from German into English and have included them throughout. My English translation is within the text and the German original is in the endnotes.
Statement of Responsibility: by Claire Albiez
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2013
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Hassold, Cris ; Cuomo, Glenn

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2013 A3
System ID: NCFE004699:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004699/00001

Material Information

Title: DIE BRUCKE A BRIDGE TO ARTISTIC REVOLUTION
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Albiez, Claire
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2013
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Art History (Modern)
German Studies
German Expression
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Die Kunstlergruppe Brucke, or the Bridge artist movement, had as its goal the creation of a new form of art in Germany. From 1905 to 1913, its members pushed artistic boundaries and shocked the bourgeois class and even stuffier upper class with their bold and aggressive style. They incorporated Post-Impressionistic influences, exotic references, and differing media in order to create their works. They were highly optimistic about the future and subscribed to the German Expressionist concept of man's necessity of returning to nature. Taken as a whole, die Brucke successfully forged a revolutionary approach to art.The first chapter explores the denial of the painting as the most respected form of art, for die Brucke artists placed high importance on media that would be considered craft during their day. The second chapter discusses their novel approaches to the nude as a purer interpretation of the human body, which was now free of the shame associated with it at the German art academies. The third chapter analyzes their preference for simple subjects and the everyday person over traditional subjects of the day, focusing on intimate settings and the capturing of contemporary scenes of ordinary life. The final chapter examines their different responses to natural landscape versus cityscape, or the concept of the connection between man and nature versus the evils of the metropolis. I first became interested in die Brucke in 2005, when I saw the exhibit Brucke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus (The Bridge and Berlin: 100 Years of German Expressionism) at the Neue Nationalgalerie in Berlin. During my semester studying in Berlin in spring 2012, I saw the group's works at the Brucke-Museum and conducted research on primary sources related to the group. I translated these from German into English and have included them throughout. My English translation is within the text and the German original is in the endnotes.
Statement of Responsibility: by Claire Albiez
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2013
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Hassold, Cris ; Cuomo, Glenn

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2013 A3
System ID: NCFE004699:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

DIE BR†CKE: A BRIDGE TO ARTISTIC REVOLUTION BY CLAIRE LOUISE ALBIEZ A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Humanities New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Professors Cris Hassold and Glenn R. Cuomo Sarasota, Florida May, 2013 !

PAGE 2

! "" TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgementsiii List of Figures.iv Abstract.xiii Introductio n..1 Chapter One: the Denial of the Painting as the Most Respected Form of Art...10 Chapter Two: Novel Approaches to the Nude...23 Chapter Three: the Preference for Simple Subjects and the Everyday Person..34 Chapt er Four: the Different Responses to Landscape versus Cityscape Scenes...44 Conclusion.58 Appendix....64 Bibliography...68 Figures74 ! ! !

PAGE 3

! """ Acknowledgments Thank you Professor Hassold for your guidance and backing throughout this process. Thank you Professor Cuomo for your countless hours of translation and background assistance. Thank you Professor Sutherland for your con tinued support and encouragement, especially while I was in Berlin. And thank you Professor Carrasco for your valuable input. I appreciate all of you. Thank you Mama and Papa for believing in me and for always encouraging me to pursue what makes me happ y. You are the best parents I could ever ask for. And thank you Kira, Celeste, and Margaux for always being there for me. Finally, thank you to all of my friends, Alejandra especially, who have accompanied and helped me through this intense process. I love all of you. ! ! !

PAGE 4

! "# LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Die Proklamierung des deutschen Kaiserreiches ( The Proclamation of the German Empire ) Anton von Werner 1877 oil on canvas, 250 x 250 cm Source: "Karya Kayra Terbaik Pelukis Anton von Werner." Sitika bohai.blogspot.com. 2. Bacchanal ( Bacchanal ) Leo Putz 1905 oil on wood, 114 x 115 cm, signed lower left Leo Putz 05' Sammlung Sie gfried Unterberger, Meran Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 28, pl. 11 3. Schwarzer Pierrot ( Black Pierrot ) 1908 Fritz Erler oil on canvas, 206.5 x 198 cm, signed lower left Erler' Be rlin, Akademie der KŸnste Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 29, pl. 12 4. Frauenbildnis ( Portrait of a Woman ) Erich Heckel 1906 oil on canvas, 70 x 64 cm, signed lower left EH 06' Staatliche Museen z u Berlin, Nationalgalerie Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 41, pl. 27 5. Bildnis Rosa Schapire ( Portrait of Rosa Schapire ) Karl Schmidt Rotluff 1911 oil on canvas, 84 x 76 cm, s igned lower right 'S. Rottluff' BrŸck e Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 52, p l 38 6. PortrŠt Erna Schilling ( Portrait of Erna Schilling ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 oil on canvas, 71.5 x 60.5 cm, signed upper left 'EL Kir chner' Joint acquisition amongst the Friends of the Nationalgalerie, der Stiftung

PAGE 5

! # Preussischer Ku lturbesitz, and das Bund Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 205, p l 222 7. Flores astrologiae Erhard Ratoldt 1488 woodcut illustration for Albumasar's book Source: The Library of Congress. "A Heavenly Craft: the Woodcut in Early Printed Books." Library of Congress, Exhibitions. July 27, 2010. February 19, 2013. Web. 8. Te Po ( Eternal Night ) Paul Gauguin 1893 94 woodcut Source: "Te Po (Etern al Night)/Paul Gauguin 10 Traesnit." The British Museum. 9. The Kiss IV Edvard Munch 1902 woodcut Source: "The Graphic Works and Prints of Edvard Munch." The i.b. tauris blog. 10. La Paresse ( The Lethargy ) Felix Vallotton 1896 woodcut, 17.9 x 22.4 cm, signed bo ttom right on the image FV,' signed bottom left on the paper LA PARESSE,' signed bottom right on the paper fValloton / 8' Staatliche Museen zu Be rlin, Kupferstichkabinett Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 22, pl. 3 11. Ausstellung KŸn stlergruppe BrŸcke ( Die BrŸcke Artist Group Exhibit ) Fritz Bleyl 1906 poster, color lithography in yellow orange, 69.3 x 22.5 cm, paper: 71.5 x 24.5 cm Deutsches Hi storisches Museum, Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 240, pl. 273 12. Programm der BrŸcke ( Die BrŸcke Manifesto ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1906 woodcut leaflet, 15.2 x 7.5 cm, signed within the first 'M' ELK' BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 239, pl. 272 13. Berliner Atelier in der K oernerstrasse 45 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner photograph of Kirchner's 1913 apartment Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 221

PAGE 6

! #" 14. Wall Painting in the Dining Room of the Villa Hugo Perls, Berlin Zehlendorf Max Pechstein black and whit e photograph by Ute Frank Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 236, p l 268 15. Plakat fŸr das MUIM Institut ( Poster for the MUIM Institute ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1911 woodcut in black and blue (heavily faded), 86.9 x 54.6 cm, signed image lower right 'E LK' BrŸcke Museum, Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 243, pl. 278 16. Die Vier Evangelisten ( The Four Gospels ): Matthaeus ( Matthew ), Markus ( Mark ), Lukas ( Luke ), and Johannes ( John ) Karl Schmidt Rottluff 1912 42.5 x 33 cm four w rought brass reliefs, colored with oil paints, mounted with brass studs and black box frames, 42.5 x 3 3 cm BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 233, pl. 191 17. Liegender Akt ( Reclining Nude ) Lesser Ury 1889 oil on canv as Source: personal photograph at the Berlinische Galerie, Berlin 18. Innocentia Lovis Corinth 1890 oil on canvas, 66.5 x 54.5 cm StŠdtische Gale rie im Lenbachhaus,Munich Source: Lovis Corinth edited by Peter Klaus Schuster, Christof Vitali and Barbara Butts, p. 107, pl. 10 19. Salome, Second Version Lovis Corinth 1900 oil on canvas, 127 x 148 cm Museum der Bildenden KŸnste Leipzig Source: Lovis Corinth edited by Peter Klaus Schuster, Christo f Vitali and Barbara Butts 20. Puberty Ed vard Munch 1893 151 x 110 cm Najo nalgalleriet Source: ARTstor

PAGE 7

! #"" 21. Weiblicher RŸckenakt ( Female Posterior Nude ) Fritz Bleyl 1905 pencil, 44.7 x 34. 3 cm BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 84, pl. 87 22. Woman with Decanter Ernst Heinrich Platz 1896 graphit e on tan wove n p aper, 8 1/2 x 6 11/16 in. Source: Fifty German Nineteenth Century Drawings and Watercolors Shepherd Galler y, p l. 44 23. Paar ( Pair ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1908 pastel, black and color chalk, 88.5 x 68. 5 cm BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke un d Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 86, pl. 92 24. Badende im Raum ( Bathing Women in a Room ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1908 oil on canvas, signed upper right E L Kirchner 08' Source: "Badende im Raum. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner." The athenaeum.org. 25. Les Demoisell es d' Avignon Pablo Picasso 1907 New York, The Museum of Modern Art oil on canvas, 96 x 92 inches Source: Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective edited by William Rubin, p. 99 26. Marcella Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1909 10 oil on canvas, 76 x 60 cm, signed upper right E L Kirchne r' Moderna Museet, Stockholm Source: Der Blick auf Fraenzi und Marcella: Zwei Modelle der BrŸcke KŸnstler Heckel, Kirchner und Pechstein p. 39, pl. 145 27. FrŠnzi liegend ( FrŠnzi Reclining ) Erich Heckel 1910 black and red woodcut, image: 22.5/20.2 x 41.8/40.8 cm; paper: appr. 35 x 56 cm, signed bottom right Heckel 10,' bottom left FrŠnzi liegend' Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 92, pl. 99 28. Streitendes Paar am Kaffeetisch ( Argu ing Couple at a Coffeetable ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1909

PAGE 8

! #""" pen and ink, 20.2 x 16 cm Source: "Collection Search." National Gallery of Australia. Artsearch.nga.gov.au. 29. Bin armer Leute Kind ( I am a Poor Folks' Child ) Karl Schmidt Rottluf 1905 woodcut, image: 20 x 15.3 cm, paper: 28.5 x 22.3 cm, signed bottom right Karl Schmidt,' bottom left Bin armer Leute Kind/ Orig. Holzschn.,' bottom left of the print KS' BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 96, lower image 30. Fehma rnmŠdchen ( Fehmarn Girls ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 woodcut, 42.2 x 43.8 cm, signed lower right E L Kirch ner' BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 263, pl. 312 31. Artistin Marcella Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1910 oil on canvas, 101 x 76 cm, signed upper right E L Kirchner,' Artistin' on v erso BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 178, pl. 196 32. Das grŸne Sofa ( the Green Sofa ) Max Pechstein 1910 oil on canvas, 96.5 x 96.5cm Source: "RŸckseiten." Rheinische art.de. May 2012. 33. Tanz ( Dance ) Max Pechstein 1909 oil on canvas, 95 x 120 cm Private Collection on loan to the BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 193, pl. 210 34. Hamburger TŠnzerinnen ( Hamb urg Dancers ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1910 pen and brush in black ink, 44.8 x 35 cm, signed bottom right E L Kirchner' BrŸck e Museum Berlin: Ka rlheinz Gabler Collection Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 195, pl. 213 35. Tanzpaar ( Dance Pa ir ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1914 oil on canvas, 91 x 65cm, signed lower right E L Kirchne r'

PAGE 9

! "$ Essen, Museum Folkwang Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 197, pl. 216 36. Beim Vorlesen ( Reading Aloud ) Erich Heckel 1913/14 watercolor and pencil 45.4 x 37.3 cm, signed bottom right Heckel 13/14 / Beim Vorle sen' BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 187, pl. 206 37. Mittag im Dangaster Moor ( Midday in the Dangast Mire ) Karl Schmidt Rottluff 1908 oil on canvas, signed lower left S Rottluff 1908' Source: "Einhundert Jahre BrŸcke' in Oldenburg." Expressionismus: Auftakt zur Moderne. Landesmuseum fŸr Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Oldenburg. Expressionismus oldenburg.de. 38. Sitzendes MŠdchen ( Moritzburg ) ( Seated Girl [ Moritzburg ] ) Max Pechstein 1910 oil on canvas, 80 x 70 cm, signed upper left HMP 1910' Staatliche Museen z u Berlin, Nationalgalerie Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 103, pl. 110 39. Ropewalk in Edam Max Liebermann 1904 oil on canvas, 101 x 71.1 cm New York NY, The M etropolitan Museum of Art Source: German Masters of the Nineteenth Century, Paintings and Drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany p. 151 pl.53 40. Drei Akte im Walde ( Three Nudes in the Woods ) Otto Mueller 1911 oil on c anvas Source: "Artist Says What?" aremington seniorsem.blogspot.com 41. Frauen im Bade ( Women Bathing ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1911 oil on canvas, 151 x 197 cm BrŸck e Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 107, pl. 113 42. HŠuser bei Nacht ( Houses by Night ) Karl Schmidt Rottluff 1912 oil on canvas, 95.6 x 87.4 cm, signed lower left S. Rottluff 1912' Source: "Cave to Canvas." Cavetocanvas.com.

PAGE 10

! $ 43. Liegende ( Reclining Woman ) Erich Heckel 1913 black and red woodcut, image: 18 x 10.5 cm, pa per: 27.5 x 19.8 cm Staatliche Museen zu Be rlin, Kupferstichkabinett Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 216, pl. 236 44. Geschwister ( Siblings ) Erich Heckel 1913 woodcut, image: 41.5 x 30.7cm, paper: 61.4 x 47cm Source: "The Collection: S iblings (Geschwister) from the portfolio Eleven Woodcuts, 1912 1919 (Elf Holzschnitte, 1912 1919)." Museum of Modern Art. Moma.org. 45. Nollendorfplatz Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1912 oil on canvas, 69 x 59 cm, signed bottom right E. L. Kirchner 12' St iftung Stadtmuseum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 206, pl. 223 46. Berliner Strassenszene ( Berlin Street Scene ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 oil on canvas, 121 x 95 cm, signed bottom right E. L. Kirch ner' BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 200, pl. 217 47. Chronik der KG BrŸcke ( Chronicle of the Artist Group die BrŸcke ) Page 1 Er n s t Ludwig Kirchner 1913 woodcut, 67.2 x 51.4 cm, text of the Chronicle by Kirchner and woodcuts by Kirchner, Schmidt R ottluff, and He ckel BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 247 48. Chronik der KG BrŸcke ( Chronicle of the Artist Group die BrŸcke ), Page 2 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 woodcut, 67.2 x 51.4 cm, text of the Chronicle by Kirc hner and woodcuts by Kirchner, Schmidt Rottluff, and Heckel BrŸck e Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 247 49. Chronik der KG BrŸcke ( Chronicle of the Artist Group die BrŸcke ), Page 3 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 woodcut, 67.2 x 51.4 cm, text of the Chronicle by Kirchner and woodcuts by Kirchner, Schmidt Rottluff, and Heckel BrŸck e Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 247

PAGE 11

! $" 50. Eine KŸnstlergruppe ( An Artist Group ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1926 oil on ca nvas, 168 x 126 cm, signed verso 'E.L. Kirchner 25/Frauenkirch Davos/Eine KŸnstlergruppe' Museum Ludwig, Cologne Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 2 91, pl. 349

PAGE 12

! $"" DIE BR† CKE: A BRIDGE TO ARTISTI C REVOLUTION Claire Louise Albiez New College of Florida, 2013 ABSTRACT Die KŸnstlergruppe BrŸcke or the Bridge artist movement, had as its goal the creation of a new form of art in Germany. From 1905 to 1913, its members pushed artistic boundaries a nd shocked the bourgeois class and even stuffier upper class wit h their bold and aggressive style. They incorporated Post Impressionistic influences, exotic references, and differing media in order to create their works. They were highly optimistic about the future and subscribed to the German Expressionist concept of man's necessity of returning to nature. Taken as a whole, die BrŸcke successfully forged a revolutionary approach to art. The first chapter explores the denial of the painting as the most respected form of art, for die BrŸcke artists placed high importance on media that w ould be considered craft during their day. The second chapter discusses their novel approaches to the nude as a purer interpretation of the human body, which was now free of the shame associated with it at the German art academies. The third chapter analyzes the ir preference for simple subjects and the everyday person over traditional subjects of the day, focusing on

PAGE 13

! $""" intimate settings and the capturing of contemporary scen es of ordinary life The final chapter examines their different responses to natural lan dscape versus cityscape or the concept of the connection between man and nature versus the evils of the metropolis. I first became interested in die BrŸcke in 2005, when I saw the exhibit BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus ( The Bridge and Berlin: 100 Years of German Expressionism ) at the Neue Nationalgalerie in Berlin. During my semester studying in Berlin in spring 2012, I saw the group's works at the BrŸ cke Museum and conducted research on primary sources related to the group. I translated these from German into English and have included them throughout. My English translation is within the text and the German original is in the endnotes. Professor Cris Hassold Division of Humanities Professor Glenn R. Cuomo Division of Humanities

PAGE 14

! % Introduction "What is great in man is that he is a bridge and not a goal" 1 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche Die BrŸcke or the Bridge ,' which signified a bridg e between past and future art, was a group o f young German artists that collaborated from 1905 to 1913 within the larger era of German Expressionism. Their work is spontaneous, personal, and homogenous. It is classified by motifs borrowed directly from n ature, landscapes, and nudes, all depicted in a symbolic tone and luminous color palette. Additionally, it stands as a metaphor for a more comprehensive spiritual experience and man's relation to the universe during a time when the falsehoods of reality h ad to be abolished and replaced with a new dialogue that was free of history and tradition. They admired African and Oceanic art, peasant folklore, and forms created by the na•ve and young and desired a primitive and direct style through crude technique, splintered strokes, jagged forms, and alternative mediums (Vogt et al, 1). Their chosen subject was the human form, nude or clothed, outdoors or indoors, male or female. They denied the focus on aesthetic beauty and instead aimed to reach the highest pow er of expression in their works. In so doing, they were asserting their right to an independence of pictorial expression, in which line, !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 Was gro§ ist am Menschen, das ist, dass er eine BrŸcke und kein Zweck ist ( Thus Spoke Zarathustra ) ( Also Sprach Zarathustra ).

PAGE 15

! & form, color, and space became independent entities freed from tradition. This celebration of artistic freedom gave th em their spiritual importance. Die BrŸcke emerged during a changing social and political climate in turn of the century Germany. The time was characterized by sentimental, romantic, and idealized interpretations of nature. Furthermore, the accepted offic ial art of 1880 Berlin praised the reign of Kaiser Wilhelm I and presented historical subjects approved by the monarch in the grand manner taught at the academies of Dresden, Munich, and other cities (Vogt et al, 1). Since the recently unified Germany sti ll remained divided among regional, confessional, social, gender, and urban rural divides, the sphere of culture was used to achieve historical and political legitimacy and to acquire international recognition (Jefferies, 42). 2 Therefore, painting histori c themes was held as the official pinnacle of art during this time in Germany. The officially sponsored academies, such as the Preu§ische Akademie der KŸnste ( The Prussian Academy of the Arts ), looked down upon portraiture, genre, and landscape painting as academic historical paintings were able to fill a political role: to educate, uplift, and legitimize the state. Dynastic monuments to Wilhelm I and images of the Goddess Germania, Bismarck, and the German people as a vulnerable group were commonly commis sioned. The Kaiserreich controlled the academies, provided art schools, offered prizes and fellowships, commissioned monuments, decorated public buildings, and maintained museums. Wilhelm I was not as !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2 The German Empire was established in 1871 on the "twin foundations" of Prussian military might and economic dynamism. It consisted of four kingdoms (Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, and WŸrttemberg), six grand duchies, five duchies, seven small principalities, and three free cities (Hamburg, Bremen, and LŸbeck) (Jefferies, 9). This ReichsgrŸndung or founding of the Empire,' granted sovereignty to the individual states and rulers who agreed to cede specific powers to it. Therefore, it was more like a European Union than a federal state. Additionally, the Empire's federalism was unbalanced because Prussia had 60 percent of t he population and territory, permanently provided the emperor, and enjoyed an effective veto on all constitutional change. Prussia proved to be a bastion of monarchical conservatism and this left Germany with a mix of absolute monarchy, parliamentary repr esentation, and plebiscitary democracy. While the economy industrialized, politics remained somewhat backward (Jefferies, 11).

