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Autonomous and Bound

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004663/00001

Material Information

Title: Autonomous and Bound The Zine as Social, Political and Cultural Mediator
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Rosen, Analeah
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2012
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Zines
Praxis
Aesthetics
Little Magazines
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This work investigates how the zine, a form of "underground" self-publishing, can be constituted as an art form and as a form of political praxis. I will demonstrate the zine's artistic qualities by using the theoretical work of Theodor Adorno and drawing parallels between what he believed to be the social, historical and political position of modern art, and what I believe to be the current cultural and political position zines that occupy. I argue that as aesthetic objects that engage in cultural production, zines are inherently political, as they critique society by proffering alternatives to it. These alternatives are not only a part of their content, but can be seen in their praxis. By creating new relationships to labor, consumption and communities, zines resist in ways that are multifarious and that can be closely associated with the "New Social Movements." More interested in resisting in embodied, or quotidian ways, the New Social Movements created nonhierarchical networks that focused on relationship building and radical cultural alternatives rather than any one political goal. My work is informed by these theories, but is also heavily influenced by zines and zine writers primarily from the San Francisco area.
Statement of Responsibility: by Analeah Rosen
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2012
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Zamsky, Robert

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2012 R8
System ID: NCFE004663:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004663/00001

Material Information

Title: Autonomous and Bound The Zine as Social, Political and Cultural Mediator
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Rosen, Analeah
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2012
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Zines
Praxis
Aesthetics
Little Magazines
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This work investigates how the zine, a form of "underground" self-publishing, can be constituted as an art form and as a form of political praxis. I will demonstrate the zine's artistic qualities by using the theoretical work of Theodor Adorno and drawing parallels between what he believed to be the social, historical and political position of modern art, and what I believe to be the current cultural and political position zines that occupy. I argue that as aesthetic objects that engage in cultural production, zines are inherently political, as they critique society by proffering alternatives to it. These alternatives are not only a part of their content, but can be seen in their praxis. By creating new relationships to labor, consumption and communities, zines resist in ways that are multifarious and that can be closely associated with the "New Social Movements." More interested in resisting in embodied, or quotidian ways, the New Social Movements created nonhierarchical networks that focused on relationship building and radical cultural alternatives rather than any one political goal. My work is informed by these theories, but is also heavily influenced by zines and zine writers primarily from the San Francisco area.
Statement of Responsibility: by Analeah Rosen
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2012
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Zamsky, Robert

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2012 R8
System ID: NCFE004663:00001


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A U T O N O M O U S A N D B O U N D : T H E Z I N E A S S O C I A L P O L I T I C A L A N D C U L T U R A L M E D I A T O R B Y A N A L E A H R O S E N A T H E S I S S ubm i t t e d t o t he D i vi s i on o f H um a ni t i e s N e w C ol l e ge of F l o r i da I n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt f or t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he d e gr e e B a c he l or of t he A r t s U nd e r t he S pons or s hi p o f R obe r t Z a m s ky S a r a s ot a F l or i da A pr i l 2012

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R os e n i i D e di c a t i ons T hi s t he s i s i s de di c a t e d t o a l l of t he l ove l y pe opl e i nc l ude d w i t hi n t he pa ge s of t hi s w or k a nd t hos e w ho w or ke d be hi nd t he s c e ne s w i t h m e T o R oc k, P a pe r S c i s s or s C ol l e c t i v e : A va A r a D e von, K r i s t y, J on, E uge ne a nd e ve r yone e l s e f or be i ng pa t i e nt a nd l e t t i ng m e r um m a ge a r ound t he s pa c e T o t he z i ne m a ke r s I i nt e r vi e w e d, C hr i s M i ke E m i l y B r a ndt f or be i ng s o w i l l i ng t o pa r t i c i pa t e a nd f o r be i ng s o i nt e r e s t e d i n m y pr oj e c t A s pe c i a l t ha nks t o T om a s w ho ope ne d up hi s hous e t o m e a nd e nt e r t a i ne d que s t i ons of r a di c a l a c t i vi s m w i t hi n t he a c a de m y a nd m a ny ot he r pa r t i c ul a r s of l i vi ng a nd l ovi ng w i t hi n t hi s s t r a nge w or l d. T o m y f r i e nds a t N e w C ol l e ge f or s t a yi ng by m y s i de a nd l ovi ng t he e r r a t i c pe r s on I a m F a bi e nne a nd F e l i x I know w e l l be pr oduc i ng t oge t he r i n a s pa c e w e ve m a de our ow n a nd I l ove you bot h de a r l y. C l a i r e N a us hi n a nd J une I know w e l l be t oge t he r f or e ve r T o m y f a m i l y, w ho ha s pr e pa r e d m e f o r t hi s w o r k m y e nt i r e l i f e by not l e t t i ng one opi ni on go unc ha l l e ng e d I l ove you! A nd t o m y pa r t ne r J ul i a n, w ho ha s he l pe d m e i n w a ys I ha ve not ye t f ul l y un de r s t ood, a nd w hos e c r e a t i ve a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l pr e s e nc e ha s be e n a gods e nd. T hi s w o r k i s onl y t h e c ul m i na t i o n of c onve r s a t i ons I ha ve ha d w i t h t he s e w onde r f ul pe opl e a nd s o i n a w a y t he d oc um e nt i s bot h f o r a nd by t he m

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R os e n i i i T ab l e of C on t e n t s A bs t r a c t P g. 2 I nt r oduc t i on P g. 4 C ha pt e r O ne : U nde r s t a ndi ng t he Z i ne P g. 8 C ha pt e r T w o: A dor no Z i ne s a nd P r a xi s P g. 30 C ha pt e r T hr e e : Z i ne s T a l k B a c k P g. 52 C onc l us i on P g. 69 A ppe ndi x I : I m a ge s of Z i ne s P g. 73 W or k C i t e d P g. 85

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R os e n 2 A U T O N O M O U S A N D B O U N D : T H E Z I N E A S S O C I A L P O L I T I C A L A N D C U L T U R A L M E D I A T O R A na l e a h R os e n N e w C ol l e ge of F l o r i da 2012 A B S T R A C T T hi s w or k i n ve s t i ga t e s how t he z i ne a f or m of un de r gr ound s e l f publ i s hi ng, c a n be c ons t i t ut e d a s a n a r t f or m a nd a s a f or m of pol i t i c a l pr a xi s I w i l l de m ons t r a t e t he z i ne s a r t i s t i c qua l i t i e s by us i ng t he t he or e t i c a l w o r k of T he odor A do r no a nd dr a w i ng pa r a l l e l s be t w e e n w ha t he be l i e ve d t o be t he s oc i a l hi s t or i c a l a nd pol i t i c a l pos i t i on of m ode r n a r t a nd w ha t I be l i e ve t o be t he c ur r e nt c ul t ur a l a nd pol i t i c a l pos i t i on z i ne s t ha t oc c upy. I a r gue t ha t a s a e s t he t i c obj e c t s t ha t e nga ge i n c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on z i ne s a r e i nhe r e nt l y pol i t i c a l a s t he y c r i t i que s oc i e t y by pr of f e r i ng a l t e r na t i ve s t o i t T he s e

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R os e n 3 a l t e r na t i ve s a r e not onl y a pa r t of t he i r c ont e nt bu t c a n be s e e n i n t he i r pr a xi s B y c r e a t i n g ne w r e l a t i ons hi ps t o l a bo r c ons um pt i on a nd c om m uni t i e s z i ne s r e s i s t i n w a ys t ha t a r e m ul t i f a r i ous a nd t ha t c a n be c l os e l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s M or e i nt e r e s t e d i n r e s i s t i ng i n e m bo di e d, or quot i di a n w a ys t he N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s c r e a t e d nonhi e r a r c hi c a l ne t w or ks t ha t f oc us e d on r e l a t i ons hi p bui l di ng a nd r a di c a l c ul t ur a l a l t e r na t i ve s r a t he r t ha n a ny on e pol i t i c a l goa l M y w o r k i s i nf or m e d by t he s e t he or i e s but i s a l s o he a vi l y i n f l ue nc e d by z i ne s a nd z i ne w r i t e r s pr i m a r i l y f r om t he S a n F r a nc i s c o a r e a R obe r t Z a m s ky H um a ni t i e s

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R os e n 4 I nt r oduc t i on: U p o n f i r s t g l a n c e a z i n e m i g ht no t t he m os t i m pr e s s i ve t hi n g I t s a s m a l l p h o t oc o pi e d, s e l f p ubl i s he d bookl e t r ou g h a r ound t he e d g e s s m ud gy f r om b e i n g h a nd l e d a nd h a nd d e s i g n e d B u t w he n I h a d m y f i r s t c h a n c e e n c oun t e r w i t h a z i n e t w o y e a r s a g o I f ound m y s e l f i m m e d i a t e l y a t t r a c t e d t o t he m e d i u m H e r e w a s a s m a l l book l e t w i t h a ha nd s t i t c he d s p i ne a nd t he a ut hor s p e r s ona l c o n t a c t i nf o r m a t i on, t he pa g e s br i m m i n g w i t h t e xt i n e v e r y di r e c t i on a s t o f i l l u p a l l a v a i l a b l e s p a c e A l t hou g h I on l y e nc oun t e r e d t hi s z i ne i n pa s s i n g ( a nd h a v e s ub s e que n t l y f or g o t t e n i t s t i t l e ) i t s pa r ke d m y c ur i os i t y a nd l e d m e t o s e e k ot he r p ubl i c a t i ons of i t s ki nd. I f ound a f e w ve nu e s i n S ou t h F l or i d a a nd f i n a l l y c a m e u p on a z i ne f e s t i va l i n S t P e t e r s bur g F L I t w a s t he r e t ha t I r e a l i z e d how p o t e n t t he z i ne m e d i u m a nd p r a c t i c e c ou l d be I w a s s ur r ounde d b y p e o pl e w h o c a r r i e d t he i r s t or i e s i d e a s a nd p oe t r y a r ound w i t h t he m i n l i t t l e books w a i t i n g f o r t he o p p o r t uni t y t o g i v e t he m a w a y or t r a de t he m f o r o t he r s t or i e s A nd a s e a c h s t or y w a s c ont a i n e d w i t hi n a c o m pl e t e l y or i g i n a l f or m a t s p e c i f i c t o t he c r e a t or s a e s t he t i c i nt e r e s t s t he r e w a s s uc h a v a r i e t y a s t o be ov e r w he l m i n g H o w e ve r t he m o s t e x c i t i n g a s pe c t of s e e i n g a l l of t he s e pe o pl e t o g e t he r w i t h t he i r i ne xpe ns i ve h a nd m a d e books w a s t he c o m m un i t y M y i nve s t i g a t i ons of z i ne c u l t ur e t he n t ook m e t o t he S a n F r a n c i s c o B a y A r e a w he r e t he c u l t ur e i s s t i l l v e r y m u c h a l i v e W or k i n g a s a l i br a r i a n a nd c ur a t or i n O a k l a nd ba s e d z i n e l i b r a r y R oc k, P a pe r S c i s s or s C ol l e c t i v e I w a s a b l e t o g o t hr ou g h t hou s a nd s of z i ne s a nd f e e l t he h i s t or y a nd c on c e r ns of t ho s e e n g a g e d i n t he pr a c t i c e I b e g a n t o

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R os e n 5 unde r s t a nd t he r a d i c a l p o t e n t i a l o f t he m e d i u m H e r e w a s a s pa c e w he r e w r i t e r s w ho ha d be e n l e f t ou t of di a l o g u e c r e a t e d a s p a c e of t he i r o w n. A nd unl i k e w r i t i n g f o r on e s e l f t he a c t of w r i t i n g f or o t he r s c r e a t e s a pl a t f or m t o s p e a k f r o m w i t hi n c u l t ur e W r i t i n g s o t ha t y o ur w or k w i l l b e d i s t r i bu t e d i s a l s o s i m pl y i nvi g or a t i n g I t m a k e s one f e e l l i k e a n a c t i v e p a r t i c i pa n t i n t he c r e a t i on of c u l t ur e T hi s a c t i ve p a r t i c i pa t i on i s w ha t i s i n c r e d i b l e a bou t z i ne s : t he y c r i t i qu e do m i n a n t va l u e s w hi l e c r e a t i ng n e w s y s t e m s of m e a n i n g a nd v a l u e i n t he p r o c e s s T he y a r e bo t h a r t f or m s a nd m od e s of r e s i s t a nc e t ha t e n g a g e i n c o a l i t i on a l r a t he r t ha n i s ol a t e d m e a n i n g m a k i n g T he m a j o r i t y of a c a d e m i c w or k on z i ne s de a l s w i t h t he i r p ol i t i c a l p o t e n t i a l p l a c i n g i m por t a nc e on t he f o r m a t i on of i d e n t i t y a nd und e r g r ound m ov e m e n t s L i k e w i s e t he a t t e n t i on t o t he m e d i u m i s unde r s t ood i n r e f e r e n c e t o i t s p ol i t i c a l p o t e n t i a l W h i l e I w i l l c e r t a i n l y a r g u e t he s e p oi n t s a s t he y a r e e xt r e m e l y r e l e v a nt t o t he p r a x i s of z i n e m a k i n g m y p r i m a r i l y a r g u m e n t i s t ha t z i ne m a k i n g i s a n a r t f or m of w hi c h p ol i t i c a l p o t e n t i a l i s i nh e r e n t U nde r s t a ndi n g z i n e s a s a n a r t f or m I d i d not w a n t t o l ook a t t he m t hr ou g h a s i n g l e f r a m e w or k, a s a r t ha s t he p o t e n t i a l t o t ouc h e v e r y p a r t of l i f e T he r e f o r e I h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o m a p t he m a c r os s i n t e r s e c t i n g d i s c i pl i n e s i n or d e r t o p r e s e n t a va r i e g a t e d t he or y of t he z i ne m e d i u m I n t he f i r s t c ha p t e r I w i l l t r y t o de f i n e t he m us i n g a c o m b i n a t i on of a c t ua l z i ne e x a m pl e s a d i s c us s i on of t he i r s ubc u l t ur a l pr a c t i c e s ( m os t no t a bl y, t he i r a l t e r n a t i v e f or m of p r oduc t i on a nd c ons um p t i on) a s w e l l a s t he i r hi s t or i e s T he pl ur a l i t y of hi s t or y i m pl i e s t he d e s i r e t o l ook a t z i ne s w i t hi n t he i r ow n hi s t or i c a l m o m e n t a s w e l l a s a n e xt e ns i on of o l d e r f or m s of s e l f d i r e c t e d p ubl i s h i n g T hu s I w i l l t r y t o d e f i n e z i ne s

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R os e n 6 w i t hi n a s oc i o h i s t or i c a l f r a m e w or k a s t o be t t e r un de r s t a nd ho w t he i r f or m i s r e l e v a n t a nd how t he y c a n b e c ons t i t u t e d a s a r t w or k s F or t he s e c ond c h a p t e r I w i l l f o c us on t he l i t e r a r y a nd a r t i s t i c qu a l i t i e s of t he z i ne u s i n g t he c on c e p t ua l f r a m e w or k of T he odor A dor no s A e s t h e t i c T h e or y H i s w or k i s i n t e g r a l t o unde r s t a ndi n g t he t y p e of s p a c e t ha t s ubc u l t ur a l p r a c t i c e s s uc h a s z i ne s a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e T he z i ne s i nh e r e n t a u t ono m y ( a s i t i s c om pl e t e l y a s e l f d i r e c t e d p r oj e c t ) p u t s i t i n a n i d e a l p o s i t i on t o c r i t i qu e t he s oc i e t y f r om w hi c h i t c o m e s B e c a us e bo t h a r t ( a s de s c r i b e d b y A dor no) a nd z i n e s e m bo d y c r i t i qu e t hr ou g h t he i r f o r m c ont e n t a nd m e a ns of p r oduc t i on, t he y c a n t hu s be c ons t i t u t e d a s m od e s of p r a x i s B e c a us e t he z i ne e n c our a g e s t he c r e a t i on of c o m m un i t y a nd c onne c t i on ove r t he a r t i f a c t I w i l l a l s o a r g u e t ha t i t c a n b e c ons i de r e d a n a r c h e t y p e of t he N e w S o c i a l M o ve m e n t s A s de s c r i b e d b y A l be r t o M e l uc c i t he s e n e w m ov e m e n t s of t h e 1980 s f oc us e d m o r e on c u l t ur a l a nd l i v e d pa r t i c i pa t i on t he n a n y de s i r e f or d i r e c t p a r t i c i pa t i on w i t hi n e x i s t i n g p ol i t i c a l v e nu e s T hu s I s e e t he z i n e a s a f o r m of a r t t ha t b y i t s ve r y r e l a t i ons hi p t o s oc i e t y a s c r i t i c a nd a s f or m t ha t p e r p e t ua t e s a l t e r n a t i v e c o m m un i t i e s be c o m e s a m od e of pr a x i s I n t he t hi r d c h a p t e r I w i l l o pe n t he f l oo r u p t o z i ne m a k e r s B y p r e s e n t i n g a c o m pi l a t i on of m y o w n p e r s ona l l y c onduc t e d i n t e r v i e w s a nd o t he r s t ha t I ha ve g a t he r e d f r o m books I a l l ow z i ne m a k e r s t o r e s p o nd t o m y t he or i e s B e c a us e a r t i s t s a p p r oa c h t he i r p r a c t i c e i n m u l t i f a r i ous w a y s a nd t hi s p a r t i c i pa t i on a s de s c r i b e d i n t he N e w S o c i a l M o ve m e n t s i s va r i e d a nd h i g h l y i nd i v i du a l i s t i c I ho pe t ha t t he s e z i ne s t e r r e s p o n s e s w i l l g i v e a m or e t e xt ur e d a n a l y s i s of m y t he or i e s

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R os e n 7 I ho pe f or t hi s w or k t o e l e v a t e t he p r a c t i c e o f z i ne i n g f r o m t he f r i n g e s of s ubc u l t ur a l p r a c t i c e s w i t hou t de va l u i n g t ha t ve r y ne c e s s a r y s p a c e t ha t e l i d e s s c r u t i n y a nd m i s c a t e g or i z a t i on. I a l s o ho pe t ha t m y e x a m i n a t i on of t he z i ne w i l l i l l u m i n a t e t he be a ut y a nd c o m pl e x i t y of a e s t he t i c a nd p ol i t i c a l pa r t i c i pa t i on, a nd i g n i t e o t he r s t o t a ke on t hi s ( or a n y ) ve r y va l u a b l e a nd n e c e s s a r y f or m of a c t i ve c u l t ur a l pa r t i c i pa t i on. A s G l or i a A n z a l da w r i t e s i n B or de r l ands / L a F r ont e r a: T h e N e w M e s t i z a T he p o s s i bi l i t i e s a r e nu m e r ous onc e w e d e c i d e t o a c t a nd no t r e a c t T he z i ne a s a c t i on, a s a r t w or k a nd a s a p e r s ona l a nd p ubl i c s p a c e e m bod y a nd p or t r a y m a n y of t he s e i m a g i n e d p o s s i bi l i t i e s

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R os e n 8 C h ap t e r O n e : U n d e r s t an d i n g t h e Z i n e W hat i s a z i ne ? T hi s z i ne i s a doc um e nt of m a ny of t he i de a s I ha ve be e n t hi nki ng a bou t l a t e l y. F o r m e t ha t i s t he ba s i s f or m a ki ng a z i ne M y z i ne a nd w r i t i ng i s a w a y t o w or k t hr ough a nd be yond t he f r us t r a t i on a nd de t a c hm e n t t ha t of t e n c om e s w i t h t he m unda ne T hi s i nt r oduc t i on t o E l e a nor s z i ne I ndul ge nc e #7 a nd i s pr e t t y e m bl e m a t i c of t he pr oc e s s of z i ne m a ki ng. I t i s a pr oc e s s t ha t a s ks t he c r e a t o r t o m e di t a t e on a nd r e c ons i de r hi s / he r s oc i a l pos i t i on a nd s ys t e m of va l ue s w hi l e e nga gi n g ot he r s i n t he pr oc e s s E l e a nor s z i ne l i ke m a ny z i ne s i s a t hought f ul l y r e n de r e d c om pi l a t i on of m us i ngs de s i r e s c r i t i que s a nd i ns pi r a t i ons t ha t r e l a t e not onl y a c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on of he r pe r s ona l i t y but a l s o a n i m a ge of t he t i m e a nd pl a c e t ha t s he i s w r i t i ng i n H e r z i n e a l s o r e pr e s e nt s a de s i r e s e n i n m a ny ot he r z i ne s : a n e e d t o i nve s t i ga t e a nd unde r s t a nd t he pol i t i c a l i m pl i c a t i ons of e ve r yda y a c t i ons 1 a nd t o go be yond t he m t h r ough a e s t he t i c c r e a t i ons T he s e i nve s t i ga t i ons f or m d i a l ogue s a nd r e l a t i o ns hi ps b e t w e e n r e a de r s a nd w r i t e r s be c a us e t he z i ne i s a n i nt i m a t e a nd w i d e l y di s t r i but e d a r t i f a c t T hi s i nt i m a c y s t e m s f r om t he f a c t t ha t z i ne s a r e of t e n ve r y pe r s ona l ha ve a ve r y di a l og i c a l t one a nd a r e c om pl e t e l y ha ndm a de F or e xa m pl e E l e a nor s I ndul ge nc e i nc l ude s a pe r s ona l i nt r oduc t i on t ha t i s m i l dl y s e l f de pr e c a t i ng, s e ve r a l e s s a y s on f e m i ni s m phi l os ophy a nd he r ow n l i f e D I Y 2 i l l us t r a t e d i ns t r uc t i ons he r ow n a r t pr i nt s a nd i s ha nd s e w n. 1 I n t hi s s e ns e I a m us i ng po l i t i c a l t o r e f e r t o a c c um ul a t e d hi s t or i c a l e ve nt s t ha t c ol l a t e i nt o s ys t e m s of pow e r P ow e r c a n be m a de p a l pa bl e a s i t i s of t e n c ont e s t e d, a nd f l uc t u a t i ng be t w e e n t he s t a t e a nd i t s m e m be r s T he pol i t i c a l of t he e ve r yda y r e f e r s t o how t he s e s ys t e m s of pow e r e xpr e s s t he m s e l v e s w i t hi n i nt e r pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n m e m be r s of t ha t gi ve n s oc i e t y. 2 D I Y i s a c om m on a bbr e vi a t i on f or D o I t Y ou r s e l f W hi l e t hi s ph r a s e ha s c om e t o e nc om pa s s e v e r yt hi ng f r om hom e r e pa i r t o F r e e U ni ve r s i t y s ys t e m s z i ne m a ke r s

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R os e n 9 B e c a us e t he z i ne i s s o pe r s ona l a nd pa r t i c ul a r ( i t s f or m de f i ne d by c r e a t or s ) i t s de f i ni t i on i s a m or phous a nd ha s c ha nge d s i gni f i c a n t l y s i nc e t he t e r m be ga n be i ng us e d i n t he l a t e 1970 s H ow e ve r t he r e i s a ge ne r a l c on s e ns us on w h a t t he t e r m z i ne m e a ns A z i ne i s s m a l l bookl e t t ha t i s s e l f pr oduc e d a nd d i s t r i but e d, nonc om m e r c i a l unpr o f e s s i ona l a nd e xt r e m e l y va r i e ga t e d 3 M os t z i n e s l i ke E l e a nor s f oc us on t he e xpl or a t i on of t he ps yc he w hi l e e xpl i c i t l y c r i t i qui ng s oc i a l r e l a t i o ns I n t hi s w a y t he z i ne s e r ve s a s a c ul t ur a l a r t i f a c t ; a s a m a de obj e c t i t c a n i nf or m r e a de r s of t he pa r t i c ul a r t i m e a nd s pa c e i n w hi c h i t w a s m a de a s w e l l a s i l l um i na t e c ul t ur a l a nd pol i t i c a l c onc e r ns t o t he r e a de r 4 T hr ough i t s m a t e r i a l qua l i t i e s t he z i ne e xpr e s s e s bot h t he i ndi vi dua l s w or l dvi e w by m e a ns of i t s a e s t he t i c s a nd c ont e nt a s w e l l a s a de s i r e t o c om m uni c a t e w i t h a l a r ge r a udi e nc e by vi r t ue of i t s i nt e nt i on f or di s t r i but i on. I t i s ove r t he z i ne a s obj e c t t ha t t he c r e a t i on of ne t w or ks r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd l a r ge r c om m uni t i e s oc c ur s pus hi ng t he z i n e f r om a n a r t i f a c t t o a p r a c t i c e a nd c ul t ur e 5 A s t he z i ne i s a n ope n pl a t f or m i t i s c ons t r i c t e d o nl y by s e l f i m pos e d l i m i t a t i ons A nd a l t hough m a ny z i ne s t e r s r e s i s t a ny a t t e m pt t o c a t e gor i z e t he i r w or k t he r e a r e ove r a s s oc i a t e t he t e r m w i t h a de s i r e t o m ove a w a y f r om dom i na nt ha bi t s of c ons um pt i on. D oi ng i t your s e l f i s a t onc e a c r i t i que of t he dom i na nt m od e of pa s s i ve c ons um e r c ul t ur e a nd s om e t hi ng f a r m or e i m por t a nt : t he a c t i ve c r e a t i on of a n a l t e r na t i ve c ul t ur e ( D unc om be 124) T he z i ne i t s e l f i s a f or m of D I Y pr a c t i c e 3 T o t he poi nt t ha t m a ny do not i nc l ude f ul l na m e s pa ge num be r s a nd onl y r un a f e w i s s ue s T hi s m a ke s c a t a l ogui ng t he m w i t hi n l i br a r i e s a nd c i t i ng t he m a n i nve s t i ga t i ve pr oc e s s 4 T he a r t i f a c t a nd c ul t u r a l a r t i f a c t s i gni f i e s a nyt hi ng m a de by hum a ns t ha t ha s e i t he r us e va l ue or s ym bol i c va l ue a nd c a n i nf o r m t he vi e w e r a bout t he c ul t u r e i n w hi c h i t e xi s t s 5 T he de f i ni t i on of c ul t u r e t ha t I a m us i ng, a nd w i l l c ont i nue t o us e t hr oughout t hi s t e xt i s one f r om H a r ol d B a r c l a y s C ul t ur e and A nar c h i s m C ul t ur e i s l e a r ne d or a c qui r e d i de a s be l i e f s know l e dge pl a ns f or a c t i on, r ul e s a nd unde r s t a ndi ngs t ha t a r e a va i l a bl e t o a pe opl e i n a gi ve n s o c i e t y ( B a r c l a y 14) C u l t ur e t he n e xi s t s w i t hi n ( i de a s be l i e f s ) a nd out s i de ( a c t i on, r ul e s ) of t he i ndi vi dua l T he i nne r a nd out e r r e a l m s of c ul t ur e f or m a di a l ogi c a l r e l a t i ons hi p t o one a no t he r