PAGE 16

! directly involved but Wilhelm II, who took power in 1 888, took quite an active role in cultural policy (Paret, 423). Believing that change in art implied instability in politics and society, he fervently supported historicism and restricted modernist movements, especially Impressionism and Expressionism, wh erever he could (Jefferies, 113). He accepted or rejected candidates for the Preu§ische Akademie der KŸnste and nominees for state honors, he judged the Berlin salon, he helped select the officials for the ministry of cultural affairs (which were the dire ctors of the Prussian museums), he decided purchases for the state collections, and he could reject works from certain modern schools (Paret, 423). The Kaiser obviously viewed art as merely a political factor and therefore subject to his strict control. One of the strongest attempts at cementing the iconography of the Empire and the importance of the Hohenzollern monarchy was the painting of Anton von Werner, who captured the Empire's proclamations in his works (Jefferies, 43). These grand paintings, suc h as his 1877 Die Proklamierung des deutschen Kaiserreiches ( Proclamation of the German Empire ) (Fig. 1), deliver works that value didactic over aesthetic or emotional effect (Jefferies, 113). They are photo realist and have a praising military tone. Von Werner also functioned as the emperor's favorite advisor on art policy as head of the Royal Institute for the Fine Arts in Berlin. He too was against any form of modernism and clearly stated that "it is not the task of the Royal Institute to worship at t he feet of ugliness and bad taste. The state will not spend money to support such a cult" (Paret, 427). This was a stifling artistic environment, which by the 1890's began to be opposed by younger artists. First the Munich Secession, then the Berlin Sec ession achieved this protestation against the conservative academies. More revolutionary artistic groups then formed. These adventurous younger artists were influenced by

PAGE 17

! ( French Symbolism, Jugendstil (German Art Nouveau), Fauvism, the works of Edvard Mun ch and James Ensor, and Slavic Folk Art. Eventually, these would lead to German Expressionism (Vogt et al, 1). Die BrŸcke was formed in Dresden on June 7, 1905 by the four young student painters of the Dresden Institute of Technology who had become acquai nted the previous year: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt Rottluff, and Fritz Bleyl. It began with the meeting of Heckel and Schmidt Rottluff in 1903 in Chemnitz, who then met Bleyl and Kirchner in Dresden, where all four were studying arc hitecture. Kirchner, who had studied painting in Munich with the Jugendstil artists Wilhelm von Debschitz and Hermann Obrist, disliked the work of the Munich Secessionists (Vogt et al, 3). He later noted that as a student in Munich he realized before th e paintings of Leo Putz and Fritz Erler [] that only a new study of nature and a new attitude towards life would bring the much needed renewal of German art ." 3 He favored art of earlier times, such as Greek vases, Roman murals, and Byzantine mosaics, whi ch reflected their creator's lifestyles. He was convinced that the role of the modern day artist was to give a voice to present day experiences instead of re creating the past. Since Heckel, Schmidt Rottluff, and Bleyl all agreed, they created die BrŸcke in order to revolutionize painting at around the same time as the Fauves appeared in France (Vogt et al, 3). Their youth, for Kirchner was the oldest at 25 and Schmidt Rottluff the youngest at 20, made them obvious candidates for such a revolution (Dicks on, 9). Moreover, only Bleyl and Kirchner !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3 vor den Bildern von Leo Putz und Fritz Erler [] dass nur ein neues Naturstudium und eine neue Lebenseinstellung der deutsche n Kunst die so nštige Erneuerung bringen wŸrde" (Beloubek Hammer, 26). Both Putz and Erler favored the decorative over the natural in art. Putz's 1905 Bacchanal (Fig. 2) has sexual undertones and was removed from the MŸnchner Glaspalast (the Munich Glass Palace) due to morality issues and the inclusion of a blond woman being attacked by a leopard. Erler's 1908 Schwarzer Pierrot ( Black Pierrot ) (Fig. 3) depicts the other' (Beloubek Hammer, 26).

PAGE 18

! ) received their degrees as Heckel and Schmidt Rottluff dropped out in 1906. This meant that the group members had never seen the inside of an official art academy and were not tainted by tradition (Moeller, 16). The group's name stemmed from Nietzsche's concept of man's perfectibility through forcible self assertion. It served a double purpose, as it also identified their desire to provide a way to a positive and instinctive response to art and life. They were ac tively revolting against a "passionless, middle class dominated society" (Barry, 7). They were inspired by the Middle Ages and attempted to re create the environment of the medieval guilds: they held their collecti ve studio in a shoemaker's shop and lived out a joint style of spiritual solidarity and communion (Vogt et al, 3) Their influential precursors, Gauguin and van Gogh, also had wished for this form of communal artist environment. As a group, die BrŸcke had no explicit program. In 1906, Kirchner wrote a small manifesto in the form of a woodcut that basically asserted that everyone who "portrays, directly, without qualification, the creative impulse" belongs to die BrŸcke (Haftmann, 38). He later qualified this in a letter to Nolde as the objecti ve being to attract "young and fermenting elements" (Haftmann, 38). In 1906, Max Pechstein and Emil Nolde joined the group, Bleyl left in 1909, Otto Mueller joined in 1910, and in 1911 die BrŸcke moved to Berlin. 4 Two years later, the group dissolved ami dst disputes with Kirchner. Die BrŸcke emerged during a revolutionary time for man. The turn of the century and the modernization that it brought with it were oftentimes problematic for the individual. Mechanization and the rise of the metropolis elici ted a response from German !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4 Being older than the other BrŸcke members, Nolde failed to participate in the unity of the group and left after only one and a half years. The Finnish artist Axel Gallen Kallela and the Swiss painter Cuno Amiet joined die BrŸcke and participated in a few exhibitions but never went to Dresden or lived out the ful l BrŸcke lifestyle (Dickson, 12 13). As older artists, Nolde, Amiet, and Gallen Kallela received more recognition from the Berlin Secession than did the other BrŸcke members (Beloubek Hammer, 326).

PAGE 19

! Expressionist artists, although they did not provide an answer to this problem. This led to a focus on the individual and philosophical breakthroughs in Germany and played a major role in shaping individuals' consciousness of the mselves. The role of man became central and involved the psychological study of the many facets of his personality, his enigmatic nature, and his exploration of the soul. Nietzsche, favored by die BrŸcke contributed to this new concept of man with his i nsistence on the dignity and inalienable individuality of the self. A revolution in human attitude was taking place, which resulted in the German youth movement. This encompassed a "war against school and home," in which a whole generation attempted to r eclaim their lives as well as a fresh approach to nature, reality, and man (Haftmann, 26). In addition to revolutionary thought, the group came in contact with revolutionary artworks of the time and saw the newly discovered artifacts from outside of Europe This in turn affected their style. The early BrŸcke style was spontaneous, personal, and homogenous but its sources were highly diverse. The Impressionist and Neo Impressionist theories of the division of color into its pure values were already known. Kirchner noticed early on that the placement of singular colors next to each other as opposed to the blending of colors, such as in the work of Paul Signac, left "the works much more colorful 5 Kirc hner's winter in Munich in 1903/04, afforded him expos ure to not only the woodcut technique from Hugo Steiner Prag and Jugendstil at the Technischen Hochschule MŸnchen ( Munich University of Technology ) but also the works of Kandinsky, Bonnard, Renoir, van Gogh, Rodin, Toulouse Lautrec, Vuillard, Valloton, van Rysselberghe, Georges Lemmen, and Signac in Munich exhibits (Moeller, 12). Van Gogh, whose work was exhibited in Dresden in 1905 just as the group was founded, was !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5 "die Werke viel Farbiger" (Beloubek Hammer, 27).

PAGE 20

! + a major influence in his patchy brushstroke and bold color choices (Vogt et al, 3) Bleyl responded that it was "a big, impressive surprise 6 The group became so influenced by van Gogh by 1907, that Nolde suggested changing the group's name to "van Goghiana" (Beloubek Hammer, 27). Heckel's art teacher Fri tz Schumacher in 1905 blamed their u ncharacteristic approach to art on the influence of a van Gogh exhibit, which could be seen at this time in Dresden. 7 The expressive arabesque and the decorative flatness of the Jugendstil were also at the fore in Germany, which came to inspire die BrŸc ke's early woodcuts. Edvard Munch was especially influential with his original, barbaric, and aggressively bold works. 8 Kirchner had seen art of the South Seas in a 1904 exhibition which presented the possibility of the ultimate power of expression (Haft mann, 34). Added to this, the group made discoveries at the Dresden ethnographic museum well before the French artists began to collect African sculpture (Haftmann, 190). The result of this was painting of an astounding, practically poster like quality. Colors were intense, objects were replaced by striking symbols, and subject matter was highly dramatic. All of die BrŸcke artists therefore employed an established pattern of construction and a tension charged surface, yet they continued to develop their style. But since their intentions ran parallel with those of Fauvism, they eventually came into contact with it when Pechstein returned from Paris in 1907 and when the Galerie Richter in Dresden held the first exhibit of Fauvist art in Germany in 1908. That same year, Nolde saw the works of Monet, Gauguin, and van Gogh; and the works of Henri Matisse were exhibited in the gallery of Paul Cassirer in Berlin in 1909 (Haftmann, 34 and Beloubek Hammer, 27). What die BrŸcke was not able to see in person, it saw through books and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6 ein e gro§e, eindrucksvolle †berraschung (Moeller, 18). 7 den Einfluss einer van Gogh Ausstellung, die damals in Dresden Aufsehen machte" (Moeller, 17). 8 Munch was invited to join the group but declined (Moeller, 22).

PAGE 21

! publications, as Bleyl noted that "one day, Kirchner brought with him a volume from some bookstore with pictures of Meier Graefe about the modern French artists. We were enthralled ." 9 Before this time, die BrŸcke artists had loosely defined parameters for their painting, evidenced by Heckel's 1906 Impressionistic Frauenbildnis ( Portrait of a Woman ) (Fig. 4), but now they quickly developed a richer pictorial expression of the elements. This transformation occurred during the pleasant summers spent together at the Moritzburg pond s and North Sea shores, always immersed in nature. This second BrŸcke style is classified by divided surfaces, fan like outlines, and color applied in rich, br oken rhythms. It lasted until 1911 and is represe nted by Schmidt Rottluff's 1911 Bildnis Rosa Schapire ( Portrait of Rosa Schapire ) (Fig. 5) (Haftmann, 39). The final phase coincides with the group's collective move to Berlin that same year. Kirchner, Heckel, and Schmidt Rottluff joined Pechstein, who h ad already been living there since 1908, and Otto Mueller, who had joined the group in 1910. Their new style developed in the circles of the New Secession, which had been carved out of Liebermann's Berlin Secession by Nolde and Pechstein in 1910. It is b ased wholly on their previous assumptions, but with a completely new organization of space, with layers of flat relief creating high tension (Haftmann, 42). Objects become sharper edged, muted and earth tones fill the palette, and the space is interlaced in a restless fashion. Kirchner's 1913 PortrŠt Erna Schilling ( Portrait of Erna Schilling ) (Fig. 6) is a prime example of this, which was their final style and reflects the desperateness of the spiritual and historical situation in Germany. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9 Eines Tages brachte Kirchner aus irg endeiner BŸcherei einen bebilderten Band von Meier Graefe Ÿber die modernen franzosischen KŸnstler mit. Wir waren begeistert" (Moeller, 14).

PAGE 22

! My argument is that die BrŸcke members had a revolutionary artistic spirit but were na•ve in their goals and applications. This concept is supported by Schmidt Rottluff's statement that "we didn't have the intention at all of founding a new style [] What we wanted, was a refusal of the outmoded, overly cultivated art practices 10 They hated the pretension of their day and the popular view of the artist as a pompous man in a velvet jacket, visiting the salons of society women. Instead, they depicted their girlfrien ds and friends, shocked Dresden's stuffier burghers by having studios in working class areas, and had an uninhibited attitude towards sexuality. Their dual exploration of artificial (the city) and natural (the country) seems to oppose their call for a ret urn to nature, but both forms of life allowed them to triumph over the stale bourgeois attitude of the time (Jefferies, 236). They successfully forged a unique path in art, yet their optimism and lack of clear focus brought about their own undoing. I wil l support this through four different sub topics: the denial of the painting as the most respected form of art, the novel approaches to the nude as a purer interpretation of the human body, the preference for simple subjects and the everyday person over tr aditional art subjects of the day, and the different responses to landscape versus cityscape scenes (the concept of the connection between man and nature versus the evils of the metropolis). Furthermore, analyses of their novel approach to the artist's li festyle through their unique correspondences, ateliers, and writings, as well as the reception of their works during their time will complete the picture that I am attempting to paint of die BrŸcke !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 10 Wir hatten gar nicht die Absicht, einen neuen Stil zu grŸnden [] Was wir wollten, war eine Absage an den veral teten, hochgezŸchteten Kunstbetrieb" (HŸlsewig Johnen, 174).

PAGE 23

! %. Chapter One: the Denial of the Painting as the Most Respected Form of Art Die BrŸcke represented the first avant garde reaction against the accepted, academic tradition, so it makes sense that they would also introduce new media and challenge the idea that the painting was the worthiest form of art. From t he beginning, printmaking was as important as painting to die BrŸcke : their manifesto was printed on a woodcut. The importance of the heretofore lowly' art to this group instantly becomes clear, as it creates a maximum effect by minimal means, which in t urn adheres perfectly to the concept of German Expressionism (Haftmann, 192). In addition to prints, the idea of the comprehensive artwork is reflected through the glass painting, wall dŽcor, furniture, metalworking and advertisements of die BrŸcke Thei r multimedia talents combined to quickly create a distinctive BrŸcke style in which many of the individual artists' characteristics blended together. Moreover, they did not care for the permanence of their works and used cheap materials and oftentimes pa inted on the backsides or even over previous works. For them, the pure creative act took precedence over creating consumable art (Dickson, 12). One of their strongest tenets was that art and life should become one entity; this explains their drive toward s art in all aspects of their life and not simply painting or drawing. Art Nouveau's attempt at bringing the everyday and art together and making it a staple among the masses was brought to another level by die BrŸcke artists, who believed that all object s of daily life ought to be touched by art (Beloubek Hammer, 218). Clearly, die BrŸcke members wanted to fill their lives with

PAGE 24

! %% art, not merely create art within the parameters of what the current society saw as high art.' Their approach to art was all e ncompassing and truly revolutionary. One of the most noteworthy advances of die BrŸcke is their work in prints. The woodcut especially had been a fundamentally German art form, being the first images printed on paper in the early fifteenth century by cra ftsmen in the northern Alps. Created as everyday objects for devotional use, these woodcuts were commonplace and their creators were unimportant. It is these simplistic woodcuts, such as the 1488 Flores astrologiae (Fig. 7) printed by Erhard Ratdolt, tha t would eventually inspire the Expressionists five centuries later when die BrŸcke basically reintroduced them into the German art repertoire. 11 In the sixteenth century, engraving and metal etchings were developed which required more skill and were theref ore less widely circulated and more appreciated. Albrecht DŸrer was the earliest master of both woodcut and engraving, the "proto type of the painter printmaker" (Haftmann, 185). It was die BrŸcke that initiated the revival of the interest in printmaking As a group, each of the individual members utilized all three basic printing methods: woodcut, lithography, and intaglio. 12 Their interaction with this art form began before their union as a group; Kirchner carved linoleum cuts with Bleyl in 1902 befor e they met the remaining group members. Once the group was formed, the members' first prints were woodcuts, in which a blend of Germanic Gothic prints and more recent prints by !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 11 Ratdolt created the woodcut illustrations for the publishing of ninth century astronomer Albumasar's Flores astrologiae ("A Heavenly Craft: the Woodcut in Early Printed Books," par. 2). 12 Pri ntmaking had been affected by these three technical innovations by 1900. Lithography allowed the immediacy of the artist's design on a stone to not be lost when printed. Wood engraving was a labor intensive variant of the woodcut but allowed for large qu antities of cheaply printed pictures necessary for the modern age. Photo engraving revolutionized visual communication and surpassed traditional print media as a tool of creating multiple images but was mechanical and reduced human interpretation and invo lvement (Haftmann, 186).

PAGE 25

! %& Gauguin, Munch, and Felix Vallotton is apparent. 13 Gauguin exposed large areas of uncut wood in his prints, Munch used stylized and abstracted forms, and Vallotton utilized decorative massing of black against white. Die BrŸcke clearly admired this form of print for according to Kirchner, "there is no way to study an artist better t han by his graphic work, [and] the woodcut is the most graphic of the print processes" (Haftmann, 192). Their woodcuts are so direct and intense in the process of creation, that they oftentimes ripped out the wood instead of carving it out, which resulted in much more powerful scenes. Heckel later summarized his woodcut developments: I finished my first woodcut in Dresden in 1905 after the Xylographic art, cutting out of the hard boxwood the clean sketches with the slate pencil. Then followed the rounde d iron, to arrive at the woodcut more freely through the simply ripped out sketch on the log (alder, lime tree, poplar), which would be utilized from here on out. Then finally came a short cobbler knife, and without a pre sketch, the hand cuts freely into the wood a woodcut, just like it would work on paper with the pen 14 In 1907 Schmidt Rottluff introduced lithography to the other group members. But they looked down upon transfer paper, which was used by the French, and drew directly on the stone. The edges of the stone are visible in Kirchner and Nolde's lithographs, and this look defines the BrŸcke prints. Their lithographs are more spontaneous than their woodcuts, since it allows for the freedom of the brush. In some cases, the prints of die !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 13 Examples are Gauguin's 1893 94 Te Po ( Eternal Night ) (Fig. 8), Munch's 1902 The Kiss IV (Fig. 9), and Vallotton's 1896, La Paresse ( The Lethargy ) (Fig. 10). 14 1905 in Dresden fertigte ich meinen ersten Holzschnitt nach Art der X ylographen, die saubere Zeichnung auf hartem Buchsbaumholz mit dem Griffel ausgeschnitten. Darauf folgte das Rundeisen, um die nur aufgerissene Vorzeichnung auf von jetzt an immer verwendetem Langholz (Erle, Linde, Pappel) freier zum Holzschnitt zu gestal ten. Dann endlich kam ein kurzes Schustermesser, und ohne Vorzeichnung schneidet die Hand, wie sie auf Papier mit dem Stift arbeitet, frei im Holz den Holzschnitt" (Moeller, 21).

PAGE 26

! %' BrŸck e artists are more convincing as works of art than their paintings, a result of the straightforward expression of emotions and style that woodcuts afford. A great example of this straightforward expressionism is Bleyl's 1906 poster for the first BrŸcke ex hibit in Dresden (Fig. 11). The influence of Jugendstil is evide nt in the stylized font of the Ausstellung KŸnstlergruppe BrŸcke ( Artist Group BrŸcke Exhibit ) but the minimalist treatment of the nude female body is a departure. Using only two tones of ye llow, Bleyl is able to impart a clear sense of this woman's physique. He stated that he favored this model Isabella due to her natural body "without any deformation caused by the silly fashion of the corset" (Simmons, 122). She stands somewhat uneasily, with her arms out and knees bent as if she is balancing. Shadows play over her body and highlight her womanly figure. It is precisely this that got Bleyl in trouble: the police censored this image because they saw pubic hair in the shadow below the bell y, apparently giving it an inappropriate sexual power (Simmons, 121). Kirchner produced the most prints of the group, totaling an astounding 1700 woodcuts, lithographs, and etchings. Even without his painted works, he can be recognized as a skilled and thoughtful artist through his prints alone. His intense emotions led to his woodcut technique of direct, slashing strokes and sharp edges. Since the strongest tensions appear in black and white, his prints are highly effective (Beloubek Hammer, 197). Th e single most important woodcut of die BrŸcke was without a doubt their 1906 Program der BrŸcke' ( BrŸcke' Manifesto ) (Fig. 12), written by Kirchner. As any manifesto, it outlines the requirements for membership of the group. In its entirety, it states:

PAGE 27

! %( With the belief in development and a new generation of creators as well as appreciators, we call together all youths, and as youths who bear the [burden of the] future, we want to achieve the freedom of our lives and limbs against the well established ol der powers. Everyone belongs to us who portrays, directly, without qualification, that which drives his creative impulse. 15 It is brief and lacks specificity; basically so general in its terms that it could be overlooked. It differs from other artist man ifestos, but so did the artists of this group. The fact that anybody who adheres to their simple concept of purely creating art then belongs to the group is very open ended. In fact, die BrŸcke manages to completely avoid the terms art' or artist' in t heir manifesto, suggesting a new relationship to the creative process. They were neither exclusive nor haughty, but desired a community of artists. This focus on a close knit community of artists made them one of the most unified groups in Europe at the time. It was highly organized and centralized, with a communal spirit that mirrored that of a medieval workshop guild (Woods, 12). Upon joining the group, Pechstein noted that "we were overjoyed to discover our complete unison in the urge for liberation, for an art surging forward, unrestricted by convention" (Dube, 5). They lived and worked together, shared materials, developed cohesive forms, and even copied one another's paintings as prints (Woods, 12). They first lived in a remodeled butcher's shop in a working quarter of Dresden, which Heckel and then Kirchner rented out. Then in 1909, the group rented out the ground floor of Berliner Strasse 80, which became a place of work, reading, and philosophy learning for Kirchner, !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 15 Mit dem Glauben an Entwicklung an eine neue Generation der Schaffenden wi e der Geniessenden rufen wir alle Jugend zusammen und als Jugend, die die Zukunft trŠgt, wollen wir uns Arm und Lebensfreiheit verschaffen gegenŸber den wohlangesessenen Šlteren KrŠften. Jeder gehšrt zu uns, der unmittelbar und unverfŠlscht das wiedergie bt, was ihn zum Schaffen drŠngt" (My translation of Programm der KŸnstlergruppe BrŸcke ( Manifesto of the BrŸcke Artists' Group ), 1906).

PAGE 28

! %) Heckel, Schmidt Rottluff, Pechstein, and Nolde (Gabelmann, 34). They all ste mmed from privileged, educated P rotestant families but were on their way to becoming alternative members of society through their frugal living style (Gabelmann, 26). This was not a completely self chosen statement they were making about society and class, as they were financially cut off from their parents. Yet they were still recognized as alternative by those who visited them, such as Kirchner's first sponsor and collector, the Hamburg provincial court director Gustav Schiefler, who observed in 1910 that "he dwelled here in a living situation that a bourgeois would deem uncharacteristic, materially simple, but sophisticated in his artistic sensibility. He worked feverishly, without concerning himself w ith the time of day 16 In addition to defying societal standards, die BrŸcke artists defied housing laws: the ateliers that they worked and lived in were forbidden to be used as homes. Schmidt Rottluff describes their solution: The atelier was under the roof. Inhabiting this space was forbidden due to fire code restrictions, but staying and working there was allowed. We therefore had to avoid the impression that these were our living quarters. The most necessary furniture had to disappear into the att ic during the day. And so the place was decorated purely with curtains. A curtain hung in front of the entrance door, a second one in front of the oven heating [...] an adjoining room was hidden by a curtain with abstractedly patterned batik 17 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 16 Er hauste hier in einer nach bŸrgerlichen Begriffen ungeregelten Lebensweise, materiell einfach, aber in seinem kŸnstl erischen Empfinden anspruchsvoll. Er arbeitete fieberhaft, ohne sich an die Tageszeiten zu kehren (Gabelmann, 34). 17 Das Atelier befand sich unter dem Dach. Dort durfte nach feuerpolizeilicher Vorschrift nicht gewohnt werden, wohl aber dŸrfte man sich dort aufhalten und arbeiten. Wir mussten deshalb den Eindruck vermeiden, dass es sich um unsere WohnrŠume handelte. Die notwendigsten Mšbel mussten tagsŸber im Speicher verschwinden. So war der Raum nur mit VorhŠngen dekoriert. Ein Vorhang hing vor der Eingangstur, ein zweiter vor der Ofenheizung [...] einen Nebenraum verdeckte ein Vorhang mit ungegenstŠndlicher Batik" (Beloubek Hammer, 312).

PAGE 29

! %* Kirchne r assumed the role of group leader and driving force because unlike the other members, who were virtually self taught, Kirchner was the only one to have received anything close to a formal artistic training. Still, the concept of the artist community was at the fore. In contrast, the Blaue Reiter was less of a group and relied on their exhibitions and publications to define them as a collective whole (Woods, 12). Die BrŸcke was actively revolting against a "passionless, middle class dominated society" an d in doing so providing a positive and instinctive response to art and life (Barry, 7). Die BrŸcke held collective exhibits, which solidified the unity of the group. The visibility of the group can be attributed to Kirchner's fighting spirit and Hecke l's organizational talent, for in the 8 years of their association, the group had over 70 group exhibits in Germany and abroad (Gabelmann, 30). The first BrŸcke exhibit was held in a renovated Dresden lighting showroom in 1906, followed by a graphic work publication called BrŸcke Mappe and further collective exhibits (Dickson, 13). Their second exhibition included graphic works, even those of non member Wassily Kandinsky. Once they moved to Berlin, they participated in the Salon des Refuses but withdrew to maintain their continued isolation from other movements (Lauck, 17). Their stubborn devotion to the group is one of their unique strengths and shows in their survival today as more of a group than as individual members. Their novel and oftentimes jarr ing art did not garner them positive reviews during their time, as critics wrote in 1905 in the Leipziger Volkszeitung "and so we wish to nice ly lift these boys out of their not completely clean diapers" and spoke of "gestural impotence 18 The Flensburger Nachrichten labeled the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 18 und so wollen wir diese Jungen [] freundlich aus den nicht ganz sauberen Windeln heben, gebŠrdender Impote nz (Gabelmann, 28).

PAGE 30

! %+ 1907 BrŸcke exhibit "Dreadful! Delirious! Horrible!" 19 By 1912, they had received some positive criticism from Curt Glaser: "the Salon Gurlitt should receive praise for providing its rooms for the exhibition of this organization of young artists, which certainly has some of the best talents," although this is more of a compliment to the salon. 20 Once in Berlin, the group was still greeted with descriptions of "chamber of horrors," "smearings," and "red blue green ribaldries 21 Co nstructive criticism was provided by Kirchner himself, who functioned as a critic on his own art using a pseudonym. The group members continued to support each other, ignore the wrath from the bourgeois public and hostility of perturbed critics, and carri ed on their struggle in enthusiastically organized exhibits (Dickson, 13). Die BrŸcke was also unique in that it valued the consumer just as much as the artist, for it spoke to both artist and patron in its address of "a new generation of creators as well as appreciators" ( Programm der KŸnstlergruppe BrŸcke ). The group therefore encouraged associate membership of patrons, which they accrued through the selling of memberships in return for a progre ss report and BrŸcke Portfolio of prints. These supporters were dubbed "passive members" of the group, the "active member s being the artists themselves. The use of portfolios allowed die BrŸcke to reach a wider audience through their work, and they gained 68 members in this way (Dube, 6). These passive members were the few during this time that grasped the revolutionary approach to art that die BrŸcke was taking. One such member, the writer and journalist Friedrich Koehler Haussen, noted that Die BrŸcke is an association of the young, the growing, the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 19 "Schauderhaft! Wahnsinnig! GrŠsslich! (Gabelmann, 28). 20 Dem Salon Gurlitt darf man Dank wissen, das er mutig genug war, dieser Vereinigung junger KŸnstler, unter denen gewiss einige der besten Talente sind, seine RŠume fŸr ihre Ausstellung zur Verfugung zu stellen" (Gabelmann, 34). 21 "Schreckenskammer," "Schmierereien," und "rot blau grŸne Derbheiten" (Beloubek Hammer, 327).

PAGE 31

! %, becoming It is a product of surging fermentation, a cry for freedom from boundaries, a quavering trepidation for that which lies outside of what was up to now allowed, outside of what was artistically possible up to now 22 It would take decades for others to re alize this. The use of multiple prints meant that the public could be more active in the reception of their art, since it was solicited with subscriptions. Prints that included posters, manifestos, stationary, announcements, annual reports, and membershi p cards were all production woodcuts and lithographs. In addition to these subscription prints, die BrŸcke produced six portfolios devoted to the work of a single or several members between 1906 and 1911 (Haftmann, 192). It is important to note that the use of advertisement of an artist or artist group as its own form of artistic expression was uncommon at this time. The fact that die BrŸcke utilized membership prints is not only a testament to their unity as an artist group but also to their revolutiona ry approach to the art world. Further evidence of the revolutionary approach to art of die BrŸcke is the group's multimedia talents. They strove to create art in many differing media and to successfully assimilate these creations into their lives. Kirch ner notes that their way of life "though strange to the ordinary man, was not meant to shock, it was a pure and simple compulsion to integrate art and life" (Dube, 7). Die BrŸcke even added qualities and examples of prehistoric man as well as ethnological objects to their artistic approach. Their ateliers often had decorations either from or influenced by African, Oceanic, or Asian cultures. Kirchner would later write in his Davoser Tagebuch ( Davos Journal ) of "decoration and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 22 Die BrŸcke ist eine Vereinigung Junger, Wachsender, Werdender. Sie ist ein Produkt aufwallender GŠrung ein Schrei nach Schrankenlosigkeit, ein zitterndes Bangen nach dem, was au§erhalb des bisher Erlaubten, au§erhalb des bisher kŸnstlerisch Mšglichen liegt (Gabelmann, 28).

PAGE 32

! %! free art" making the salient point that only the "primitives of all nations" knew these types of art that the West at the time found fascinating. 23 A good example of the all inclusive artwork seamlessly combined with life is Kirchner's Berlin Atelier in the Koernerstrasse 45 of Berli n (Fig. 13). Although he moved there with his life partner Erna Schilling in October 1913 after the dissolution of the group, a good deal of documentation exists on it and it is useful in understanding the life philosophy of the artist and the group. He wanted a larger home so he chose this apartment, which covered a full floor and consisted of five rooms. The apartment was fully furnished and decorated in true BrŸcke fashion, consisting of a niche with day beds, table, and pillows, all covered in embroi dery that continued up the walls. 24 The scenes remind of his days on the island of Fehmarn and are separated by ornamental, curving lines. The colors are reduced to the trio of green, beige, and red that also appears in his paintings of the same scenes. By bringing the island of Fehmarn into his living space, Kirchner was creating his own paradise of the primitive' and other' in his apartment. Upon visiting Kirchner here, the philosopher and poet Karl Theodor Bluth noted: "Kirchner lived in an Atelier that he had assembled out of an attic apartment. Every piece of furniture, every carpet was created by him. When one entered his room, one felt as if they were on another star or a faraway century 25 This stands as a strong testament to the ideal of die BrŸcke : the merging of life and art. That Kirchner would attempt to !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 23 Dekoration und freie[r] Kunst," "Primitiven aller Všlker (Beloubek Hammer, 218 ). 24 The partners of die BrŸcke members, such as Schmidt Rottluff's sister and Kirchner's partner Erna Schilling, often contributed to the all inclusive artwork of the apartments with their batik, embroidery, and weaving skills (Beloubek Hammer, 308). 25 K irchner wohnte in einem Atelier, das er aus einer Mansarden Wohnung zusammengebaut hatte. Jedes Mšbel, jeder Teppich war von ihm eigenhŠndig hergestellt. Wenn man in seinem Raum trat, fŸhlte man sich auf einem anderen Stern oder in einem weltfernen Jahrh undert (Beloubek Hammer, 220).

PAGE 33

! &. escape civilization while living in one of the most modern cities in the western world seems almost counterintuitive, but he attempted it nonetheless. More than any other BrŸcke member, Pechstein had talents outside traditional two dimensional art. In his years before die BrŸcke he studied decorative drawing and then spatial and interior design. He created glass windows, mosaics, and wall paintings in numerous apartments during this ti me. His 1912/13 wall painting in the dining room of the Villa Hugo Perls in Berlin Zehlendorf (Fig. 14) is a good example of his skills. When he founded a private art school in Berlin (the MUIM Institu te) with Kirchner, they advertis ed it in the magazine Der Sturm in December 1911 as geared towards not only "modern teaching in painting, graphics, and sculpture" but also "carpet glass metal work/painting in conjunction with architecture 26 This revolutionary approach to an art education stood in sharp contrast to the conservative Royal Academy of Fine Arts and was therefore attacked by its director, Anton von Werner. He took a very calculated approach in his attempt to censor the group, first writing to the minister of religious and educational affair s on Dec. 7, 1911 that the woodcut image of a nude woman smelling a flower on the cover (Fig. 15) was "shameless" and that "this weed overgrows and chokes all healthy life and always diminishes us in the name of the freedom of art" (Radkau, 123). He final ly encouraged the Central Police Office for the Combat of Immoral Writings, Pictures, and Performances to order an investigator to attend classes at the MUIM institute under the pretense of wanting to perhaps enroll. Although no source of immorality' was conclusively found, the school failed and closed shortly thereafter. Traditional easel painting was still the most highly regarded in Germany at the time, with !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 26 Moderne[n] Unterricht in Malerei, Graphik, Plastik, Teppich Glas Metall Arbeit / Malerei in Verbindung mit Architektur (Beloubek Hammer, 218).

PAGE 34

! &% German critics decrying the lack of great fine artists such as Rodin or Cezanne in their count ry and the presence of "wallpaper painters," as Meier Graefe derogatorily termed them, and the tendency of some German art to function as applied art, as mere ornamentation to well designed walls (Simmons, 136). Die BrŸcke's denial of the painting as the most respected art form was an unpalatable concept for a Germany in competition with France. A favoring of metal work is apparent in the art pieces of the group during its Berlin years. Schmidt Rottluff created his wrought brass reliefs Die Vier Evangel isten ( The Four Gospels ) in 1912 of Matthaeus ( Matthew ), Markus ( Mark ), Lukas ( Luke ), and Johannes ( John ) (Fig. 16). They are reminiscent of architectural adornments with their angular features and brassy finish. Johannes ( John ) is especially angular, wi th absolutely no curves in his features and just a series of triangles at varying depths. Matthaeus ( Matthew ) looks strikingly similar to Nolde's harrowing Prophet woodcut of the same year. Both have stylized and sharp features, with the cheekbones being highly defined to the point of hunger. The brows are furrowed and the beards long. Additionally, both heads are depicted in a cropped and partial profile view, with a strong vertical emphasis. The theme of this work is also noteworthy in that it points to the group's changing sources of guidance. While the group had actively attempted to move away from the norms of their society, they seem to have returned to Christianity. This return to Christianity in the pre war years can be seen as a final effort to find comfort in the face of reality, of a nation going to war. Nevertheless, their attraction to Christianity is curious for such a self declared revolutionary group in the early twentieth century.

PAGE 35

! && Die BrŸcke challenged the painting's place as the mos t respected form of art. They succeeded through their impressive creation of prints and their use of decorative arts. Their efforts in printmaking elevated the status of the print and reintroduced the woodcut into the art world. Their use of prints also allowed them to fashion their unique brand:' they created every single piece of advertisement themselves. This is a testament to their effort to move towards a new art, to bridge past and new higher ideals. They were very savvy when it came to creating a name for themselves for they were aware that they needed to generate interest through exhibits and sales, but also had the foresight to see that advertisement held a special power at the beginning of the twentieth century. As for their decorative arts, they not only furnished their apartments but also worked with textiles, glass, metal, and even jewelry. All of these creative results of die BrŸcke reflect the idea of a comprehensive artwork and stand as a testament to their revolutionary approach to ar t.

PAGE 36

! &' Chapter Two: Novel Approaches to the Nude One of the earliest testaments to the unique path that die BrŸcke forged in art is their novel approach to the nude. At the time of their founding they created the idea of the Viertelstundenakt ( Fifteen Mi nute Nude ), a concept they then applied to their more elaborate works. They thought they reached a purer interpretation of the naked body through their selection of non professional models, relaxed scenes, close artist model relationships, and non Western influences. Die BrŸcke's depictions of the nude are wholly original and instinctive. Modernization gave rise to an increasingly wealthy and culturally philistine middle class, which determined the moral theme of the art market. By the turn of the cent ury, they ceased supporting the genres of the Kaiser and preferred the clean naturalism and Impressionism of Lesser Ury and Lovis Corinth. Ury provides a modest view of the female nude with his 1889 Liegender Akt ( Reclining Nude ) (Fig. 17), which manages to hide her nudity with her arms crossed over her chest and her legs slightly bent. Her hands even cover her face, indicating either sadness or humiliation due to her nakedness. Similarly, Corinth creates an allegorical nude with his 1890 Innocentia (Fig 18), who attempts to hide her nakedness. The veil subtly references the Virgin Mary but this image is teeming with eroticism. His 1900 Salome, Second Version (Fig. 19) is even more overt in its sexual tones. Here he utilizes the religious figure of S alome and the exotic setting of the Orient as an excuse to depict a seductively bare chested woman with

PAGE 37

! &( intense make up and pouting lips (Schuster, 127). These all present the image of an inhibited or sexualized nude, and Kirchner noted in 1914 that "the free, really free unconventional nude was regarded as immoral" (Simmons, 130). Die BrŸcke defined itself in opposition to this Naturalism and Impressionism that filled the art market (Boorman, 9). As for the Wilhelmine court, it attempted to censor art t hat depicted nudes as it attacked what it saw as immorality and obscenity in art, literature, and theater under the guise of an anti pornography clause of the National Penal Code (Simmons, 122). At the end of the day, die BrŸcke was fighting against not o nly the Wilhelmine restrictions but also the increasingly materialistic bourgeois mores. Heckel mused "What we had to remove ourselves from was clear; where we were heading was certainly less clear 27 It makes sense that under such intense restrictions a rebellious movement in which psychological or emotional expression took precedence over form and functionality would develop (Jefferies, 113). A new attitude towards the nude form, one that was no longer rooted in allegory and embarrassment of the nak ed body, was necessary (Jefferies, 230). Man was beginning to be confronted with his body during this time, in part by the breakthroughs in psychoanalytic research and when Munch created a scandal with the work PubertŠt ( Puberty ) (Fig. 20) in 1893 4. The se both functioned to distance nude figure drawing from images limited to fertile women (Nobis, 17) When the young students at the Technischen Hochschule Dresden started their weekly figure drawing class in 1904, nobody could have anticipated that they would influence both the world of figure drawing and a key aspect of German Expressionism in !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 27 Wovon wir weg mussten, war uns klar. Wohin wir kommen wŸrden, stand allerdings weniger fest (Gabelmann, 24).