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R os e n 10 t w e nt y ge nr e s t ha t a r e ge ne r a l l y a c c e pt e d a nd r e c ogni z e d 6 E a c h z i ne a dve r t i s e s i t s c ont e nt a nd i nt e nt i on t hr oug h i t s f or m B e c a us e of t hi s a z i ne m a y a t t r a c t a c e r t a i n t ype of r e a de r r e s ul t i ng i n a l i m i t e d di s t r i but i on. O ne o f t he m os t r e c ogni z a bl e z i ne f or m a t s i s t he punk z i ne l a yout E ve r y pa ge i s ove r r un w i t h m ul t i d i r e c t i ona l t e xt ha ndw r i t i ng a ppe a r s ove r a ppr opr i a t e d i m a g e s a nd f ound t e xt a nd ba c kgr ounds a r e m ul t i l a ye r e d I t i s dyna m i c t o s a y t he l e a s t r e qui r i ng a n a t t e nt i ve a nd e nga g e d r e a de r H ow e v e r s om e z i ne s a r e m or e s t r a i ght f or w a r d a nd t e nd t o be m o r e a c c e s s i bl e w i t h pr i nt e d t e xt a nd f e w dr a w n or c ol l a ge d i m a ge s O t he r z i ne s l i ke t he S a n F r a nc i s c o B a y A r e a f a m ous K e r B l oom us e a l e t t e r p r e s s f or t he c ove r a nd c ont e nt r e ve a l i ng a n i nt e r e s t a nd de di c a t i on t o de s i gn a nd c r a f t w or k. W hi l e de s i gn a nd c ont e nt va r y a l l z i ne s s ha r e a de di c a t i on t o t he ove r t l y s ubj e c t i ve pr oc e s s i ng of i nf o r m a t i o n a nd a de di c a t i on t o t he l a bor of pr oduc i ng a nd di s t r i but i ng t he s e a r t i f a c t s I n t he s e w a ys t he c r e a t or s pr e s e nc e i s a l w a ys f e l t w he t he r i n t one f or m a t or by pe r s ona l a ddr e s s P r oduc t i on and C ons um pt i on B y pr oduc i ng c ul t ur e w i t hout a ny i nt e nt i on of m a ki ng pr of i t a nd by pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n a n a c t i ve ne t w or k of w r i t e r s a nd r e a de r s z i ne s be c om e a n a l t e r na t i ve t o r a t he r t ha n s i m pl y a c r i t i que o f c ons um e r c ul t ur e T he pr oduc t i on a nd c r a f t o f t he a c t ua l a r t i f a c t i s a c e nt r a l c om pone nt of z i ne c ul t ur e a nd be c a us e i t s e r ve s a s pl a t f or m w he r e t he c r e a t or c a n m a ke m e a ni ng a nd f i nd c om m uni t y, i t i s of t e n pr oduc e d f or ve r y pe r s ona l r e a s ons 6 P e r z i ne s ( pe r s ona l s t or i e s a nd i nt i m a t e m us i n g) a nd f a nz i ne s ( z i ne s t ha t a dm i r e a pe r s on/ ba nd/ m ovi e e t c ) a r e t he m os t c om m on ge nr e s f ol l ow e d by hybr i d z i ne s T he s e t e nd t ow a r d r a ndom a s s or t m e nt s of e s s a ys poe t r y, c ol l a ge l e t t e r s a nd l i s t s T he r e a r e a l s o z i ne s t ha t f oc us s ol e l y on pol i t i c s ( bot h pe r s ona l a nd a c t i vi s t ) he a l t h, s e x, t r a ve l i ng, w or ki ng l i t e r a t ur e a nd a r t ( D unc om be 15 17 )

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R os e n 11 T he pr oduc t i on o f a nyt hi ng r e qui r i ng l a bo r a nd de di c a t i on of t i m e out s i de of t he w or kp l a c e f or w hi c h t he c r e a t or ge t s l i t t l e t o no m one t a r y c om pe ns a t i on, i s qui t e r a di c a l 7 c ons i de r i ng t he s ys t e m of va l ue s t ha t s ur r ound l a bor M a ny z i ne w r i t e r s f i nd t he m s e l ve s a t odds w i t h t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o w or k. I n f a c t t he r e i s a w hol e ge nr e of z i n e s de di c a t e d t o w r i t i ng a bout s a bot a ge a nd ve nt i ng a bout t he c ondi t i ons of t he w or kpl a c e 8 T he s pa c e of t he z i ne t he n gi ve s t he s e w r i t e r s a s pa c e t o r e de f i ne w ha t w or k c a n be : a s pa c e w he r e t he pr oduc e r c ont r ol s t he m e a ns of pr oduc t i on, a nd t hus t he va l ue a nd s oc i a l c a pi t a l i nhe r e nt i n t he pr oduc t T hi s di f f e r s f r om K a r l M a r x s a na l ys i s of t he s ys t e m of va l ue s t ha t s ur r ound l a bor A c c or di ng t o M a r x t he l a bor e r doe s not be ne f i t f r om t he p r of i t s e a r ne d by t he pr oduc t w hi c h he / s he doe s not pr oduc e f or hi m / h e r s e l f t he w or ke r i s r e l a t e d t o t he pr oduc t of hi s l a bour a s t o a n a l i e n obj e c t ( M a r x, 72) F ur t he r t he a l i e na t i on of t he w or ke r i n h i s pr oduc t m e a ns not onl y t ha t hi s l a bour be c om e s a n obj e c t a n e xt e r na l e xi s t e nc e but t ha t i t e xi s t s out s i de of hi m i nde pe nde nt l y, a s s om e t hi ng a l i e n t o hi m a nd t ha t i t be c om e s a pow e r of i t s ow n c onf r ont i ng hi m ; i t m e a ns t ha t t he l i f e w hi c h he ha s c onf e r r e d on t he obj e c t c onf r ont s hi m a s s om e t hi ng hos t i l e a nd a l i e n ( M a r x, 72) T he hos t i l e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr od uc e r a nd pr oduc t ne c e s s i t a t e s t he s e pa r a t i on of w or k a nd l i f e W or k be c om e s a m e a ns f or s us t e n a nc e a n d l i f e ha ppe ns out s i de of w or k a nd i n s pi t e of i t B ut z i ne s t ur n t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p on i t s he a d. W he n pr oduc i ng f or one s e l f t he r e 7 T hr oughout t he t e xt I w i l l us e t he t e r m r a di c a l i n a pos i t i ve m a nne r T ha t i s a s a n a dj e c t i ve s ynonym ous w i t h di ve r ge nt a l t e r na t i ve a nd e xpl os i ve i n or de r t o i m bue t he noun w i t h a s e ns e of pot e nt i a l i t y f or f unda m e nt a l c ha nge 8 D i s hw as he r i s t he m os t w e l l know n, but m a ny ot h e r s ha ve f ol l ow e d i n i t s w a ke i nc l udi ng T e m p Sl av e W or k a nd I H at e M y J ob

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R os e n 12 i s no l onge r a s e n s e of a l i e na t i on t ow a r ds t he pr oduc t but r a t he r a de e p pe r s on a l i nve s t m e nt i n t he w or k a nd p r i de ove r t he f i n a l pr oduc t T hus w or k w he n s e l f m ot i va t e d a nd pe r s ona l l y i nvol ve d c a n be c om e a s i t e f or e nj oym e nt ( D unc om be 102 103) T hi s de f i ni t i on, how e ve r c a n e a s i l y be a ppl i e d t o a ny c r a f t hobby. W ha t di f f e r e nt i a t e s z i ne s i s t he t ype of pr oduc t t ha t t he i r l a bor i s pr oduc i ng a nd t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he pr oduc t a nd t h e l a bor 9 B e c a us e z i ne s a r e c ul t ur a l a r t i f a c t s t he i r m a ke r s a r e di r e c t l y i nvol ve d i n c r e a t i ng c ul t ur e W i t h t he c r e a t i on of a n a r t i s t i c or c ul t ur a l a r t i f a c t c om e s a s e ns e of a ge nc y a nd e nga ge m e nt w i t h on e s e l f a nd t he l a r ge r c ul t ur a l di s c our s e W hi l e m os t l y s e e n a s a m e a n s of pe r s ona l f ul f i l l m e nt z i ne i ng, a l ong w i t h ot he r f or m s of a c t i ve c ul t ur a l pa r t i c i pa t i on, f o r m s c om m uni t y a nd de m oc r a t i z e s t he f i e l d of c r e a t i ve w or ks a nd di s c our s e i n a n a ge i nc r e a s i ngl y m a r ke d by t he c e nt r a l i z a t i on of i nf o r m a t i on 1 0 T he t i m e s pe nt a m a s s i ng m a t e r i a l c ol l a t i ng t he pa ge s a nd di s t r i but i ng t he f i na l pr o duc t of t e n of f e r s oppor t uni t i e s f or s e l f di s c ove r y, m e di t a t i on a nd m e a ni ng m a ki ng M a ny w r i t e r s f e e l t ha t t he y ha ve no c hoi c e but t o w r i t e a nd s ha r e t he i r w or k i n a n a t t e m pt t o f i nd t hos e w ho c a n e m pa t hi z e w i t h t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s E m i l y H e l l e r a s por a di c z i ne m a ke r pe r ha ps s a i d i t be s t I t hi nk t ha t a bi g pa r t of D I Y i s t he v e r y pe r f or m a nc e of s e l f 9 I n pr oduc t i on m e n not on l y a c t on na t u r e bu t a l s o on one a not he r I n or de r t o pr oduc e t he y e nt e r i nt o de f i ni t e c onne c t i ons a nd r e l a t i ons w i t h one a not he r t he s e s oc i a l r e l a t i ons i nt o w hi c h t he pr oduc e r s e nt e r w i t h one a not he r t he c ondi t i ons un de r w hi c h t he y e xc ha nge t he i r a c t i vi t i e s a nd pa r t i c i pa t e w i t h i n t he w hol e a c t of pr oduc t i on, w i l l na t ur a l l y va r y a c c or di ng t o t he c ha r a c t e r of t he m e a ns of pr oduc t i on ( M a r x 207) W hi l e M a r x w a s s pe a ki ng of t he a l i e na t i on o f pr oduc t i on r e pr oduc i ng i t s e l f i n s oc i a l r e l a t i ons hi ps I s e e t he pot e nt i a l f or z i ne s B e c a us e t he y a r e a f or m o f pe r s ona l l y e nga ge d l a bor t he s oc i a l r e l a t i ons a nd c om m uni t y t ha t r e s ul t s i s l i ke w i s e m or e e nga ge d t ha n a c om m uni t y of c onve ni e nc e w hi c h m o s t of u s e xpe r i e nc e w i t hi n i n s t i t ut i ons t he w or kpl a c e or i n t he s ubur bs 1 0 O ne onl y h a s t o l ook a t R upur t M ur doc h s h ol di ng i n hundr e ds of ne w s pa pe r s m a ga z i ne s ne t w or ks a nd I nt e r ne t do m a i ns N ot t o m e nt i on V i a c om s or D i s ne y s hol di ngs

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R os e n 13 a c t ua l i z i ng a nd of t a ki ng s om e t hi ng i nt o you r o w n ha nds a nd c r e a t i ng c ul t ur e S a yi ng I m not goi ng t o be buyi ng s om e t hi ng, I m go i ng t o be m a ki ng s om e t hi ng S om e pe opl e do i t be c a us e t he y ha ve a l ot t o s a y, ot he r s do i t j us t t o be a pa r t of t ha t pr a c t i c e ( H e l l e r ) W ha t e ve r t he r e a s on, t o de c i s i on t o m a k e a z i ne i s t o be c om e a n a c t i ve c r i t i c t o r e c l a i m t he r e l a t i ons hi p one ha s w i t h w or k P r oduc t i on be c om e s a s i t e f or r e a l i z i ng a ut onom y a nd bui l di ng c oa l i t i ons of pos s i bl e c ul t ur a l s oc i a l a nd p ol i t i c a l r e s i s t a nc e T he na ke d s ubj e c t i vi t y of t he z i ne i n bot h i t s f or m a nd c ont e nt he l ps r e m ove t he a l i e na t i on f e l t be t w e e n t he c ons um e r / r e a de r a nd t he pr oduc e r a nd pr oduc t T he r e a r e s e ve r a l di s t i nc t i ons t o b e m a de be t w e e n z i ne c ons um pt i on a nd m or e na t ur a l i z e d f or m s of c ons um pt i on. A c c or di ng t o M a r x pr oduc t i on a nd c ons um pt i on a r e c ot e r m i nous C ons um pt i on c r e a t e s t he m ot i ve f or pr oduc t i on, i t a l s o c r e a t e s t he obj e c t w hi c h i s a c t i ve i n pr oduc t i on a s i t s de t e r m i na nt a i m I f i t i s c l e a r t ha t pr oduc t i on of f e r s c ons um pt i on i t s e xt e r na l obj e c t i t i s t he r e f or e e qua l l y c l e a r t ha t c ons um pt i on i de al l y pos i t s t he obj e c t of pr oduc t i on a s a n i nt e r na l i m a ge a s a ne e d, a s dr i ve a nd a s pur pos e N o pr oduc t i on w i t hout a ne e d. B ut c ons um pt i on r e pr oduc e s t he ne e d ( 22 9) F or z i ne s t hi s i s t he c a s e a l t hough t he y a r e not c o nc e r ne d w i t h a r e pr oduc t i on of t he f i na l pr oduc t a s m uc h a s t he y a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n a r e pr o duc t i on of t hi s ne w e t hos of p r oduc t i on a nd c ons um pt i on. T he z i ne a s a pr oduc t i s m a de t o be r e a d, t ha t i s c ons um e d. H ow e ve r i t s r e a di ng ( c ons um i ng) doe s not c r e a t e a l a c k or ne c e s s i t a t e pr oduc t i on s o t ha t c ons um pt i on c a n be r e pl i c a t e d. W ha t i s i n s t e a d b e i ng pr oduc e d i s a c ul t ur a l a r t i f a c t t ha t c r e a t e s c om m uni t y ove r i t s m e a n s of pr oduc t i on a nd i t s c ons um pt i on i s i nt e nde d t o e nc our a ge t he r e a de r t o b e c om e a z i ne m a ke r s o t ha t z i ne c om m uni t y a nd t he e t ho s of

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R os e n 14 z i ne m a ki ng be c om e s r e pr oduc e d 1 1 S i m i l a r l y t he c ons um pt i on o f t he z i ne doe s s i gna l a ne e d. T ha t i s t he ne e d f or c om m uni t y, a s pa c e t o w r i t e f or one s e l f a nd a s our c e f or a l t e r na t i ve pe r s pe c t i ve s E ve n be f or e t he r e a de r be c om e s t he m a k e r he or s he m us t m a ke a n a c t i ve c hoi c e t o e nga ge w i t h a z i ne B e c a us e m a ny z i ne s l a c k t he i m pe r s ona l pr of e s s i ona l l ook of a m a ga z i ne t he y c a n e a s i l y be w r i t t e n of f a s va l ue l e s s T he r e f or e t he c hoi c e t o e nga g e w i t h a z i ne s i gna l s a de s i r e t o br e a k w i t h u bi qui t ous e a s i l y di ge s t i bl e f or m s of i nf or m a t i on a nd e nga ge w i t h s om e t hi ng ha ndm a de a nd pe r s ona l B e c a us e m a ny z i ne s t a ke t he t ypi c a l m e s s y a nd de ns e punk z i ne l a yout t he y r e qui r e pa t i e nc e a nd c ur i os i t y t o na vi ga t e C hr i s K e r r of P r oj e c t or de s c r i be s t he r a di c a l pot e nt i a l of t hi s ki nd of z i ne : W r i t i n g t ha t w a y i s a p ol i t i c a l a c t i t i s l i br a t or y be c a us e i t doe s n t j u s t a l l ow p e o pl e t o a c c e p t a r e a d y m a d e not i on a nd m ov e on W h i c h i s how m a g a z i n e s w or k i t s di g e s t i bl e l a n g u a g e Z i n e s u s ua l l y ha v e d i g e s t i b l e l a n g u a g e bu t t he f or m a t i s a d i f f e r e n t w a y of na v i g a t i on a nd i t s l o w s y o u do w n, a nd m a k e s y ou e n g a g e w i t h i t i n a non r e a d y m a d e w a y ( K e r r ) E m i l y H e l l e r l i ke w i s e s e e s t he c hoi c e t o e nga ge w i t h a z i ne a s a n i m por t a nt pa r t of i de nt i t y c ons t r uc t i on. I ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o m a ke m y ow n c hoi c e s w hi c h p a r t s of c ul t ur e I c ons u m e a nd don t B a s i c a l l y a ny t i m e y ou a r e s e e ki ng out your ow n t a s t e t ha t i s a vi t a l pa r t of be c om i ng your ow n pe r s on a nd i t m a ke s you a be t t e r c i t i z e n t o be m a ki ng pr oa c t i ve c hoi c e s ( H e l l e r ) W hi l e c hoos i ng be t w e e n di f f e r e nt f or m s of c ul t ur a l e xpr e s s i o n m i ght not s e e m i m por t a nt i t i s t he a c t of s e a r c hi ng, f i ndi ng a nd c onne c t i ng w i t h pe opl e t ha t i s i nt e gr a l t o m a ki ng c ul t ur e dyna m i c I t i s i n t he s e w a ys t ha t z i ne 1 1 F r om A l e x W r e c k s z i ne St ol e n Shar pi e R e v ol ut i on : I ha d be e n r e a di ng z i ne s f or a w hi l e be f or e I r e a l i z e d I c a n do t ha t t hi s i s not how t o m a ke a z i ne be c a us e t ha t i s s om e t hi ng t ha t e ve r yone doe s di f f e r e nt l y. T hi s z i ne i s a l i s t of r e s our c e s t i ps a nd l a yout s f or m a ki ng your ow n z i ne

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R os e n 15 m a ki ng pos e s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o t he s t a t e of a l i e na t i on f r om c ul t ur a l a nd m a t e r i a l pr oduc t i on a nd c ons um pt i on. B e c a us e of t he i r r a di c a l f or m a nd popul i s t i nc l i na t i ons z i ne s be c om e a s ubs t r a t e f or c ons c i ous ne s s r a i s i ng T ha t z i ne m a ki ng a t t e m pt s t o f os t e r non a l i e na t e d l a bor a nd t he pot e nt i a l f or i nt i m a t e c onve r s a t i on be t w e e n t he c r e a t or p r od uc t a nd c ons um e r i s w ha t m a ke s z i ne s a n a t t r a c t i ve m e di um f or m a ny pe opl e B y bot h c r i t i qui ng c ons um e r c ul t ur e a nd of f e r i ng a vi br a nt a l t e r na t i ve t o i t z i ne s i nvi t e r e a de r s i nt o d i s c our s e s a nd s ubj e c t i vi t i e s not us ua l l y e nc ount e r e d. T hi s i s s i m pl y be c a u s e t he s e s t or i e s a r e not va l ue d by m one y m i nde d pe r i odi c a l s a nd t he i m m a ne nt c r i t i que s f ound w i t hi n z i ne s a r e s om e w ha t t hr e a t e ni ng. I t i s t he r e f or e i m por t a nt t o c ons i de r how t he r a di c a l a l t e r na t i ve c r e a t e d by t he z i ne c om m uni t y w i t hi n t he c l i m a t e of t he i r ow n s oc i o hi s t or i c a l m om e nt f ol l ow s a r i c h hi s t or y of l i t e r a r y r e s i s t a nc e H i s t or i e s L i ke m os t hi s t or i e s t ha t of t he z i ne i s qui t e c ont e s t e d. A s i t s ne bul ou s de f i ni t i on e nj oys l i be r a l a ppl i c a t i on, w r i t e r s of z i ne hi s t or y ha ve de c l a r e d t he A m e r i c a n R e vol ut i ona r y pa m phl e t s l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s be a t c ha pbooks a nd und e r gr ound ne w s pa pe r s a s a nc e s t or s of t he z i ne W hi l e t he r e i s va l i di t y i n t he s e c om pa r i s ons t he t e r m z i ne a s r e c ogni z e d t oda y i s t he c hi l d of t he s c i f i f a nz i ne p ubl i c a t i ons of t he 1930 s H ow e ve r t he punk m ove m e nt e l e va t e d z i ne s t o a w i de l y p r a c t i c e d f or m a nd i nc r e a s e d t he i r vi s i bi l i t y M uc h pr e c e de nc e c a n be f ound t oo, i n t he m ode r ni s t l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s I t w a s he r e t ha t m ode r ni s t a r t i s t s f or m e d ne w pl a t f or m s f or w o r k t ha t w a s not a c c e pt e d by a l r e a dy e s t a bl i s he d l i t e r a r y ve nue s T he z i ne f ol l ow s f r om a l l of t he s e t r a di t i ons a s i t d e t e r m i ne s a ne w s pa c e f or i t s e l f

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R os e n 16 T he l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s w i l l be t he e a r l i e s t pr e de c e s s or I w i l l t r a c e t o t he z i ne a s I be l i e ve t he i r i nt e r e s t i n t he c r e a t i on o f ne w c ul t ur a l a nd pol i t i c a l pr a c t i c e s i s i nt e gr a l t o unde r s t a ndi ng t he z i ne a s a f or m of bot h a e s t he t i c a nd pol i t i c a l pr a c t i c e W i t hi n t he s e l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s one e nc ount e r e d c ont e m por a r y w r i t i ng c r i t i c i s m de ba t e a nd e xpe r i m e nt a t i on i n t he a r t s T he y e m e r ge d out of gr oups of w r i t e r s a nd a r t i s t s f r om a l l ove r t he w or l d t ha t us e d i m m e di a t e s e l f publ i s he d pe r i odi c a l s t o di s s e m i na t e w or k t ha t l a r ge r publ i s hi ng c om pa ni e s r e j e c t e d ( H of f m a n 2) T ha nks t o t he s e l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s t he num be r of publ i s he d a ut hor s s ur ge d a nd, m or e i m por t a nt l y t he m a ga z i ne s he l pe d pa ve t he w a y f or t he m a j or i t y o f l i t e r a r y a nd a r t i s t i c m ove m e nt s of t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y. I n f a c t a bout 80 pe r c e nt of m od e r ni s t a nd l a t e r w e l l know n w r i t e r s w e r e f i r s t publ i s he d i n t he s e s m a l l c i r c ul a t i on books ( H of f m a n 1) M a ny of t he c ont r i but or s e nc ount e r e d a r t i s t s t hr ough t he m a ga z i ne s a nd be ga n l i f e l ong c o r r e s ponde nc e s w i t h t he m T hus t he m a ga z i ne s w e r e a l s o m e e t i ng s pa c e s f or t he a r t i s t s i nve s t e d i n w ha t w a s l a t e r t o be c a l l e d m ode r ni s m A c c or di ng t o F r e dr i c k H of f m a n s T he L i t t l e M agaz i ne t he s e m a ga z i ne s w e r e di s r e s pe c t f ul of t he or di na r y a nd l e gi t i m a t e de m a nds of t he publ i s hi ng w or k w hi c h i nc l ude d m a ni pul a t i ons of t he t ype s e t t i ng a nd l a yout a m ong ot he r t h i ngs m a ki ng i t di f f i c ul t f or m o r e e s t a bl i s he d f or m s of publ i s hi ng t o i nve s t i n t he m ( 5) I n t he s e w a ys t h e l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s ha r e s m a ny a t t r i but e s w i t h t he z i ne s pe c i f i c a l l y i n t he c r e a t i on of c om m uni t i e s a nd a l t e r na t i ve f o r m s of publ i s hi ng. M uc h l i ke t he z i ne e s t a bl i s h e d f or m s of publ i s hi n g di d not s uppor t t he c ont e n t of t he l i t e r a r y m a ga z i ne s H of f m a n s f i r s t de f i n i t i on of t he l i t t l e m a ga z i ne a ddr e s s i t s e c onom i c pos i t i on; A l i t t l e m a ga z i ne i s a m a ga z i ne de s i gne d t o pr i nt a r t i s t i c w or k w hi c h f or r e a s ons of c om m e r c i a l e xpe di e nc y i s n ot a c c e pt a bl e t o t he m one y m i nde d pe r i odi c a l

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R os e n 17 or pr e s s e s ( 2) T hi s w a s c ons i de r e d a gr e a t a dva nt a ge f or m a ny m a ga z i ne s ( s uc h a s L i t t l e R e v i e w ; O t he r s e t c ) t ha t f oc us e d on e xpe r i m e nt a t i on t e s t i ng t he bounda r i e s of l i t e r a t ur e W i t hout w or r yi ng a bout pr o f i t m a r gi n s t he m a ga z i ne s w e r e f r e e t o i nc l ude w ha t e ve r c ont e nt t he y de s i r e d i nc l udi ng s pi r i t e d de ba t e s pol e m i c s s a t i r e a nd vi s u a l di s pl a ys B e c a us e of t hi s c on s c i e nt i ous r e vol t a ga i ns t t he gua r di a ns of publ i c t a s t e w he n r e a di ng t hr ough a l i t t l e m a ga z i ne one i s a b l e t o s e e t he unc e ns or e d a e s t he t i c a nd c ul t ur a l c onc e r ns of t r e m e ndous l y i m por t a nt w r i t e r s ( H of f m a n 4) I n t h i s w a y l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s s e r ve a s hi s t or i c a l a r t i f a c t s t ha t a l l ow u s t o a c c e s s w r i t e r s w ho w e r e not be i n g publ i s he d a l ong m or e t r a di t i ona l c ha nne l s T he e m e r ge nc e of t hi s f or m s pe a ks t o t he e xi s t e nc e of a l a r ge r s oc i a l de s i r e f or a l t e r na t i ve ve nue s f or e xpr e s s i on i n a t i m e m a r ke d by t ur bul e nc e M a ny l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s a ppe a r e d i n t he pe r i od r oughl y be t w e e n 1914 a nd 1930 I n J a yne M a r e k s W om e n E di t i ng M ode r ni s m : L i t t l e M agaz i ne s & L i t e r ar y H i s t or y s he de s c r i be s t he pol i t i c a l a t m os phe r e a s ha vi ng a gr e a t a f f e c t on t he m ode s of a r t i s t i c pr oduc t i on w he r e t he e f f e c t s of t he F i r s t W or l d W a r t he r e s i due s of w or ks by D a r w i n, M a r x a nd F r e ud i m m e ns e t e c hnol ogi c a l i nnova t i on, a nd a r c he ol ogi c a l a nd p hi l os ophi c a l di s c ove r i e s t ha t m odi f i e d i de a s of hum a n hi s t or y w e r e s t i l l f e l t ( M a r e k 5) T hi s c l i m a t e of unc e r t a i nt y, vi o l e nc e a nd e m e r gi ng t e c hnol ogi e s i s ve r y pa l pa bl e i n t he f or m of t he m a ga z i ne s A s de s c r i be d by H of f m a n t he r e be l l i on a ga i ns t t r a di t i ona l m ode s of e xpr e s s i on a nd t he w i s h t o e xpe r i m e nt w i t h nove l ( a nd s om e t i m e s uni nt e l l i gi bl e ) f or m s ; a nd a de s i r e t o ove r c om e t he c om m e r c i a l or m a t e r i a l di f f i c ul t i e s w hi c h a r e c a us e d by t he i nt r od uc t i on of a n y w r i t i ng w hos e c om m e r c i a l m e r i t s ha ve not be e n pr ove d w e r e t w o m a j or t e ne t s t ha t l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s w e r e c onc e r ne d w i t h ( 4 5) T hus w i t hi n t he l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s I m a gi s m