PAGE 38

! &) this freer and more natural approach to the nude. Their teacher Fritz Schumacher did however acknowledge their revolutionary possibilities by admitting that When I did not want to be satisfied with the hastiness of his [Heckel's] drawing, he called upon his right of stylization. I presented the view: one must first learn to draw properly, only then is one allowed to stylize [...] but I did not convince him at all He was of the mind that only came down to the creation of an overall impression and this is what the case was for him. From this point on, the soon to be BrŸcke people began to draw hi ghly un orderly,' to my horror [] But in reality, the future was b reaking through here... 28 They soon invented the concept of the Viertelstundenakt ( Fifteen Minute Nude ), in which the model would hold a pose for this duration instead of a more thought out pose for an unlimited period of time. In doing so, die BrŸcke arti sts were forced to swiftly sketch the model, which resulted in a more perceptive understanding of the naked body as well as a better trained hand to eye coordination. They soon perfected their ability to draw what they saw without removing their eyes from their subject; depicting the nude thus became more intuitive (Beloubek Hammer, 78). This approach resulted in much freer depictions of nudes. Bleyl's early 1905 sketch Weiblicher RŸckenakt ( Female Posterior Nude ) (Fig. 21) is defined through strong sh adowing and a slightly broken contour line. 29 Depicted from the back, the model's body is suggested rather than explicitly rendered, as certain aspects are murky and not !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 28 als ich mich mit den FlŸchtigkeiten der Zeichnung nicht zufrieden geben wollte, berief er sich auf das Recht der Stilisierung. Ich vertrat die Ansicht: erst muss man korrekt zeichnen kšnnen, dann erst darf man sich erlauben zu stilisieren [...] aber ich Ÿberzeugte nichts. Er meinte, nur auf das Erfassen eines Gesamtausdrucks kŠme es an, und der sei fŸr ihn nun einmal so. Von dieser Zeit an begannen die kŸnftigen >BrŸcke< Leute, zu meinem Schrecken hšchst >uno rdentlich< zu zeichnen [...] Aber in Wahrheit brach hier die Zukunft durch..." (Moeller, 17). 29 No Viertelstundenakte' survive of Kirchner or Schmidt Rottluff, one survives of Heckel, and many survive of Bleyl (Beloubek Hammer, 79).

PAGE 39

! &* literally represented. Her hair and head seem to be one solid entity and her bodily features are highlighted by an unrealistic shadow. Despite this quick and loose depiction, Bleyl imparts a surprisingly natural image of the female nude. The viewer is given a complete sense of the model: the manner in which her hair is gathered at the c rown of her head, a realistic portrayal of her curves, and her casual stance of outwardly pointing toes and right arm resting on her hip. Moreover, the starkly lessened detail of the atelier objects in the background gives the subject weight and dimension In short, this is a real woman in a real interior. This sense of realness is provided by the atmosphere surrounding the process, for the group met once a week at Kirchner's place to paint the Viertelstundenakte together. They would have thought provok ing discussions over tea that a hostess had prepared, which Bleyl described as "obviously loud and funny" 30 so that Kirchner's landlords would complain, at which point the nude drawing would be moved to Bleyl's place This process stands in stark oppositio n to that of the stuffy, royally sponsored academies. Ernst Heinrich Platz studied at the Munich Academy and his 1896 Woman with Decanter (Fig. 22) places the focus on the realistic representation of her clothed form strictly in the profile view as oppose d to Bleyl's loose depiction of a nude female (Kashey, 44). In order to lend authenticity to its works, die BrŸcke focused on creating a comfortable scene for their models. The atelier functioned as a haven in which an alternative living model reigned supreme. Away from the critical eye of outsiders, die BrŸcke artists could explore their creative impulses. Scenes of girls bathing, friends sitting side by side, and hugging pairs are taken directly from daily life (Beloubek Hammer, 79). The group even explored intimate relations in their works, depicting nude !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 30 natŸrlich auch lau t und lustig (Gabelmann, 25).

PAGE 40

! &+ couples in varying degrees of closeness. Kirchner's crayon drawing Paar (Pair ) (Fig. 23) from 1908 shows a naked couple, the female resting against a piece of furniture while the male approaches her. What is interesting here is that the woman seems to be apprehensive while the man seems to be pursuing her; she is turning her body and her face slightly away from him while he leans into her and nudges his leg against hers. This is a way more reali stic situation than the reclining nudes being portrayed by Matisse at this time, for example. The cropping is also unique: the heads are partially cut off at the top and the feet are entirely cut off at the bottom. Combined with the realistic situation, this closely cropped drawing seems to capture a true moment as opposed to a carefully orchestrated scene. A quote by Kirchner supports this idea: "the studio became a home to people that were drawn: they learned from the painters, the painters from them. Unmediated and comprehensively, the paintings captured life 31 This work also reveals the shift in the approach to nudes that die BrŸcke underwent in 1908 and 1909. Whereas before the figures were somewhat jagged and had broken contour lines, they becam e large, flattened forms with elegant contour lines, as is evident here. In addition, muted tones were replaced with thin, bright colors that were set next to each other in a complementary manner, such as the blue and yellow hues seen here (Beloubek Hamme r, 79). Another work that clearly plays into the idea of the atelier as a haven is Kirchner's 1908 Badende im Raum ( Bathing Women in a Room ) (Fig. 24). It depicts five nude women in an apartment, with one clothed male at the periphery. Just like Pablo P icasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (Fig. 25) from the previous year, each woman is in !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 31 Das Atelier wurde eine Heimstatt den Menschen, die gezeichnet wurden: Sie lernten von den Malern, die Maler von ihnen. Unmittelbar und reichhaltig nahmen die Bilder das Leben auf (Gabelmann, 26).

PAGE 41

! &, a distinct pose and has a unique skin tone. 32 Two are standing, one is leaning against the doorframe, one is sitting on the floor, and one is lying on the bed in the next room. They are individualized through their differing skin tones, which range from pink to yellow, as well as their varying faces. Kirchner has begun his shift towards a more angular interpretation of the human face, much like the mask like visages of P icasso's example. The variety of profiles, from two classical profiles, two three quarter profiles, and one back profile, maintain the idea of variety within the piece. Multiplicity is further evoked through the color palette, which is dominated by varyi ng yellow and green hues. The walls and clothing of the male create the background against which the yellows draw the viewer's eye across the entirety of the canvas. As for the women, they function as objects within their setting and are not fazed by the artist, the viewer, or even the male observing them off to the side. They do not interact with one another and are self involved. This all signifies a relaxing of the boundaries between artist and model, male and female, and scenes and reality. The cho ice of placing these nude women within a domestic interior is also a statement, for it carries a different weight than an image of nude women in nature. These women are no longer nude' but naked' when placed in such a common setting. The clothed male o bserver to the right only heightens this absurdity of a group of naked women inside an apartment. Kirchner seems to be boldly challenging the norm of nude figural painting. He is asserting his freedom to depict the nude exactly as he pleases, which a quo te in the third person supports. He wrote that he was especially interested in the naturally naked human being. He knowingly broke the traditional manner of the nude study and created for himself in his !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 32 Kirchner could not hav e seen Picasso's work, since it was not publicly exhibited until 1916, but it was talked about in French and German art circles by people who had visited Picasso's Montmartre Studio (Green, 2).

PAGE 42

! &! studio a circle of young women, whom he studied in their free movement. Thousands of drawings and hundreds of paintings and studies resulted from this. A beautiful, healthy, blossoming sensuality that never turns base emanates from these works 33 This makes it clear that he did not view his nudes as lowly or base, but simply as testaments to the human body. 34 Die BrŸcke also achieved a new type of figure drawing through their selection of models. The professional models of the time were trained in classical poses that were suitable for artistic repr esentations. Yet the young group of artists did not want to continue to depict the routine trite and forced poses and instead sought a more natural depiction. To achieve this, they simply avoided trained models. Amateur models that were not yet trained and were not tainted by the common style were able to present themselves in the everyday and most natural poses for the artists (Beloubek Hammer, 78). They used women, and sometimes girls, from the neighborhood, who would move about the ateliers freely an d contributed to the general notion of die BrŸcke members that life and art should seamlessly combine. It was no longer an artist's studio, but rather a living space that fused life and art. This fostered a relaxed approach to model artist relationships, which was entirely opposite of the strict Wilhelmine norm. Two of these neighborhood girls were Fr Šnzi and Marc ella, whom Heckel, Pechstein, and Kirchner !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 33 Besonders interessierte ihn naturgemŠ§ der nackte Mensch. Hier zerriss er bewusst die traditionelle Art des Aktstudiums und schuf sich in seinem Atelier einen Kreis junger MŠdchen, die er frei in der Bewegung studierte. Tausende von Zeichnungen und Hunderte von Bildern und Studien entstanden hierbei. Eine schšn e gesunde blŸhende Sinnlichkeit, die nie gemein wird, liegt Ÿber diesen Arbeiten (Gabelmann, 28). 34 Just like the English language, German differentiates between naked' and nude.' Being naked' is the absence of clothes and has a suggestion of embarras sment, while being nude' is to be the subject of art (Clark, 23). Diderot commented on this in the Salon of 1767: "a nude woman isn't indecent. It's the lavishly decked out woman who is [] it's the difference between a woman seen and a woman displaying herself" (Goodman, 79).

PAGE 43

! '. depicted from 1909 1912. 35 It is clear that die BrŸcke artists subscribed to the German Expressionis t concept of children being pure, natural, and uninhibited. The young girls therefore encompassed their inclination towards spontaneous perception and stood as the answer to the crisis of the patriarchal German system (Grimberg, par.5). This is supported by a quote from Kirchner that "we fell upon the nature in the girls 36 Why this purity overwhelmingly manifested itself in depictions of nude females as opposed to males in die BrŸcke's works is a sign of their naivetŽ. Kirchner's 1909 10 Marc ella (Fig. 26) is a painting of the nude girl with a large bow in her hair. What makes this special is that she is comfortably gazing directly at the viewer; she does not seem uneasy about her nudity as might be expected from a young girl. Her posture is relaxed wh ile also being modest, as she crosses her legs and rests her forearms in her lap. She stares squarely forward and seems to practically be challenging the viewer to find some sort of offense in the work. She would have been about 14 years old at the time of this work and Kirchner wrote that Marc ella has now become quite at home and is developing fine features. We have become quite familiar with one another [] There exists quite a charm in such a pure female, indications that could make one crazy. More fantastic than those of the older girls. More free, without having lost the developed female. Maybe !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 35 Fr Šnzi and Marcella are the models most closely associated with die BrŸcke during their Dresden years. Marcella was born in 1895 and Fr Šnzi in 1900, so they were entering or undergoing puberty as the artists depicted them. Natu rally, this has brought up questions about inappropriate relationships with the children and possible pedophilia that will most likely never be conclusively answered, because written records do not completely address this and all those involved have died ( Grimberg, par. 5). Pechstein wrote in his remembrances that the mothers of their children models were satisfied by the goings on in the ateliers and recounts that once a policeman caught the artists at the Moritzburg ponds, confiscated a painting in order to notify the Dresden public prosecutors, but laughed the matter off and even complimented Pechstein on his skill once he fulfilled his summons (Nobis, 36). 36 wir stŸrzten uns auf die Natur in den MŠdchen (Volkhard, par. 7).

PAGE 44

! '% some things are more developed in her than in the more mature ones and will diminish again 37 which points to a perhaps unsavory view of the girl. The f act that she has bright red lips and the suggestion of red painted fingernails does indeed pose a problem for her being painted in the nude by a grown male. Kirchner does not answer this creeping suspicion one way or another in this work, leaving the view er with a mesmerizing but problematic portrait. Either way, her make up symbolizes her waking awareness of her femininity. In addition to this, the fact that Marc ella has a large white bow in her hair underscores her nudity even further. The crisp white of the bow draws the viewer's eye towards the off white hues that Kirchner chose for her facial and body skin tones. Add to that the prominent eyes and pure red lips and this becomes a quite arresting portrait. The feeling of ease is embodied by the num erous complementary colors permeating the image. The red that comprises sections of her hair and the contour lines of her body are complemented by the green in her hair and contours of her body. Red and green elements continue throughout the painting, dr awing the viewer's eyes across the canvas entirely. The complementary hues of the yellow wall and the blue pillow that Marc ella is resting on further create a sense of ease. This is a prime example of die BrŸcke's favoring of intimacy over veiled allegor ies or illustrational poses in the depiction of the nude. They were functioning without embarrassment towards the naked body, which effectively outraged the public as it taunted their bourgeois morality (Haftmann, 16). !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 37 Marcella ist jetzt ganz h eimisch geworden und entwickelt feine ZŸge. Wir sind ganz vertraut geworden [] Es liegt ein gro§er Reiz in einem solchen reinen Weibe, Andeutungen, die einen wahnsinnig machen kšnnen. Toller als in den Šlteren MŠdchen. Freier, ohne dass doch das ferti ge Weib verliert. Vielleicht ist manches bei ihr fertiger als bei den reiferen und verkŸmmert wieder" (Gabelmann, 37).

PAGE 45

! '& By 1910 the influence of African and Oceanic art begins to play a deciding role in die BrŸcke nudes (Beloubek Hammer, 79). The forms eventually become sharper, and the faces become substantially reduced, even more mask like than some of their previous work. Heckel's 1910 woodcut Fr Šnzi lie gend ( Reclining Fr Šnzi ) (Fig. 27) is a prime example of this phase. This engraving shows a nude, ten year old Fr Šnzi lying down. As opposed to the older Marc ella Fr Šnzi is less withdrawn and aware of her sexual development. She is depicted in a much mo re minimalist expressionism than die BrŸcke's previous works, with three distinct parts: the white of her body, the red that she is resting on, and the black of the undefined background. Of course, this basic style could be attributed to its being an engr aving and therefore not able to have as much detail, but the fact remains that the line work is much harsher than before. This results in prominent features and a pure simplicity that is immediately apparent. The viewer is directly confronted with Fr Šnzi 's bold face, which, just like Marc ella's, challenges the viewer. Such an audacious depiction of a nude would not pass at the Wilhelmine court, and the fact that this is of a prepubescent girl is even more brash. This simple and forward style became prom inent for all of die BrŸcke's members and transferred over to their other mediums. Overall, die BrŸcke's depictions of nudes represent the free spirit that defines the group. They definitely did not subscribe to the stale expectations of the Wilhelmine court or to the Impressionistic morality of the bourgeois ie avoiding trite poses, professional models, and banal settings. Their first artistic revolt was their approach to the nude and they carried this rebellion over to their other themes. As Kirchner himself put it, "art is made by man. His own figure is the center of all art (...) Therefore one must begin with

PAGE 46

! '' the man himself 38 It is problematic that for die BrŸcke this new approach to the nude was for the most part limited to the female body. N evertheless, in an age of sexual restrictions, the free depiction of the nude human body is a statement in and of itself. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 38 die Kunst ist vom Menschen gemacht. Seine eigene Gestalt ist das Zentrum aller Kunst (...) Deshalb muss [man] mit dem Menschen selbs t beginnen (Nobis, 17).

PAGE 47

! '( Chapter Three: T he Preference for Simple Subjects and the Everyday Person The simple subject and everyday person was another maj or theme for die BrŸcke They viewed the simple person, the person excluded from the bourgeois and elite realm, with much respect. As opposed to the increasingly modernized man of their time, they clung to simple subjects and everyday experiences as indi cators of purity of life and spirit. By depicting intimate scenes of daily life, revealing portraits, and uninhibited dance scenes, they were indirectly advocating a return to a simple way of life, one that would again be free of the shackles of moderniza tion. These images are not necessarily depictions of work, such as office or factory labor, nor are they exclusively images of hardship. They instead seem to be advocating the simple way of life as the most valuable. This idea extends to German Expressi onism in general: man ought to reject modernization and return to his innocence. The importance placed on lived situations and real people was a result of die BrŸcke members' backgrounds. In his remembrances, Pechstein claims "[to have] grown up amongst simple people and nature 39 His father was a laborer and his mother was an ironing lady. Schmidt Rottluff was the son of a miller and Nolde came from a family of farmers. Both Heckel's and Kirchner's fathers were engineers. And Mueller prided himself on the legend that he descended from a line of gypsies and lived off and on with !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 39 selbst unter einfachen Menschen und mit der Natur aufgewachsen [zu sein] (Beloubek Hammer, 94).

PAGE 48

! ') them after 1924 (Beloubek Hammer, 94). Essentially, they were proud to not originate from the upper classes against which they were fighting. In Dresden, die BrŸcke members l ived in a working quarter of the city. Although this location was in part a result of the need for cheap rent, the artists enjoyed the daily contact with the simple people' that it afforded. Kirchner remembered later: "the BrŸcke people had nothing but struggle, and the poor people nourished me and mended my clothing as best they could 40 They found the genuine life that they desired for their works here. One of these depictions of simple people in an honest moment is Kirchner's Streitendes Paar am Kaf feetisch ( Arguing Couple at a Coffee Table ) (Fig. 28) from 1909. In this quick sketch, Kirchner manages to capture the feeling of this couple mid fight. The woman is obviously the aggressor, with her opened mouth and accusatory finger pointing towards t he male, while he is seated and seems to be on the defensive. The high angle and haphazard lines further contribute to the feeling of unease. One gets the sense that they are fully immersed in their fight and take no notice of either artist/viewer. Die BrŸcke also tackled somber moments. Schmidt Rottluff's 1905 woodcut Bin armer Leute Kind ( I am a Poor Folks' Child ) (Fig. 29) draws the viewer in to the young poor girl's sadness. The dramatic shadowing highlights her gloomy features, such as her furrowe d brow, her pouting lip, and especially her sunken in eyes. She seems to be highly apprehensive about something at this moment, displaying doubtfulness through her facial expressions. Her eyes drive this point home, for they have heavy bags under them an d squint questioningly towards the right. Someone or something in the world has !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 40 Die BrŸckeleute hatten selber nichts als Kampf, und die armen Menschen haben mich genŠhrt und meine Sachen geflickt, so viel es ging" (Gabelmann, 27).