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R os e n 18 D a da i s m f r e e ve r s e t he ne w a r t of phot ogr a phy, J oyc e s s t r e a m of c ons c i ous w r i t i ng a nd m a ny m or e e xpe r i m e nt a l ve nt ur e s be c a m e pa r t of t he m ode r ni s t c a non. T he L i t t l e R e v i e w a nd O t he r s w e r e t w o publ i c a t i ons t ha t i nc l ude d w or k by l i t t l e know n a r t i s t s a nd w om e n w r i t e r s i n a ddi t i on t o bi g m ode r ni s t f i gur e s 1 2 T he publ i c a t i on of t he l e s s e r know n w r i t e r s s t a r t e d t o m a ke r oom f or unr e pr e s e nt e d voi c e s a nd e nc our a ge d w r i t e r s t o c ont i nue pr oduc i ng, f or s e e i ng one s w or k i n pr i nt a r ous e s a m a n s hope s t i m ul a t e s f ur t he r e f f or t ( H of f m a n 15) T he ve r y pos i t i on of t he l i t t l e m a ga z i ne a s a n i nde pe nde nt l y publ i s he d pe r i odi c a l i nve s t e d i n non t r a di t i ona l a e s t he t i c s a nd i de ol ogi e s a l l ow e d w r i t e r s w ho oc c upi e d va r i e d s oc i a l pos i t i ons t o be c om e m or e a c t i ve a nd publ i c N one of t he l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s di s c us s e d i n s e m i na l t e xt s on t he l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s i nc l ude d w or k by A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a r t i s t s A n d t hi s i s be c a u s e t he m a ga z i ne s t he y ( H of f m a n a nd M a r e k) c hoos e t o c ove r ( w hi c h a r e a pa r t of t he c a nnon) ne ve r r e gul a r l y publ i s he d A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n w r i t e r s F or a l l of t he f r e e dom a nd e xa l t a t i on of t he ne w i de a s t he l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s e xpr e s s e d t he y r e m a i ne d m os t l y s e gr e ga t e d. A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a r t i s t s r e s ponde d s i m i l a r l y t o w hi t e a r t i s t s of t he t i m e w ho c oul d not f i nd publ i s hi ng ve nue s t he y c r e a t e d t he i r ow n ve nue s f or di s c u s s i on, c r i t i que a n d pr e s e nt a t i on of ne w w or ks a nd i de a s i n l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s T he C r i s i s T he M e s s e nge r a nd F i r e w e r e s om e of t he be t t e r know n l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s e di t e d by A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a r t i s t s t ha t s i gni f i c a nt l y c ont r i but e d t o t he f l ou r i s hi ng o f t he H a r l e m R e na i s s a nc e ( N a s h 154 1 55) P ubl i s he d w i t hi n t he s e pa ge s w e r e W E B D u B oi s L a ngs t on H ughe s Z or a N e a l e 1 2 So me ex t re mel y n o t ab l e co n t ri b u t o rs an d p art i ci p an t s i n t h e p ro l i fer at i o n o f t h e l i t t l e mag azi n e i n cl u d e: E z ra Po u n d T S E l i o t W y n d h am L e w i s G ert ru d e St ei n W C W i l l i ams Mi n a L o y W al l ace St ev en s W B Y eat s H D J am es J o y ce t o n a me o n l y b u t a f e w o f t h e mo r e w el l k n o w n p ers o n ag es

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R os e n 19 H ur s t o n a nd M a r y T e r e l l a m ong m a ny ot he r s W om e n a l s o s ought e di t or i a l c ont r ol w i t h i n t he l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s T he L i t t l e R e v i e w P oe t r y N e w F r e e w om an, T he C r i s i s a nd E goi s t w e r e publ i s he d a nd e di t e d by w om e n a nd f e a t ur e d A m y L ow e l l Z or a N e a l e H ur s t on, M i na L oy, H D a nd G e r t r ude S t e i n a l ong w i t h J a m e s J oyc e E z r a P ound a nd W i l l i a m C W i l l i a m s T he s e m a ga z i ne s f e a t ur e d w r i t i ng, c r i t i que s a nd e s s a ys not onl y o n t he s ubj e c t of a e s t he t i c s but on t he s oc i a l pos i t i ons t he s e e di t or s oc c upi e d. B e c a us e o f t he c ons t r i c t e d s oc i a l l a nds c a pe s t he y l i ve d i n t he y c ons t r uc t e d f or t he m s e l ve s a n ope n s pa c e w i t hi n t he pa g e s of t h e l i t t l e m a ga z i ne T he s e s pa c e s a l l ow e d w r i t e r s a nd e di t or s t o de f y s oc i a l a nd a e s t he t i c c onve nt i ons T o be s t i l l us t r a t e t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o z i ne s t he e xa m pl e of t he L i t t l e R e v i e w s e e m s e s pe c i a l l y p e r t i ne nt I t s c r e a t or M a r ga r e t A nde r s on, s t a r t e d t he m a g a z i ne w i t h t he hope of s uppor t i ng e nl i ve ne d di s c us s i on a nd e nc our a gi ng de ba t e a m ong c ont r i but or s A s J a yne M a r e k de s c r i be s t he s uc c e s s of t he L i t t l e R e v i e w w a s not due t o t he pr om i ne nc e of bi g na m e w r i t e r s w i t hi n i t s p a ge s I ns t e a d, i t c r e a t e d i t s g r e a t e s t l e ga c y t hr ough i nvi t i ng a nd e na c t i ng opi ni ona t e d d e ba t e a bout t he na t ur e a nd va l ue of a r t be t w e e n t he t w o e di t or s a s w e l l a s be t w e e n t he m a ga z i ne a nd i t s r e a de r s a nd c ont r i but or s a f o r m of c r i t i c a l e xc ha nge r e f l e c t i n g t he m ul t i f a c e t e d na t ur e o f m ode r ni s m i t s e l f ( M a r e k 60) M a ny z i ne s s ha r e t he m ot i va t i ons of L i t t l e R e v i e w i n e nc our a gi ng e xpl or a t i on a nd c onve r s a t i on. H ow e ve r t he s i m i l a r i t i e s r un de e pe r t ha n t ha t A nde r s on, a s a s e l f pr oc l a i m e d a na r c hi s t f e m i ni s t r a n t he m a ga z i ne w i t h J a ne H e a p he r pa r t ne r a nd m a de not onl y a n a e s t he t i c i m pa c t bu t a l s o a pol i t i c a l i m p r i nt on m ode r ni s m T hi s i s w hy t he s uc c e s s of t he L i t t l e R e v i e w i s s o i m p or t a nt S pe c i f i c a l l y A nde r s on s i de a s

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R os e n 20 a bout a r t e nc ode he r f r us t r a t i on w i t h s oc i e t y a nd he r pr e f e r e nc e f o r a w or l d of i de a s i n w hi c h m i nds m a y m e e t on e qua l t e r m s unr e s t r i c t e d by c onve nt i ons ( M a r e k 66) A nde r s on a nd H e a p pr i nt e d t he m a ga z i ne out of b ot h a n i m m e ns e de di c a t i on t o e m e r gi ng a r t a nd a de s i r e t o go be yond t he l i m i t a t i on s of w ho c oul d pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s e c onve r s a t i ons M a r e k c ont i nue s t o di s c us s how A nde r s on a nd H e a p s e di t or i a l pr e s e nc e i n t h e m a ga z i ne he l pe d r e s ha pe a nd e ve n de f y w om e n s r ol e s w i t hi n l i t e r a t ur e I ns t e a d of be i ng nur s e m a i ds t o m a l e w r i t e r s t he y w e r e a c t i ve c om m e nt a t or s vi s i bl y c onf r ont a t i ona l j uxt a pos i ng e di t or i a l s r e vi e w s a nd a r t i c l e s i n or de r t o hi ghl i ght c r i t i c a l c ont r ove r s i e s ( M a r e k 61) F ur t he r m o r e t he L i t t l e R e v i e w i t s e l f f unc t i one d a s a ha l l m a r k of A nd e r s on s t a s t e s a nd d e s i r e s H e r de s i r e f or t he m a ga z i ne w a s t o c r e a t e a s pa c e f or pe r s ona l i nve s t m e nt c r e a t e a p l a t f o r m t ha t de m a nd e d a t t e nt i on a nd t o f os t e r a c om m uni t y of r e a de r s w ho w e r e a c t i ve r e s ponde r s T he e di t or i a l c om m e nt s pr i nt e d by bot h H e a p a nd A nde r s on, w hi c h a t t i m e s e xpr e s s e d a ggr e s s i ve i n s t i ga t i ons i l l us t r a t e t he i r i ns i s t e n c e f or c onve r s a t i on a nd a di a l ogi c a l a ppr oa c h t o e di t i ng, w hi c h not onl y m a de m a t t e r s of a e s t he t i c e xpe r i m e nt a t i on m or e pr e s s i ng, but a l s o c r e a t e d a s e ns e of s ha r e d c om m uni t y. I t i s t hi s ve r y pe r s ona l a ppr oa c h t o t he L i t t l e R e v i e w t ha t c a n be s e e n i n z i ne s t oda y i n t he i r c om m i t m e nt t o c e l e br a t i ng a n i nc l us i on o f t h e pe r s ona l a nd pol i t i c a l i n t he a r t s I n t a nde m w i t h t he m ode r ni s t l i t t l e m a ga z i ne s w e r e s m a l l pr oduc t i on, t ot a l l y s e l f publ i s he d s c i f i m a ga z i ne s I n t he 1940 s s c i e nc e f i c t i on f a nz i ne s t ook of f T hi s w a s pa r t l y d ue t o a n i nc r e a s e i n t he a va i l a bi l i t y of pr i nt i ng t e c hnol ogi e s s uc h a s t h e m i m e ogr a ph. A s w i t h m os t c ul t ur a l de ve l opm e nt s t e c hnol ogy pl a ye d a n i nt e gr a l r ol e i n s ha pi ng t he c ont e nt a nd f or m of t he f a nz i ne B e c a us e t he m i m e ogr a ph of f e r e d s c i f i f a ns

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R os e n 21 a c c e s s t o pr i nt i ng t he y c oul d pl a y a l a r ge r r ol e i n t he de ve l opm e nt of t he m e di um T he y us e d t he f a nz i ne t o c r i t i que l a r ge r s c i e nc e f i c t i on m a ga z i ne s m a ke c ont a c t s a nd t o w r i t e t he i r ow n s t or i e s ( W r i ght xl i xl i i i ) T he r a nge of i nt e r e s t s c ov e r e d by f a nz i ne s qui c kl y out gr e w s c i e nc e f i c t i on a nd by t he 1960 s c a m e t o i nc l ude m os t not a bl y, r oc k a nd r ol l F a nz i ne s s uc h a s C r a w daddy a nd M oj o N av i gat or R oc k and R ol l N e w s be ga n t o s e r i ous l y c hr oni c l e t he ne w l y e m e r gi ng ge nr e ( W r i ght xl i i i xl i v ) T he m a ke r s of t he s e f a nz i ne s m a de i t t he i r r e s pons i bi l i t y t o c onduc t i nt e r vi e w s a nd w r i t e r e vi e w s c h a r t i ng t he t r a j e c t or y o f t he s e ba nds T he e xpl os i on of f a nz i ne s o c c ur r e d i n t he e a r l y 1970 s i n t he U K T he r e t he punk s c e ne e xpl ode d a nd c ons e que nt l y r e qui r e d a n unde r gr ound pr e s s t o r e c or d a nd r e por t on t he e m e r gi ng s t yl e s i de a s a nd ne t w or k s de ve l opi ng a l ongs i de i t H undr e ds of punk f a nz i ne s e m e r ge d i n t he U K L os A ng e l e s a nd N e w Y or k ( W r i ght xl i v) A r ound t hi s t i m e t he pr e f i x f a n w a s dr oppe d a nd t he c ol l a ge d, m e s s y phot oc opi e d l ook be c a m e a s t a pl e of t he m e di um R e vi e w z i ne s s u c h a s M a x i m um R oc k nR ol l R az or c ak e a nd Sl ug and L e t t uc e w e r e t he m a i n s our c e s f or punk ne w s e m e r gi ng ba nds a nd c ont a c t s N ot onl y di d t he s e m a ga z i ne s pr ovi de i nt e r vi e w s a nd r e vi e w s of ne w ba nds t he y a l s o c ont a i ne d r e vi e w s of a nd c ont a c t i nf or m a t i on f or ot he r z i ne s H ow e ve r a s t i m e pr ogr e s s e d t he s e m a g a z i ne s e s pe c i a l l y M ax i m u m R oc k nR ol l s t a r t e d i nc l udi ng r e vi e w s f or a l l s or t s o f z i ne s s e pa r a t e f r om t he punk c o m m uni t y I t w a s he r e t h a t w e c oul d w i t ne s s z i ne s qui e t l y e xpa nd e d be yond punk. M uc h l i ke c r e a t or P a ul W i l l i a m s of C r aw dadd y w ho ha d hi s f i r s t publ i s hi ng e xpe r i e nc e w i t h s c i f i f a nz i ne s a nd l a t e r br a nc he d out t o t he unde r gr ound m us i c s c e ne m a ny z i ne w r i t e r s be ga n i n punk a nd l a t e r c ha nge d c our s e ( W i l l i a m s ) T hi s c a n be

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R os e n 22 a t t r i but e d t o t w o t hi ngs F i r s t t he a dve nt of t he phot oc opi e r a nd t he ope ni ng of c opy c e nt e r s l i ke K i nko s S e c ond pe opl e be ga n t o r e a l i z e t he pot e nt i a l of t he bl a nk c a nva s t he z i ne of f e r e d a nd t ook a dv a nt a ge of i t E a c h m e di um w a s i ne xt r i c a bl e t o t he ot he r ; punk popul a r i z e d t he z i ne s a nd z i ne s pr ovi de d a s pa c e f or di s c us s i ons of punk c ul t u r e I n 1982 t he publ i c a t i on F ac t s he e t 5 c a m e out e di t e d by M i ke G unde r l oy. H e w oul d l a t e r be c om e a w e l l know n f i gur e i n t he z i ne w or l d be c a us e of t h i s publ i c a t i on F ac t s he e t 5 de di c a t e d s pa c e t o t he pr i nt i ng of t ho us a nds of r e vi e w s of z i ne s a nd z i n e s t e r c ont a c t i nf or m a t i on. W hi l e G unde r l oy w a s a t t e m pt i ng t o c ol l e c t a nd r e vi e w a l m os t e ve r y z i ne publ i s he d, M R R r e m a i ne d s ubm e r ge d i n t he punk de ba t e s B ut w hi l e punk ope ne d a n a ve nue f or t he di s pos s e s s e d a nd z i ne s e s t a bl i s h e d a not he r m e di um us e d t o e xpr e s s t hi s f r us t r a t i on w om e n a nd gi r l s s t i l l f ound t he m s e l ve s on t he m a r gi ns of t he s e c onve r s a t i ons C ons e que nt i a l l y, t he e m e r ge nc e of R i ot G r r r l a ne t w or k of young w om e n l i nke d by z i ne s ba nds a nd t he i r a nge r be c a m e one of t he bi gge s t i nf l ue nc e s on t he e ve r c ha ngi ng z i ne s c e ne ( D unc om be 71 ) R i ot G r r r l w a s f ounde d i n t w o e pi c e nt e r s of t he punk m ove m e nt O l ym pi a W A a nd W a s hi ngt on, D C i n t he e a r l y 1990 s ( H a r r i s 46) a s a n i m m e di a t e r e s pons e t o t he ove r w he l m i ng m a s c ul i ni s t t e nde nc i e s i n punk m us i c a nd c ul t ur e T oa d, c r e a t or of t he z i ne R e v ol ut i onar y K ni t t i ng C i r c l e s pe a k s of he r e xpe r i e nc e s i n punk c ul t ur e T he punk s c e ne i s gr e a t but i t s a l s o ve r y m a l e dom i na t e d. I n s om e w a y s i t s j u s t a m i ni r e pl i c a of s oc i e t y: pe opl e c ons um i ng dr ugs a nd a l c ohol ; i t s m a l e dom i na t e d a nd hi e r a r c hi c a l ( T oa d 47) W hi l e f r us t r a t i on w i t h t h i s s ubc ul t ur e w a s one c a us e of R i ot G r r r l s i nc e pt i on f e m i ni s m t he a nt i a ut hor i t a r i a n a t t i t ud e of punk a nd t he de s i r e t o w r i t e t he i r ow n e xpe r i e nc e s a nd hi s t or i e s m or e s t r ongl y i nf l ue nc e d t he w r i t e r s of t he R i ot G r r r l

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R os e n 23 z i ne s O ne of t he m a i n t e ne t s of R i ot G r r r l w a s t ha t i t w a s a n ope n e xpl or a t i o n of w ha t i t m e a nt t o be a gi r l or w om a n. A c c or di ng t o S t e phe n D unc om be s N ot e s F r om U nde r gr ound: Z i ne s and t he P ol i t i c s of A l t e r nat i v e C ul t ur e R i ot G r r r l ha d no f oundi ng c onve nt i on, no s t r uc t ur e a nd l i t t l e f or m a l or ga ni z a t i on out s i de of l oc a l m e e t i ngs a nd z i ne e xc ha nge s ( 72) T he s e z i ne s of t e n c ove r e d i s s ue s of s e xua l a bu s e body i m a ge ge nde r r ol e s t opi c s i n a c a de m i c f e m i ni s m a nd c a l l s t o a c t i on. B y t he m i d 1990s m a ga z i ne s l i k e Sas s y a nd M s M agaz i ne w e r e pi c ki ng up on R i ot G r r r l z i ne s l i ke G i r l G e r m s B i k i ni K i l l a nd A not he r L o F i X t r av e ganz a A s t he s e m a ga z i ne s be c a m e s ym p a t he t i c a nd c ha m pi one d t he e m e r ge nc e of gi r l pow e r a nd f e m i ni s t dr i ve n publ i c a t i ons m or e w om e n a nd gi r l s pi c ke d up t he pr a c t i c e of z i ne m a ki ng. I n t he m i d 1990s R i ot G r r r l r e a c he d i t s pe a k of popul a r i t y a nd m a i n f i gur e s of t he m ove m e nt c a l l e d f or a m e di a bl a c kout a s t o pr e s e r ve t he s e s a f e s pa c e s m a de f or w om e n t o di s c us s c ul t ur e a nd r e s i s t a nc e ( H a r r i s 53) A s t he s e ns a t i on of w om e n w r i t i ng z i ne s w or e of f t he s e f e m i ni s t publ i c a t i ons r e t ur ne d t o t he unde r gr ound w he r e di s c us s i on of f e m i ni s m c o ul d c ont i nue w i t hout be i ng s c r ut i ni z e d or t ur ne d i nt o s ound bi t e s T oda y w hi l e b r ow s i ng a ny z i ne l i b r a r y one c a n s t i l l s e e t he e f f e c t s a nd c r i t i que s of t he R i ot G r r r l m ove m e nt M i m i N guye n, a pr ol i f i c z i ne w r i t e r s p e a ks of he r i nvol ve m e nt w i t h punk a nd R i ot G r r r l R i ot G r r r l i s t he be s t t hi ng t ha t e ve r h a ppe ne d t o punk. I t s a m a z i ng t ha t a l l of t he s e young ( m os t l y w hi t e ) w om e n ha ve de c i de d t o r e de s i gn t h e w hol e w or l d a c c or di ng t o t he a r c hi t e c t ur e o f t h e i r pr i va t e m a de publ i c t r a u m a s a nd pr om i s e s of gi r l l ove w i s h f ul f i l l m e nt B ut i t i s i m por t a nt

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R os e n 24 t o m e a s a f e m i ni s t of c ol or t o c r i t i que R i ot G r r r l f or t he w a ys i n w hi c h i t ha s ( or ha s n t ) de a l t w i t h di f f e r e nc e s of r a c e a n d c l a s s I n t ha t a s pe c t r a t he r t ha n pr e s e nt i ng a n al t e r nat i v e R i ot G r r r l t ot a l l y pa r a l l e l s m a i ns t r e a m E u r o A m e r i c a n f e m i ni s m ( N guye n 61) N guye n br i ngs up a ve r y va l i d c r i t i que of R i ot G r r r l B e c a us e i t w a s s o pr ovoc a t i ve i t pr ovi de d a n i m m e di a t e out l e t f or m a ny w om e n w ho ha d t he de s i r e t o s pe a k out a ga i ns t r e i f i c a t i on 1 3 B ut be c a us e i t be c a m e a m ove m e nt dom i na t e d m os t l y by w hi t e w om e n, i t f a i l e d t o a ddr e s s t he ne xu s of oppr e s s i ons t ha t a l l f e m a l e bodi e d pe opl e e xpe r i e nc e a nd i n m a ny w a ys be c a m e e xt r e m e l y l i m i t e d T hi s i n c l ude d a f a i l ur e t o a ddr e s s r a c e c l a s s a nd a ge nde r bi na r y, a nd a s a r e s ul t a l i e na t e d m a ny non w hi t e non c i s ge nde r e d w om e n. H ow e ve r i n i t s w a ke m a ny z i ne s pi c ke d up t he s e i nt e r s e c t i ons a nd ha ve c ont i nue d t o pus h t he bounda r i e s of f e m i ni s m Z i n e s as T hi r d Spac e s W h i l e t he m a t e r i a l i t y m ode o f pr oduc t i on a nd h i s t or y of t he z i ne i s i n t e g r a l t o unde r s t a ndi n g t he m e d i u m i t i s i m p or t a n t t o s e p a r a t e l y a ddr e s s t he s y m bol i c s pa c e i t c r e a t e s i n or d e r t o f ul l y unde r s t a nd i t p o t e n t i a l f or c h a n g i n g c ons c i o us ne s s a nd t hu s ha v i n g a n i m pa c t Z i ne s i m a g i n e n e w p o s s i bi l i t i e s w hi l e r e m a i n i n g c r i t i c a l a nd a r e i n t i m a t e l y p r oduc e d w i t h t he i n t e n t i on of b e c o m i n g a p ubl i c do c u m e n t M a n y a r e p r oduc e d f r o m p o s i t i on s of di s s a t i s f a c t i on, d e j e c t i on a nd m a r g i n a l i z a t i on f e l t t o be c a us e d b y s y s t e m i c o p p r e s s i on, i e i n t e r n a l i z e d s oc i a l h i s t or i c a l a nd i ns t i t u t i ona l o p p r e s s i on s I n f a c t z i ne w r i t e r s w hi l e l i v i n g i n a s oc i e t y t he y p e r c e i v e t o be c a us t i c m a i n t a i n a l e v e l of o p t i m i s m P a r t of t he r a d i c a l p r oj e c t of t he z i ne i s t o r e s i s t t he ur g e t o f a l l s i l e n t i n t he 1 3 T ha t i s t he s ol i di f i c a t i on of r e pr e s e nt a t i ons ont o o ne s i de nt i t y a s t o t ot a l i z e i t

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R os e n 25 f a c e of s uc h o p p r e s s i ve f or c e s t hr ou g h t he c r e a t i on of a l t e r na t i ve pr a c t i c e s T hi s de s i r e t o m a k e c u l t ur a l e p he m e r a s p e a k s t o a m od e o f c r i t i c a l r e s i s t a nc e t ha t c ha l l e n g e s t he qu e s t i on of w ho ha s t he p o w e r t o m a k e m e a n i n g S ym bo l i c a l l y, i t i s he l p f ul t o c on s i d e r z i ne s a s t hi r d s p a c e s I n A de l a C L i c on a s w or k, ( B ) or de r l a nds R he t or i c a nd R e p r e s e n t a t i on s : T he T r a n s f or m a t i v e P o t e n t i a l of F e m i n i s t T hi r d S pa c e S c ho l a r s h i p a nd Z i n e s s he di s c us s e s t he t r a n s f or m a t i ve p o t e n t i a l o f f e m i n i s t z i ne s a s be i n g c on t i n g e n t u p o n t he i r f e m i n i s t t hi r d s p a c e ( bo t h/ a nd) c ons c i ous ne s s ( 104) T hi s t h i r d s p a c e c ons c i ous ne s s c a n b e b e s t de s c r i b e d a s a m od e of e n g a g i n g w i t h t he w or l d t ha t r e f u t e s s t r i c t di c hot om i e s a nd i s i ns t e a d i n t e r e s t e d i n i d e nt i t i e s t ha t a r e i n f l u x t a k i n g f r o m m a n y m ode s of r e p r e s e n t a t i on. T hi s no t i on of t he ( b) or d e r l a nd i s de r i v e d f r o m G l or i a A n z a l da s y e t e nc o m pa s s e s s ym bol i c ( b) o r d e r l a nds a s w e l l a s g e o g r a phi c on e s L i c on a e xpl a i ns t ha t T hi r d s p a c e c a n be und e r s t ood a s a l o c a t i on a nd / o r p r a c t i c e A s a p r a c t i c e i t r e v e a l s a d i f f e r e n t i a l c ons c i ous ne s s c a pa bl e of e n g a g i n g c r e a t i v e a nd c oa l i t i on a l f or m s of o p p o s i t i on t o t he l i m i t s of di c hot om ou s ( m i s ) r e p r e s e n t a t i on 1 4 A s a l oc a t i on, t hi r d s p a c e h a s t he p o t e n t i a l t o be a s p a c e of s ha r e d und e r s t a ndi n g a nd m e a n i n g m a k i n g ( 105 ) Z i n e s a nd t he z i ne ne t w or k c a n b e s e e n a s bo t h f or m s of t hi r d s pa c e P a r t of e n g a g i n g w i t h t he di f f e r e n t i a l c ons c i ous ne s s i s i nh a b i t i n g bo t h t he w or l d o f t h e do m i n a n t c u l t ur e a nd und e r s t a ndi n g 1 4 L i ke A de l a L i c ona s e xpl a na t i on o f ( b) or de r l a nds I pl a c e pa r e nt he s e s a r ound t he b of ( b) or de r l a nds bot h t o m a t e r i a l i z e a di s c ur s i ve bor de r a nd t o vi s i bl y unde r s c or e t he m yr i a d w a ys bor de r s ( m uc h l i ke di c hot om i e s ) ha v e hi s t or i c a l l y ope r a t e d t o a r t i f i c i a l l y di vi de or de r a nd s ubor di na t e I w i l l be us i ng he r ( m i s ) r e pr e s e nt a t i ons i n a s i m i l a r f a s hi on. I t i s m e a nt t o s i gni f y e xoge n ous o r popul a r r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of s ubj e c t i vi t y t ha t a r e t oo of t e n na t ur a l i z e d m i s r e pr e s e nt a t i ons ( 105)

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R os e n 26 one s o w n s ubj e c t i v i t y t ha t f e e l s a t odd s w i t h t ha t c u l t ur e a nd t he n m a k i n g s o m e t hi n g f r o m t ha t t hi r d s p a c e T he z i n e a s a c u l t ur a l a r t i f a c t i s t ha t p r i va t e / p ubl i c s pa c e w he r e i nd i v i du a l s ha ve t he o p p o r t uni t y t o unc ov e r O t he r w a y s of b e i n g a nd of know i n g i n or d e r t o m a k e m e a n i n g of t he e v e r y da y ( L i c on a 1 06) F or L i c on a t he f e m i n i s t z i ne i n pa r t i c u l a r a dd r e s s e s t he t hi r d s p a c e c ons c i ous ne s s H o w e ve r I a r g u e t ha t t he pr ac t i c e of z i n e m a k i n g a l s o s i t ua t e s i t a s a t hi r d s p a c e w he r e on e c a n n e g a t e l a r g e l y a c c e p t e d c u l t ur a l n a r r a t i v e s r e pr e s e n t a t i on s a nd e xpe c t a t i on s t hr ou g h a v a r i e t y of de v i c e s i n c l u d i n g pa s t i c h e e xpe r i e n t i a l r e p or t s a nd c r i t i qu e Z i ne s no t onl y i l l us t r a t e t he c r e a t i ve a nd g e n e r a t i ve c a pa c i t y of t hi r d s p a c e ( d i s c ur s i v e ) pr a c t i c e s a nd c u l t ur a l r e p r od uc t i on, t he y of f e r t hi r d s p a c e s ubj e c t s a p o w e r f u l s i t e f or s e l f a nd O t he r r e p r e s e n t a t i on w i t hou t t he r e du c t i ve p ha l l o g o c e nt r i s m r e qu i r e d i n do m i n a nt r e p r e s e n t a t i ona l p r a c t i c e s T he y c a n b e i r r e v e r e n t p a r odi c u t o p i a n a nd i m a g i n a t i v e ; a nd t h u s i n a s e n s e z i n e s p e r f or m t he d i f f e r e n c e t he y a r e t r y i n g t o m a k e B y c h a l l e n g i n g r e i m a g i n i n g a nd r e pl a c i n g e x c l us i ona r y a nd o p p r e s s i ve d i s c ur s i v e pr a c t i c e s z i ne s p e r f or m n e w r e p r e s e n t a t i on s of s ubj e c t i v i t y ( L i c on a 109) A s a p r a c t i c e z i n e s no t onl y p o s i t s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o l a bo r but t he y a l s o c r e a t e t he s pa c e f or a m u l t i pl i c i t y of voi c e s t o be g i v e n e qu a l w e i g h t I t i s t he p r a c t i c e of z i n e m a k i n g t ha t c ons t i t u t e s t he t hi r d s p a c e a s i t i s no t s i m pl y a p r a c t i c e o f a i r i n g d i s c on t e n t or p r o t e s t i n g r a t he r i t i s a s p a c e t ha t c a l l s u p on t he m a k e r s c r e a t i v e c a pa c i t i e s t o i m a g i n e