PAGE 49

! '* mistreated her and left her vulnerable and apprehensive. The title acts somewhat as an explanation and begs sympathy from the viewer. Overall, die BrŸcke functioned in a phi losophical light that did not provide explicit criticisms or answers since affirmation and optimism are always present while specific social commentary is missing. This points to their naivety and lack of clear program to fight against as a group. Howeve r, it cannot be denied that they valued capturing authentic moments with their depictions of people, which bespeaks their attempt at an unconventionally new art and their overall desire for innocence. In their opposition of the conventional and desire to reach pure artistic creativity, die BrŸcke artists unapologetically captured expressions of real people. A good example of this is Kirchner's 1913 woodcut Fehmarnm Šdchen ( Fehmarn Girls ) (Fig. 30). It depicts two girls from the isle of Fehmarn, with sligh t suggestions of mental retardation as a result of inbreeding in their features. Their eyes droop, their faces are asymmetrical, and the one girl's teeth are sneering. One reason why die BrŸcke artists were so drawn to this island was that it was seclude d and fairly untouched by civilization, but with this came the fact that many of its inhabitants were the result of inbreeding. Kirchner creates a slightly disturbing scene, not overtly so but inherently. The jagged cuts in the wood, in differing directi ons and thicknesses, help create this unsettled sense. The girls and their environment seem almost to be one entity. Kirchner is clearly focusing on a sense of emotion rather than aesthetic beauty here. He was drawn to the pure naturalness, as he himsel f claimed that "there I painted pictures of absolute maturity, as far as I can judge that. Ochre, blue, green are the colors of Fehmarn, wonderful coastlines, sometimes of the Pacific richness, great flowers with fleshy styles and added to this a populati on quite

PAGE 50

! '+ degenerated by inbreeding 41 This was the last thing that the Impressionistically leaning bourgeois wanted to see, and one of the group's critics addressed their work as making "one feel real terror when looking at the things" (Herbert, 8). One o f the major artistic goals of die BrŸcke members was pictorial conversion of the personally immediate moments of life, including total subjective reality. The individual feelings of the artist therefore became a part of the depiction, which was supposed t o capture the mood, atmosphere, and emotional trigger of the moment (Beloubek Hammer, 176). Kirchner's 1910 Artistin Marcella (Fig. 31) displays this goal. It is a painting full of grace and inner peace. The subject is depicted in deep inner reflection and undisturbed by the artist or the viewer. The young girl is seen in a greenly saturated painting. She stands out from the green hues of the background walls, floor, and sofa through her contrasting blue and green striped dress, her yellow skin tone, a nd her red slippers. While two other objects, the bottles and a white cat, are prominently pictured here, it is still Marcella that commands the viewer's attention. Without many defining details, Kirchner manages to impart her with a real sense of calm c ontemplation or simply boredom. This befits her character of being introspective and calm in comparison with the younger FrŠ nzi who was more lively and carefree. She rests her face in her right hand, so that her mouth is covered and her one visible eye i s slightly closed. Whatever her emotion, she does not seem to be fazed by the artist's or the viewer's presence. The acquaintance Kirchner had with the young girl allows her to be completely comfortable and is supported by her relaxed pose and the foresh ortened perspective from a higher ground. Together, these facets create a sanctified space to !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 41 ich habe dort Bilder gemalt von absoluter Reife, soweit ich das beurteilen kann. Ocker, blau, grŸn sind die Farben von Fehmarn, wundervolle KŸstenbildung, manchmal von SŸdseereichtum, tolle Blumen mit fleischigen Stilen und dazu eine durch Inzucht ziemlich degenerierte Bevšlkerung (Kirchner, 40).

PAGE 51

! ', which the viewer is granted access by Kirchner (Beloubek Hammer, 176). This relays a rare intimacy that came to define die BrŸcke In viewing Pechstein's 1910 D as GrŸne Sofa ( The Green Sofa ) (Fig. 32), one instantly recognizes that it is the same scene as Kirchner's Artistin Marcella of the same year. Marcella is wearing the same outfit, sits on the same side of the sofa, and even rests her leg up on the couch a nd her chin in her hand. The cat is also included, albeit turning his head the other way. These similarities strongly suggest that these two paintings were created at the same time, which means that the young girl would have been posing for not one, but two artists. That she appears so calm and undisturbed by this attention in both works is a testament to the relaxed atmosphere surrounding the creation of art for die BrŸcke This relaxed atmosphere was not only found in die BrŸcke's ateliers, but throug h the members' contact to simple people' from the working quarter of the city of Dresden. Kirchner noted, in the third person, that "simple people brought their bodies and shared their scanty bread with the artists. Kirchner learned the course of life a gain in their houses 42 Dance was another important subject in die BrŸcke's everyday scenes. Since it is usually associated with freed dynamics and sensual bodies, it is therefore very fitting for die BrŸcke : they saw in dance a metaphor for the uninhib ited youth and thirst for life that they exhibited (Beloubek Hammer, 190). Movement equaled life lived in its most intense form. The free spirited, lax mood of people of the night, artists, clowns, and dancers attracted die BrŸcke members, with whom they felt a special connection. They saw in this world of the night an alternative to the common bourgeois smugness that they !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 42 einfache Menschen des Volkes brachten ihre Kšrper und teilten ihr karges Brot mit dem KŸnstler. In ihren HŠuser wieder lernte Kirchner den Ablauf des Lebens kennen" (Beloubek Hammer 94).

PAGE 52

! '! were trying to flee from. This world had seedy tones to it, but this only rendered it more true and real for die BrŸcke Pechstein displayed this realness in his 1909 painting Tanz ( Dance ) (Fig. 33), in which he offers a peek behind the scenes of this world. In its depiction of two dancers warming up, half dressed in their costumes, this painting shows the unconventional approach of these artists to the otherworld' of the honky tonk. Although they are topless, dressed only in skirts and heels, they are not fetishized. One holds the other woman's hands as she stretches forward. This is probably a warm up routine before their act, w hich the setting confirms with its mirror behind them. A real sense of vitality and movement is conveyed through the color choice and brush stroke. There is a strong relationship between greens and yellows, which are repeated throughout the painting. Th e dancer's bodies are mint green and burnt orange while their skirts, hair accessories, and shoes have bright yellow accents. The painterly brush stroke emanates in all different directions on the various objects, which has the effect of creating a flow o f movement within the piece. Pechstein successfully captures the motion of this scene as opposed to objectifying the women in it. The artistic translation of experienced situations into direct naturalness was a declared goal of the group. They put th is i nto practice through their Viertelstundenakte as well as in their depictions of dancers. With depictions of dancers and artists of variŽtŽ s and nightclubs they now had to capture fleeting and complex movements wholly. In their masterful reduction resulti ng in the simple lines of swing and rhythm, they relay a quick sense of the movement of dance. At the same time, die BrŸcke emitted an undeniable zest for life, one could even go so far as to say a happiness for existence in the here and now. The honky tonks' and dancehalls that die BrŸcke members frequented

PAGE 53

! (. had shows with fast, modern dance pairs. 43 More than any of the other artists, Kirchner translated the staccato rhythm of the music into visual means; the legs of dancers become solid entities and al most dashes in his 1910 Hamburger TŠnzerinnen ( Hamburg Dancers ) (Fig. 34). All weight of this image is on the legs, as they are the largest parts of the scene and are rendered fully in black. Moreover, the repeating subject of the three dancers each doin g identical leg lifts creates a vibrating back and forth. In this quick sketch, Kirchner manages to relay the unified spirit of this performance. Once the group makes their move to Berlin in 1911, their everyday and intimate scenes change slightly. Kirch ner obviously switches focus to the turbulence of city life, which manifests itself in his images of dance too. While the dance scenes of the Dresden years seem to be focused on movement, those of the Berlin years are filled with a stronger sense of the er otic. The fresh, natural sensuality of the Dresden years is replaced with a clearly sexual element that is expressed through an aggressive, broken tone. Kirchner especially used his paintings of dance scenes during this time to highlight the interaction between the sexes. His striking 1914 painting Tanzpaar ( Dance Pair ) (Fig. 35) of a male and female dance duo is a prime example of this (Beloubek Hammer, 191) He has developed his trademark feathery brushstroke by this time, which complements the moveme nt in this scene. The brush strokes fan out in a circular manner on the woman's tutu and accentuate the man's lapel. What also differs from his previous images of dancers is that Kirchner now displays the female in an overtly sexual pose. She bends over and exposes the suggestively pink underside of her tutu and spreads her !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 43 Ballet was replaced by the Cancan, Czardas, and the American Cake Walk as dance forms. A focus was placed on the multiplicity of dancers as well as on visually translating a piece of music into a dance (Beloubek Hammer, 190).

PAGE 54

! (% legs to display her knickers 44 Moreover, the viewer's attention is directed there due to the circular brush stroke and bright pink of the tutu and knickers. The male holds her left wrist and bends slightly towards her, as if he is in the process of assisting her in her movements. Nevertheless, he peers down at her and her exposed underskirts. This must have been quite the explicit image at the time. Nonetheless, it expresses a res pect for freedom of expression during a time when culture was becoming more and more controlled. Overt sexuality was not widely accepted, especially by the morally bound bourgeoisie and the conservative Wilhelmine court, so this explicit image stands as a n example of the group's rebellion against the system. Unlike Kirchner, the other BrŸcke members do not necessarily focus on the turbulence of city life in their scenes of everyday subjects. For instance, Heckel did not concern himself with street scenes and instead turned his gaze toward people and their emotional life. His interest in literature was also reawakened by the move, which speaks to his intellectualism. He would spend his time having reading nights at which works such as Dostoevsky were read instead of spending his free time at night bars and cafes as Kirchner did. 45 This idea is demonstrated in his 1913/14 watercolor Beim Vorlesen ( Reading Aloud ) (Fig. 36). It depicts a man and a woman seated at a table with two glasses and some food. How ever, the focus here is on the act of reading. The male holds a book and it is suggested that he is reading aloud because of the manner in which the female rests her chin on her hand and gazes off into the distance; she is calmly listening. The visual em phasis also rests on the book, as the male is sitting much taller than the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 44 The German Express ionist artist Otto Dix would later heighten this suggestive effect in his 1928 triptych painting Grossstadt ( Metropolis ), in which the female's fur coat and silk dress visually imply female anatomy. 45 These occurred in the atelier that he took over from Mu eller on Mommsenstrasse 60 (Beloubek Hammer, 309).

PAGE 55

! (& female and the angles of the background wall draw the viewer's eye towards him and the book in his left hand. In this everyday occurrence, i t is evident that much respect is placed on the notion of rea ding and literature Furthermore, the characteristic of oversized, elongated heads with high foreheads symbolizes higher thinking. Their faces are worn and heavy, indicating world weariness. A melancholy is evident through the drear y color combination of muted browns, mustard yellows, and faint blues and lavenders while the interior setting creates the sense of intimacy (Beloubek Hammer, 177). Taken as a whole, this is a testament to Heckel's pure expressionism and his reverence of literature and thought. Overall, die BrŸcke admired the simple person and real scenes. Simple people stood as the antidote to society's growing problems in an increasingly modernized time Their depictions of dance apply to this concept also, for they are another manifestation of their desire for simplicity and the other.' Through them, die BrŸcke members are declaring their right to depict real occurrences just as they please. These images likewise go hand in hand with the group's overall developmen t from a lust for life mentality in Dresden to a need for individuality in the metropolis of Berlin. Die BrŸcke proved to be highly idealistic, as Pechstein later declared that they lead a "life full of fight, not only for the freedom of art but also for humanity 46 So although their work does not make overt suggestions of revolution, they saw themselves as spiritually fighting for the simple person through their works. Yet HŸneke believes that although Mueller, Pechstein, Schmidt Rottluff, and Nolde eac h participated halfheartedly in revolutionary groups after !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 46 Leben voll Kampf, nicht nur um die Freiheit in der Kunst, sondern auch um die Menschlichkeit (Beloubek Hammer, 94).

PAGE 56

! (' the breakup of die BrŸcke "the artists were no political revolutionaries 47 Since their fight was much more abstract than other German Expressionists' who came later in the post war period, such as those of Otto Dix and George Grosz, they were unfortunately not as steadfast in their efforts. These efforts already waned once the group moved to Berlin in 1911. The modern city, with its intense lifestyle, drove die BrŸcke members back towards the p rivate, intimate room, which served as the temporary antidote to the negative situation of the time. But was this not purely escapism instead? No matter what it was, situated within a historical perspective, all this escapism, indoor musing, and nostalgi a seems fitting for a generation in revolt against an older regime that led Germany into the first world war. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 47 die KŸnstler waren keine politischen RevolutionŠre (Beloubek Hammer, 94).

PAGE 57

! (( Chapter Four: the Different Responses to Landscape versus Cityscape Scenes Nature played a major role in the art of die BrŸcke It represent ed the purity that they were seeking in life and in art. In the age of modernity and growing metropolises, nature proved to be the comforting alternative to the new way of life. Die BrŸcke was part of a select group that promoted the saying by Jean Jacqu es Rousseau "Back to nature" 48 as a societal critique. While their ateliers became integrated workspaces, in which the artists lived unrestrained, they still ventured out into actual nature to draw and paint. During the time that they lived and worked in Dresden, they repeatedly made trips into the countryside to work. 49 They would venture out in groups, oftentimes with their models (Beloubek Hammer, 100). Their preference of nature over the city is evident in their vivid and enthused depictions of the ou tdoors. This becomes even clearer once they move to Berlin in 1911. The evils of the metropolis shattered their na•ve ideals of man purely existing in nature. It was Nolde who first influenced die BrŸcke in their fresh approach to nature. Nature played a central role for Nolde's work and the spirit of die BrŸcke as he had one of the group's nature paradises,' or nature destinations, at Alsen during this time. In 1906, Schmidt Rottluff became the first of the group to visit Nolde here (Beloubek Hammer, 100). For Schmidt Rottluff, the connection to nature was immediately !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 48 "Zur Ÿck zur Natur" (Beloubek Hammer, 100). 49 Dresden had become a central city in the later Wilhelmine years for the Lebensreform or Life Reform movement with its many natural health' sanatoriums, the first garden city in Germany, a school for rhythmic gymn astics, and an international exhibit on hygiene (Jefferies, 235).

PAGE 58

! () apparent. Nolde writes of Schmidt Rottluff: "As work beckoned, he moved to the opposite end of the forest and returned only once woe and loneliness came to him 50 Schmidt Rottluff wen t to Dangast, a resort village on the North Sea, from 1907 1912 and Heckel occasionally joined him from 1907 1910, but it was farther than the other nature paradises' and the group did not have contacts there so mostly pure landscapes exist from this location (Beloubek Hammer, 100). Schmidt Rottluff's 1908 painting Mittag im Dangaster Moor ( Midday in the Dangast Mire ) (Fig. 37) reveals this deep entrenchment within nature. The choice of vivid colors exudes warmth and sunlight while the distinct brus h stroke capture s the vivacity of the landscape. Moreover, the natural elements are highlighted through color and brush stroke, leaving the houses, the only trace of man in this scene, darker. This work reveals the influence of the Fauves on die BrŸcke as it has a very painterly brushstroke and vivid color palette. Even Franz Marc classified die BrŸcke artists as "the Fauves of Germany" (Dube, 7). The paint is applied thickly and in dabs, almost to the point of pointillism, and contrasting colors are p laced next to one another. While it betrays a Fauve as well as a Van Gogh influence, Schmidt Rottluff manages to create a much more powerful vision of nature. He has successfully caught the feeling of a bright, sunny day and with it the concept of nature as the antidote to urban development. Pretty soon, the group would have their models, whom they had befriended, accompany them on their nature trips. Outings in large groups to the country fused work and play as die BrŸcke artists captured their models' movements as they bathed and relaxed, usually in the nude. By placing nudes in a landscape, die BrŸcke artists were !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 50 Als es uns zur Arbeit drŠngte, zog er nach dem anderen Ende vom Wald und kam nur zuweilen zu uns hingegangen, wenn ringend Leid und Einsamkeit ihn trieben (Beloubek Hammer, 100).

PAGE 59

! (* visually representing their attempt at tying man to nature. Kirchner and Pechstein painted in Goppeln near Dresden in 1907, where they we re able to bring models; and then in the summers of 1909 and 1911, Heckel and Kirchner also stayed with their models around the baroque hunting lodge at the Moritzburg Ponds a few miles from Dresden. Kirchner noted in 1910 that "momentarily, we (Heckel, P echstein, and I) are once again at Moritzburg. There is nothing more delightful than nudes in open air 51 That same year, Pechstein accompanied them and painted Sitzendes MŠdchen (Moritzburg) ( Seated Girl [ Moritzburg ] ) (Fig. 38). This is another highly arresting image of a girl, in the same vein as Kirchner's Marcella (Fig. 26) of the same year. She is placed prominently in the center of the painting, seated and looking back at the viewer. Her skin tone is composed of warm yellows and this plays nicely against the oranges, blues, and greens of the background. The burgundy red object finds its match in her full red lips and rosy cheeks, while the black of the trees in the background draw the viewer's attention towards her jet black eyes and eyebrows and again towards her face. This black also manifests itself in the bold outlines of her body, which clearly highlight her womanly curves. Pechstein seems to see nature and beauty as going hand in hand; nature complements her beauty here. Additionally, her comfortable pose is a testament to the new artist model relationship that die BrŸcke forged. By removing all trappings of the traditional nude painting process, these artists captured much purer and truer scenes. The process itself was natural and not f orced, which comes across in this work. The vantage point of this work adds to this effect and is worth noting. The girl is seated, supporting her upper body with both hands on either knee, looking backwards at the viewer. This creates the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 51 Auge nblicklich sind wir, d.h. Heckel, Pechstein und ich, auch wieder in Moritzburg. Es gibt nichts Reizvolleres als Akte im Freien" (Gabelmann, 36).

PAGE 60

! (+ impression th at the artist has practically snuck up behind the girl to capture an authentic moment. She was peacefully existing in nature and now the viewer is made privy to this spiritua l moment. Pechstein noted how otherwise we painters left in the early morning w ith our plentiful equipment, behind us the models with eatables and drinks. We lived in complete harmony, worked, and bathed. If a male was needed as a compositional counterpoint, one of us three jumped to fill the gap 52 The group actively created an atm osphere which fostered the idea of man and nature as one, which departs from the German Impressionistic images of man and nature that the bourgeoisie favored. One of these, Max Liebermann's Seilerbahn in Edam ( Ropewalk in Edam ) (Fig. 39) of 1904, depicts man in nature but in a completely different manner than that of die BrŸcke Man has subjugated nature to his desires, placing a line of workers in an outdoor setting. Here they dutifully intertwine threads to create rope, which was a major industry of th e small Dutch town of Edam ( German Masters of the Nineteenth Century 150). Nature is an afterthought here, instead of being intrinsically tied to the people within it like it is for the girl in Pechstein's work. As for Mueller, he went with Kirchner in 1911 to Bohemia Unfortunately, the rest of his travels are not known for certain, as he did not date his works and they have little location specific references. Yet, it is speculated that he went with Heckel to Hiddensee and visited Kirchner at Fehmar n (Beloubek Hammer, 100). His works are characterized by a lyrical intimacy between man and nature, especially beginning in !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 52 Sonst zogen wir Malersleute frŸhmorgens mit unserem GerŠten schwer bepackt los, hinter uns die Modelle mit Taschen voller Fressalien und GetrŠnke. Wir lebten in absoluter Harmonie, arbeiteten und badeten. Fehlte als Gegenpol ein mŠnnliches Modell, so sprang einer von uns dreien in die Bresche (Beloubek Hammer, 101).