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R os e n 27 ne w w a y s of s e l f r e pr e s e n t a t i on, a s w e l l a s bui l d a ( f l u i d ) c o m m un i t y of e x c h a n g e s u p p o r t a nd e n g a g e m e nt A s a t hi r d s p a c e t he z i ne a s s um e s a ne g a t i on a nd a p p r o p r i a t i on of a do m i n a n t c u l t ur e T he m e c h a n i s m of e x o g e nous r e pr e s e nt a t i on t ha t m a n y z i ne m a k e r s t a ke p a r t i c u l a r i s s ue w i t h i s t ha t of t he m a i ns t r e a m c u l t ur e A nd w hi l e z i n e s ha v e o f t e n b e e n t o u t e d a s a n unde r g r ound or c oun t e r c u l t ur a l m o ve m e n t t he c l a i m t ha t t he y a r e a n t i m a i ns t r e a m i s f a l s e a s t he m a i ns t r e a m i s no t a n i ns ul a r e nt i t y a nd c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on c a nnot oc c u r ou t s i de of i t T hi s i s w h y t he s ym bol i c t hi r d s p a c e i s i n t e g r a l I t c o m pl i c a t e s t he r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t z i ne s h a v e t o t h e do m i n a n t c u l t ur e I ns t e a d of v i e w i n g t he m a i ns t r e a m a s uni l a t e r a l l y di s s e m i n a t i n g c u l t ur e a nd i n f or m a t i on, t he t hi r d s p a c e r e i n j e c t s a g e n c y i n t o t he r e l a t i ons hi p T he z i ne a s t hi r d s p a c e p r ovi d e s a s i t e a nd c ons c i ous ne s s c a pa bl e of t a k i n g a pa r t t he do m i n a n t c u l t ur e c r i t i qu i n g i t a dd i n g t o i t w hi l e bu i l d i n g a not he r c u l t ur e A s E l i z a b e t h T r a ub w r i t e s i n T he P o p ul a r i n A m e r i c a n C u l t ur e T o a vo i d r e du c i n g p o p ul a r c u l t ur e t o a m a n i p ul a t i v e m a s s c u l t ur e c on t r ol l e d b y i t s p r oduc e r s r e c e p t i on ne e ds t o be unde r s t ood a s a n a c t i v e s oc i a l l y di f f e r e n t i a t e d pr oc e s s of ne g ot i a t i on ( 142 ) Z i n e s a s t hi r d s p a c e a r e i n a d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he m a i ns t r e a m o r t ha t f or c e pe r c e i v e d t o be t he l o c us of a l l c u l t ur a l ( m i s ) r e p r e s e n t a t i on s g u i d e d b y p ol i t i c a l a nd a e s t he t i c m e a ns F or z i ne s r e s i s t a nc e a nd c r i t i que d e pe nd on t he do m i n a nt c u l t ur e a nd t he do m i n a n t c u l t ur e i s de pe nde n t u p o n s uba l t e r n m od e s of r e pr e s e n t a t i on l i k e z i n e s : t he p o p ul a r i s no t p r o duc e d b y i m p o s i n g a do m i n a nt on t o a s ubor di n a t e c u l t ur e bu t b y t he dom i n a n t r e a c h i n g i n t o t he c u l t ur a l f o r m a t i on s of

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R os e n 28 s ubor di n a t e g r ou p s s e l e c t i v e l y a p p r o p r i a t i n g e l e m e n t s a nd s t i t c hi n g t he m i nt o ne w d i s c our s e s ( T r a ub e 134) T hu s t he d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n z i n e s a nd t he m a i ns t r e a m c ont i nue s on a d i nf i n i t um T hu s z i n e m a k e r s ha ve a r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he m a i ns t r e a m t ha t s houl d no t be de n i e d a s i t g i v e s t he m i m m e ns e p o w e r t o c r i t i qu e a nd p o s e a l t e r n a t i v e s Z i ne s t he n, a r e a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of t hi s dom i n a nt c u l t ur e f or t he i r c a pa c i t y t o r a i s e c ons c i ous ne s s t o a l t e r n a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i on s a nd p r a c t i c e s M u c h of t hi s c on s c i ous ne s s r a i s i n g c o m e s f r o m t he p r oduc t i on of n e w c od e s i d e a s a nd s p a c e s I n f a c t m a n y z i ne s t e r s a r e r e s p ond i n g t o a l a c k o f r e pr e s e n t a t i ve s p a c e i n c e n t r a l i z e d m e d i a T he p r oduc t i on of t he t h i r d s p a c e of t he z i ne e n a b l e s t he s e c onv e r s a t i on s t o oc c ur w hi l e s i m u l t a ne ous l y p r oduc i n g l a n g u a g e s a nd pr a c t i c e s t ha t e n c ou r a g e r e a d e r s t o m a k e t he i r ow n s p a c e s Z i ne s t ha t de a l w i t h ( m i s ) r e pr e s e n t a t i on s of t e n f a l l und e r t he f e m i n i s t que e r / g e nd e r p ol i t i c s f a t a c t i v i s t a n t i c ons um e r i s t a nd a n a r c h i s t c a t e g o r i e s t hou g h not e x c l us i v e l y. M i m i N g u ye n, i n a n i n t e r v i e w s a i d a bou t t he c ont e n t of he r z i n e T he i n t e r s e c t i on of r a c i s m a nd s e x i s m h a s a l w a y s be e n a n i s s ue w i t h m e I n A i m Y our D i c k #2 I w r o t e a bou t ho w s om e bod y ha d j ok i n g l y a s ke d m e a bout O r i e nt a l S e x S e c r e t s I r e a l l y w e n t of f on t ha t one [ i n r e s p o n s e ] I g ot s o m a n y l e t t e r s I c ou l dn t a ns w e r t he m a l l T h i s a m a z e d m e b e c a us e I d i dn t c on s i d e r m y z i ne a s t ha t bi g of a d e a l B u t a p p a r e n t l y i t f i l l e d a vo i d, d i s c us s i n g t o pi c s t ha t w e r e n t g e n e r a l l y be i n g d e a l t w i t h ( N g u ye n 54) T hu s t he t hi r d s p a c e a l s o be c o m e s a ne c e s s a r y s i t e f o r t ho s e w ho do no t ha v e a pl a t f or m

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R os e n 29 w i t hi n do m i n a nt c u l t ur e a s t he vo i c e t ha t s p e a k s i s ot h e r a nd o p p o s i t i ona l T hi s s i t e t ha t c r i t i qu e s t he do m i n a n t w hi l e p o s i n g a l t e r na t i ve s i s no t i s ol a t e d, or vu l n e r a b l e B e h i nd one z i n e i s a n e n t i r e n e t w or k of s u p p o r t s i m i l a r p r oj e c t s a nd g r ow i n g nu m b e r of p a r t i c i pa n t s Z i ne s c a n b e und e r s t ood a s a n e xt e ns i on of pr e vi ou s l i t e r a r y m ov e m e n t s i n t ha t t he m od e r n i s t l i t t l e m a g a z i ne s w e r e r e s p o ndi n g t o a s i m i l a r c r i s i s m a k i n g r oo m f o r a l t e r n a t i v e e x pr e s s i on i n t he p u bl i c s p a c e H ow e ve r z i ne s a r e a l s o r e s p o ndi n g t o c on f r on t a t i on s s e e n on t he i n d i v i du a l a nd i n t r a pe r s ona l l e v e l a s r e s ul t i n g f r o m s t r uc t ur a l o p p r e s s i on s t ha t a f f e c t i de nt i t y a nd s ubj e c t i v i t y T hi s i s w he r e t he z i ne s c r e a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on a nd r e p r e s e n t a t i on he l p s i t ua t e t he m a s a f or m of a r t i s t i c c u l t ur a l a n d p ol i t i c a l p r a x i s

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R os e n 30 C h a p t e r T w o: A d or n o, Z i n e s an d P r axi s I n or de r t o e s t a bl i s h z i ne s a s a n a r t f or m i t i s i m pe r a t i ve t o unde r s t a nd t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h dom i na nt c ul t ur e a s w e l l a s t he i r m e a ns of pr oduc t i on. T he odor A dor no s A e s t he t i c T he or y be c om e s a n i ndi s pe ns a bl e t ool f or de c odi ng t he a e s t he t i c a nd s oc i a l a t t r i but e s of t he z i n e I a m c hoos i ng t o u s e A e s t he t i c T he or y be c a u s e I be l i e ve t h e t hi r d s pa c e a s de s c r i be d i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r t ha t z i ne s i nha bi t i s ve r y s i m i l a r t o A dor no s c onc e pt i on o f f e t t e r e d or di a l ogi c a ut on om y i n m ode r n a r t I w i l l t he n a na l yz e a z i ne a c c or di ng t o A dor no s m a i n t he or e t i c a l c on c e r ns f oc us i ng on t he how t hi s f e t t e r e d a ut onom y r e a l i z e s i t s e l f i n f or m c ont e nt a nd pr od uc t i on. T he pr oj e c t of A dor no s A e s t he t i c T h e or y i s va s t I n a n e f f or t t o do a w a y w i t h uni ve r s a l i s t de f i ni t i ons of a r t de pe nde nt upon i m m ut a bl e qua l i t i e s he i n s t e a d t r a c e s t he f un c t i ons a nd p o s s i bi l i t i e s of a r t c on t i n g e n t u p o n i t s s oc i o h i s t or i c a l c on t e xt A c c or di ng t o A dor no, I t f ol l ow s t ha t a r t i s not de f i ne d onc e a nd f or a l l by t he s c ope of a n i m m ut a bl e c onc e pt R a t he r t he c onc e pt of a r t i s a f r a gi l e ba l a nc e a t t a i ne d now a nd t he n ( A dor no 9) T hus i n A e s t h e t i c T he or y h e t he or i z e s unde r w ha t m a t e r i a l a nd s oc i a l c ond i t i ons a r t a c h i e v e s t hi s b a l a n c e a nd a b i l i t y t o c o m m un i c a t e F or m od e r n a r t he s e e s i t s de s i r e t o s he d i t s c u l t f unc t i on a nd o p t f or a bur g e on i n g not e n t i r e l y s t a bl e a u t onom y a s t he i d e a l p o s i t i on f or a r t 1 5 A dor no be l i e v e s t hi s a ut onom y t o be f unda m e nt a l l y a nt a goni s t i c t ow a r ds t he s oc i e t y t ha t i t d e s i r e s t o c a s t of f : A r t how e ve r i s not s oc i a l 1 5 A dor no us e s m ode r ni s t a r t a s pr oo f of hi s t he or y N o l onge r r e s pons i bl e t o r e l i gi on or t he s t a t e he a r gue s t ha t t he e r a of t he bour ge oi s ha s a l l ow e d a r t t o be r e s pons i bl e onl y t o i t s e l f T hi s he be l i e ve s w i l l be t he pos s i bl e undoi ng of a r t T he r e a r e t w o pol e s t o hi s pr e di c t i on. O ne i s i n t he ne ut r a l i z a t i on of a r t i f on l y r e s pons i bl e t o a e s t he t i c s a t t he pr i c e of s oc i a l c r i t i que T he ot he r m or e da nge r ous po l e i s t ha t of c om pl e t e c om m odi f i c a t i on a nd t he pr ol i f e r a t i on o f t he c ul t ur e i ndus t r y w hi c h I w i l l a ddr e s s l a t e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r

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R os e n 31 onl y be c a us e i t i s br ought up i n s uc h a w a y t ha t i t e m bodi e s t he di a l e c t i c of f or c e s a nd r e l a t i ons of pr oduc t i on. N or i s a r t s o c i a l be c a u s e i t de r i ve s i t s m a t e r i a l c ont e nt f r om s oc i e t y. R a t he r i t i s s oc i a l pr i m a r i l y be c a us e i t s t a nds oppos e d t o s o c i e t y ( A dor no 321) M ode r n a r t s a nt a goni s m e nge nde r s a f e t t e r e d a ut onom y one t ha t w i l l f or e ve r t i e i t t o i t s obj e c t of r e f ut a t i on. A dor no a r gue s f or a ne ga t i ve di a l e c t i c one t ha t i s ba s e d o n a dyna m i c m om e nt um de pe nde nt upon c ons t a nt di f f e r e nt i a t i on t hr ough n e ga t i on a nd c r i t i c a l e nga ge m e nt I t i s a di a l e c t i c s i n w hi c h a l l e l e m e nt s a r e s i m ul t a ne ous l y r i vi ng a nd r e f or m i ng t hus pos i t i ng t he e xi s t e nc e of non i de nt i t i e s or t he i m pos s i bi l i t y of s t a t i c i de nt i t i e s T he non i de nt i t y e m a na t e s f r om t he f a c t t ha t e l e m e nt s ( l i ke a r t a nd e ve r yt hi ng c ont a i ne d w i t hi n a r t ) do not e xi s t a s a bs t r a c t obj e c t s but r a t he r i n r e l a t i on t o one a not he r a nd i n r e l a t i on t o s oc i o hi s t or i c a l f or c e s I de nt i t y c om e s f r o m t he r e c og ni t i on a nd di f f e r e nt i a t i on, or ne ga t i on, f r om t he o t he r A dor no a l s o be l i e ve s t ha t t he non i de nt i c a l or s t a t e o f c ons t a nt ne ga t i on, s t e m s f r om a c ons c i ou s ne s s t ha t l i ve s und e r a s y s t e m i t c a nnot r e l a t e t o. A s a M a r xi s t he be l i e ve d c o ha bi t a t i on of t he i ndi vi dua l s c on s c i ous ne s s a nd t he c ons c i ous ne s s of c a pi t a l i s m ne c e s s i t a t e s i ndi vi dua t i on t hr ough n e g a t i on. T hus i de nt i t y i s i n a c ons t a nt s t a t e of f l uc t ua t i on, r e s ul t i ng i n a hi ghl y c om pl e x s ys t e m of ne ga t i on a nd r e c ogni t i on w i t h t he dom i na nt s ys t e m t ha t e va de s r e i f i c a t i on 1 6 T he s t a t e of non i d e n t i t y i s a ve r y i m p or t a n t p r e c ond i t i on f or A dor no s c onc e p t of a u t onom y, a s i t i s w ha t a l l ow s i t t o e v a d e r e i f i c a t i on a nd s ubor di n a t i on b y or t o p ol i t i c a l a p p a r a t u s e s H o w e ve r t he c on c e p t of a u t o nom y i s qui t e d i f f us e t hr ou g hout t he 1 6 O ne ha s t o be dow nr i ght obs t i na t e not t o s e e t he c om pl i c i t y of a r t i s t i c r e i f i c a t i on a nd s oc i a l r e i f i c a t i on, a nd t o i gno r e t he unt r ut h of r e i f i c a t i on, w hi c h i s t ha t i t f e t i s hi z e s w ha t i s a pr oc e s s ua l r e l a t i on be t w e e n m om e nt s ( A dor n o 147)

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R os e n 32 t e xt c r e a t i n g c ons t e l l a t i on s of m e a n i n g r a t he r t ha n a c qu i r i n g a c on c r e t e de f i n i t i on 1 7 N one t he l e s s a r t w or ks ne ve r f ul l y a c hi e ve a ut ono m y f r om t he i r s oc i a l e nvi r onm e nt A r t r e l i e s on s oc i e t y f or m a t e r i a l a nd m or e i m por t a nt l y f or t he obj e c t o f i t s r e s i s t a nc e I n f a c t A dor no vi e w s a r t s ve r y e xi s t e nc e a s a ne ga t i on of s oc i e t y; t he a r t i s t i c m e a ns of pr oduc t i on ne ga t e a m e a ns e nd r a t i ona l i t y de t e r m i ne d by pr of i t T he c ondi t i on o f a r t s a ut onom y i s de s c r i be d by A dor no a s t w of ol d : on t he one ha nd, i t di s s oc i a t e s i t s e l f f r om e m pi r i c a l r e a l i t y a nd f r om t he f unc t i ona l c om pl e x t ha t i s s oc i e t y; a nd on t he ot he r i t be l ongs t o t ha t r e a l i t y a nd t o t ha t s oc i a l c om pl e x ( A dor no 358) A r t w or ks a s non i de nt i c a l e nt i t i e s i nt e r na l i z e t he e xt e r na l w or l d w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y ne g a t i ng i t B ut i t i s pr e c i s e l y t hi s ne ga t i on t ha t pr ovi de s s oc i e t y w i t h a c r i t i c a l t o l l a nd t hus a r t pl a ys t he vi t a l r ol e o f c r i t i c a nd/ or s ubs t r a t um f o r c ons c i ous ne s s c ha ngi ng. A s a non i de nt i c a l a r t i f a c t t ha t r e a c he s t he publ i c be c a us e i t i s a ut onom ou s a r t ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o c om m uni c a t e t hi s non i de nt i t y A m a i n f unc t i on of a r t f or A dor no i s t o a s s i s t ot he r non i de nt i c a l e l e m e nt s i n r e a l i z i ng t he i r non i de nt i c a l s t a t e T ha t i s f or us t o unde r s t a nd t he c ont r a d i c t or y f l ui d s e t of i de nt i t i e s t ha t w e pos s e s s a t a ny m om e nt a s be i ng s oc i a l l y a nd hi s t or i c a l l y m e di a t e d A e s t he t i c i de nt i t y i s di f f e r e nt how e ve r i n one i m por t a nt r e s pe c t : i t i s m e a nt t o a s s i s t t he non i de nt i c a l i n i t s s t r uggl e a ga i ns t t he r e pr e s s i v e i de nt i f i c a t i on c om pul s i on t ha t r ul e s t h e out s i de w o r l d. I t i s by vi r t ue of i t s s e pa r a t i on f r om e m pi r i c a l r e a l i t y t ha t t he w or k of a r t c a n be c om e a be i ng of hi ghe r or de r f a s hi oni ng t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he w hol e a nd i t s pa r t s i n a c c or da nc e w i t h i t s ow n ne e ds 1 7 T hi s i s pr i m a r i l y a f unc t i on of hi s be l i e f t ha t a l l obj e c t s a r e hi s t or i c a l l y a nd s oc i a l l y de pe nde nt

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R os e n 33 W or ks of a r t a r e a f t e r i m a ge s or r e pl i c a s of e m pi r i c a l l i f e i na s m uc h a s t he y pr of f e r t o t he l a t t e r w ha t i n t he out s i de w or l d i s be i ng de ni e d t he m I n t he pr oc e s s t he y s l ough of f a r e pr e s s i ve e xt e r na l e m pi r i c a l m ode of e xpe r i e nc i ng t he w or l dA s a r t i f a c t s w or ks of a r t c om m uni c a t e not onl y i nt e r na l l y but a l s o w i t h t he e xt e r na l r e a l i t y w hi c h t he y t r y t o ge t a w a y f r om a nd w hi c h none t he l e s s i s t he s ub s t r a t um of t he i r c ont e nt ( A dor no 6 7) T hus i n or de r f or a r t f r om i t s pos i t i on of a ut onom y a nd non i de n t i t y, t o t r ul y c om m uni c a t e i t m us t i nt e r na l i z e t he m ode of e m pi r i c a l e xi s t e nc e ( or c ons c i ous n e s s of t he dom i na nt c ul t ur e ) a nd s i m ul t a ne ous l y c r i t i que i t T he c r i t i que de pe nds upon s how i ng t he i na de qua c i e s of e m pi r i c a l e xi s t e nc e w hi c h c a n be e m ot i ona l s pi r i t ua l or ont ol ogi c a l I f a r t c a n s ho w u s t ha t i t i s p r o t e a n a nd c o m e s f r om t he s a m e s oc i a l e nv i r on m e nt t ha t w e do, t he n w e c a n b e g i n t o r e a l i z e our ow n c a pa c i t y f or e n g a g i n g i n s oc i a l c r i t i qu e a nd bu i l d i n g i m a g i n a t i v e u t o pi a s T he r a d i c a l p o t e n t i a l of a r t c a n a l s o be unde r s t ood t hr ou g h t he non i d e n t i c a l I f a r t a nd l i k e w i s e i nd i v i du a l s a r e unde r s t ood a s d y na m i c t he n s oc i o p ol i t i c a l f o r m s c a n b e a s w e l l T ha t i s a r t c a n s ho w u s t ha t i ns t i t u t i on s s uc h a s r a c e c l a s s a nd t he s t a t e a r e s oc i a l l y a nd h i s t or i c a l l y m e d i a t e d a nd a r e t he n s ubj e c t t o c h a n g e T hu s a r t de m y s t i f i e s s oc i o p ol i t i c a l s u p e r s t r uc t ur e s a nd a nt i c i pa t e s t he i r c h a n g e A dor no s c onc e pt of a ut onom y i s ve r y c l os e l y t i e d t o t he qua l i t i e s of t he t hi r d s pa c e a s i nha bi t e d by t he z i ne A s d e s c r i be d i n t h e pr e vi ous c ha pt e r t hi r d s pa c e s c a n b e unde r s t ood a s bot h a l oc a t i on a nd pr a c t i c e A s a l oc a t i on i t s i t s be t w e e n dom i na nt c ul t ur a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons a nd l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h i n t ha t dom i na t e c ul t ur e A s a pr a c t i c e i t e nga ge s t he di f f e r e nt i a l c ons c i ous ne s s of be i ng bot h a pa r t o f dom i na nt c ul t ur e a nd

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R os e n 34 e xi s t i ng i n ne ga t i on t o i t ( L i c ona 105) 1 8 T he pr a c t i c e r e ve a l s t he c a pa c i t y t o e nga ge i n a c t i ve a nd c r i t i c a l f or m s of s oc i a l p a r t i c i pa t i on. I n r e l a t i on t o t he z i ne t hi s pr a c t i c e i s a r t i c ul a t e d i n t he c r e a t i on of a r t i s t i c a r t i f a c t s t ha t e xpl or e t hi s s pa c e t ha t i s w i t hi n, a ga i ns t a nd be yond t he dom i na nt c ul t ur e t he r e by c r e a t i ng ne w f or m s of c r e a t i ve oppo s i t i on. T hus t he t hi r d s pa c e of t he z i ne f or m s a di a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he dom i na n t c ul t ur e r a t he r t ha n be i ng s ubs um e d by i t L i ke t he c onc e pt of a r t a s de s c r i be d by A dor no, t he z i ne a s a t hi r d s pa c e i s i n a pos i t i on of f e t t e r e d a ut onom y. T hr ough t he z i ne s a l t e r na t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p t o w or k i t ne ga t e s dom i na nt m ode s of pr oduc t i on a nd c o ns um pt i on. Z i ne s t e r s a r e e nga ge d i n c r e a t i ng c ul t ur e t ha t i s t he n t r a de d f or ot he r z i ne s m e a ge r a m ount s of m one y or a f e w s t a m ps H ow e ve r t he r e a de r i s a l s o e nc our a ge d t o s e nd l e t t e r s t o t he w r i t e r T ha t i s a pe r s ona l c onne c t i on a nd r e l a t i ons hi p f o r m ove r t he obj e c t S e c ondl y, t he z i ne bor r ow s s ym bol s f r om t he dom i na nt c ul t ur e de c ont e xt ua l i z i ng a nd s ubl i m a t i ng t he m a s t o of f e r c r i t i que s T hi s i s i m po r t a nt t o c ons i de r i n l i ght o f z i ne s s oc i a l c ont e xt one t ha t i s l i t t e r e d w i t h r e pr oduc e d a nd m a r ke t e d i m a ge s Z i ne s by r e m ovi ng t he s e i m a ge s f r om t he i r c ont e xt ( a n a dve r t i s e m e nt i n a m a ga z i ne ) c a n i l l um i na t e c e r t a i n da m a gi ng s oc i a l na r r a t i ve s ( e s pe c i a l l y a r ound i m a ge s of w om e n) T hi s i s c l os e l y r e l a t e d t o A dor no s c onc e pt of r e m ovi ng e xpe r i e nc e s o f pa i n f r om i ns t i t ut i ons t ha t r e i f y t he m i n or de r t o hum a ni z e t he m A s f or t he c r e a t i on of f a nt a s y, t he z i ne a s a n a r t f or m a nd a s a t hi r d s pa c e c r e a t e s t he oppor t uni t y f or c oa l i t i ona l m e a ni ng m a ki ng. T ha t i s a s a ut onom ous 1 8 T hi s t e r m i s de pl oye d i n C he l a S a ndova l 's M e t hodol ogy of t he O ppr e s s e d ( 2000) a nd r e f e r s t o a c ons c i ous ne s s t ha t a r i s e s be t w e e n a nd t hr ough [ di f f e r e nt ] m e a ni ng s ys t e m s ( 180) I t s s ubj e c t i s a bl e t o f unc t i on w i t hi n a nd be y ond dom i na nt i de ol ogi e s I t c a pt ur e s t he m ove m e nt t ha t j oi ns di f f e r e nt ne t w or ks o f c ons c i ous ne s s f or pur pos e s of c oa l i t i on a nd ul t i m a t e l y t r a ns f or m a t i on ( L i c ona 125)

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R os e n 35 c ul t ur a l a r t i f a c t s t he y ha ve t he pr ope ns i t y t o c on t e s t dom i na nt c ul t ur e a nd c r e a t e t he i r ow n c ul t ur a l na r r a t i ve s t ha t a r e t he n s ha r e d w i t hi n a ne t w or k of z i ne s t e r s w ho a r e doi ng t he s a m e C om m uni c a t i ons of c onc e pt s w i t hi n a z i ne l i ke i n a r t w or ks a r e de pe nde nt upon t he i r bound a ut ono m y T he y m us t i nt e gr a t e e l e m e nt s of e m pi r i c a l or r e pr e s s i ve s oc i e t y i n or de r t o f i nd c om m on l a ngua ge a nd ye t i n t he a r t i f a c t a c r i t i que m us t be i m m a ne nt ( i n pr oduc t i ve l a bor f or m a nd/ or c ont e nt ) I n t hi s w a y t he y a r e non i de nt i c a l a s t he di a l e c t i c be t w e e n a b s or pt i on a nd ne ga t i on of t he dom i na nt c ul t ur e oc c ur e ndl e s s l y a nd i s i nt e gr a t e d t hr oughout t he e nt i r e a r t i f a c t H ow a r t a c hi e ve s i t s a ut onom y a nd i s t hus a bl e t o c om m uni c a t e r e s i s t a nc e i s m a ppe d t hr ough f or m F or A dor no t he ba s i s of a r t s a ut ono m y l i e s i n i t s r e l a t i on t o s oc i o hi s t or i c a l f or c e s w hi c h a s a s e r i e s of ne ga t i ons be c om e m a ni f e s t i n c ont e nt T hus f or m a nd c ont e nt be c om e c e nt r a l a r gum e nt s i n A e s t he t i c T he or y A s s um i ng t ha t one ha s t o di f f e r e nt i a t e f or m a nd c ont e nt be f or e gr a s pi ng t he i r m e di t a t i on, w e c a n s a y t h a t a r t s oppos i t i on t o t he r e a l w o r l d i s i n t he r e a l m of f or m ; but t hi s oc c ur s ge ne r a l l y s pe a ki ng, i n a m e di a t e d w a y s uc h t ha t a e s t he t i c f or m i s a s e di m e nt a t i on of c ont e nt ( A dor no 7) F or t he pur pos e s of r e l a t i ng t hi s a r gum e nt t o z i ne s I w i l l us e f or m t o i ndi c a t e t he m a t e r i a l i t y of t he z i ne ( w hi c h i nc l ude s i t s m ode of pr oduc t i on, di s t r i but i on a s w e l l a s a e s t he t i c qua l i t i e s ) W hi l e c ont e nt w i l l r e f e r t o t he m a t e r i a l s t he z i ne s t e r us e s t o c r e a t e w hi c h w i l l i nc l ude a nyt hi ng f r om pe r s ona l i de ol og i e s t o m a ga z i ne c l i ppi ngs I n t he c ol l a bor a t i ve z i ne C r os s hat c h by A va A nd e r s on, R oxi e P e r ki ns a nd A nna R e ut i nge r f or m i s m e r ge d w i t h c ont e nt i n a w a y t ha t f ol l ow s A dor no s c r i t e r i on f or s uc c e s s a nd pr oduc e s a w or k t ha t i s a c om m uni c a t i on of i t s s oc i a l hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt

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R os e n 36 F i r s t w or ks m us t be a bl e t o i nt e gr a t e m a t e r i a l s a nd de t a i l s i nt o t he i r i m m a ne nt l a w of f or m ; a nd, s e c ond, t he y m us t not t r y t o e r a s e t he f r a c t ur e s l e f t by t he pr oc e s s of i nt e gr a t i on, pr e s e r vi ng i ns t e a d i n t he a e s t he t i c w h ol e t he t r a c e s of t hos e e l e m e nt s w hi c h r e s i s t e d i nt e gr a t i on ( A dor no 10) T he i r poe m s a r e c ut a nd pa s t e d a c r os s bl a c k a nd w hi t e phot os of f r i e nds a nd l a nds c a pe s i n t he B a y A r e a W hi l e t he r e i s a n i nt e gr a t i on of t he m a t i c t r ope s ( a r ound nos t a l gi a f o r ge t t i ng a nd m ovi ng f or w a r d) t he t e xt l i e s s t a r k a ga i ns t t he phot o, a nd t he phot o i n r e t u r n of f e r s s t r ong i m a ge s i nde pe nde nt a l t hough r e l a t e d t o t he t e xt T hi s i s w ha t A dor no m e a ns w he n he t a l ks a bout s ynt he s i s I t i s i m por t a nt r a t he r t ha t t he e l e m e n t s i nt e r a c t w i t h e a c h ot he r ; he nc e t he r e i s a s e ns e i n w hi c h s ynt he s i s i s a m e r e r e pe t i t i on of t he pr e e s t a bl i s he d i nt e r de pe nde nc e a m ong e l e m e nt s [ i t ] i s f i r m l y gr ounde d i n t he m a t e r i a l a s pe c t s of w or ks of a r t ( A dor no 11) T he s ynt he s i s t ha t oc c ur s w i t h i n C r os s hat c h i s dyna m i c a nd non hi e r a r c hi c a l T he e nt i r e z i ne pa ys c l os e a t t e nt i on t o a e s t he t i c d e t a i l T he c ove r of t he z i ne a m a p of t he T e xa s / N e w M e xi c o bor de r i s unm a r k e d e xc e pt f or a ba c kw a r d r e d num be r t hr e e t ha t a ppe a r s t o be s c r e e n pr i nt e d on, a s t he t e xt ur e of t he pa i nt i s s pongy a nd pa l pa bl e I t s s i m pl e de s i gn a nd l a yout w i t h l a r g e c l e a r phot os ( one pe r pa ge ) a nd t e xt s ha pe d t o f i l l ne ga t i ve s pa c e s T hi s a l l ow s t h e c ont e nt t o r e s on a t e w i t h t he i m a ge s c r e a t i ng c ohe s i ve ye t obvi ous l y a s s e m bl e d pi e c e s T he poe m s i n t hi s c ol l e c t i on of t e n i nt r oduc e m e m or i e s poc ke d by i m a ge s of t he pr e s e nt W hi l e t he l a nds c a p e s of t he po e m s a r e unc e r t a i n or va gue t he i m a ge s i n t he ba c kgr ou nd of f e r a l t e r na t i ve poi nt s of r e f e r e nc e t ha t of t e n m i r r o r t he m a t i c t r op e s I n t he f i r s t poe m of t he c ol l e c t i on e nt i t l e d M w e a r e pr e s e nt e d w i t h a s t r a nge j uxt a pos i t i on of na t ur a l i s t i c a nd ur ba n i m a ge s I n or de r t o r e a d t he poe m you m us t t ur n

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R os e n 37 t he z i ne c l oc kw i s e s o t ha t t he l e f t pa ge be c om e s t he t op i m a ge T he poe m r e s t s i n t he bot t om r i ght c or ne r T hi s i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he z i ne i s i nt e gr a l ; a s t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he z i ne s hi f t s one c a n s e e t ha t bot h pa ge s a nd t he i r i m a ge s a r e t he m a t i c a l l y l i nke d t o t h e poe m M i l ky or a nge pool s / P a ve t he w a y i n f r ont of m e / P e r f or a t e d w h i t e s c a r s t he onl y f e a t ur e s / R e f l e c t e d by t hi s w i s p of a s pha l t / E a c h h one y s w e e t not e / A s s i gne d i t s ow n c e l l of gol de n s ki n W hi l e t he poe m doe s not c r e a t e a s t r ong a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n t he i m a ge s of r oa d, hi ve a nd m u s i c w ha t c a n be gl e a ne d i s a r e pe t i t i ous pa t t e r n of hol e s a nd e m pt y s pa c e s s uppor t e d by t he s ur r oundi ng i m a ge s T he t op phot o i s pos s i bl y of a n ove r gr ow n a nd a ba ndone d f a c t or y. A pa t h i n t he c e nt e r di vi de s t w o gl a s s s t r uc t ur e s i t s bo r de r s da nge r ous l y c l os e t o be i ng ove r t a ke n by w e e ds W he n you l ook t o t he r i ght you c a n s e e a n a ba ndone d t i r e ha s a l r e a dy be e n c ons um e d by w e e d s i t c e nt e r a nd e dge s bl ot t e d out by s ha dow s onl y a f a i nt w hi t e hi ghl i ght a r ound t he r i m c a n be s e e n. T he bot t om phot o c oul d ve r y w e l l be a vi e w of t he pr ope r t y l ooki ng out w a r d T he bot t om r i ght c or ne r w he r e t he poe m i s i s of a gr a ve l r oa d, t he l e f t e dge bor de r e d by a n e ndl e s s r ow of s t r e w n t i r e s T he s e t i r e s c ut t he phot o i n ha l f di a gona l l y, l e a di ng one s e ye t o t he r oa d w he r e a s e m i t r uc k i s a bout t o pa s s by. T h e ne xt s t a nz a m i r r or s t he i m a ge of e ndl e s s r e pe t i t i on, va c a nc y a nd f or got t e n pl a c e s T he r e w i l l be m or e t o c om e / S o i n t he w a t e r e d dow n ve r s i on/ T hos e w ho l ove you m os t w i l l he a r / P l e a s e / D on t f or ge t t ha t you kne w m y na m e W hi l e i t i s unc l e a r a s t o w h a t w i l l c om e t he r e i s a n a nt i c i pa t i on o f l os s T he l a s t l i ne s poke n, o r pe r c e i ve d t o be s poke n t o t he l ove d one s ha s a s t r a nge m i xt ur e of de s pe r a t i on a nd na r c i s s i s m t ha t doe s not s e e m t o be pr e s e nt i n t he r e s t of t he poe m N one t he l e s s t he i m a ge s pr e s e nt e d os c i l l a t e be t w e e n f unc t i oni ng a s c a vi t i e s ( t i r e s ) a nd bor de r s ( P e r f or a t e d w hi t e s c a r s i t s ow n c e l l

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R os e n 38 of gol de n s ki n a nd a ga i n t he t i r e s ) T he r e i s t he pe r va s i ve f e e l i ng of e m pt i ne s s i ne vi t a bi l i t y a nd t he t e n s i on be t w e e n c ont r ol ( P l e a s e / D on t f or ge t t ha t you kne w m y na m e ) a nd c ha os ( ove r gr ow n w e e ds ) T he r e s t of t h e z i ne f ol l ow s t hi s s a m e f or m a t poe m s a r e i m be dd e d w i t hi n t h e i m a ge s a l t hough not s e a m l e s s l y. T hi s de s i r e t o s how t he a e s t he t i c di f f e r e nt i a t i on be t w e e n t he t e xt a nd i m a ge m i r r or s t he c ont e n t of t he poe m s i n t ha t t h e y c ont a i n i nt e r r upt i ons f r a gm e nt s of s pe e c h a nd m e m or i e s a l l of w hi c h a r e di s t i nc t oc c ur r e nc e s ha ppe ni ng w i t hi n t he s a m e m om e nt T hi s m a ke s pe r f e c t s e n s e w he n us i ng A dor no s c onc e pt i on of f or m a nd c ont e nt F or m ne c e s s a r i l y f l ow s f r om c ont e nt A t t he s a m e t i m e how e ve r f or m i s a n obj e c t i ve f a c t or a s i t r e l a t e s t he s oc i a l c ondi t i ons of t he m a ke r F or e xa m pl e t a ke t he f or m of t he z i ne i t s e l f I t i s s e l f pr oduc e d a s a m e a ns of c a r vi ng out a s pa c e f r e e of t he dom i na nt c ul t ur e s ( m i s ) r e pr e s e nt a t i ons w hi l e pr ovi di ng a s pa c e f or a c t i ve c r e a t i on. T he f or m of M a nd t he r e s t of t he pi e c e s i n C r os s hat c h r e f l e c t a de s i r e t o f or c e di f f e r e nt e l e m e nt s i nt o i n t e r s e c t i ons ( t o c r os s ha t c h) a s a m e a ns of c r e a t i ng ne w m e m or i e s i n t he f a c e of unc e r t a i nt y a nd t he t h r e a t of f o r ge t t i ng. A s nos t a l gi a r uns t hr oughout t he i r w or k, t he w r i t e r s of C r os s hat c h s e e m t o be pul l i ng t og e t he r f r a gm e nt s f or ne w na r r a t i ve s t o ho l d on t o. F or A dor no, f or m a r t i c ul a t e s i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o l a bor a nd a s a l t e r na t i ve t o s oc i e t y t hr ough t he a l i e na t i on of c e r t a i n e l e m e nt s ( s ounds w or ds i m a ge s e t c ) f ound w i t hi n t he e m pi r i c a l w or l d w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y r e c ons t i t ut i ng t he m a nd a r t i c ul a t i ng s om e t hi ng ne w F or m a c t s l i ke a m a gne t or de r i n g e l e m e nt s of r e a l l i f e i n a m a nne r s uc h t ha t t he y be c om e e s t r a nge d f r om t he i r e xt r a a e s t he t i c e xi s t e nc e B ut i t i s t hr ough t hi s e s t r a nge m e nt t ha t t ha t t he i r e xt r a a e s t he t i c e s s e nc e c a n be a ppr opr i a t e d by a r t ( A dor no

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R os e n 39 232) W ha t a r t doe s by bor r ow i ng e l e m e nt s a nd e ve n m ode s of pr o duc t i on f r om s oc i e t y, i s f r a gm e nt t ha t r e a l i t y, di s pl a yi ng i t s i nhe r e nt f l a w s w hi l e r e m a i ni ng c ogni z a nt of i t s ow n f r a gm e nt a t i on. Z i ne s t hr ough t he i r us e of pa s t i c he c ol l a ge a nd f r a gm e nt e d or di s j oi nt e d c ont e nt r e m ove e l e m e nt s of our c ul t ur e t ha t ha v e be e n m a de i nnoc uous t hr ough t he i r ubi qui t y, a nd s how t he e f f e c t t ha t i t ha s on r e a l bodi e s T h e s e f or m s a r e r a di c a l pr e c i s e l y be c a us e t he y a l i e na t e a nd c r i t i que na t ur a l i z e d e l e m e nt s of s oc i e t y. A dor no w r i t e s of t he da nge r s i n a bs ol ut e r a di c a l i s m t ha t i s a r t t ha t i s s o di vor c e d f r om s oc i a l r e a l i t y s o i m be dde d i n i t s ow n f a l s e a ut onom y, t ha t i t ve r ge s on w a l l pa pe r pa t t e r ns t he r e i s a t l e a s t a pr e s uppos i t i on t ha t a e s t he t i c r a di c a l i s m ha s be c o m e s oc i a l l y a f f or da bl e ( 44) T hus by us i ng pa s t i c he a nd c ol l a ge a r t de m ys t i f i e s c e r t a i n s oc i a l c ondi t i ons a nd s y s t e m s by r e m ovi ng t he m f r om e m pi r i c a l / s oc i a l c ont e xt a nd ye t s t i l l de a l i ng w i t h c ont e nt f r om t ha t s oc i e t y a nd t hus a c t i ve l y c r i t i qui ng i t I n t e r m s of z i ne s r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he s oc i a l i t i s i m pe r a t i v e t o c ons i de r t he i r f e t t e r e d a ut onom y a s t ha t w hi c h m us t i nt e r na l i z e t he s oc i a l r e a l m i n or de r t o c r i t i que a nd m ove a w a y f r om i t F or A do r no t hi s i nt e r na l i z i ng pr i nc i pl e i s a m om e nt o f gr e a t r e l e va nc e f or a r t a s by c a t he c t i ng t he r e pr e s s e d, a r t i nt e r na l i z e s t he r e pr e s s i ng pr i nc i pl e i e t he unr e de e m e d c ondi t i on of t he w or l d ( U nhe i l ) i ns t e a d of m e r e l y a i r i ng f ut i l e pr ot e s t s a ga i ns t i t t hus a nt i c i pa t i ng i t s ove r c om i ng" ( A dor no 27 28 ) I n t hi s m om e nt of e m pa t hy, t ha t i s r e l i a nt on t he i nc l us i on of t he s oc i a l w i t hi n t he w or k, a r t w or ks c a n c a t a l yz e c r i t i que i n ot he r s T hi s i s of c our s e c om m uni c a t e d t hr ough t he i r f or m a nd c ont e nt T he i r a bi l i t y t o pr e s e nt a r a di c a l f or m of publ i s hi ng w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y c r i t i qui ng t he dom i na nt c ul t ur e c ons t i t ut e s t he m a s a vi a bl e f or m of a r t i s t i c pr a c t i c e s a s

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R os e n 40 de f i ne d by A dor no Z i ne s as P r ax i s I f t he z i ne c a n be unde r s t ood a s a f or m o f a e s t he t i c pr a c t i c e a c c or di ng t o A dor no s c onc e pt i ons t he n i t f ol l ow s t ha t t he z i ne ha s a ve r y pa r t i c ul a r r e l a t i on t o s oc i e t y. A s a s pa c e f or i m a gi ni ng ne w a l t e r na t i ve s or by pos i t i ng ne w r e l a t i ons hi ps t o l a bor a nd c ons um pt i on, t he z i ne of f e r s a c r i t i que t o s oc i e t y t hr ough i t s ve r y e xi s t e nc e T ha t i s t he z i ne i s a m ode of pr a xi s A dor no s pe a ks of t he di a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a r t a nd pr a xi s a s nua nc e d a nd a r e s ul t o f t he i r pos i t i on t o s oc i e t y. T he m o r e pr of oundl y you de c ode w or ks o f a r t t he l e s s a bs ol ut e i s t he i r c ont r a s t t o p r a xi s T he y t oo a r e not j us t f ounda t i ons or f i r s t pr i nc i pl e s but pr a xi s a nd a r t t oge t he r a nd t he i r e m pha s i s i s on l a yi ng t he m e di a t i on be t w e e n t he m ( A do r n o, 342) T he m e di a t i on be t w e e n pr a xi s a nd a r t s pe a ks t o A dor no s de s i r e s t op t hi nki ng a bout a r t w or ks i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r f unc t i ona l i t y. T he y do not s e r ve a f unc t i on, i n s o m uc h a s t he y be c om e pr a c t i c a l pa t t e r ns of be ha vi our f a c i ng r e a l i t y ( A dor no 342) S i m i l a r l y a s A dor no a r gue s t hr oughout A e s t he t i c T he or y a r t s be i ng f o r i t s e l f i s w ha t a l l ow s i t t o oc c upy a ( m os t l y) a ut onom ous pos i t i on, f r om w hi c h i t i s e s pe c i a l l y s ui t e d t o m a ke c r i t i que s of t he s o c i e t y i n w hi c h i t e xi s t s B y f r a m i ng t he a r gum e nt i n t e r m s of a c r i t i c a l o r s i t ua t e d non f unc t i ona l i t y A dor no l ooks be yond a r t w or ks t ha t a r e ove r t l y pol i t i c a l a nd di da c t i c ( w he r e he t hr ow s B r e t c h out w i t h t he ba t hw a t e r ) a nd t hus ove r s i m pl i f i e d. I ns t e a d, t he pol i t i c a l a nd s oc i a l pot e nc y i n a r t l i e s i n i t s a bi l i t y t o f or m c r i t i que t hr ough i t m e a ns of pr oduc t i on c a pa c i t y f or r e l a t i ng s oc i e t y s l i m i t a t i ons a nd by i t s ve r y e xi s t e nc e a s a non i de nt i t y a l l of w hi c h a r e by ne c e s s i t y a c hi e ve d t hr ough i t s a ut o nom y. F or t he z i ne a s ha s be e n a r gue d i n t he f i r s t c ha pt e r t he m e t hod of pr odu c t i on, a nd t he s oc i a l s pa c e i t c r e a t e s

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R os e n 41 a c t i ve l y c r i t i que s oppr e s s i v e a nd l i m i t i ng f or c e s f ound w i t hi n t he dom i na t e c ul t ur e J us t by e xi s t i ng i n a r a di c a l m a nne r t he z i ne be c om e s a m ode of pol i t i c a l p r a xi s P ol i t i c s a nd c ul t ur e a r e of t e n t hought of a s s e pa r a t e e nt i t i e s t ha t oc c a s i ona l l y w or k i n t he s e r vi c e of one a not he r I w ou l d l i ke t o e s t a b l i s h e a c h of t he s e s e pa r a t e l y i n or de r t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he i r c onve r ge nc e A s w e l l a s t o be t t e r s i t ua t e t he di s c us s i on of t he N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s w hi c h m a ke c ul t ur a l pr o duc t i on a s i t e f or po l i t i c a l pur pos e a nd r e s i s t a nc e t hus m a ki ng c ul t ur e pol i t i c a l A s G e or ge O r w e l l w r i t e s i n W hy I W r i t e t he i nc l us i on of t he pol i t i c a l i n hi s w or k i s not s o m uc h i nt e nt i ona l a s i t i s a n i ne vi t a bl e f a c t or of l i vi ng dur i ng a pa r t i c ul a r l y t um ul t uous pe r i od of hi s t or y. T he i nc l us i on of t he pol i t i c a l he a r gue s i s w ha t ha s gi ve n hi s w r i t i ng s ubs t a nc e T he t e r m pol i t i c a l t he n t a ke s on a n a f f i r m a t i ve c ha r a c t e r i s t i c I t i s t he de s i r e t o pus h t he w or l d i n a c e r t a i n di r e c t i on, t o a l t e r ot he r pe opl e s i de a s of t he ki nd of s oc i e t y t he y s houl d s t r i ve f or ( O r w e l l 3) P ol i t i c a l pur pos e t he n, i s a pr oc e s s of m ove m e nt w i t h t he i nt e nt i on of c ha ngi ng c ons c i ous n e s s H ow e ve r I be l i e ve t he t e r m c ul t ur e i s be t t e r s ui t e d i n t hi s c a s e t ha n s oc i e t y i s I n H a r ol d B a r c l a y s C ul t ur e and A nar c hi s m he m a ke s t he ne c e s s a r y di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n t he t w o. C ul t ur e a s w e ha v e not e d, i s a c om pl e x of l e a r ne d i de a s c ha r a c t e r i z i ng a popul a t i on; s oc i e t y i s a g r oup o f i ndi vi dua l o r ga ni s m s w ho l i ve i n a c ondi t i on of r a t he r s t a bl e i nt e r a c t i on a nd i nt e r d e pe nde nc e w i t h on e a not he r a nd a r e r e s i de nt s of s om e s pe c i f i c pl a c e i n s pa c e a nd t i m e ( B a r c l a y 29) A r t i nf l ue nc e s c ul t ur e by m e a ns of pol i t i c a l pur pos e F or z i ne m a ke r s t he de s i r e a nd a c hi e ve m e nt of c om m uni c a t i ng t he i r r e s i s t a nc e i nf l ue nc e s t he s ph e r e of c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on by e xpl odi ng t he c onc e pt of w ho ha s t he a ut hor i t y t o m a ke m e a ni ng. Z i ne s a r e a pr a c t i c e gr ounde d i n a e s t he t i c s a nd pol i t i c a l pur pos e w i t h t he i nt e nt i on of r e a c hi ng a n a udi e nc e a nd c ha ngi ng

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R os e n 42 t he i r pe r s pe c t i ve s on a w hol e va r i e t y o f t opi c s A c c or di ng t o A dor no s c onc e pt i on of a r t s di a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p t o pr a xi s a r t c a n onl y m e di a t e pol i t i c a l i m pa c t I t c a n c a us e c ha nge s i n c ons c i ous ne s s not i n e nt i r e pol i t i c a l s ys t e m s A r t s c a pa c i t y f or c ha ngi ng c ons c i ous ne s s i s a r gue d t o be a r e s ul t of i t s a ut onom y a nd non i de nt i c a l s t a t us I n t he s e w a y s a r t s ve r y be i ng r e pr e s e nt s a l t e r na t i ve s a nd c a n pos i t c r i t i que s a nd bui l d r e s i s t a nc e F or A dor no, r e s i s t a nc e i s s y n on y m ou s w i t h ne g a t i on a nd f o r m s t he s ub s t r a t e of s oc i a l c h a n g e ; f or w ha t a r t c on t r i bu t e s t o s oc i e t y i s no t s om e d i r e c t l y c om m un i c a b l e c on t e n t bu t s o m e t hi n g m o r e m e d i a t e i e r e s i s t a nc e R e s i s t a nc e r e p r oduc e s s oc i a l d e v e l o pm e n t i n a e s t h e t i c t e r m s w i t hou t di r e c t l y i m i t a t i n g i t ( A dor no 321) A dor no c on t i nue s t hi s di s c us s i on b y unde r s c or i n g w ha t a e s t he t i c r e s i s t a nc e a nd pr a x i s l ooks l i k e A r t s s oc i a l i m pa c t s t r i c t l y unde r s t ood, i s ve r y m e d i a t e I t s i nf l u e n c e i s due t o t he f a c t t ha t a r t p a r t i c i pa t e s i n s pi r i t w hi c h i n t ur n c on g e a l s i n t o a r t w or k s he l pi n g t o de t e r m i n e c h a n g e s i n s oc i e t y a l b e i t i n a s ub t e r r a n e a n i nv i s i b l e f a s hi on T he i m pa c t w or k s of a r t ha ve o pe r a t e s a t t he i r l e v e l of r e m e m br a n c e ; i m pa c t ha s no t hi n g t o do w i t h t r a ns l a t i n g t he i r l a t e n t p r a x i s i n t o m a n i f e s t p r a x i s t he g r ow t h of a u t onom y ha v i n g g o n e t oo f a r t o pe r m i t a n y ki nd of i m m e d i a t e c or r e s p o nde nc e ( A dor no 343) W hi l e t hi s i s c e r t a i nl y t r ue c ons i de r i ng a r t t ha t doe s not i nvi t e i t s vi e w e r s / r e a de r t o pa r t i c i pa t e I a r gue t ha t z i ne s by c r e a t i ng c om m un i t y a r ound c r e a t i on, do i n f a c t m a ni f e s t pr a xi s H ow e ve r t hi s p r a xi s a s A dor no de s c r i be s doe s not ha ve a n i m m e di a t e i m pa c t on pol i t i c a l pol i c y, r a t he r i t i s i nve s t e d i n c ha ngi ng c o ns c i ous ne s s

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R os e n 43 Z i ne s by t he i r na t ur e a s a e s t he t i c a nd publ i c a r t i f a c t c r e a t e ga t e w a ys i nt o t he e t hos of D o I t Y our s e l f a nd of m ul t i pl e s ubj e c t i vi t i e s ( a s s e e n i n t he e xpl os i on of r e a l i t i e s e xpr e s s e d i n z i ne s ) A s pr a xi s w i t h c ul t ur a l pol i t i c a l a nd e c onom i c i m pl i c a t i ons t he i de ol ogy of z i ne m a ki ng w i l l ou t l i ve t he e phe m e r a l a r t i f a c t T hus w e c a nnot t e l l how m ul t i f a r i ous a nd t e xt ur e d t he i nf l ue nc e of z i ne s i s on pe opl e s l i ve s T hi s i s be c a us e t he e t hos of D I Y a nd t he r e l a t i ons hi ps b ui l t ove r t he z i ne e xt e nd f a r be yond t he z i ne s i m m e di a t e m om e nt of pr oduc t i on a nd c a n c ha nge pe opl e s c ons c i ous ne s s e s i n w a ys t ha t a r e e ve r s o di f f i c ul t t o pi n dow n" ( A do r n o 344) B y r e l a t i ng A dor no s c onc e pt i on of t he pol i t i c a l f unc t i ona l i t y of a r t w e c a n unde r s t a n d z i ne s t o be a n e xt e ns i on of t he s e i d e a l s T ha t i s a r t w or ks a r e pol i t i c a l be c a us e t he y a r e s oc i a l a r t i f a c t s t ha t pr of f e r c r i t i que s a l t e r na t i ve r e l a t i ons t o pr oduc t i on a nd a r e i m a gi ne d po s s i bi l i t i e s A dor no s c onc e pt i on of pr a xi s I a r gue i s a pr e c e d e nt t o t he w a y N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s f unc t i on. T he s e ne w f or m s of pol i t i c a l a c t i on a r e not i nve s t e d i n c ha ngi ng pol i t i c a l pol i c y pe r s e but r a t he r a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n c ha ngi ng t he w a y s w e l i ve ou r r e l a t i ons hi ps t o one a not he r a nd o ur s ys t e m s of va l ue I n A l be r t o M e l uc c i s t e xt T he S ym bol i c C ha l l e nge of C ont e m por a r y M ove m e nt s he out l i ne s t he c ha ngi ng f a c e of t hi s t ype of c ol l e c t i ve a c t i on. T he s e m ove m e nt s de f i ne d a s N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s w e r e s i m ul t a ne ous l y r e s pondi ng t o t he i nc r e a s i ngl y c ons e r va t i ve s o c i a l a t m os phe r e of t he 1980 s a nd t he pe r c e i ve d f a i l ur e s of t he O l d L e f t m ove m e nt s W ha t di f f e r e nt i a t e s t he s e m ove m e nt s f r om t he i r pr e de c e s s or s he a r gue s i s t he i r s hi f t f r om t he pol i t i c a l f or m w hi c h w a s c om m on t o t r a di t i ona l oppos i t i on m ove m e nt s i n W e s t e r n s oc i e t i e s t o a c ul t ur a l gr ound ( M e l uc c i 789) T he N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s s ought nonhi e r a r c hi c a l s t r uc t ur e s w e r e m or e c l os e l y a f f i l i a t e d