PAGE 61

! (, 1911. His 1911 Drei Akte im Walde ( Three Nudes in the Woods ) (Fig. 40) is very representative of this style. It shows his tradema rk women with angled faces, petite bodies, and wide hips. They are set apart from the trees surrounding them but are rendered in such a similar way that they seem like a natural part of the setting. Two stand and one rests in the grass, creating a triang ular composition that creates stability and calm within the scene. A harmony between these women and nature permeates the piece. One of the major works to emerge from this period of die BrŸcke's repertoire is Kirchner's FŸnf Badende am See ( Five Bathing Women at a Lake ) (Fig. 41). Painted in 1911, this large work depicts five nude women in ankle deep water. They are unadorned, save for head wraps, a white towel, and a brush. As opposed to other BrŸcke works, the women stand apart from their surroundin gs due to the sharp contrast between the rounded contour lines of their bodies and the wispy brushwork of the natural elements surrounding them as well as the contrast between their ivory skin and the earth tones of the background. Yet despite these marke d differences, their placement within nature seems natural and they seem comfortable here, with calm facial expressions. Each woman is glancing slightly downwards, seemingly involved in he r current activity. The two left most women are in the process of bathing themselves, the center woman is toweling herself off, the next is brushing her hair, and the farthest right woman is crouching and washing herself. Each woman appears to be self involved, however the five of them function as one cohesive group sin ce they are placed so closely together in what should be an expansive landscape. This placement renders the work less instinctive than Kirchner's other scenes of nudes in nature, and the viewer can tell by the composition and sheer size that this is not h is typical Viertelstundenakt : it required

PAGE 62

! (! planning. The most unusual feature is the composition, for the women form a large triangular shape centered directly within the scene. The women on either end are less tall than the women in the center and the c entral woman has a burgundy head wrap that creates a peak within the formation. Such forethought is slightly peculiar for the artist who believed painting to be about "the free seeing and drawing of people in free nature 53 This uncharacteristic composit ion can be attributed to Kirchner's seeing the classical Gupta style Indian temple paintings on display in Dresden, in front of which he said in the third person that he saw contemporary art's helpless dependency on antiquity, saw that there were other st yles that were of just as high culture as the Greek, but he also saw that the path to a new modernism was only possible through a pure, na•ve study of nature without a stylistic lens 54 True to BrŸcke form though, nature complements man, or vice versa. T he green shrubbery on either side frames the women, while the mountain range in the background creates an upside down triangle right behind the central woman. Although this differs from his more spontaneous composition of nudes in nature, he achieves a ca lm composition. His style also varies from his usual depiction of nudes. Whereas his other works are characterized by highly angular features, especially facial features, this one is filled with curved forms. The contour lines of the bodies are smooth a nd round, highlighting the womanly hips, soft stomachs, and circular breasts. One can still recognize this as a Kirchner through the dramatic almond shaped eyes, which are not !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 53 das freie Sehen und das Zeichnen nach d en Menschen in der freien Natur" (Beloubek Hammer, 101). 54 Er sah die hilflose AbhŠngigkeit der zeitgenšssischen Kunst von der Antike, sah dass es andere Stile von mindestens ebenso hoher Kultur wie die griechische gab, sah aber auch, dass der Weg zu eine m neuen Modernen nur durch ein reines naives Naturstudium ohne Stilbrille fŸhrte" (Gabelmann, 38).

PAGE 63

! ). only seen on his portraits of Marcella but in Pechstein's works of this period too, such as his Sitzendes MŠdchen (Moritzburg ) (Fig. 38). Even though this breaks with Kirchner's usual style, it adheres to die BrŸcke's concept of man's oneness with nature. Die BrŸcke's development shifted dramatically from their time in Dresden to t heir time in Berlin. While die BrŸcke was in Dresden, its members utilized their unique style of intensely glowing colors, gestural lines, and reduced forms to express their youthful lust for life. Their move to Berlin was intended to further their artis tic development, with its pulsating rhythm, industrialization, modernity, and nightlife. 55 Kirchner was optimistic in the beginning, saying that "the fight for survival is very hard here, but the possibilities also bigger. I hope that we create good offsp ring and convince many new friends of the worth of our work 56 The bustle, tempo, and anonymity of city life soon got to Kirchner and the other members though : life is unfixed when one lives in Berlin, where one has to fight for a living. It is painfull y base here. I see that a fine, free culture cannot be created under these circumstances and wish to leave as soon as I have overcome this big slump 57 While the move did indeed further their artistic development, it had the unforeseen effect of causing an increasing individualization of each of die BrŸcke members and ultimately leading to the dissolution of the group. Schmidt Rottluff viewed the city as an endless reservoir of artistic impulses, being inspired by the exhibits of the international Avant Gar de, Cubism, Futurism, and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 55 In the years around 1910, over 2 million people lived in Berlin (Gabelmann, 45). 56 der Existenzkampf ist sehr hart hier, aber die Mšglichkeiten auch grš§e r. Ich hoffe, dass wir eine gute Nachkommenschaft erzeugen und viele neue Freunde vom Werte unserer Sache Ÿberzeugen" (Beloubek Hammer, 308). 57 Es liegt das an der unsteten Art, in der man in Berlin lebt, wenn man um das Leben kŠmpfen muss. Es ist schre cklich ordinŠr hier. Ich sehe, das eine feine freie Kultur in diesen VerhŠltnissen nicht geschaffen werden kann und mšchte fort, sobald ich diese gro§e Baisse Ÿberwunden habe" (Gabelmann, 45).

PAGE 64

! )% African artifacts. His 1912 HŠuser bei Nacht ( Houses by Night ) (Fig. 42) reveals this Cubist influence, in its solid construction of forms and patches of color. Simultaneously, it presents die BrŸcke's new mindset of city life. The houses are sharp, ascend upwards crookedly, and seem ominous. Schmidt Rottluff utilizes the primary colors that were so common for the group but gives them a gloomy and almost threatening tone here. The yellow of the wall has sickly green and blue u ndertones, the red has a dark shadow dividing it, and the blue of the sky is comprised of dark patches that seem almost black. The combination of all of this renders these houses and apartment buildings menacing and unwelcoming, which mimics the way that the group felt about the metropolis. Heckel however, reacted to the turbulent life of the metropolis with a retreat towards the private and a concentration on the human condition. His melancholy scenes from this time period are filled with resignation a nd world weariness, such as his 1913 woodcut Liegende ( Reclining Woman ) (Fig. 43). It depicts his significant other, and later wife, Siddi sleeping in what appears to be a seated position but on a flat surface. Combined with the red oval surrounding her, this has the effect of creating a sort of cocoon around her, especially since the rest of the image is rendered in black and white. The slashes outside of this cocoon shape make it seem like an external force attempting to disturb her. For the time bein g, she is protected by her red cocoon and seems to be in a deep sleep as judged by her slightly drooping mouth. Yet her environment is encroaching on her peace, mirroring the events of this time leading up to the first world war. The choice of woodcut as medium for this scene is doubly effective since it is a direct and immediate depiction as well as a sort of commemoration of alternative art.

PAGE 65

! )& Heckel successfully created a picture of his inner self, which was shut off from the outside world and the bustl e of the city. An equally moving piece is his 1913 woodcut Geschwister ( Siblings ) (Fig. 44), which depicts an older brother cradling his younger brother. The scene appears to be filled with sadness, as the smaller boy has drooping, sorrowful eyes and the elder boy comforts him by holding him. This dramatization elicits both sympathy and curiosity from the viewer as to why they feel this way. Not only these brothers, but Germany in general, was experiencing uncomfortable change. The symbolism of the bro therhood of the German Expressionists within a threatening patriarchal society is thus alluded to here. Out of all of die BrŸcke members, Heckel was the most sensitive and gentle, so it makes sense that his works would depict his intense response to the B erlin move. For him, the transition to the city highlighted the issues with society that the group had; it represented inner emptiness. Kirchner's street scenes stand as yet another contrast. Kirchner was quite likely the most irritable but also the mos t sensitive of die BrŸcke artists, so he developed his own language of painting as a reaction to the city (Beloubek Hammer, 198). It tells the story of fascination with feelings of insecurity, of speed and showbiz, of the whole contrariness of modern city life. His 1912 Nollendorfplatz (Fig. 45) relays this idea perfectly, as it depicts numerous people presented simply as black brush stroke gestures. They function as little ants within the scene, while the buildings and modern trams take center stage. Ki rchner had been inspired by movement and trains his whole life, stating that

PAGE 66

! )' I was born near a station. The first things that I saw in my life were the moving locomotives and trains, and I drew them as a three year old. Perhaps it is because of this tha t observations of movement are my impetus for my inspiration to create. Out of this I receive a creative experience of life, which is the source of creativity 58 The colors are garish greens, yellows, and blues that build a foundation of unease. Then the intersecting path of the trams creates the main force of the scene, but this is pure technology. 59 The image lacks a human or natural force, since the ant like humans are second to the modernity. They are mere black slashes that seem to disrupt the total completeness of the intersection, which seems to be able to exist free of human presence. This is precisely the feeling that die BrŸcke had while in Berlin. It points to the loss of individuality within a city, whereas die BrŸcke's earlier work extolled a harmony of human and nature. This disillusionment with the city and modernity is why Kirchner's creations during his Berlin years are often viewed as representative of German Expressionism's view of life. Kirchner threw himself fully into his new surr oundings, ready to record everything he experienced. He invariably had his sketchbook at hand in order to capture what he saw in a bar, music cafŽ, variŽtŽ theater, and on the streets. These represented snapshots of moments that he would later immortaliz e. His paintings of these scenes manifest his observations of city life: as opposed to his Dresden years, his colors now !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 58 ich bin am Bahnhof geboren. Das erste, was ich im Leben sa h, waren die fahrenden Lokomotiven und ZŸge, sie zeichnete ich, als ich drei Jahre alt war. Vielleicht kommt es daher, dass mich besonders die Beobachtung der Bewegung zum Schaffen anregt. Aus ihr kommt mir das gestalterische LebensgefŸhl, das der Urspru ng des kŸnstlerischen Werkes ist (Gabelmann, 17). 59 Nollendorfplatz in West Berlin was one of the stops on the first electrical tram ( Stra§enbahn ) in the city in 1896 (Mende, 184). The Underground (Untergrundbahn) followed in 1902, also with a stop at No llendorfplatz (Mende, 242).

PAGE 67

! )( seem veiled, in the same sense as dust and smoke of a city settling over a scene. Moreover, instead of filling in large areas of spac e with bright color, he now applies his paint in short, nervous strokes and his hatchings overlap each other. On top of this, energetic lines bring to mind the dynamic tension of urban life. These effects all relay Kirchner's unsettled feeling in the cit y (Beloubek Hammer, 198). He wrote that his street scenes "originate from the years 11 14, one of the loneliest times of my life in which an agonizing uneasiness drove me out day and night in the long streets filled with people and vehicles." 60 His 1913 Berliner Stra§enszene ( Berlin Street Scene ) (Fig. 46) is a perfect example of all four of these qualities: veiled color, nervous strokes, overlapping sections, and energetic lines. The colors are restrained and not as pure as they were in his Dresden yea rs; the navy blues of the men's coats have white and grey undertones to them and even the reds of the two women in the center ground are murky. Towards the background, the hues all receive more black tones so that they retreat into the distance. The stro kes are uneasy and tend to relay a sense of anxiety. They emanate in many different directions, especially the muted cream hue of the ground. Moreover, the varying elements overlap each other to capture the hectic quality of life in a city, as the jumble of people and even horses in the distance seem to become one unified mass of confusion. People are no longer separated and have little individuality left in this scene; their faces are almost void of detail. Simultaneously though, nobody interacts with o ne another, with every individual facing in a different direction. The green building in the background is rendered in spiky architectural fragments, the faint suggestion of streets in sharp points, and automobiles and electrical trams in speeding bullets which all take on a !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 60 entstanden in den Jahren 11 14, in einer der einsamsten Zeiten meines Lebens, in der mich eine qualvolle Unruhe Tag und Nacht immer wieder hinaustrieb, in die langen Strassen voller Menschen und Wagen" (Gabelmann, 47).

PAGE 68

! )) very dangerous tone and establish the conflict between man and the modern world. Yet in totality, these dangerous elements become blurred into one image that can only be comprehended upon closer inspection (Beloubek Hammer, 199). Mor eover, the energetic brush strokes that emanate in varying directions bespeak the hustle and bustle of daily life in a city, which is especially noticeable in the sprightly portrayal of the feathery accessories of the women. Kirchner likewise utilizes a s harp contrast between size and figurations to achieve a sense of three dimensionality. The clear disparity between the size of the men and women in the foreground to the people of the background creates a sense of depth, but not necessarily a realistic de pth. While they are viewed as on a plane facing the observer, the background is presented as seen from an elevated perspective, leaving the viewer with an unsettled feeling. All of these facets highlight the feeling of alienation within a metropolis. T his work also displays a major theme in Kirchner's work of this time: the interaction between the sexes. What is important to note is that this view changes from the Dresden to the Berlin years. The natural sensuality of woman in nature is now replaced b y the openly sexualized femininity of the dancers and prostitutes. The sad fact of German Expressionism is that women tend to represent either pure nature or threatening sexuality. Kirchner was interested in the strolling of the adorned prostitutes, who were not legal in the time of Kaiser Prussia and therefore had to subtly advertise their business (Beloubek Hammer, 199). Therefore, he saw the prostitute as ally in his desire for a liberation of impulse. The tw o central women in Berliner Stra§enszene ( Berlin Street Scene ) (Fig. 46) appear with proudly elongated bodies, adorned with impressive hats and fantastical feathers and wraps. They seem almost birdlike in their

PAGE 69

! )* adornment, strutting, and presentation. They are eliciting their services to the surr ounding men, who feign ignorance and look away but will actually use their bowler hats to hide their accepting nods. 61 This was the new version of interactions between male and female and human and nature, and Kirchner is pointing out the irony of this. H e elaborated on his concept of th e prostitute in 1926 by asking in the third person Is such a street scene as the blue prostitutes not a picture of fantasy? Of course, only the accusation is really present. But how nice, how powerful, and how removed fro m nature is the design. The danger of being caught up in the representational did not exist for Kirchner. Instead he thought too painterly for that. The graphics and paintings of the Streetscenes' show best where purely painterly, one could say non rep resentational, feelings converged. 62 Although Kirchner proudly viewed his art as unmediated by culture, his street scenes betray a discourse on immorality in the city (Paret, 117). Despite this na•vetŽ of concept, his work successfully critiques the modern city. Although the city elicited melancholy, it must be admitted that it was also stimulating for die BrŸcke This duality of excitement and depression is characteristic of this time in Germany before the war. More than the other BrŸcke artists, Kirchne r captured this sense within his works, depicting the hustle and bustle alongside the depravity. As for the other BrŸcke members, the move to Berlin brought forth varying reactions from each individual. These would send them off into their own directions and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 61 A moral critique of fashion advertising was occurring in Germany at this time, which was the result of sexual repression. Kirchner alludes to this with the focus on active and passive gazes, such as those of mannequins and male strollers in the city, in his street scenes (Paret, 128 129). 62 Ist so ein Stra§enbild wie die blauen Kokotten kein Phantasiebild? Wohl, wohl, nur der Vorwurf ist real da gewesen. Aber wie schšn, wie stark und wie naturfern ist die AusfŸhrung. Die Gefahr im GegenstŠndlichen hŠngen zu bleiben, bestand fŸr Kirchner nicht. DafŸr dachte er zu malerisch. Am besten zeigen das die Grafiken und Bilder der Stra§enszenen,' wo rein bildnerisch, man mšchte sagen gegenstandlos, Empfindungen gegeben sind" (Gabelmann, 47).

PAGE 70

! )+ ultimately spell disaster for the unity of the group. Only Kirchner and Heckel responded directly to the contrariness of the metropolis, which welcomed anyone but cared for no one. It can therefore be said that the move to Berlin was the beginning o f their dissolution, yet it was a necessary step for the artists to develop beyond the hopeful na•vetŽ of their Dresden !/01234!!

PAGE 71

! ), Conclusion Die BrŸcke disbanded in May, 1913. It had a truly revolutionary artistic spirit but was plagued by its own na•vetŽ. It exhibited an intense optimism for the future and had as its goal the achievement of a new German art, which it accomplished through the denial of the painting as the most respected form of art, the novel approaches to the nude as a purer i nterpretation of the human body, the preference for simple subjects and the everyday person, and the different responses to landscape versus cityscape scenes (the concept of the connection between man and nature versus the evils of the metropolis). It pit ted itself against both the Wilhelmine censorship of the German art world and the traditional tastes of the German bourgeois class, but ultimately the desire by BrŸcke mem bers for individual advancement was the undoing of the group. Die BrŸcke members ha d an almost arrogant disrespect toward bourgeois mores and tastes, which left them with few sources of support (Kuhn, 13). Added to this na•vetŽ was the fact that idealism and reality varied enormously for them. While they advocated a return to the simpl e way of life, they always lived in metropolitan areas. While they intellectually distanced themselves from society, they ended up relocating to the cultural capital of Germany at the time. While they disdained the upwardly mobile middle class, they live d amongst them in the ritzy neighborhoods of Berlin. 63 In short, die BrŸcke was characterized by a stubborn and impractical elitism to accomplish its goal. This na•vetŽ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 63 Kirchner's life pa rtner Erna Schilling noted to his doctor that he felt that his life had become too bourgeois in 1913 and began to drink heavily and live erratically (Simmons, 132).

PAGE 72

! )! caused it to eventually be crushed by the society it fought, which was solidified when the First World War broke out, but its revolutionary spirit lives on in its works. The unified brotherhood upon which die BrŸcke was founded disintegrated upon its move to Berlin. This brought about many changes, the first being that the artists no longe r lived and worked together in communal spaces. They lived apart from each other in bourgeois neighborhoods and ceased seeing each other daily (Beloubek Hammer, 307). Naturally, this c aused increasing isolation and made their work more individual Each member had profited from the collective idea as long as the principle of mutual give and take existed, especially when it came to questions of technicality and organization. But once the members experienced increasing individuality, tensions arose. Kirch ner's quote follows this assumption: Die BrŸcke fell because individuals were manipulated and stirred up by good friends '" 64 Pechstein came closer to the roo t of the cause of the breakup: the unrelenting Berlin forced each one of us to struggle through on the most individual paths, so that our communal living fell apart. In addition, the knowledge of the individual members had de veloped so far that the individual form differed although the overall goal of the group remained the same 65 Pechstein himself was removed from the group in 1912 because he went against the self imposed rule of die BrŸcke to only exhibit together when he decided to show at the Berliner Secession. His earlier successes with private commissions of decorative wall !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 64 Die BrŸcke zerfiel, weil die Einzelnen jeder fŸr sich von guten Freunden' bearbeitet un d verhetzt wurden (Beloubek Hammer, 266). 65 Das unerbittliche Berlin zwang jeden von uns, sich auf eigensten Wegen durchzuschlagen, so dass sich unser Zusammenleben lockerte. Auch waren die Erkenntnisse der einzelnen schon so weit gediehen, dass sich di e persšnliche Form unterschied, obwohl unser gro§es Ziel sich nicht verŠnderte (Beloubek Hammer, 266).