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R os e n 44 w i t h t he pol i t i c a l c a us e r a t he r t ha n t he po l i t i c a l gr oup a nd w e r e m os t i m por t a nt l y i nt e r e s t e d i n a n e m bodi e d p ol i t i c s ( J ur i s P l e ye r s 68) T hi s i s be c a us e t he ne e ds a nd f or m s of a c t i on a r i s i ng f r om t he s oc i e t y a r e not e a s i l y a da pt a bl e t o t he e xi s t i ng c ha nne l s of pol i t i c a l a ge nc i e s ( M e l uc c i 790) T he s e ne e d s a r e s pe c i f i c t o t he s o c i al a nd c ul t ur al c ur r e nt s of t he m ove m e nt s e nvi r on m e nt r a t he r t h a n t he l e ga l or i ns t i t ut i ona l ne e ds M e l uc c i f ur ni s he s a s ym bol i c a n a l ys i s of t he ph e nom e na of e m bodi e d c ul t ur a l r e s i s t a nc e a s s e e n by t he N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s P os t i ndus t r i a l s oc i e t i e s no l onge r ha ve a n e c ono m i c ba s i s ; t he y pr oduc e by a n i nc r e a s i ng i nt e gr a t i on of e c onom i c pol i t i c a l a nd c ul t ur a l s t r uc t ur e s M a t e r i a l goods a r e pr oduc e d a nd c ons um e d w i t h t he m e di a t i on o f huge i nf or m a t i ona l a nd s ym bol i c s ys t e m s S oc i a l c onf l i c t s m ove f r om t he t r a di t i ona l e c ono m i c / i ndus t r i a l s ys t e m s t o c ul t ur a l gr ounds : t he y a f f e c t t he pe r s ona l i de nt i t y, t he t i m e a nd t he s pa c e i n e ve r yda y l i f e t he m ot i va t i on a nd t he c ul t ur a l pa t t e r ns of i ndi vi dua l a c t i on ( M e l uc c i 795 6) B e c a us e of t he i nc r e a s i ng i nt e gr a t i on of c ul t ur a l pol i t i c a l a nd e c onom i c c ur r e nt s s oc i a l a c t i ons by ne c e s s i t y ha ve be c om e m or e i nt e gr a t e d. P ow e r no l onge r l i e s i n m a t e r i a l c a pi t a l but r a t he r i n s oc i a l c ul t ur a l a nd i n f or m a t i on c a pi t a l T hus t he f i ght doe s not ne c e s s a r y ha ve t o f unc t i on a r ound t he de m a nd f or gr e a t e r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n a l r e a dy e xi s t i ng pol i t i c a l a nd e c onom i c s t r uc t ur e s M e l uc c i de s c r i be s t hi s ne w f or m of pa r t i c i pa t i on i n r e l a t i on t o c ul t u r a l goods a nd c ons t r a i nt s C ont e m por a r y s oc i a l c onf l i c t s a r e not j us t pol i t i c a l s i nc e t he y a f f e c t t h e s ys t e m s c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on. C ol l e c t i ve a c t i on i s not c a r r i e d out s i m pl y

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R os e n 45 f or t he e xc ha nge of goods i n t he pol i t i c a l m a r k e t or f or i m pr ovi ng t he pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s ys t e m I t c ha l l e nge s t h e l ogi c gove r ni ng pr oduc t i on a nd a ppr opr i a t i on of s oc i a l r e s our c e s ( M e l uc c i 798) I be l i e ve z i ne m a ki ng i s c om pl e t e l y i n l i ne w i t h t he s e s e nt i m e nt s A s a e s t he t i c a r t i f a c t s t he y do not di r e c t l y pa r t i c i pa t e i n pol i t i c a l or i ns t i t ut i ona l s t r uc t ur e s i n f a c t pa r t of t he i r a ut onom y i s c ont i nge nt upon r e j e c t i ng t hos e s t r uc t ur e s T he i r r e j e c t i on or c ha l l e nge t o dom i na nt m e a ns of pr oduc t i on a nd a ppr opr i a t i on o f r e s our c e s c om e s t hr ough t he pr a c t i c e of a l t e r na t i ve f or m s T hos e a l t e r na t i ve s a r e s e e n by w a y of c ha ngi ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p t o w or k, c ons um pt i on a nd c om m uni t y bui l di ng. T h us t he s t r uc t ur e of t he z i ne pr a c t i c e i s one t ha t i s dyna m i c a nd ba s e d on i ndi vi dua l l y f or m e d a l t e r na t i ve s T he s t r uc t ur e of t he s e m ove m e nt s r e f l e c t s t he s c op e of t he i r i nt e nt i ons N o l onge r hi e r a r c hi c a l l y or ga ni z e d, t he N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s a r e l oo s e c o a l i t i ons of i ndi vi dua l a c t or s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n a s ha r e d c ul t u r e m ove m e nt T he nor m a l s i t ua t i on of t oda y s m ove m e nt s i s a ne t w or k of s m a l l gr oups s ubm e r ge d i n e ve r yda y l i f e w hi c h r e qui r e a pe r s ona l i nvol ve m e nt i n e xpe r i e nc i ng a nd pr a c t i c i ng c ul t ur a l i nnova t i on t he s ubm e r ge d ne t w or k, a l t hough c om pos e d of s e pa r a t e s m a l l gr oups i s a s ys t e m of e xc h a nge ( M e l uc c i 800) W he n vi e w e d a s s y s t e m s t he N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s c a n be unde r s t ood a s a dyna m i c ne t w or k of r e l a t i ons hi ps r a t he r t ha n a s a n e m pi r i c a l phe nom e non t ha t c r ops u p i n t i m e s of c r i s e s B e c a us e t he y a r e a s ys t e m of r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n pe opl e i t i s di f f i c ul t t o s pe a k of a ny uni f i e d goa l t ha t t he m ove m e nt pos s e s s e s R a t he r one m us t l ook a t w ha t t ype s of r e l a t i on s hi ps a nd pr a c t i c e s a r e b e i ng f or m e d w i t hi n t he gr oup t o a s s e s s i t s c ul t ur a l a nd po l i t i c a l i m pl i c a t i ons F or M e l uc c i t he n t he goa l i s not a b s t r a c t e d f r om t he i ndi vi dua l s r a t he r t he

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R os e n 46 s t r uc t ur e i s a goa l i n i t s e l f t ha t i s m a de up of c ha ngi ng i ndi vi dua l r e l a t i ons T he m ove m e nt be c o m e s t he m e s s a ge a s i t de f i e s t he dom i na nt s t r uc t ur e by e m bodyi ng r e s i s t a nc e t hr ough c r e a t i ng a l t e r na t i ve s o c i a l s t r uc t ur e s t ha t r e l y on s ys t e m s of r e l a t i ons T he s e m ove m e nt s a r e t a ki ng on a s ym bol i c f un c t i on, w he r e a s t he y not onl y s e r ve a s poi nt s i n w hi c h di s c ont e nt i s voi c e d, but a s m om e nt s i n w hi c h pow e r of r e pr e s e nt a t i on i s r e c onf i gur e d. A c t or s i n t he s e s oc i a l m ove m e nt s h a ve t he c ha l l e nge of vi s i bl y pr oduc i ng m e a ni ng, w hi l e r e c ogni z i ng t he l i m i t a t i ons of m a ki ng pow e r vi s i bl e t hus ne got i a bl e F or e x a m pl e z i ne s a r e a c oa l i t i on of voi c e s t ha t a r e not de pe nde nt upon a s pe c i f i c goa l T he y m ove a w a y f r om a t t e m pt i ng t o pa r t i c i pa t e di r e c t l y w i t h e s t a bl i s he d s ys t e m s a nd i ns t e a d c r e a t e a s y s t e m of i nf or m a t i on s ha r i ng t ha t i s r e l i a nt upon a c t i ve e ng a ge m e nt w i t h a c r a f t a nd c om m uni t y. T he pur pos e of t hi s c a n be r e a d a s a n a t t e m pt t o not s i l e nc e but of f e r c ount e r a r gum e nt s t o t he l i m i t e d s ys t e m of i nf or m a t i on r e a di l y a va i l a bl e I n di s t r i but i ng t he s e w or ks t he y a r e vi s i bl y of f e r i ng up t hi s c ount e r a r gum e nt Z i ne s i n t he i r a bunda nc e pr ov i de a di f f us i on of pow e r t hr o ugh a m ul t i pl i c i t y of voi c e s T he y a r e a c om pl e t e l y t r a ns pa r e nt ne got i a bl e s pa c e t ha t i s not onl y de pe nde nt upon a c t or s f or i t s ve r y e xi s t e nc e but i s r e f l e c t i ve o f t he s e a c t or s i n t e nt i ons d e s i r e s a nd i de ol ogi e s B e c a us e z i ne m a ki ng i s bui l t on t he i de a of i n di vi dua l i z a t i on a s a m e a n s of pa r t i c i pa t i ng w i t hi n l a r ge r ne t w o r ks of r e l a t i ons h i ps i n or de r t o a f f e c t c ul t u r a l c ha nge z i ne s ha ve be c om e a hi ghl y c om pl e x s ys t e m of i n f or m a t i on, i n w hi c h t he i ndi vi dua l c a n be s i t ua t e d w i t hi n i t w hi l e he l pi ng m ol d i t T hi s i s pa r t i c ul a r l y i m por t a nt be c a us e of t e n l i ne s of pow e r e xi s t be t w e e n t hos e w ho ha ve a c c e s s t o t hi s vi t a l r e s our c e ( i nf or m a t i on) a nd t hos e w ho don t A s z i ne s pos i t a m e a ns of c r e a t i ng i nf or m a t i on s ys t e m s ba s e d o n i ndi vi dua l i z a t i on of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e a r e gi ve n a hi ghl y m ul t i f a r i ous e ndl e s s s t r e a m of

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R os e n 47 t r ut hs I n pr oduc i ng a m ul t i pl i c i t y of voi c e s z i ne s unde r m i ne t he not i on of t r ut h a s ope r a t i ng w i t hi n i n a hi e r a r c ha l s ys t e m R a t he r t he n be i ng dol e d out by one s our c e i t c om e s f r om l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e W he n z i ne s de s c r i be t he s ubj e c t i ve t he y a r e not onl y r e l a yi ng t he quot i di a n, t he y a r e s i m ul t a ne ous l y a s s um i ng t he r ol e of pr oduc e r of c ul t ur e a nd i nf or m a t i on P e r ha ps t he be s t e xa m pl e of z i n e s be i ng us e d a s t hi s f or m of pol i t i c a l pr a xi s i s t he G r r r l z i ne m ove m e nt ( de r i ve d f r om R i ot G r r r l ) A ni t a H a r r i s i n gU R L S c e ne s a d G r r r l Z i ne s : T he R e gul a t i on a nd R e s i s t a n c e of G i r l s i n L a t e M ode r ni t y di s c u s s e s t he gi r l pow e r m ove m e nt s pot e n t i a l s i n l i ght of t he i r s oc i a l a nd pol i t i c a l c ont e xt A s s h e a r gue s w i t hi n l a t e m ode r ni t y, w om e n a nd gi r l s bodi e s w hi l e m or e publ i c l y vi s i bl e voc a l a nd a c t i ve a r e c ons e qu e nt l y m or e r e gul a t e d. T he c ul t ur a l f a s c i na t i on w i t h gi r l hood a nd t he m ode s of gove r nm e nt a l i t y by w hi c h t he i r bodi e s l a bour a nd be ha vi our a r e r e gul a t e d ha ve be e n or ga ni z e d i n pr i m a r i l y a r ound t w o i m a ge s : gi r l pow e r on t he one ha nd, a nd gi r l s a s r i s k t a ke r s on t h e ot he r ( H a r r i s 40) W hi l e young w om e n s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he publ i c s phe r e ha s c e r t a i nl y i nc r e a s e d a nd ha s pr om pt e d a c a d e m i c l e gi s l a t i ve a nd s oc i a l de ba t e H a r r i s a r gue s t ha t t he r e ha s be e n l i t t l e r oom l e f t f or t he s e a c t ua l w om e n t o s pe a k. T hus t he t w o i m a ge s o f t he voc a l i z e d w om a n ha ve be e n c o opt e d i nt o t he s e t w o di s t i nc t f or m s : gi r l pow e r s i gna l i ng a s uc c e s s of i nde pe nd e nc e a nd a ge nc y, a nd gi r l a s r i s k t a ke r s ugge s t i ng f a i l ur e a nd de vi a nt da nge r ous l i f e s t yl e c hoi c e s H a r r i s a r gue s t ha t t he gr r r l z i ne a nd t he s ubs e que nt I nt e r ne t gU R L s i t e s e xi s t i n a l i m e na l s pa c e T he y a r e a t onc e publ i c f or um s f or de ba t i ng f e m i ni s m a nd ye t t he y r e m a i n unde r gr ound a s t o a voi d be c om i ng s ubs um e d a nd r e gul a t e d. B ot h publ i c i m a ge s of young w om e n a r e us e d t o di s c r e di t t he f or m s of r e s i s t a nc e

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R os e n 48 w om e n pa r t i c i pa t e i n a nd i n f a c t e nc our a ge s i l e nc e G i r l pow e r w hi l e or i gi na t i ng f r om t he m or e r a di c a l t hi r d w a ve f e m i ni s t m ove m e nt h a s t r a ns f or m e d i nt o a m a r ke t pot e nt i a l B e yond di s c r e t i ona r y s pe ndi ng pow e r t he i nde pe nde nt l y m i nde d, a s s e r t i ve a nd s a s s y w om a n ha s c om e t o s i gni f y ne w m ode s of l a bou r m a r ke t pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd w or k/ f a m i l y a r r a nge m e nt s f or young w om e n, w ho a r e a s i gni f i c a nt l a bour f or c e i n t he l a t e m ode r n e c onom y ( H a r r i s 41) T hus w om e n s i nde pe nde nc e c or r e s ponds w i t h i nc r e a s e d a bi l i t y t o pur c ha s e a nd s e e k c or por a t e pow e r I n c ont r a s t t o t hi s i m a ge a s w om e n i n pow e r i s t ha t of t he r i s k t a ke r T he publ i c de ba t e s a r ound t hi s i s s ue c i r c ul a t e d a r ound w om e n s i nvol ve m e nt w i t h c r i m e s e xua l be ha vi or s ( young pr e gna nc i e s a nd S T D s ) a nd c ons um pt i on of dr ugs ( e c s t a s y i n pa r t i c ul a r ) c ons t r uc t i ng t he i m a ge of ni hi l i s m a nd s e l f de s t r uc t i on f ol l ow i ng i n t he w a ke of e m a nc i pa t i o n ( H a r r i s 41) T he s oc i a l r e s pons e ha s be e n one of pr ot e c t i on. P ol i t i c a l l e ga l a nd pr oc e dur a l de ve l opm e nt of r e c e nt t i m e s ha ve br ought a bout c i r c um s t a nc e s of i nc r e a s e d s ur ve i l l a nc e of young w om e n t he s ol ut i on f or w hi c h i s c l os e a t t e nt i on f r om t he s t a t e a nd i t s a ge nc i e s or i nc r e a s i ngl y pr i va t e c or por a t i ons t ha t ha ve t a ke n ove r s t a t e f unc t i ons a nd s e e k pr of i t by t he m f o r e xa m pl e i n e m pl oym e nt e duc a t i on, t r a i ni n g i nc a r c e r a t i on a n d he a l t h ( H a r r i s 41) W hi l e t he s e t w o i m a ge s of w om e n s e e m di a m e t r i c a l t he y a r e i n f a c t bot h hi ghl y r e gul a t e d a nd hom oge ni z e d t hus r e duc e d t o m a r ke t va l ue or pub l i c t hr e a t H a r r i s a r gue s t ha t w i t hi n t he a c a de m y a nd m or e popul a r m e d i a out l e t s w om e n a r e e nc our a ge d t o t a ke on t he r he t or i c of t he vo c a l a c t i ve w om a n a nd w i l l i ngl y s uppl y t he s e i ns t i t ut i ons w i t h t he i r s t or i e s H a r r i s f i nds t hi s s us pi c i ous a s w he ne ve r a w om a n s pe a ks t hr ough a ve nue t ha t i s not he r ow n, s he r i s ks t he s e na r r a t i ve s be i ng s c r ut i ni z e d, i nt e r r oga t e d, a ppr op r i a t e d a nd de pol i t i c i z e d ( H a r r i s 44) F or w om e n w ho ha ve be e n

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R os e n 49 l a be l e d a s r i s k t a ke r s t hi s c a n be e s pe c i a l l y pr obl e m a t i c T he i nc i t e m e nt t o s pe a k c a n ope r a t e a s a s t r a t e gy f or s i l e nc i ng r e s i s t a nc e by e x c l us i ve l y e l i c i t i ng s t or i e s of l os s a nd di s e m pow e r m e nt t he c ur r e nt e nt hus i a s m f or he a r i ng t he l os t voi c e s of young w om e n dove t a i l s w i t h t he f or c e s t ha t e duc e t a l e s of pa i n w i t hout i nt e r r oga t i ng t he s oc i a l c ondi t i ons t ha t unde r pi n t he m ( H a r r i s 44) T h us t he ve r y e l e m e nt i n w hi c h w om e n f r om bot h of t he s e pr e de t e r m i ne d c a t e gor i e s a r e be i ng c e l e br a t e d f or t ha t i s t he i r de s i r e t o be m or e voc a l a nd a c t i ve be c om e s t h e ve r y e l e m e nt t ha t r e s t r i c t s t he m w he n a n i ns t i t ut i on s e r ve s a s t he i r m out hpi e c e T hus t h e R i ot G r r r l z i ne s be c om e a pl a c e w he r e w om e n c a n ha ve t he s e c onve r s a t i ons a nd bui l d c om m uni t y, m e a ni ng a m ong t he m s e l ve s a nd out of t he publ i c e ye a nd m os t i m po r t a nt l y r e s i s t ( m i s ) r e pr e s e nt a t i ons pr e va l e nt i n t he m e di a a nd a c a de m y of gi r l s a s e m pow e r e d/ r i s k t a ke r s T he gr r r l z i ne t he n pr ovi de s a s pa c e t ha t i s bot h publ i c a nd pr i va t e I t i s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o bot h t he a r t i f i c i a l l y m a de yout h s pa c e w he r e one i s i n f a c t m oni t or e d ( c ur r e nt l y, one c a n t hi nk of t hi s a s s oc i a l m e di a s i t e s ) a nd t he i s ol a t e d pr i va t e dom a i n f r om w hi c h f e m i ni s t s ha ve r e s i s t e d. T he s e w om e n, a s m a ke r s of c ul t ur e ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o ne got i a t e a nd e nc ode t he s pa c e of t he z i ne T he unde r gr ound na t ur e of t he z i ne i ns ur e s t ha t f or t he m os t pa r t t he s e c onve r s a t i ons a nd pr a c t i c e s w i l l not b e a ppr opr i a t e d 1 9 T he y a l s o be c a m e a pl a c e t o c ont e s t t he ve r y i m a ge s of gi r l hood, a nd w om a nhood be i ng por t r a ye d. M a ny gr r r l z i ne w r i t e r s t a ke i s s ue w i t h t he w om a n a s e m pow e r e d c on s um e r a nd s i m i l a r l y t a ke i s s ue w i t h t he r e s pons i bl e i nde pe nde nt w om a n a s be i ng s ym bol i z e d by a s l e nde r w hi t e w om a n. S i m i l a r l y gr r r l z i ne s r e s pond t o t he i m a ge of t he r i s k t a ke r a s 1 9 W hi l e f o r t he m os t pa r t z i ne s ha ve s t a ye d out of t h e l i m e l i ght t he b r i e f pe r i od i n w hi c h t he y w e r e e xt e ns i ve l y c ove r e d l e d t o t he f a m ous m e di a bl a c k out i ns t i ga t e d by m a i n f i gur e s i n t he R i ot G r r r l m ove m e nt W hi l e i t s pop ul a r i t y i n m a i ns t r e a m c ul t ur e he l pe d t ur n m a ny on t o R i ot G r r r l t he m e di a bl a c kout i ns ur e d t he s a nc t i t y of t he p r a c t i c e

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R os e n 50 be i ng c om pl i c i t i n t he i r ow n f a t e s F ur t he r t he ve r y e xi s t e nc e of m a r gi na l c ul t ur e s of c r e a t i vi t y a nd c r i t i que unde r m i ne s t he i m a ge of uns uc c e s s f ul r i s k t a ki ng gi r l s w ho a r e unpr oduc t i ve di s e nga ge d a nd pa s s i ve r e c i pi e nt s of s t a t e s uppor t ( H a r r i s 51 ) T hus f or young w om a n e nga ge d i n z i ne pr oduc t i on t he s i t e of t he z i ne a f f or ds a m om e nt w he r e s he c a n f oc us on he r pol i t i c s c r e a t e a ne t w or k f o r di s c us s i on a nd a voi d a c om m odi f i e d publ i c i m a ge A s z i ne s i nha bi t a c om pl e x s pa c e w i t hi n our s oc i a l c l i m a t e i n t ha t t he y ope r a t e bot h w i t hi n i t w hi l e a t t e m pt i ng t o m ove be yond i t t he y t oo be c a m e a s pa c e w he r e s oc i a l dyna m i c s c a n be r e w r i t t e n a nd c ol l e c t i ve i de nt i t i e s c a n be f or m e d. I be l i e ve one of t he r e a s ons w hy z i ne m a ki ng i s s t i l l pr a c t i c e d i s s i m pl y be c a us e i t ha s be c om e a s oc i a l m ove m e nt a s de s c r i be d by M e l uc c i a nd s e e n t hr ough e xa m pl e by H a r r i s de pi c t i on of R i ot G r r r l a nd ha s t hus a t t r a c t e d a l a r ge g r oup of di s c ont e nt a nd c r e a t i ve i ndi vi dua l s A ddi t i ona l l y, M e l uc c i s unde r s t a ndi ng of s oc i a l m ove m e nt s i s ve r y s i m i l a r t o A dor no s c onc e pt i on of a r t s m ode of pr a xi s a s vi e w e d t hr o ugh t he l e ns of i t s pa r t i c ul a r a ut onom y. A r t by de nyi ng s o c i e t y doe s s om e t hi ng t ha t i s a bs ol ut e l y ne c e s s a r y f or s oc i e t y. A s M e l uc c i de s c r i be s t he N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s T he y don t a s k, t he y of f e r T he y o f f e r by t he i r ow n e xi s t e nc e ot he r w a y s of de f i ni ng t he m e a ni ng of i ndi vi dua l a nd c ol l e c t i ve a c t i onA t t he s a m e t i m e t h r ough w ha t t he y do, or r a t he r t hr ough how t he y do i t m ove m e nt s a nnounc e t o s o c i e t y t ha t s om e t hi ng e l s e i s po s s i bl e ( M e l uc c i 812) I t w oul d s e e m t he n t ha t t he s e N e w S oc i a l M ove m e n t s ha ve t a ke n on t he c r i t i c a l a ut onom y t ha t A dor no ha s pr i vi l e ge d t o a r t w or ks A nd z i ne s t he y f i t s om e w he r e i n be t w e e n bot h of t he s e t he or i e s A s a r t w or ks t he y m a i nt a i n a c r i t i c a l a ut onom y pr a c t i c e d t hr ough f or m H ow e ve r be c a us e t he y a r e e nga ge d i n c r e a t i ng a l t e r na t i ve s oc i a l s ys t e m s t hr ough t he i r

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R os e n 51 di s t r i but i on a nd c om m uni t y t he y c a n c e r t a i nl y be s e e n a s a N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s M or e ove r be c a us e t he z i ne e v e n a s a de f i ni t i on, i s c om pl e t e l y c ont r ol l e d by t h e pr oduc e r i t ha s t he a bi l i t y t o f l oa t be t w e e n t he s e t w o t he or i e s be c om i ng a t r ul y non i de nt i c a l pr a c t i c e

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R os e n 52 C h a p t e r T h r e e : Z i n e s T al k B ac k G i ve n t he t he or e t i c a l a nd s oc i a l l y s i t ua t e d e xpl i c a t i on of t he z i ne i t i s no w p e r t i ne n t t o di s s e c t t he a t t i t ude s t ha t z i ne m a k e r s ha ve t o w a r d s t he i r f o r m of pr a x i s W h a t I p l a n t o p r e s e n t i n t he f o l l ow i n g d i s c us s i on of i n t e r v i e w s I ha v e c ondu c t e d a nd o t he r s t ha t I ha v e f ound on z i ne f or u m s a nd i n book s i s a de s c r i p t i on of t he m u l t i f a r i ous l e v e l s of c on s c i ous ne s s i nvol v e d i n z i ne m a k i n g I t i s i n t he pe r s ona l dr i v e t ha t one c a n f i nd t r a c e s of t he s oc i a l T he r e f or e i t i s qui t e i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e how t he s e s oc i a l h i s t or i c a l m a t e r i a l a nd p ol i t i c a l c ur r e n t s ha ve m a n i f e s t e d i n a v a r i e t y of m a k e r s T he f i r s t que s t i on m a ny z i ne m a ke r s a r e a s ke d, or a s k of t he m s e l ve s i s w hy t he y e nga ge i n t hi s f or m o f c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on. W hy m a k e z i ne s ? T he r e a r e a w hol e va r i e t y of a ns w e r e a c h e xpr e s s i ng t he va r i e d pr oj e c t s a n d pe r s ona l i t i e s of t he m a ke r s I n 1989 M i ke G unde r l oy of F ac t s he e t F i v e publ i s he d W hy P ubl i s h? a doc um e nt of e l i c i t e d r e s pons e s f r om doz e ns of z i ne m a k e r s on w hy t he y t ook up t hi s f or m of s e l f publ i s hi ng. T he doc um e nt i s or ga ni z e d unde r s e ve r a l h e a di ng s s uc h a s H a bi t H e l p! a nd E go F e e di ng t o gi ve or de r t o t he s or t s of r e s pons e s O f t he m os t c om m on, w hi c h I a l s o f ound i n m y ow n r e s e a r c h, w a s f or t he s he e r a c t o f doi ng s om e t hi ng, a nd a s a m e a ns of f i ndi ng c om m uni t y. T om a s M oni z of t he f a m ous R ad D ad a z i ne a bout r a di c a l pa r e nt i ng, i s i nt e r e s t e d i n t he a r t of s t or yt e l l i ng. F or m e I t r y a nd ke e p i n m i nd t ha t i t i s a bout s t or y t e l l i ngI j us t e nj oy s ha r i ng s t or i e s w i t h pe opl e A nd I f e e l l i ke I ge t i t ba c k f r om t r a di ng z i ne s a nd m e e t i ng pe opl e A nd you k now I l i ke t o pus h m ys e l f I don t l i ke t o be c om pl i c i t I w a nt t o t r y ( M oni z ) J a y H a be r de s c r i be s hi s i nt e r e s t i n t e r m s of us i ng t he z i ne a s a s oc i a l ve hi c l e I m a f t e r c om m un i c a t i on w i t h pe opl e t he publ i c a t i on i s j us t t he m e a ns f or m e not t he e nd i n i t s e l f t houg h t he r e s not hi ng w r ong w i t h t he l a t t e r