PAGE 73

! *. and glass window design and a higher publicity would have already put him in a precarious position within the group. 66 Kirchner was especially sensitive to this, since he considered himself the artistic leader of the group (Beloubek Hammer, 266). 67 The first group exhibit in Berlin, at the Galerie Fritz Gurlitt in April 1912, was also the last. Alth ough the members attempted to assert themselves as a unified group in the capital, Pechstein was again named a "powerful talent" and the "most mature and significant" 68 of the gr oup The official end of die BrŸcke came in 1913, when Kirchner composed the tensely worked on Chronik der BrŸcke ( Chronicle of the BrŸcke ) (Fig. 47 49). It attempted to speak for the remaining members but was unfortunately fatalistically final. When K irchner began to assemble copies of this text, which claimed himself as the group's leader, the other members rejected it and disbanded die BrŸcke (Lauc k, 17). Heckel wrote on May 26 that "differences arose that hindered the publication of the Chronik and brought us to the agreement of dissolving die BrŸcke group 69 The next day, the Passive Members' of the group received an official print signed by Amiet, Heckel, Mueller and Schmidt Rottluff marking the occasion. Although the claim as leader of the gro up by Kirchner within the text of the Chronik is what aggravated and alienated the other members of the group, Heckel still writes to Amiet that fall that: BrŸcke will remain in the inner sense; only the outer organizational thing should be dissolved 70 This is a testament to the spirit of die BrŸcke Basically, its ide als were its own undoing. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 66 By 1912, Pechstein had exhibited over 25 times in Berlin, while the remaining members had only exhibited their works as individuals in the Berliner Se cession (Beloubek Hammer, 325). 67 Kirchner even wrote in his diary on July 6, 1919, that Pechstein was "arrogant" (Grisebach, 43). 68 krŠftiges Talent, reifste und bedeutendste (Beloubek Hammer, 328). 69 Es haben sich Differenzen gezeigt, die die Veršff entlichung der Chronik verhindern und uns zur Auflšsung der Gruppe BrŸcke bestimmen (Beloubek Hammer, 266). 70 BrŸcke wird ja dem innerem Sinn nach bleiben; nur die Šu§ere vereinsartige Sache sollte aufgelšst werden (Beloubek Hammer, 266).

PAGE 74

! *% The principle of the importance of the group over the individual and the tie between art and a new vision of community doomed die BrŸcke to last only a finite am ount of time. Loyalty to the group, which was a revolutionary move at the time, defined and destroyed die BrŸcke A later painting by Kirchner, Eine KŸnstlergruppe ( An Artist Group ) (Fig. 50), subtly captures the problematic relationships between die BrŸc ke's members. Painted in 1926, it depicts the four initial members: the meditative Mueller is completely self absorbed while he smokes a pipe, the arrogant Kirchner points to the problematic Chronik the stubborn Schmidt Rottluff meets Kirchner's expectan t gaze impassively, and the gentle Heckel is between them and ready to act as mediator (Dube, 4). Each of die BrŸcke members had strong personalities that helped make them visionaries but this also proved divisive for the group. Added to this spiritual di sintegration within the group was the very real crashing in of World War I on their idealistic worlds. The outbreak of the First World War affected all of the BrŸcke artists except for Nolde, who escaped this fate due to his older age at the time. This b rought out differing mentalities among these men (Beloubek Hammer, 267). 71 Kirchner experienced complete mental and near physical breakdown after his brief military service. He lost almost all normal capacities and was disdained by Mueller as a "traitor o f the Fatherland" 72 durin g the war He would commit suicide in !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 71 As Kirchner had been busying himself with nature images since the summer of 1913, the outbreak of World War I brought him back to reality. He describes that time: "I found it very difficult to suddenly depart since this year I had risen completely in the landscape an d life and hardly needed awareness to access this place" ( "Es fiel mir schwer, so plštzlich abzureisen, da ich dies Jahr vollstŠndig in der Landschaft und dem Leben da oben aufging und nur fast ohne Bewusstsein zuzugreifen brauchte") (Gabelmann, 41). In t he hectic time that ensued, he and Erna Schilling had to leave right away and were held as Russian spies until a phone call set the record straight (Gabelmann, 42). 72 VaterlandverrŠter (Beloubek Hammer, 267).

PAGE 75

! *& 1938. 73 Schmidt Rottluff served in Russia, Mueller fought on the Western Front, and Heckel did ambulance work in Flanders (Dube, 10). Regardless of whether die BrŸcke members would have natura lly abandoned their optimistic and na•ve ideals, the outbreak of the war put a sharp end to their notion of an idyllic future. The individual members did however attempt to maintain the spirit of the group even years after its dissolution. They all recog nized that they ought to protect their legacy, which stood for a renewal of German art. This revolutionary aspect was already apparent in 1910 to the Galerie Arnold, which described the group in a catalog as forming "out of the necessity to forge a new pa th for the attempts at creating a new German art 74 Despite the messy breakup of the group, Kirchner stayed loyal to its spirit. When die BrŸcke was shown at the infamous "Degenerate Art" show in Munich in 1937, Kirchner wrote to a former Swiss supporter of the group, Hans Fehr, that all differences among the former BrŸcke members should be put in the past and that "every individual conflict must be silenced and that everyone join together in the name of the whole, that is for our modern German art 75 He ckel and Schmidt Rottluff also honored the spirit of the group: Heckel worked as a member of the purchasing commission of the Nationalgalerie as a representative of his former BrŸcke co members in a prominent collection in 1919 and Schmidt Rottluff called the members of die BrŸcke the present day artists that were most important to him after the war (Beloubek Hammer, 267). The biggest testament by far of !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 73 Not only his compromised physical and menta l health influenced his suicide, but also the poor reception of his works, as he noted in 1916 that it was "more respectable to die than to live, when everything is called only business and one is set aside if one doesn't go along" (Simmons, 140). 74 aus der Notwendigkeit, fŸr die Bestrebungen der neudeutschen Kunst einen Weg zu bahnen (Beloubek Hammer, 267). 75 jeder Einzelstreit muss schweigen und jeder fŸr das Ganze, das ist unsere moderne deutsche Kunst, eintreten (Beloubek Hammer, 267). Die BrŸcke' s works were major victims under the Nazi's term of "degenerate art" ("entartete Kunst"): 75 of Heckel's works were confiscated, the works of Mueller were almost eliminated, and many BrŸcke works remain missing (Beloubek Hammer, 338).

PAGE 76

! *' the spirit of the group was the founding of die BrŸcke Museum in Berlin Dahlem. When Schmidt Rottluff gifted 74 of his works to Berlin in 1964, the Berliner Senat fŸr Kulturelle Angelegenheiten ( Senate for Cultural Affairs of Berlin ) decided to found a BrŸcke Museum as reparation for the injustice that the group had experienced under the Nazis. Heckel als o supported the project and the museum opened on September 15, 1967 (Beloubek Hammer, 343). It is safe to say that die BrŸcke gained the positive attention it deserved only long after its existence. In 1919, the Kupferstichkabinett (the Museum of Prin ts and Drawings ) in Berlin bought 65 graphic works and the Gegenwartsmuseum ( the Museum of Contemporary Art ) in Berlin acquired drawings from Pechstein, Heckel, and Nolde. A resurgence of interest in the group occurred after World War II, when Berlin gall eries and museums began adding BrŸcke works to their collections and the BrŸcke Museum was instituted. Now die BrŸcke stands as one of the two original German Expressionist artistic movements, the other being der Blaue Reiter ( the Blue Rider ). This a tes tament to die BrŸcke's revolutionary approach to art: it took decades, but this movement that signified a bridge between past and future art has finally been understood and appreciated by the art world and general public.

PAGE 77

! *( APPENDIX Historical Timeli ne 7 August 1867: Emil Hansen Nolde born in Nolde (Northern Schleswig). 18 Januar 1871: the German Empire is founded with the proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor. 6 May 1880: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner born in Aschaffenburg (Lower Bavaria). 31 December 1881: Max Pechstein born in Eckersbach (Saxony). 31 July 1883: Erich Heckel born in Doebeln. 1 December 1884: Karl Schmidt Rottluff born in Rottluff bei Chemnitz. 9 March 1888: Wilhelm I, the German Kaiser since 1 8 January 1871, dies and is followed by hi s terminally ill son Friedrich. 15 June 1888: After only 99 days as the new Kaiser, Friedrich III dies of laryngeal cancer and is succeeded by his 29 year old son Wilhelm II. 20 April 1889: Adolf Hitler is born in Braunau am Inn in Austria Hungary 18 Ma rch 1890: Due to differences with the new Kaiser, Bismarck (who was the Chancellor of G ermany for the previous 19 years) is forced to abdicate. 1892: the first Munich Secession is held. 1898: the first Berlin Secession is held. 25 August 1900: Friedrich Ni etzsche dies in Weimar. 1903: Kirchner undergoes a winter residence in Munich and comes into contact with Jugendstil (German Art Nouveau) at the Technischen Hochschule MŸnchen (Munich Technical University), the technique of the woodcut from Hugo Steiner P rag, and the works of Bonnard, Renoir, van Gogh, Rodin, Toulouse Lautrec, Vuillard, Vallotton, van Rysselberghe, Kandinsky, Georges Lemmen und Signac in Munich exhibitions. 1904: The three architecture students Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, and Frit z Bleyl become friends at the Technischen Hochschule in Dresden. Kirchner sees art of the South Seas in an exhibit of carvings by the Palau Islanders at the Dresden Ethnographic Museum. 1905: Heckel's friend Karl Schmidt (later Schmidt Rottluff) moves to D resden to study architecture. The four young students first begin meeting in Kirchner's studio, then rent out an empty store to work and live together. They found die KŸnstlergruppe BrŸcke, or Artist Group Bridge. Die BrŸcke has a minor exhibit in Novemb er in the art dealer shop Beyer & Sohn in Leipzig. 1906: Die BrŸcke invites Emil Nolde and Max Pechstein to join the group. After Schmidt Rottluff visits Nolde on the island of Alsen, he moves to Dresden for a year and a half. Later in the year, the Finn ish artist Axel Gallen Kallela and the Swiss painter Cuno Amiet join the group but never move to Dresden.

PAGE 78

! *) Die BrŸcke artists see large format prints by Van Gogh at the 3. Deutschen Kunstgewerbeausstellung (Third German Applied Arts Exhibit) in Dresden They also see works by French Impressionists and Belgian and French Neoimpressionists such as Signac, Cross, Rysselberghe, Luce, Seurat und works from the artists of the Les Nabis circle, such as Denis, Bonnard, Vuillard, Vallotton, Schuffenecker, and Lapr ade, and also van Gogh und Gauguin in November at the Galerie Ernst Arnold in Dresden. The first BrŸcke exhibit is held in a lampshade factory showroom in Dresden. It includes paintings, prints, drawings and sculptures by Kirchner, Heckel, Schmidt Rottluf f, Bleyl, Nolde, and Pechstein. Later that year, Amiet and Gallen Kallela join the group for its second show, this time featuring graphic works. The first BrŸcke Mappe is printed with works by Bleyl, Heckel, and Kirchner for the Passive Members.' Kirch ner writes and creates the woodcut of the Programm der BrŸcke ( Die BrŸcke Manifesto ). The group exhibits in the lamp factory Karl Marx Seifert along with the artists Gudmund H.P. Henze, Hans Neumann, Wassily Kandinksy, Wilhelm Laage, and Christian Kongstad t Rasmussen 1907: The artists exhibit at the Salon Richter in Dresden, along with the Hamburg painter Franz Noelken and the Russian Wassily Kandinksy. Die BrŸcke's graphic works appear in traveling shows in cities such as Flensburg, Hamburg, Braunschweig and Leipzig. The second BrŸcke Mappe is distributed with prints by Schmidt Rottluff, Nolde, Amiet, and Gallen Kallela. Kirchner and Pechstein summer at the Moritzburg ponds and Goppeln while Schmidt Rottluff and Heckel summer in Dangast. Pechstein tra vels to Italy and Paris, where he comes in contact with the Fauves. Kees van Dongen is invited to exhibit with die BrŸcke. Nolde leaves die BrŸcke in the summer. Die BrŸcke sees another Van Gogh exhibit in September, this time at the Galerie Arnold in Dr esden. Kirchner likely sees the October exhibit Moderne GemŠlde aus Privatbesitz (Modern Paintings from Private Collections) at the SŠchsischen Ku nstverein, because his style is strongly influenced h ereafter by the works of Klimt on display there. 1908: Di e BrŸcke has another encounter with van Gogh in April when the Kunstsalon Richter holds a retrospective of 85 of his paintings and 20 of his drawings. The second BrŸcke exhibit at the Salon Richter is held in September. The third BrŸcke Mappe is issued wit h woodcuts by Kirchner, Heckel, and Pechstein. Most of die BrŸcke members summer at Moritzburg. Pechstein relocates from Dresden to Berlin. Kirchner discovers the island of Fehmarn for himself. 1909: Heckel travels to Italy before summering with Kirchner a nd their models at Moritzburg. Pechstein summers in the small fishing village of Nidden and then joins Schmidt Rottluff and Heckel in Dangast. A third exhibit at the Salon Richter is held in June. Pechstein contributes three works to the Berlin Secession show. The fourth BrŸcke Mappe is distributed with works by Schmidt Rottluff and title page by Kirchner.

PAGE 79

! ** Bleyl leaves die BrŸcke to instruct on architecture. 1910: Pechstein and other artists establish the New Secession exhibition at the Galerie Macht after being rejected from the Berlin Secession. Pechstein, Heckel, Kirchner, Schmidt Rottluff and 23 other artists participate. Later that year, die BrŸcke artists exhibit in the New Secession exhibition of graphics. Otto Mueller joins die BrŸcke after trav eling to Bohemia with Kirchner. A large BrŸcke exhibit occurs at the Galerie Arnold in Dresden and is accompanied by the group's first exhibition catalog. The exhibit is later held at the Grand Ducal Museum in Weimar. The fifth BrŸcke Mappe is created w ith works by Kirchner and title page by Heckel. Pechstein joins Kirchner and Heckel at the Moritzburg ponds. 1911: Kirchner, Heckel, and Schmidt Rottluff relocate from Dresden to Berlin. Die BrŸcke has a small showing at the Galerie Fritz Gurlitt in Berlin Traveling exhibits of BrŸcke works are held in Danzig, Schwerin, LŸbeck, DŸren, MŸnchen Gladbach, and Hagen. Kirchner and Pechstein found the MUIM Institute, which is abandoned the following year. Die BrŸcke members show at the third exhibition of the New Secession, which also features the Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider) group from Munich. Die BrŸcke artists quit the New Secession jointly in preparation for an upcoming exhibit at the Galerie Fritz Gurlitt. Heckel summers in Prerow, Kirchner and Mueller in Fe hmarn, Schmidt Rottluff in Norway, Hamburg, and Dangast, and Pechstein in Italy. The sixth BrŸcke Mappe is published, with works by Heckel and title page by Pechstein. 1912: Die BrŸcke has a major exhibit at the Galerie Fritz Gurlitt in Berlin, which recei ves many reviews but most favor Pechstein over the other members. Pechstein exits the group and is offered a retrospective show at the Kunsthalle of Mannheim and one man shows in Magdeburg, Munich, and Berlin. A large BrŸcke exhibit of works by Kirchner, Heckel, Schmidt Rottluff, Mueller, and Amiet is held at the Galerie Commeter in Hamburg. Die BrŸcke graphics are shown together with those of der Blaue Reiter at the Galerie Hans Goltz in Munich. All of the remaining BrŸcke artists exhibit in the large, f ourth Sonderbund show of modern art in Cologne. Kirchner first goes to Czechoslovakia with Mueller and then summers on Fehmarn with Heckel. Schmidt Rottluff summers in Hamburg and Dangast. The seventh and last BrŸcke Mappe is created with works by Pechste in and title page by Mueller, but it is never distributed due to Pechstein's withdrawal from the group. 1913: A BrŸcke exhibit is held at the Neue Kunstsalon in Munich in January. Kirchner exhibits in the Folkwang Museum in Hagen and at the Galerie Fritz G urlitt in Berlin. Die BrŸcke works are shown at the International Exhibition of Modern Art in the Armory of the Sixty ninth Infantry, New York, and in Chicago and Boston. Pechstein has a major retrospective show at the Galerie Fritz Gurlitt and visits the Italian fishing village of Monterosso al Mare and the island colony of Palau in the South Pacific. Nolde visits Russia, Siberia, China, Japan, the Philippines, and the Bismarck Archipelago. Die BrŸcke plans to publish a history and philosophy of the group but when the artists

PAGE 80

! *+ fail to agree on the version written by Kirchner, the group disbands in May. The Chronik is never published. Kirchner summers on Fehmarn. 28 June 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hungary and his wife are assassinated in Sar ajevo. 1 August 1914: The German Empire supports Austria Hungary in its clash with Serbia and Imperial Russia and enters into the First World War. 1914: Nolde must return from New Guinea and Pechstein from the Palau Islands when war breaks out. Kirchner has to leave the countryside and return home with his wife Erna Schilling 9 November 1918: Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates, and the Republic is proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann in Munich and Karl Liebknecht in Berlin. 1919: Heckel, as a member of the purchas ing commission of the Nationalgalerie, represents his former BrŸcke co members in a prominent collection. T he Kupferstichkabinett (the Museum of Prints and Drawings) in Berlin buys 65 graphic works and the Gegenwartsmuseum (the Museum of Contemporary Art) in Berlin acquires drawings from Pechstein, Heckel, and Nolde. 30 January 1933: Hitler becomes chancellor and forms a cabinet with Franz von Papen as Vice Chancellor. 1937: Die BrŸcke i s targeted by the Nazi's classification of degenerate art' a nd many o f the members' works a re included in the Degenerate Art show in Munich. 15 June 1938: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner commits suicide in Davos, Switzerland. 29 June 1955: Max Pechstein dies in West Berlin. 13 April 1956: Emil Nolde dies in SeebŸll. 13 August 1961: T he Berlin Wall is erected 1964: Schmidt Rottluff gifts 74 of his works to Berlin, prompting the Senat fŸr Kulturelle Angelegenheiten (Senate for Cultural Affaits) to found the BrŸcke Museum Berlin. 15 September 1967: The BrŸcke Museum officially opens in Berlin Dahlem with the help of Heckel and Schmidt Rottluff. 27 January 1970: Erich Heckel dies in Radolfzell (near Konstanz). 10 August 1976 : Karl Schmidt Rottluff dies in West Berlin.

PAGE 81

! *, BIBLIOGRAPHY App, Volkhard. Waren die BrŸcke Maler Paedophil'? Diskussionen vor einer Ausstellung im Sprengel Museum Hannover." Deutschlandradio 23 Mai 2010. Web. Barron, Stephanie. German Expressionist Sculpture Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1983. Print. Beloubek Hammer, Anita, ed. BrŸ cke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus Berlin: Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung, 2005. Print. Benson, Timothy O, and Edward Dimendberg. Expressionist Utopias: Paradise, Metropolis, Architectural Fantasy Berkeley: University of California Press, 20 01. Print. Boorman, Helen. "Rethinking the Expressionist Era; Wilhelmine Cultural Debates and Prussian Elements in German Expressionism." Oxford Art Journal Vol. 9, No. 2. 1986. 3 15. Print. Clark, Kenneth. The Nude: a Study in Ideal Form Washing ton, D.C.: the Trustees of the National Gallery of Art, 1956. Print. Cuomo, Glenn. "Germany 1888 2009: the Historical Context." New College of Florida. Handout. Newdle Web. Danicke, Sandra. Felix Kraemer Ÿber Kirchner Interview Das War Missbrau ch!'" Szene Art Magazin 14 July, 2010. Web.