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R os e n 53 ( H a be r 4) T he z i ne a s a s oc i a l t ool i s i ns t r um e nt a l i n t he f or m a t i on of z i ne ne t w or ks or c om m uni t i e s T he a r t i f a c t be c om e s a w a y of f i nd i ng pe opl e t ha t s ha r e c om m on i nt e r e s t or s oc i a l pos i t i on. M i m i N guye n i n a n i nt e r vi e w s t a t e d, I w a nt e d t o do a z i ne t o ne t w or k w i t h pe opl e of c ol or be c a us e i t s i m por t a nt t o r e c ogni z e t ha t A s i a ns a nd ot he r pe opl e of c o l or a r e i n t he punk s c e ne s t r uggl i ng w i t h i de nt i t y i s s ue s B ut w e r e s t r uggl i ng by our s e l v e s s o i t w oul d be ni c e t o ha ve a s uppor t s ys t e m j us t f or us ; a ne t w or k ( N guye n 56) S i m i l a r l y t he w r i t e r s o f t he c ol l a bo r a t i ve z i n e F at G i r l e xp r e s s a de s i r e t o r e a c h out t o pe opl e w ho a r e i gnor e d or ( m i s ) r e pr e s e nt e d by dom i na nt m e di a i n t he hope s of pr e s e nt i ng a n a l t e r na t i ve s t or y t o t he r e a de r T hi s di s c us s i on t ypi f i e s t he di a l ogue t ha t s be e n a i r e d i n F at G i r l w he r e e ve r yt hi ng w e publ i s h i s by a nd f o r f a t dyk e s B ut m a ny pe opl e out s i de t he f a t dyke c om m uni t y ha ve f ound s om e t hi ng i n F a t G i r l t ha t t he y ha ve n t f ound a nyw he r e e l s e i n t hi s w o r l d, a nd ha ve a ppr o a c he d us a bout how F at G i r l ha s c ha nge d how t he y l ook a t t he w or l d, how t he y w r i t e how t he y f e e l a bout t he m s e l ve s a nd w ha t t he y do. T he pe r v a s i ve ne s s of s e l f ha t r e d i n our r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h our bodi e s i s s o e nde m i c t ha t w he n pe opl e s e e u s w or k t hr ough t hi s f o r ou r s e l ve s s om e t hi ng s hi f t s w i t hi n t he m B y f oc us i ng on w ha t w e f e e l w ha t w e r e e xpe r i e nc i ng a nd w he r e our a nge r i s w e a l l ow ot he r pe opl e t o r e e xa m i ne pe r s ona l i s s ue s a bout t he i r ow n bod i e s i n a s i m i l a r l i ght ( B a r ba r a 133 ) T hi s pe r s ona l e xa m i na t i on of t he s e l f i s i nt e gr a l f or bui l di ng c om m uni t i e s a m ong ot he r pe opl e w ho ha ve be e n ( m i s ) r e pr e s e nt e d i n m y r i a d w a ys or s i m pl y l e f t out of di s c us s i ons

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R os e n 54 I n f a c t m a ny z i ne w r i t e r s do f e e l a s i f t he y do not ha ve a n a de qua t e c om m uni t y i n t he i r i m m e di a t e ge ogr a phi c a r e a T om a s M oni z f ound t ha t he ha s a c l os e c om m uni t y t hr ough hi s z i ne ne t w or k a nd s ought t o r e pl i c a t e t ha t i n hi s i m m e di a t e a r e a t he S a n F r a nc i s c o B a y A r e a I f e l t c l os e r t o pe opl e t ha t I t r a de d w i t h. S o t h r ough l e t t e r s a nd s uc h t he r e w a s a ki nd of c om m uni t y P o r t l a nd a nd S a n F r a nc i s c o ha ve ha d huge z i ne f e s t s ove r t he l a s t 8 9 ye a r s s o I ve be e n a bl e t o m e e t a l ot of p e opl e t ha t w a y. A nd I ve de c i de d i n t he l a s t f e w ye a r s t ha t w e a c t ua l l y do ha ve a gr e a t s c e ne he r e s o I w a nt m or e r e a di ngs a nd r e l e a s e p a r t i e s t o ge t m or e pe opl e t o i nvol ve d ( M oni z ) I n f a c t I a t t e nde d z i ne r e a di ngs t ha t T om a s t hr e w t ha t not onl y ha d a l a r ge t ur nout but i ns t i ga t e d di a l ogue be t w e e n a udi e nc e m e m b e r s a nd i n s om e c a s e s r e s ul t e d i n c ont a c t i nf or m a t i on a nd z i ne s w a ps T he s e t yp e s of e ve nt s a l t hough by no m e a ns pa r t i c ul a r t o z i ne s c r e a t e bonds i n a c om m uni t y t ha t e xt e nd f a r be yond s ha r e d ge ogr a p hi c l oc a t i on. C hr i s K e r r o f P r oj e c t or a B a y A r e a z i ne t ha t publ i s he s poe t i c a nd pr os a i c r e s pons e s t o m ovi e s he l d a s c r e e ni ng a nd r e a di ng r e l e a s e pa r t y f or hi s f i r s t i s s ue A c t ua l l y a t R P S [ R oc k, P a pe r S c i s s or s ] w e di d a n e ve nt w he r e w e pr oj e c t e d c l i p s a nd r e a d t o t he m t he r e w a s e ve n m u s i c m a d e out of t he s e a ni m a l m ovi e s T he r e w a s a ni ght w he r e w e a l l got t oge t he r a nd i nf or m e d e a c h ot he r of w ha t w e w e r e goi ng t o do[ t he pe r f o r m a nc e ] w a s n t a pa r t of t he pl a n, a t t he s a m e t i m e i t w a s one of t he m o r e s a t i s f yi ng ni ght s of t he w hol e p r oj e c t ( K e r r ) B r a ndt S c hm i dt of Shi ny T hi ngs on t he G r ound a B a y A r e a z i ne a ppr e c i a t e s t hi s c om m una l e f f or t a nd s e e ks out z i ne s t ha t e xe m pl i f y a de di c a t i on t o i m m e di a t e c om m uni t y bui l di ng W e l l f i r s t of a l l I pr e f e r s t uf f t ha t i s l oc a l be c a us e I l i ke t he i de a t ha t s om e one i n t he c om m uni t y i s doi ng s om e t hi ng, t he r e i s j us t a goo d f e e l i ng w he n you r e a l i z e s om e one i n your c om m uni t y i s a c t i ve ; i t m a ke s you w a nt t o l i v e t he r e ( S c hm i dt )

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R os e n 55 W h i l e m a n y z i ne m a k e r s p r oduc e i n or d e r t o f i nd c o m m un i t y or s t r e n gt he n t he i r a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g c o m m un i t y o t he r s w r i t e t o ha v e a n i m pa c t on a pa r t i c u l a r a ud i e n c e D i s hw a s he r P e t e a m a n w ho ha s m a d e i t hi s s ho r t t e r m goa l t o w a s h di s he s i n a l l f i f t y s t a t e s w r i t e s a z i ne a bout w or ki ng a s a di s hw a s he r t r a ve l i ng a nd m e e t i ng ne w pe opl e H i s r e a s ons f or w r i t i ng a r e one a nd t he s a m e w i t h bui l di ng c om m uni t i e s a nd pr ovi di ng hi s r e a de r s w i t h m or a l s uppor t I ge t a l ot of l e t t e r s f r om pe opl e l i vi ng i n s m a l l t ow n s w ho w a s h di s he s a nd e nj oy i t but t he y r e s ur r ou nde d by pe opl e w ho t e l l t he m i t s not good e nough a nd t he y s houl d f i nd t he m s e l ve s a c a r e e r I t s gr e a t w he n t he y c a n ge t a hol d of a z i ne a nd s a y, W ow a nd s udde nl y t he y f e e l be t t e r a bout t he m s e l ve s T he i r r e a c t i on j us t i f i e s e ve r yt hi ng I m doi ng. I m gl a d D i s hw as he r ha s t hi s e f f e c t on pe opl e ( D i s hw a s he r P e t e 4) T om a s M oni z a l s o vi e w s hi s z i ne m a ki ng a s a pr a c t i c e t ha t c om e s f r om l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e a nd s i m ul t a ne ous l y r e a c he s out t o hi s c om m uni t y. S pe a ki ng of w he r e hi s w r i t i ng c om e s f r om I di d a l ot of l e t t e r w r i t i ng. I w a s r a i s e d by m y s i ngl e m om a nd m y da d w a s i n j a i l A nd c om i ng f r o m w ha t I di d, w he n I w e nt t o c ol l e ge s t udyi ng C hi c a no na t i ona l i s m a nd i de nt i t y m ove m e nt s i n t he U S t he r e s a hi s t o r y t he r e of ne w s pa pe r s t ha t t he y w e r e i nvol ve d i n. S o y e s you w r i t e f o r your c om m uni t y a nd w r i t i ng c r e a t e s c om m uni t y ( M oni z ) W hi l e m a ny z i ne s t e r s w r i t e i n or de r t o r e a c h ou t a nd m a ke c onne c t i ons m a ny a l s o w r i t e pur e l y f o r t he m s e l ve s B r a ndt S c hm i dt of Shi ny T hi ngs on t he G r ound I f e l t l i ke I f ound s om e t hi ng i n t he pr oc e s s t ha t m a de i t r e a l l y w or t hw hi l e I t f e l t s o good t o do i t ( S c hm i dt ) S i m i l a r l y w r i t i ng f or one s e l f a nd s e e i ng t ha t w r i t i ng i n pr i nt i s a w a y t o a f f i r m i de nt i t y. I t hi nk t he ne e d t o publ i s h i s r e l a t e d t o t he ne e d t o w r i t e : i t de f i ne s you a s a pe r s on, a s a t hi nke r P ubl i s hi ng he l ps a nno unc e your a e s t he t i c s f or you r s e l f a nd

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R os e n 56 ot he r s I t he l ps m a ke you r e a l s o t ha t you c a n w a ke up e a c h m or ni ng pos i t i ve t ha t you ha ve l e gs & c a n w a l k & c a n br e a t he ( H ut h 48) S i m i l a r l y S i s i f r om H ous e w i f e T ur ne d A s s as s i n u s e s he r z i ne pr a c t i c e a s a s i t e f or pe r s on a l m e di t a t i ons T he pr e m i s e be hi nd a z i ne i s of t e n a nge r f r us t r a t i on a nd m a ybe t he bi t s of ha ppi ne s s t ha t s om e t i m e s ha ppe n. D oi ng a z i ne i s l i ke a n i ne xpe n s i ve f or m of t he r a py. I t s a ve r y c a t ha r t i c pr oc e s s ( S i s i 50) M i ke B a hl f r om I H at e M y J ob a l s o us e s hi s z i ne a s a n out l e t f or f r us t r a t i on H ow e ve r t hr ough t hi s out l e t he hope s t o e nc our a ge ot he r s t o e xa m i ne t he i r ow n f r us t r a t i ons w i t h w or ki ng a non s t i m ul a t i ng, l ow pa y j ob. I H at e M y J ob de f i ni t e l y s t a r t e d i n ha t e I w a s l i t e r a l l y a nd f i gur a t i ve l y i n a ve r y da r k pl a c e a t t he t i m e a nd I ne e de d t o bur r ow out of t ha t s om e how a nd t ha t i s how I w a s a bl e t o do t ha t w ha t i s t he r e i s ve r y pe r s ona l but a t t he s a m e t i m e I ha ve t hi s ope n c a l l f or e nc our a gi ng t ha t s or t of r e f l e c t i on i n ot he r s ( B a hl ) H ow e ve r c a n t hi s s or t o f pe r s ona l l y o r i e nt e d a nd m ot i va t e d w r i t i ng be c ons i de r e d pol i t i c a l by z i ne s t e r s ? W hi l e t he r e i s c e r t a i nl y t he ut opi a n i de a l t ha t m a n y z i ne s t e r s hol d t ha t t he z i ne i s a r e vol ut i ona r y f or m m a ny c r a f t w i t hout a ny po l i t i c a l pur pos e i n m i nd. E m i l y H e l l e r unde r s t a nds t he pol i t i c a l i m pl i c a t i ons of z i ne s but doe s not f e e l t ha t i t c a n b e e xt e nde d t o e ve r y z i ne I m e a n e ve r yt hi ng i s pol i t i c a l but I don t t hi nk you c a n w r i t e t ha t i nt e nt i on i nt o e ve r yone t ha t i s doi ng t ha t I t hi nk a l ot of pe opl e a r e doi ng i t be c a us e t he y ha ve s om e t hi ng t o s a y a f a r t j oke f or i ns t a nc e a nd t ha t not ne c e s s a r i l y pol i t i c a l I t i s i n a z i ne onl y be c a us e t he y c a n t ge t t ha t publ i s he d i n a nyt hi ng e l s e A nd t he r e a r e p e opl e w ho a r e not br i ngi ng i t t o a na r c hi s t di s t r os N ot hi ng I ha v e e ve r publ i s he d i n a z i ne ha s e ve r be e n

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R os e n 57 pol i t i c a l A nd a s m uc h a s m y pol i t i c s a r e a bout p e opl e m a ki ng t he i r o w n c hoi c e s a nd c r i t i c a l l y a s s e s s i ng t he c ul t ur e t he y r e i n I don t know i f m a ki ng a z i ne i s a huge a c c om pl i s hm e nt B ut I do t hi nk t he r e i s s om e t hi ng pol i t i c a l a bout i t ( H e l l e r ) T ha t s om e t hi ng ha s be e n not e d by m a ny z i ne s t e r s a s t he a t t e m pt t o c ha ng e pe opl e s a c t i ons a nd i de a s by w a y of i nt r oduc i ng a l t e r na t i v e pe r s pe c t i ve s I t hi nk t he f a c t t ha t our s e xua l i t y i s j us t t he r e hone s t l y i s pol i t i c a l W e pr e s e nt j us t hone s t po r t r ay al s A f t e r doi ng F at G i r l f or a w hi l e I w oul d f or ge t j us t how c onf r on t a t i ona l i t i s t o pe opl e ( D e vr a 132) T he e r a s ur e of pol i t i c a l i m pl i c a t i ons of non pol i t i c a l z i ne s s pe a ks t o t he pow e r of t he N e w S oc i a l M ove m e nt s P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t h e s e m ove m e nt s f r us t r a t e d w i t h t he i r i na bi l i t y t o a f f e c t s oc i a l c ha nge ha ve e s c he w e d a n yt hi ng r e s e m bl i ng t r a di t i ona l po l i t i c a l m ode l s a nd ha ve i ns t e a d de ve l ope d ne w m e a ns of pa r t i c i pa t i on. A nd be c a us e t he s e ne w f or m s of pa r t i c i pa t i on l i ke t he z i ne f or i ns t a nc e a r e not e xpl i c i t l y pol i t i c a l t he y a r e s om e t i m e s c a s t of f a s non e f f e c t i ve H ow e ve r w ha t I hope t o ha ve c onve ye d i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r i s t ha t pol i t i c a l pu r pos e a nd e xt e nds f a r be yond c ont e nt I t e xi s t s i n t he nua nc e d w a ys of c ha ngi ng c on s c i ous n e s s a nd r e l a t i ons hi ps t o pr a c t i c e s a nd pe opl e H ow e ve r H e l l e r doe s ha ve a va l i d p oi nt I s e ve r yt hi ng c ont a i ne d w i t hi n a z i ne w or t hy of a t t e nt i on? T he w r i t e r s of F at G i r l s e e m t o t hi nk s o. W hi l e t he i r publ i c a t i on doe s c ove r ( m i s ) r e pr e s e nt a t i ons a nd m a ke s a n a c t i ve e f f or t t o pr ovi de r e a de r s w i t h a l t e r na t i ve pe r s pe c t i ve s a l ot of t he i r z i ne i s po r nogr a phi c a nd a l ot o f i t a l s o c ont a i ns bi t i ng c om i c s t r i ps a nd r e s our c e s on w he r e t o ge t c l ot he s A s D e vr a e xpr e s s e s t hough, i t i s t he s oc i a l pos i t i on of t he w r i t e r s a nd t he a c t of c a r vi ng out a s pa c e f or t hos e voi c e s t ha t a t t e m pt s t o

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R os e n 58 a l t e r popul a r ( m i s ) r e pr e s e nt a t i ons H ow e ve r t he c onf r ont a t i ona l a t t i t ude F at G i r l a s s um e s i s not t he onl y s ha de of pol i t i c a l pur pos e z i ne s t a ke T he ut opi a n vi s i ons z i ne s i nc l ude a nd w hi c h m a ny z i ne s t e r s w r i t e f r om a r e j us t a s i m por t a nt i n m ot i va t i ng r e a d e r s t o be c om e a c t i ve T oa d f r om R e v ol ut i onar y K ni t t i ng C i r c l e : I t hi nk i t w oul d be r a d i f pe opl e on m y s t r e e t e ve r yone m a de z i ne s E ve r ybody ha s m ul t i f a c e t e d l i ve s t ha t t he y w a nt t o t a l k a bout ; t he y j us t don t ha ve a f or um e xc e pt f or t e l e vi s i on. A nd t he t e l e vi s i on w r e c k s t hi ngs E ve r yt hi ng e nds up be i ng a m e di a obj e c t ; i t s l i ke por nogr a phy. E ve r yt hi ng be c om e s t r i vi a l i z e d a nd di s t or t e d I f y ou w a nt i nf or m a t i on you ha ve t o know pe opl e w r i t e l e t t e r s r e a d a nd a l l t hi s ha s di gni t y t o i t W i t h t e l e vi s i o n, i nf or m a t i on i s be i ng s poonf e d t o you w i t hout w or k w i t hout c r i t i c i s m a nd w i t h unt hi nki ng a c c e pt a nc e ( T oa d 45) B y c r e a t i ng t ha t m e di a z i ne s t e r s ha ve a be t t e r c ha nc e of r e a c hi ng out t o pe opl e a nd c r e a t i ng ne t w or ks of i nf or m a t i on. I n f a c t m a ny z i ne s t e r s pr e f a c e t he i r w or k w i t h l e t t e r s t ha t a r e m e a nt t o c ha l l e nge a nd e xc i t e r e a de r s t o i nt o pi c ki ng up t hi s f or of publ i s hi ng, or a ny ot he r r a di c a l pr a c t i c e t ha t m i ght ha ve a n i m pa c t on one s o w n l i f e a nd c om m uni t y. C i ndy C r a bb of t he B a y A r e a f a m ous D or i s i s know n f or he r i nt r oduc t i o ns t ha t c onf l a t e t he pe r s ona l a nd t h e pol i t i c a l F r om he r 26 t h i s s ue I ve be e n t hi nki ng a bout t he r e vol ut i ona r y pr oj e c t a nd how w e ha ve t o f unda m e nt a l l y c ha nge t he w or l d. T e l l our t r ue s t or i e s B e br a ve a nd ope n. L e a r n our hi s t or i e s L e a r n t o t hi nk d e e pl y a nd c r i t i c a l l y a nd w i t h c om pa s s i on a n d e m pa t hy. L e a r n t o or ga ni z e L e a r n di s a ppe a r i ng s ki l l s L e a r n w ha t i t i s t o be hum a n.

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R os e n 59 L e a r n. T e a c h. C r e a t e ( C r a bb) B y us i ng t he f i r s t pe r s on pl ur a l s he i nvi t e s r e a de r s i nt o t he s e pr a c t i c e s w hi l e e nt r e a t i ng a c e r t a i n l e v e l of pe r s ona l r e s pon s i bi l i t y. I t i s t he s e a ppe a l s t ha t w hi l e c om i ng f r om t he pe r s ona l a r e a bl e t o s t a r t di a l ogue s be t w e e n r e a de r s a nd w r i t e r s a nd he l p m a ke m e a ni ng a nd c ha nge B ut do z i ne m a ke r s c ons i de r t hi s m e di um a r t ? E ve n t hos e t ha t m a ke ve r y a e s t he t i c a l l y c on s c i ous w or ks do not c on s i de r t h e i r w or k t o be A r t S e a n T e j a r a t c h i of C r ap H ound c o m pi l e s t hou s a nd s of f ound pi c t ur e s a nd t e xt r e c ont e xt ua l i z i n g a nd f or m a t t i n g t he m i n or d e r t o c r e a t e t a c i t c r i t i que s of s oc i e t y E a c h i s s ue f o c us e s on t hr e e va r i e g a t e d s ubj e c t s c o l l a g e d t o g e t he r i n a pl a y f ul da r k a nd a bov e a l l v e r y l e g i b l e w a y W i t h a m pl e s p a c e b e t w e e n i m a g e s t he ne g a t i ve s p a c e b e c o m e s r h y t hm i c l e nd i n g m ov e m e nt t o t he e n t i r e pi e c e W h i l e t he r e i s s t i l l a s e ns e of ove r s a t ur a t i on, t he or g a n i z a t i on of t he i m a g e s r e nd e r s i t c l os e r t o a n i nf or m a t i on a l c h a r t t ha n a t r a d i t i on a l c o l l a g e H o w e ve r t he i n f or m a t i on pr ovi d e d i s r e pe t i t i ve d i s r u p t i ve a nd us e d t o dr a w v i s ua l c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n d i s p a r a t e s ubj e c t s F or e x a m pl e i n h i s f our t h i s s ue e n t i t l e d C l o w n s D e v i l s a nd B a i t h e r e a l i z e d m a n y of t he i m a g e s he f ound o f R on a l d M c D ona l d w e r e dr a w n t o m i m i c t he p o s t ur e of J e s u s C hr i s t T hi s c ol o r a t i on be t w e e n t he ha p p y f a c e of a l a r g e c oo pe r a t i on i n t e nd e d f o r c h i l dr e n a n d t he r e pr e s e n t a t i on s of a n o m n i po t e n t be i n g pr ovi d e t he v i e w e r w i t h a t a c i t a l b e i t hum or ou s c r i t i que S pe a k i n g of t hi s f our t h i s s ue S e a n no t e s t ha t a l o t of i t i s c r i t i c i s m ; w i t h m e s ha k i n g m y he a d i n d i s be l i e f I l ook a t w ha t i s ou t t he r e a nd g e t di s g us t e d a nd a m a z e d b y t he bl a t a n t m a n i p ul a t i on a nd t w i s t e d l o g i c I t s r e a l l y s a t i s f yi n g t o ve n t m y f e e l i n g s i n a c oh e r e n t w a y i n a f o r m a t w he r e t he i m a g e s a r e ou t of t he i r or i g i n a l c on t e xt a nd m a d e

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R os e n 60 m u c h m o r e r e v e a l i n g s i m pl y a s a r e s ul t of pl a c e m e nt ( T e j a r a t c h i 35) W h i l e S e a n do e s no t p u bl i s h a n y e s s a y s on hi s p ol i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s i f on e s p e nd s e nou g h t i m e w i t h hi s w or k, c on s i s t e n t c r i t i que s of c om m od i t y f e t i s h, o b j e c t i f i c a t i on, r e l i g i o n a nd f e a r b e c o m e a p p a r e n t C r ap H ound b y p r ovi d i n g a n a m a l g a m a t i on of i m a g e s on t he s e t he m e s be c o m e s a pl a c e t o e nc ount e r t he s e i m a g e s ou t s i de of t he i r n a t ur a l i z e d e nv i r on m e nt a nd t h u s l a un c h c r i t i que o r a s t he s ubhe a d i n g of z i ne p u t s i t i n c i t e di s c u s s i on a nd a c t i v i t y H o w e ve r S e a n T e j a r a t c hi i s a pe r f e c t e xa m pl e o f a z i ne m a ke r w ho r e j e c t s t he i de a t ha t hi s z i ne i s a nyt hi ng ot he r t ha n C ar p H ound H e r e f us e s t o c a t e gor i z e or c ons i de r hi s w or k t o be a r t w o r k, I ve ne ve r ge a r e d a nyt hi ng I ve done C r ap H ound i nc l ude d, t ow a r d be i ng i n a ga l l e r y. T he w or l d o f f i ne a r t i s pr e t t y t h or oughl y di vor c e d f r om r e a l i t y. E ve n a s a ki d i t a l w a ys s e e m e d f a ke a n d w hi ny t o m e M a ki ng C r ap H ound l ook ni c e i s t r e m e ndous l y i m po r t a n t t o m e but I r e f us e t o t hi nk of i t a s a w or k of a r t I ha t e t ha t I t s j us t i f I m g oi ng t o c a l l t he s hot s I m not goi ng t o m a ke i t l ook l i ke s hi t I s c r e w up e ve r y now a n d t he n, but I do m y be s t I t s a m a t t e r of t a ki ng pr i de i n one s w or k ( T e j a r a t c hi 41 ) W hi l e hi s s e nt i m e nt s of t he i ns t i t ut i on of a r t a r e e xt r e m e l y pe r t i ne nt t he y d o c onf l a t e t he i ns t i t ut i on of a r t w i t h a r t a s a pr a c t i c e A c c or di ng t o A dor no s de pi c t i ons of w ha t c a n c ons t i t ut e a r t a nd how he s e e s a r t i n r e l a t i o n t o s oc i e t y, I be l i e ve S e a n s w or k a c c om pl i s he s t hi s I t i s e m be dde d c r i t i que not onl y t hr ough i t s f o r m a nd di s t r i but i on but i t s c ont e nt dr a w s f r om t he s oc i a l r e a l m a nd i s pr e s e nt e d i n a n a e s t he t i c a l l y c oge nt m a nne r

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R os e n 61 E ve n J ohnny B r e w t on, w hos e z i ne X R ay i s e nt i r e l y ha ndc r a f t e d ( e a c h c opy i s a n or i gi na l ) a nd c ont a i ns s ubm i t t e d w or ks by C ha r l e s B ukow s ki a nd H unt e r S T hom ps on, doe s not c on s i de r hi s z i n e a s A r t I t s a l i t e r a r y a nd a n a s s e m bl a ge m a g a z i ne but i t i s n t s noot y or a r t y. I t i nc or por a t e s c om i c s i nt e r vi e w s f i l m t r a ns pa r e nc i e s t i c ke t s a l l ki nds of f ound obj e c t s ( B r e w t on 74) E a c h c opy of t he z i ne i s a c t ua l l y a n or i gi na l ; e a c h a r t i f a c t i s ha ndm a de a nd pr oduc e d w i t h s l i ght va r i a t i ons A nd be c a us e J ohnny put s s o m uc h w or k i nt o hi s z i ne s he doe s not w a nt t he m t o be t r e a t e d a s e phe m e r a H a ndw or k i s t he m a i n qua l i t y. I w a nt e d t o c r e a t e s om e t hi ng t ha t w a s not di s pos abl e s om e t hi ng t ha t pe opl e w oul d ke e p a n d s how t o t he i r f r i e nds B ut i t t a ke s a l ot of w or k; pl us I l i ke t o e m be l l i s h t hi ngs a nd go t he e xt r a m i l e W he n I w a nt e d t o ha ve a r e a l x r a y c ove r I w e nt t o a m e di c a l r e c l a i m i ng j unkya r d, dug t h r ough a l l of t he s e bi n d a nd m a na ge d t o pi c k out a f e w hund r e d x r a ys ( B r e w t on 77 ) T hi s i m m e ns e a m ount of a t t e nt i on a nd de di c a t i on t o a e s t he t i c de t a i l a s w e l l a s a c l e a r l y t hought out pr oj e c t i ndi c a t e s t ha t J ohnny i s doi ng m uc h m or e t ha n s i m pl y s i t t i ng i n hi s r oom a nd m a ki ng z i ne s f or hi s f r i e nds H e i s i n ve s t i ng hi m s e l f i n a f or m of a e s t he t i c di s c i pl i ne t ha t r e qui r e s l a bor t i m e a nd i ns i ght I n f a c t hi s w or k ha s be e n pi c ke d up by a va r i e t y of i ns t i t ut i ons T he C oope r H e w i t t M us e um ( S m i t hs on i a n I ns t i t ut e s N a t i ona l M us e um of D e s i gn) i s doi ng a n e xhi bi t ne xt ye a r w hi c h w i l l f e a t ur e X R A Y T he y a s ke d m e f or a c opy t o put i n t he s how a nd I t ho ught W ow T he s how i s c a l l e d M i xi ng M e s s a ge s : G r a phi c D e s i gn i n C ont e m por a r y C ul t ur e T he J P a ul G e t t y L i br a r y or de r e d a l i f e t i m e s ubs c r i pt i on I c oul dn t