PAGE 82

! *! Dube, Wolf D. The Expressionists London: Thames & Hudson, 1972. Print. Francoise Forster Hahn, ed. Imagining Modern German Culture: 1889 1910 Hanover and London: University Press of New England, 1996. Print. Gabelmann, Andreas. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: ein KŸnstlerleben in Selbstzeugnissen Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2010. Print. Gabler, Karlheinz, ed. E.L. Kirchner, Dokumente: Fotos, Schriften, Briefe Aschaffenburg: Museum der Stadt Aschaffenburg, 1980. Print. Goodman, John, ed. Diderot on Art, Volume II: the Salon of 1767 New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. Print. Gordon, Donald E. Expressionism: Art and Idea New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987. Print. Green, Christophe r, ed. Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print. Grim berg, Klaus. "The Secret of FrŠ nzi and Marcella." The Atlantic Times: a Monthly Newspaper from Germany October 2010. Web. Grisebach, Lothar, ed. E.L. Kirchners Davose r Tagebuch: Eine Darstellung des Malers und eine Sammlung seiner Schriften Kšln: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1968. Print. Haftmann, Werner, and Andrew C. Ritchie. German Art of the Twentieth Century New York: Museum of Modern Art, in collaboration with the City Art Museum of St. Louis, Missouri, 1957. Print. Herbert, Barry. German Expressionism: Die BrŸcke and Der Blaue Reiter New York: Hippocrene Books, 1983. Print.

PAGE 83

! +. HŸlsewig Johnen, Jutta, and Bjšrn Egging. Ernst L udwig Kirch ner und Die "BrŸcke:" Selbstbildnisse, KŸnstlerbildnisse Bielefeld: Kerber, 2005. Print. Jager, Nita ed. BrŸcke: [exhibition] Andrew Dickson White Museum of Art, Cornell University, Feb. 11 to Mar. 22, 1970 [and] Memorial Art Gallery, University of Roc hester, Apr. 2 to May 10, 1970 Ithaca: Cornell University, Office of University Publications, 1970. Print. Jefferies, Matthew. Imperial Culture in Germany, 1871 1918 Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print. Kashey, Elisabe th. Fifty German Nineteenth Century Drawings and Watercolors New York: Shepherd Gallery, Associates, 1983. Print. Kuhn, Charles L. German Expressionism and Abstract Art: The Harvard Collections Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957. Print. The Li brary of Congress. "A Heavenly Craft: the Woodcut in Early Printed Books." Library of Congress Exhibitions July 27, 2010. February 19, 2013. Web. Mende, Hans JŸrgen and Kurt Wernicke, ed. Lexicon der Berliner Stadtentwicklung Berlin: Haude & Spene rsche, 2002. Print. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. German Masters of the Nineteenth Century: Paintings and Drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1981. Print. Moeller, Magdalena M. Die BrŸcke' Zeichnungen, Aq uarelle, Druckgraphik Stuttgart: Verlag Gerd Hatje, 1992. Print. Myers, Bernard S. The German Expressionists: A Generation in Revolt New York: Praeger, 1957. Print.

PAGE 84

! +% Nobis, Norbert Der Blick auf FrŠ nzi und Marcella: Zwei Modelle der BrŸcke KŸnstler Heckel, Kirchner und Pechstein. Sprengel Museum Hannover und Stiftung Moritzburg, Kunstmuseum des Landes Sachsen Anhalt, 2011. Print. Paret, Peter. "The Artist as StaatsbŸrger: Aspects of the Fine Arts and the Prussian State before and during the First World War." German Studies Review Vol. 6, No. 3. October 1983. 421 437. Print. Price, RenŽe, Pamela Kort, Leslie E. Topp, and Vivian E. Barnett. New Worlds: German and Austrian Art, 1890 1940 New York: Neue Galerie, Museum for German and Austrian Art, 2001. Print. Raabe, Paul. The Era of German Expressionism Woodstock, N.Y: Overlook Press, 1974. Print. Radkau, Joachim. "Die Wilhelminische € r a als nervšses Zeitalter, oder: Die Nerven als Netz zwischen Tempo und Kšrpergeschichte." Geschichte un d Gesellschaft 20. Jahrg., H. 2, Sozialgeschichtliche Probleme des Kaiserreichs. April June, 1994. 211 241. Print. Reed, Orrel P, and Robert G. Rifkind. German Expressionist Art: The Robert Gore Rifkind Collection : Prints, Drawings, Illustrated Boo ks, Periodicals, Posters Los Angeles: Frederick S. Wight Art Gallery, University of California, Los Angeles, 1977. Print. Selz, Peter H. German Expressionist Painting Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957. Print.

PAGE 85

! +& Scheyer, Ernst and Willis F Woods. The German Expressionists and Their Contemporaries: 50 Years of Fantasy and Frenzy Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame 1969. Print. Schuster, Peter Klaus, Christoph Vitali, and Barbara Butts, ed. Lovis Corinth Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1996. Print. Simmons, Sherwin. "Ernst Kirchner's Streetwalkers: Art, Luxury, and Immorality in Berlin, 1913 1916." The Art Bulletin Vol. 82, No. 1. March 2000. 117 148. Print. Sommerschuh, Jens Uwe. Stein und Tafel fŸr FrŠ nzi ." SŠchsische Zeitung 15 June, 2011. Web. Spalek, John M. German Expressionism in the Fine Arts: A Bibliography Los Angeles: Hennessey & Ingalls, 1977. Print. Vergo, Peter, and Irene Martin. Twentieth century German Painting London: Sotheby's Publications, 1992. Print. Vog t, Paul, Horts Keller, Martin Urban, Wolf Dieter Dube, and Eberhard Roters. Expressionism, a German Intuition, 1905 1920: [an Exhibition Held a t] the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, November 14, 1980 January 18, 1981 [and] San Francisco Museum of Modern Art February 19 April 26, 1981 New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1980. Print. White, Gabriel. German Expressionism: Watercolours, Prints and Drawings by the Painters of the BrŸcke London: The Council, 1969. Print.

PAGE 86

! +' Wick, Rainer K. Der Blick auf FrŠ nzi und Marcella. Zwei Modelle der BrŸcke KŸnstler Heckel, Kirchner und Pechstein, Sprengel Museum Hannover, bis 9. Januar 2010." Portal Kunstgeschichte 22 November 2010. Web.

PAGE 87

! +( Figure 1 : Die Proklamierung des deutschen Kaiserreiches ( The Proclamation of the German Empire ) Anton von Werner 1877 oil on canvas, 250 x 250 cm Source: "Karya Kayra Terbaik Pelukis Anton von Werner." Sitika bohai.blogspot.com. Figure 2 : Bacchanal ( Bacchanal ) Leo Putz 1905 oil on wood, 114 x 115 cm, signed l ower left Leo Putz 05' Sammlung Siegfried Unterberger, Meran Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus page 28, plate 11

PAGE 88

! +) Figure 3 : Schwarzer Pierrot ( Black Pierrot ) 1908 Fritz Erler oil on canvas, 206.5 x 198 cm, signed lower left Erler' Berlin, Akademie der KŸnste Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 29, pl. 12 Figure 4 : Frauenbildnis ( Portrait of a Woman ) Erich Heckel 1906 oil on canvas, 70 x 64 cm, signed lower left EH 06' Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, National galerie Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 41, pl. 27

PAGE 89

! +* Figure 5 : Bildnis Rosa Schapire ( Portrait of Rosa Schapire ) Karl Schmidt Rottluff 1911 oil on canvas, 84 x 76 cm, signed lower right 'S. Rottluff' BrŸck e Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 52, pl. 38 Figure 6 : PortrŠt Erna Schilling ( Portrait of Erna Schilling ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 oil on canvas, 71.5 x 60.5 cm, signed upper left 'EL Kirchner' Joint acquisition amongst the Friends o f the Nationalgalerie, der Stiftung Preussis cher Kulturbesitz, and das Bund Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 205, pl. 222

PAGE 90

! ++ Figure 7 : Flores astrologiae Erhard Ratoldt 1488 woodcut illustration for Albumasar's book Source: "A Hea venly Craft: the Woodcut in Early Printed Books." Library of Congress, Exhibitions. July 27, 2010. Figure 8 : Te Po ( Eternal Night ) Paul Gauguin 1893 94 woodcut Source: "Te Po (Eternal Night)/Paul Gauguin 10 Traesnit." The British Museum.

PAGE 91

! +, Fig ure 9 : The Kiss IV Edvard Munch 1902 woodcut Source: "The Graphic Works and Prints of Edvard Munch." The i.b. tauris blog. Figure 10 : La Paresse ( The Lethargy ) Felix Vallotton 1896 woodcut, 17.9 x 22.4 cm, signed bottom right on the image FV,' sign ed bottom left on the paper LA PARESSE,' signed bottom right on the paper fValloton / 8' Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 22, pl. 3

PAGE 92

! +! Figure 11 : Ausstellung KŸnstlergruppe BrŸcke ( Die BrŸcke Artist Group Exhibit ) Fritz Bleyl 1906 poster, color lithography in yellow orange, 69.3 x 22.5 cm, paper: 71.5 x 24.5 cm Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 240, pl. 273 Figure 12 : Programm der BrŸcke ( Die BrŸcke Manifesto ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1906 woodcut leaflet, 15.2 x 7.5 cm, signed within the first 'M' ELK' BrŸck e Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 239, pl. 272

PAGE 93

! ,. Figure 13 : Berliner Ate lier in der Koernerstrasse 45 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner photograph of Kirchner's 1913 apartment Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus 221 Figure 14 : Wall Painting in the Dining Room of the Villa Hugo Perls, Berlin Zehlendorf Max Pechstein b lack and white photograph by Ute Frank Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 236, pl. 268

PAGE 94

! ,% Figure 15 : Plakat fŸr das MUIM Institut ( Poster for the MUIM Institute ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1911 woodcut in black and blue (heavily faded), 8 6.9 x 54.6 cm, signed image lower right 'ELK' BrŸcke Museum, Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 243, pl. 278 Figure 16 : Die Vier Evangelisten ( The Four Gospels ): Matthaeus ( Matthew ), Markus ( Mark ), Lukas ( Luke ), and Johanne s ( John ) Karl Schmidt Rottluff 1912 42.5 x 33 cm four wrought brass reliefs, colored with oil paints, mounted with brass studs and black box frames, 42.5 x 33 cm BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 233, pl. 191

PAGE 95

! ,& Figure 17 : Liegender Akt ( Reclining Nude ) Lesser Ury 1889 oil on canvas Source: personal photograph at the Berlinische Galerie, Berlin, July 2012 Figure 18 : Innocentia Lovis Corinth 1890 oil on canvas, 66.5 x 54.5 cm StŠdtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich Source: Lovis Corinth edited by Peter Klaus Schuster, Christof Vitali and Barbara Butts, p. 107, pl. 10

PAGE 96

! ,' Figure 19 : Salome, Second Version Lovis Corinth 1900 oil on canvas, 127 x 148 cm Museum der Bildenden KŸnste Leipzig Source: Lovis Corinth edited by Peter Klaus Schuster, Christof Vitali and Barbara Butts Figure 20 : Puberty Edvard Munch 1893 151 x 110 cm Najonalgalleriet Source: ARTstor.

PAGE 97

! ,( Figure 21 : Weiblicher RŸckenakt ( Female Posterior Nude ) Fritz Bleyl 1905 pencil, 44.7 x 34. 3 cm BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus pg. 84, pl. 87 Figure 22 : Woman with Decanter Ernst Heinrich Platz 1896 graphite on tan wove n paper, 8 1/2 x 6 11/16 in. Source: Fifty German Nineteenth Century Drawings and Wa tercolors Shepherd Gallery, pl. 44

PAGE 98

! ,) Figure 23 : Paar ( Pair ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1908 pastel, black and color chalk, 88.5 x 68.5 cm BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 86, pl. 92 Figure 24 : Badende im Raum ( Bathing Women in a Room ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1908 oil on canvas, signed upper right E L Kirchner 08' Source: "Badende im Raum. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner." The athenaeum.org.

PAGE 99

! ,* Figure 25 : Les Demoiselles d' Avignon Pablo Picasso 1907 New York, The Muse um of Modern Art oil on canvas, 96 x 92 inches Source: Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective edited by William Rubin, p. 99 Figure 26 : Marcella Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1909 10 oil on canvas, 76 x 60 cm, signed upper right E L Kirchner' Moderna Museet, Stockho lm Source: Der Blick auf Fraenzi und Marcella: Zwei Modelle der BrŸcke KŸnstler Heckel, Kirchner und Pechstein p. 39, pl. 145

PAGE 100

! ,+ Figure 27 : FrŠnzi liegend ( FrŠnzi Reclining ) Erich Heckel 1910 black and red woodcut, image: 22.5/20.2 x 41.8/40.8 cm; paper: appr. 35 x 56 cm, signed bottom right Heckel 10,' bottom left FrŠnzi liegend' Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 92, pl. 99 Figure 28 : Streitendes Paar am Kaffeetisch ( Arguing Co uple at a Coffeetable ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1909 pen and ink, 20.2 x 16 cm Source: "Collection Search." National Gallery of Australia. Artsearch.nga.gov.au.

PAGE 101

! ,, Figure 29 : Bin armer Leute Kind ( I am a Poor Folks' Child ) Karl Schmidt Rottluf 1905 woodcu t, image: 20 x 15.3 cm, paper: 28.5 x 22.3 cm, signed bottom right Karl Schmidt,' bottom left Bin armer Leute Kind/ Orig. Holzschn.,' bottom left of the print KS' BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 96, lower im age Figure 30 : FehmarnmŠdchen ( Fehmarn Girls ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 woodcut, 42.2 x 43.8 cm, signed lower right E L Kirchner' BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 263, pl. 312

PAGE 102

! ,! Figure 31 : Artistin Ma rcella Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1910 oil on canvas, 101 x 76 cm, signed upper right E L Kirchner,' Artistin' on v erso BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 178, pl. 196 Figure 32 : Das grŸne Sofa ( the Green Sofa ) M ax Pechstein 1910 oil on canvas, 96.5 x 96.5cm Source: "RŸckseiten." Rheinische art.de. May 2012.

PAGE 103

! -. Figure 33 : Tanz ( Dance ) Max Pechstein 1909 oil on canvas, 95 x 120 cm Private Collection on loan to the BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 193, pl. 210 Figure 34 : Hamburger TŠnzerinnen ( Hamburg Dancers ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1910 pen and brush in black ink, 44.8 x 35 cm, signed bottom right E L Kirchner' BrŸck e Museum Berlin: Karlheinz Gabler Collection Sou rce: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 195, pl. 213

PAGE 104

! -% Figure 35 : Tanzpaar ( Dance Pair ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1914 oil on canvas, 91 x 65cm, signed lower right E L Kirchner' Essen, Museum Folkwang Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expres sionismus p. 197, pl. 216 Figure 36 : Beim Vorlesen ( Reading Aloud ) Erich Heckel 1913/14 watercolor and pencil, 45.4 x 37.3 cm, signed bottom right Heckel 13/14 / Beim Vorlesen' BrŸck e Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 187, pl. 206

PAGE 105

! -& Figure 37 : Mittag im Dangaster Moor ( Midday in the Dangast Mire ) Karl Schmidt Rottluff 1908 oil on canvas, signed lower left S Rottluff 1908' Source: "Einhundert Jahre BrŸcke' in Oldenburg." Expressionismus: Auftakt zur Moderne. L andesmuseum fŸr Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Oldenburg. Expressionismus oldenburg.de. Figure 38 : Sitzendes MŠdchen ( Moritzburg ) ( Seated Girl [ Moritzburg ] ) Max Pechstein 1910 oil on canvas, 80 x 70 cm, signed upper left HMP 1910' Staatliche Museen zu Be rlin, Nationalgalerie Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 103, pl. 110

PAGE 106

! -' Figure 39 : Ropewalk in Edam Max Liebermann 1904 oil on canvas, 101 x 71.1 cm New York NY, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Source: German Masters of the Ninete enth Century, Paintings and Drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany p. 151 pl. 53 Figure 40 : Drei Akte im Walde ( Three Nudes in the Woods ) Otto Mueller 1911 oil on canvas Source: "Artist Says What?" aremington seniorsem.blogspot.com.

PAGE 107

! -( Figur e 41 : Frauen im Bade ( Women Bathing ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1911 oil on canvas, 151 x 197 cm BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 107, pl. 113 Figure 42 : HŠuser bei Nacht ( Houses by Night ) Karl Schmidt Rottluff 1 912 oil on canvas, 95.6 x 87.4 cm, signed lower left S. Rottluff 1912' Source: "Cave to Canvas." Cavetocanvas.com.

PAGE 108

! -) Figure 43 : Liegende ( Reclining Woman ) Erich Heckel 1913 black and red woodcut, image: 18 x 10.5 cm, paper: 27.5 x 19.8 cm Staatliche Mu seen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 216, pl. 236 Figure 44 : Geschwister ( Siblings ) Erich Heckel 1913 woodcut, image: 41.5 x 30.7cm, paper: 61.4 x 47cm Source: "The Collection: Siblings (Geschwis ter) from the portfolio Eleven Woodcuts, 1912 1919 (Elf Holzschnitte, 1912 1919)." Museum of Modern Art. Moma.org.

PAGE 109

! -* Figure 45 : Nollendorfplatz Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1912 oil on canvas, 69 x 59 cm, signed bottom right E. L. Kirchner 12' Stiftung S tadtmuseum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 206, pl. 223 Figure 46 : Berliner Strassenszene ( Berlin Street Scene ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 oil on canvas, 121 x 95 cm, signed bottom right E. L. Kirchner' BrŸck e Museum B erlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 200, pl. 217

PAGE 110

! -+ Figure 47 : Chronik der KG BrŸcke ( Chronicle of the Artist Group die BrŸcke ), Page 1 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 woodcut, 67.2 x 51.4 cm, text of the Chronicle by Kirchner and woodcuts by Kirchner, Schmidt Rottluff, and Heckel BrŸcke Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 247 Figure 48 : Chronik der KG BrŸcke ( Chronicle of the Artist Group die BrŸcke ), Page 2 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 woodcut, 67.2 x 51.4 cm, text of the Chronicle by Kirchner and woodcuts by Kirchner, Schmidt Rottluff, and Heckel BrŸck e Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 247

PAGE 111

! -, Figure 49 : Chronik der KG BrŸcke ( Chronicle of the Artist Grou p die BrŸcke ), Page 3 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1913 woodcut, 67.2 x 51.4 cm, text of the Chronicle by Kirchner and woodcuts by Kirchner, Schmidt Rottluff, and Heckel BrŸck e Museum Berlin Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 247 Figure 50 : Eine KŸnstlergruppe ( An Artist Group ) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1926 oil on canvas, 168 x 126 cm, signed verso 'E.L. Kirchner 25/Frauenkirch Davos/Eine KŸnstlergruppe' Museum Ludwig, Cologne Source: BrŸcke und Berlin: 100 Jahre Expressionismus p. 291, pl. 349


ERROR LOADING HTML FROM SOURCE (http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu//design/skins/UFDC/html/footer_item.html)