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R os e n 62 be l i e ve i t V a r i ous un i ve r s i t i e s i nc l udi ng S U N Y a t B uf f a l o s r a r e book de pa r t m e nt a nd t he U ni ve r s i t y o f W i s c ons i n ha ve a l s o or de r e d l i f e t i m e s ubs c r i pt i ons I m hono r e d t ha t t he y ha ve done s o. I t hi nk i t s a m a z i ng t ha t t hi s ki t c he n t a bl e pr oj e c t ha s bl os s om e d i nt o t hi s t hi ng ( B r e w t on 82) E ve n a s a r t i n s t i t ut i ons a nd i n s t i t ut i ons of hi ghe r l e a r ni ng a r e va l i da t i ng hi s w or k, J ohnny s hi e s a w a y f r om c ons i de r i ng i t a r t T hi s I be l i e ve s pe a ks not n e c e s s a r i l y t o a n a nt i e s t a bl i s hm e nt m e nt a l i t y ( a l t hough i t c e r t a i nl y c a n be c ons i de r e d s o) but i t s e e m s m or e l i ke l y t ha t J ohnny, a s a a r t s c hool dr op out no l onge r ha d a c c e s s t o t he s e ve nue s H i s ki t c he n t a bl e pr oj e c t w a s one s t a r t e d f r om a de s i r e t o c ont i nue pr oduc i ng a n d di s t r i but i ng hi s w or ks not t o ne c e s s a r i l y m ak e i t a s a n a r t i s t I t hi nk t hi s i s pa r t of t he r e a s on w hy he s e e m s s hoc ke d a nd hum bl e d by hi s i nc l us i on i nt o t he s e i ns t i t ut i ona l ve nue s be c a us e t hi s w a s not hi s e nd goa l W hi l e t he s e z i ne m a ke r s e s c he w t he i n s t i t ut i ons s ur r oundi ng a r t ( t he ga l l e r y; a nd s noot y w hi c h c a n be r e a d a s upp e r c l a s s ) ot he r z i ne m a ke r s a r e m or e s ym pa t h e t i c t o t he i de a of t he i r w or ks be i ng c ons i de r e d a r t i s t i c a r t i f a c t s C hr i s K e r r t hi nks of s e l f publ i s hi ng a s a m e t hod t ha t c a n i m pr ove t he qua l i t y of a r t i t s e l f I s n t t ha t w ha t pe opl e a l w a ys s a y t he obj e c t of a r t i s t o c r e a t e be a ut y m or e t ha n a nyt hi ng e l s e I t hi nk t ha t i s w ha t pe opl e t e nd t o s a y. S o i n s e l f publ i s hi ng i t s not t ha t you a r e t r yi ng t o m a ke t he w or l d m or e be a ut i f u l you a r e t r yi ng t o m a ke a r t i t s e l f m or e be a ut i f ul w hi c h m i ght r ub of f on t he w or l d ( K e r r ) S i m i l a r l y, t he a t t e nt i on pa i d t o t he m e di um r a t he r t ha n s i m pl y t he c ont e nt i s w ha t c a n a l s o c ons t i t ut e z i ne s a s a r t w or ks P a r t of c om pi l a t i on t ha t r e a l l y m a de s e ns e t o m e w a s s e e i ng t ha t w i t h t he I nt e r ne t e ve r yt hi ng i s ge t t i ng pi r a t e d, e ve r yt hi ng i s ge t t i ng di s t r i but e d a nd

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R os e n 63 i f you m a de t he c ur a t i on of t he t hi ng pa r t o f t he m e di um t he n i t w oul d a dd va l ue t o t he phys i c a l obj e c t a nd i nf or m a t i on A nd s o t he i de a t ha t you w e r e pr e s e nt i ng a book t ha t w a s r e a l l y a c ur a t i on r a t he r t ha n j us t a book or c om i c s e e m e d l i ke a w a y a r ound m ode r ni t y ( H e l l e r ) H ow e ve r a s E m i l y H e l l e r poi nt e d out l a t e r i n ou r i nt e r vi e w not a l l z i ne s ha ve a e s t he t i c va l ue I t s r e a l l y, r e a l l y f un t o di s c ove r s om e t hi ng on your ow n, but t he r e a r e a l s o a l ot of s hi t t y z i ne s out t he r e T he r e s a l ot t ha t s r e a l l y s e l f i ndul ge nt I t h i nk t ha t s t he pr obl e m w he n m e a ns of pr oduc t i on a r e de m oc r a t i z e d t he r e s a l ot o f de l us i ona l pe opl e a nd e m o pe opl e t ha t j us t us e i t a s a not he r pl a c e f or t he i r s e l f a bs or pt i on A nd you know w he n i t w a s a ne w t hi ng t o do i t w a s good, but now t he r e s t oo m uc h of t he s a m e t hi ng c om i ng out but you know t ha t s w i t h e ve r yt hi ng, w he n s om e one ha s a good i de a e ve r yone ha s t ha t s a m e i de a t oo ( H e l l e r ) B ut pe r ha ps i t i s t hi s s ys t e m of va l ua t i on, or de s i r e t o a s s i gn s upe r l a t i ve s t ha t m a ke s t he z i ns t e r s w ho do pr oduc e a e s t he t i c a l l y c oge nt w or k s hy a w a y f r om t he t e r m a r t Z i ne s t e r s t ha t ha ve n o pr obl e m c ount i ng t he i r w or ks a s a r t of t e n pr oduc e z i ne s t ha t f l i r t be t w e e n be i ng l i t e r a r y m a ga z i ne s a nd z i ne s T om a s M oni z w ho i n a ddi t i on t o R ad D ad, B ox c ut t e r a nd s m a l l one t i m e z i ne s ha s pr oduc e d W i t hout W or ds & W i t hout K ne e l i ng a s e r i a l nove l l a a nd L i k e H i c k i e s L i k e B r ui s e s a not he r nove l l a W he n a s ke d a bout t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n t he c ha pbook, l i t e r a r y m a ga z i ne a nd z i ne T om a s of f e r e d i ns i ght i nt o how c a t e gor i e s a r e c ons t r uc t e d i n t he f i r s t pl a c e

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R os e n 64 W e l l m y f e a r i s c ha pbooks ha v e a m or e e l i t i s t q ua l i t y, a nd z i ne s t e nd t o be m or e D I Y a l i t t l e m or e c onne c t e d t he y do n t ha ve t he a i r s t ha t a c ha pbook m i ght ha ve T he r e i s a hi s t or y of s m a l l pr e s s a nd l i t e r a r y c ha pbooks t ha t a r e t he r e a nd t o m e I c a n j um p be t w e e n t he t w o, but I r e a l i z e t ha t i s m y p r i vi l e ge I ha ve gone t o g r a d s c hool I f e e l c om f or t a bl e i n t ha t e nvi r onm e nt a nd I ha v e gone t he ot he r w a y. F or m e I w a nt t o do bot h. A nd I r e c ogni z e t ha t poe t r y doe s not ha ve a pl a c e i n c e r t a i n z i ne s s o I t r y a nd a voi d t ha t I t s a di f f e r e nt r e a l m a l t h ough I ve us e d a c oupl e he r e a nd t he r e a nd I ve w r i t t e n t hous a nds of be i ng a f a t he r I know t ha t i t s not t he s pa c e ( M oni z ) T hi s i de a of bounda r i e s be i ng c ons t i t ut e d a l ong i n s t i t ut i ona l l y s a nc t i one d l i ne s i s a n i nt e r e s t i ng one a s t he z i ne of f e r s t he s a m e s pa c e a nd e xpe r i e nc e t ha t l i t e r a r y m a ga z i ne s a nd c ha pbook s c a n of f e r f or t hos e w ho do not ha ve a c c e s s t o c e r t a i n i ns t i t ut i ons S i m i l a r l y, t he r e i s a n i nt e r e s t i ng n ot i on of a ut he nt i c i t y i n p l a y he r e t ha t m a ny z i ne s t e r s do s ubs c r i be t o: I s t hi s t he r e a l vo i c e of t he unde r g r ound? W hi l e t hi s i s c e r t a i nl y a pr obl e m a t i c not i on, a s i t c r e a t e s ye t a n ot he r r e i f i e d i de nt i t y, t he de s i r e t o hol d on t o a s p a c e i s ve r y l e gi t i m a t e T ha t i s i f your voi c e i s not gi ve n s pa c e by s a n c t i f i e d i ns t i t ut i ons t ha t ha ve t he pow e r t o de e m i t l e gi t i m a t e t he n t he r e a c t i ona r y c r e a t i on of a s pa c e t ha t pr e s uppos e s l e gi t i m a c y i n t he a c t of m a ki ng w i l l c e r t a i nl y c ont a i n s om e r he t or i c of r e j e c t i ng t he m a i ns t r e a m a nd c onv e r s e l y c e l e br a t i ng t ha t w hi c h i s a nt i e s t a bl i s hm e nt H ow e ve r f or z i ne m a ke r s w ho a r e m or e c om f or t a bl e w i t h t he i r pr oj e c t s l ooki ng s l i c k a nd do ha ve a c c e s s t o t he s e i ns t i t ut i ons t he not i on of a ut he nt i c i t y c a n be

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R os e n 65 l i m i t i ng. C hr i s K e r r s pe a k s of hi s P r oj e c t or w hi c h i s pe r f e c t bound, m i ni m a l i s t a nd ve r y n e a t I di dn t f e e l l i ke I ne e de d t o dow ngr a de pr oduc t i on va l ue t o ha ve a m or e a ut he nt i c l ook be c a us e t he n i t s j us t a l ook I j us t w a nt e d m y pr oj e c t t o ha ve a n i nvi t i ng pr e s e nc e I j us t w a nt e d pe opl e t o w a nt t he i r m i nds t o r oa m t he r e a nd t he r e i s a r e a de r s hi p t ha t f i nd s c om f or t i n t he z i ne l a yout a nd i t s j us t t ot a l l y di f f e r e nt t he n t he l a yout of P r oj e c t or I c ons i de r w ha t I do i n be t w e e n ge nr e s of publ i c a t i on a nd I l i ke i t t ha t a nd I m ha ppy f o r i t t o be c a l l e d a z i ne a nd t o be c a l l e d a l i t j our na l I m ha ppy t o pl a y a r ound w i t h c a t e gor i e s ( K e r r ) B e c a us e C hr i s c ons i d e r s hi s w or k t o be a z i ne a nd a l i t e r a r y j our na l h i s w or k e m bodi e s t he ve r y a m or phous na t ur e of t he t e r m z i ne W he r e a s hi s w or k i s s ol i c i t e d a nd c ol l a t e d by hi m s e l f he doe s not e nga ge i n t he a c t u a l pr oduc t i on of t he z i ne A nd ye t i t i s not s ol d f or pr o f i t a nd he ke e ps i n c l os e c ont a c t w i t h t hos e r e a de r s w ho w r i t e t o h i m H i s w or k i s not vyi ng f o r r e c ogni t i on; r a t he r i t s e r v e s a s a m e e t i ng poi nt f o r pe opl e w i t h i nt e r s e c t i ng i nt e r e s t s I t s t a r t e d out a s a pe r s ona l t hi ng I w a s t e d a l ot of t i m e s e l f m e di c a t i ng w i t h m ovi e s s o I t hought I s houl d j us t i f y i t a n d i t s e e m e d l i ke a good t hi ng t o do r a t he r t ha n put out a j ou r na l or z i n e t ha t w a s i de ol ogy of m ovi e s t he e xpe r i e nc e I h a d w i t h m ovi e s I f e l t w a s ve r y uni ve r s a l I w a nt e d t o f i nd out a bout di f f e r e nt pe opl e s r e a c t i o ns s om e t hi ng t ha t s poke t o t he m a nd a l l ow e d t he m t o f i nd out s om e t hi ng a bout t he m s e l ve s i n t he pr oc e s s ( K e r r )

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R os e n 66 S i m i l a r l y he t hi nks of hi m s e l f a s r e s pondi ng i n a n a l t e r na t i ve w a y t o m ovi e s N ot i nt e r e s t e d i n r e vi e w s or a c a de m i c c r i t i que s he a s ks r e a de r s t o e xpe r i e nc e t he m ovi e a nd w r i t e c r e a t i ve l y f r om t he r e I t hi nk t ha t w he n yo u l ook a t gl os s y m a ga z i ne s i n t e r m s of m ovi e s t he y ha ve a r e a l l y s i m i l a r a ppr o a c h, a n d t he y be c om e a m onol i t hi c w a y of l ooki ng a t a r t a nd pol i t i c s z i ne s f i nd l e s s f or m a l w a ys of unde r s t a ndi ng t he w or l d r a t he r t ha n a ppr opr i a t i ng t he m onol i t hi c i t s a l s o p s yc hol ogi c a l a nd l i ngui s t i c ( K e r r ) A c c or di ng t o hi s ow n de s c r i pt i ons of hi s w or k I w oul d c ons i de r P r oj e c t or ope r a t i ng i n t he s a m e w a y t ha t z i ne s do. H ow e ve r w he n l ooki ng a t t he a c t ua l a r t i f a c t t he e l e m e nt of t he ha ndm a de a nd c r a f t e d i s m i s s i ng. O pe ni ng up t he que s t i on of w he r e a ut he nt i c i t y e xi s t s i n z i ne s i f i t e ve n e xi s t s a t a l l ? A s di s c u s s e d e a r l i e r t hi s not i on of a ut he nt i c i t y be c om e s e xt r e m e l y pr obl e m a t i c a s i t c r e a t e s ne w r e qui s i t e s f or pa r t i c i pa t i on w i t hi n t he pr a c t i c e T he w a y I ha ve c om e t o gr a ppl e w i t h t hi s not i on w i t hi n t he s ubc ul t ur a l m ove m e nt of z i ne s i s by di f f e r i ng t o t he c r e a t or B e c a us e t he z i ne i s s o c onc e r ne d w i t h i de nt i t y f or m a t i on a nd t he c r e a t i on of ne w c ode s t he l a be l s t ha t t he z i ne m a ke r c hoos e s t o a p pl y s houl d be r e s pe c t e d. T he s e l f l a be l z i ne m or e t ha n a nyt hi ng e l s e ( e ve n m or e t ha n t he s m udgi e s t phot oc opi e d punk f a nz i ne ) i s w ha t c onnot e s a z i ne T hos e t ha t do t he na m i ng of t e n unde r s t a nd w ha t i m pl i c a t i ons c om m uni t i e s i de ol ogi e s a nd hi s t or i e s t he y a r e ope r a t i ng w i t hi n by na m i ng t he i r w or k a z i ne S i m i l a r l y, l i ke S e a n of C r ap H ound a nd J ohnny of X R A Y i t i s unde r s t ood w ha t i s be i ng e xc l ude d by u s i ng t he t e r m z i ne A s t he pr a c t i c e of z i ne m a ki ng i s pa r t l y one of ne ga t i on, t he t e r m a l s o r e f l e c t s t hi s T hus t he ut i l i z a t i on of t he l a be l z i ne f or one s w or k s i m ul t a ne ous l y pos i t i ons one w i t hi n t h e pr a c t i c e s of D I Y

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R os e n 67 c ul t ur e a nd unde r gr ound pr i nt i ng, a s w e l l a s a ga i n s t t he pr a c t i c e s of m a i ns t r e a m m e di a a nd i ns t i t ut i ona l i z e d f or m s of a r t a nd know l e dge S o w hi l e t he r e i s a g r e a t a m ount of c ont e nt i on a nd di f f e r e nt i a t i on a r ound t he t e r m z i ne I be l i e ve w ha t c a n be a gr e e d upon i s t he pr ope ns i t y f or z i ne s t o e nga ge p e opl e i n w a ys t ha t m i ght c ha nge t he i r a t t i t ude s a nd a c t i ons D e s pi t e z i ne s t e r s c r i t i que s of s oc i a l s ys t e m s m a ny a r e opt i m i s t i c ( or w hy w oul d t he y publ i s h? ) a bout a f f e c t i ng c ha nge M i ke G unde r l oy, F ac t s he e t F i v e publ i s he r pe r ha ps s a i d i t be s t I don t w a nt t o c l a i m t ha t w e r e on t he e dge of a r e vol ut i on, be c a us e w e a l l know how s t upi d t he pe opl e w ho di d t ha t i n t he 60 s l ooke d by t he 70 s B ut f a nz i ne s a r e dr a w i ng a l ot of a t t e nt i on t h e s e da ys a nd t he y a r e c ha ngi ng pe opl e s l i ve s T he y c e r t a i nl y c ha nge d m i ne t he f ood I e a t t he c l ot he s I w e a r t he m us i c I l i s t e n t o, t he i de a l s I be l i e ve i n, a nd t he pl a c e s I w a nt t o l i ve ha ve a l l be e n i nf l ue nc e d ( a nd not s ubt l y) by m y c ons t a nt i m m e r s i on i n t he s e a of a l t e r na t i ve s W hi c h br i ngs u s t o m y f i na l r e a s on f or publ i s hi ng. T hi s s e a i s ge n e r a l l y i nvi s i bl e t o t he m a i n s t r e a m B ut i t doe s n t ha ve t o be t ha t w a y, a nd I t hi nk i t m i ght not a l w a ys be t ha t w a y. M a ny pe opl e a r e i n s e a r c h of a l t e r na t i ve s t h e s e da y s a nd w i l l i ng t o s t a nd up a nd be c ount e d. T he z i ne s c e ne i s a n i m por t a nt t ool f or s oc i a l c ha nge a nd i t s e e m s t o be he a di ng i n di r e c t i ons I l i ke I publ i s h t o he l p i t a l ong ( M i ke G unde r l oy 53 ) D e s pi t e t he va s t di f f e r e nc e s on how z i ne pr a x i s i s c ons t i t ut e d, t he r e i s t he c om m on be l i e f t ha t i t i s a n a r t i f a c t i nt e nde d f or t h e publ i c di s c our s e w i t h t he hope t ha t i t w i l l l e a d t o a c ha nge i n t h e r e a de r s l i f e no m a t t e r how s m a l l I s t i l l m a i nt a i n t ha t t he

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R os e n 68 z i ne a s a n a r t f or m i s i nhe r e nt l y pol i t i c a l due t o i t s s oc i a l na t ur e t ha t po s e s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o dom i na nt c ul t ur e s va l ue s a nd pr a c t i c e s T he m os t s a l i e nt of t he s e a l t e r na t i ve s a s e xpr e s s e d by m a ny z i ne s t e r s quot e d a bove i s t he pr ope ns i t y f or z i ne s t o c r e a t e i nt e r pe r s ona l bonds t he ve r y s ubs t r a t e of a c t i o n. T he r e l a t i ons hi ps bor n f r om z i ne pr a c t i c e go be yond e m ot i ona l s uppor t s ys t e m s ( a l t hough t he r e a r e pl e nt y t ha t do j us t t ha t ) ; t he y e nga ge t he i ndi vi dua l s c a pa c i t i e s f or pr oduc i ng i de a s c ul t ur e a nd t he r e by e s t a bl i s hi ng a s e n s e of a ge nc y i n t he c r e a t or A s de s c r i be d by M e l uc c i t he e nd goa l i s t he m ove m e nt T he z i ne s r a di c a l pot e nt i a l i s s ynonym ous w i t h i t s c a pa c i t y t o br i ng pe opl e t oge t he r a nd e nc our a ge t he D I Y e t hi c a b e l i e f i n one s ow n c a p a c i t y t o a c t a s a n a ge nt of s oc i a l c ha nge t hr ough t he p r oc e s s of c ha ngi ng one s ow n l i f e

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R os e n 69 C on c l u s i on s T he z i ne a s a r t a s pol i t i c a l pr a xi s a s a ut onom ous s pa c e a s hobby or a s a w a y t o m a ke f r i e nds c om e s i nt o i t s pa r t i c ul a r us e a nd f or m t hr ough t he c r e a t or B e c a us e i t s de f i ni t i on i s c ont i nge nt upon how i t i s be i ng us e d i n t he w or l d, m a ny z i ne s t e r s r e f us e t o l a be l or c a t e gor i z e t he i r w or k. T o r e i f y t he z i ne i n a c a t e gor y l i ke P e r z i ne i s t o l i m i t i t s pos s i bi l i t i e s a nd a r r e s t i t s pr oc e s s of be c om i ng, w hi c h i s de pe nde nt not onl y on m a ke r s but on r e a de r s a s w e l l N one t he l e s s f or a c a de m i c a nd c a t a l ogui ng pur pos e s t he s e de f i ni t i ons a r e i m por t a nt f or put t i ng or de r t o a di s or de r l y bunc h. I n m y pr oj e c t I hope t o ha ve gone be yond c a t e gor i z a t i on a nd t o ha ve t he or e t i c a l l y s i t ua t e d t he m a s a n a r t f o r m a nd a s a m ode of pr a xi s t h a t s t e m s f r om t he i r f e t t e r e d a ut onom y t he de s i r e t o br e a k f r e e f r om s oc i e t y i n or de r t o c ha nge i t I us e t he t e r m s i t ua t e d qui t e of t e n i n m y t he s i s A s a nod t o A dor no, I us e i t t o ke e p m ys e l f f r om f or ge t t i ng t ha t t he de f i ni t i on of t he z i ne i s de pe nde nt upon i t s pa r t i c ul a r t i m e i n hi s t or y a nd pl a c e i n s oc i e t y. A nd t ha t no t hi ng c a n be m a de a gi ve n or e s s e nt i a l qua l i t y ( unl e s s of c ou r s e one i s s pe a ki ng of t h e non i de nt i t y, w hi c h i n i t s ow n ne ga t i ve w a y i s e s s e nt i a l i s t ) E ve n m y a t t e m pt t o s i t ua t e z i ne s a s a n a r t pr a c t i c e i n m y s e c ond c ha pt e r A dor no, Z i ne s a nd P r a xi s w a s r e f ut e d by s e ve r a l z i ne s t e r s i n m y t hi r d c ha pt e r Z i ne s T a l k B a c k. H ow e ve r I be l i e ve t h i s ne ga t i ve c onc e pt i on of A r t a s i m pl i e d by t he c ont e xt c om e s f r om t he i ns t i t ut i ons s ur r oundi ng a r t or a s A dor no pu t s i t a dm i ni s t e r e d a r t w hi c h ne c e s s i t a t e s s om e f or m of a ut hor i t y A nd z i ne s i f a nyt hi ng a r e a nt i a ut hor i t a r i a n by t he i r o w n f or m of be i ng s e l f pr oduc e d T hi s ne ga t i on, t he a nt i r he t or i c of t he z i ne how e ve r i s w h e r e I s e e t he pot e nt i a l f or t he z i ne T he y m us t ne ga t e i n or de r t o m a ke r oom f or va r i e ga t e d s ubj e c t i vi t i e s T he m us t ne ga t e i n or de r t o e xpl ode t he i de a t ha t a r t ha ppe n s w he n yo u

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R os e n 70 ha ve a n M F A or a r e s uppor t e d by a ga l l e r y a n d ha ve w i ne a nd c he e s e e ve nt s T hi s ne ga t i on i s t he i r pr a xi s H ow e ve r m os t z i ne s a r e f a r f r om be i ng l i t t l e ni hi l i s t publ i c a t i ons T he f a c t t ha t t he i r ne ga t i ons a r e t he s ubs t r a t um f or a l a bor i nt e ns i ve pr a xi s of w r i t i ng c ol l e c t i ng, a s s e m bl i ng a nd di s t r i but i ng s pe a ks t o t he ut opi a n vi s i on t he y ha ve of r e a c hi ng out t o pe opl e O f m e e t i ng p e opl e i n t he i r hom e s da i l y c om m ut e s a nd publ i c l i br a r i e s a nd i nc i t i ng di s c us s i ons a bout w hy b e i ng ove r w e i ght doe s not gi ve a not he r l i c e ns e f or di s c r i m i na t i on, of w he r e w e c a n m a ke s pa c e f or t r a ns f e m i ni s t s of w hy pol ya m or y m i ght be r i ght f or you. O r z i ne s m i ght m e e t pe opl e a nd gi ve t he m a s m a l l s l i ve r of pe r s pe c t i ve by t a ki ng t he m t hr ough a pho t o t our of l os t s t r e e t s i n S a n F r a nc i s c o, or of pr e s e nt i ng a s t or y of l os t l ove s a nd l i t e r a r y gi a nt s I s e e t he z i ne a s a n a r t f or m be c a us e I vi e w a r t t o be t he s ubl i m a t i on a nd c e l e br a t i on of t he m unda ne a m a p f or f i ndi ng hum a ni t y i n t he f r a y of our l i ve s a nd a s a voi c e f or t ha t w hi c h c a nnot be s pe a k. A nd a s s om e t hi ng t ha t e xi s t s w i t hi n s oc i e t y, a ga i n s t i t a nd be yond i t A nd I hope t o ha ve c onve ye d t ha t t he z i ne l i ke t ha t v a gue c a t e gor y of a r t i s a l l of t he s e t hi ngs a nd a l i t t l e m or e B ut do ot he r pe opl e s e e t hi s pot e nt i a l i n z i ne s ? I be l i e ve t hos e t h a t a r e e nm e s he d i n z i ne c ul t ur e do H ow e ve r be i ng a n unde r gr o und f or m of publ i s hi ng not t ha t m a ny pe opl e ha ve a c c e s s t o i t A nd s pe a ki ng of m y ow n e xpe r i e nc e s w h e n e xpl a i ni ng t hi s pr oj e c t t o pe opl e a nd ha vi ng t o i m m e di a t e l y f ol l ow m y de c l a r a t i on w i t h, w e l l i t s a f or m of s e l f publ i s hi ng not t ha t m a ny pe opl e a c t u a l l y k now w ha t a z i ne i s P a r t of t he r e a s on w hy t he y ha ve not i nt e gr a t e d, or ha ve be e n pi c ke d up by m or e pe opl e i s be c a us e t he z i ne pr a xi s i s a ne ga t i ve one I s one t ha t i s f os t e r e d by di s t a nc e c r i t i que a nd l i f e s t yl e c h a nge s T he i na bi l i t y t o r e a c h l a r ge r a udi e nc e i s ve r y pr obl e m a t i c f o r t he e nt i r e p r oj e c t

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R os e n 71 of z i ne s a nd ha s be e n w r i t t e n a bout e xt e ns i ve l y i n ot he r a c a de m i c publ i c a t i ons H ow e ve r I f e e l t ha t A dor no ha s a r e s pons e t o t hi s c onundr um A t pr e s e nt a l l w or ks of a r t i nc l udi ng r a di c a l o ne s ha ve a c ons e r va t i ve t i nge f or t he y he l p r e i nf or c e t he e xi s t e nc e of a s e pa r a t e dom a i n of s pi r i t a nd c ul t ur e w hos e pr a c t i c a l i m pot e nc e a nd c om pl i c i t y w i t h t he p r i nc i pl e o f unm i t i ga t e d di s a s t e r a r e pa i nf ul l y e vi de nt H ow e ve r t hi s c ons e r va t i ve e l e m e nt w hi c h i s m os t pr onounc e d i n r a di c a l l y m ode r n a r t ought not t o s i m pl y be j unke d. N o r e s i s t a nc e t o t he s oc i a l t ot a l i t y a nd i t s om ni pot e nc e i s c onc e i va bl e unl e s s s pi r i t i n i t s m os t pr ogr e s s i ve s ha pe s ur vi ve s a nd go e s on pr ogr e s s i n g. I f t he a dva nc i ng s pi r i t doe s not be que a t h t o m a nki nd w ha t t he l a t t e r i s poi s e d t o l i qui da t e t he w or l d w oul d be c om e m i r e d i n l a s t i ng ba r ba r i t y i ns t e a d of m ovi ng f or w a r d t o a r a t i ona l s oc i a l or de r ( A dor no 333) W hi l e t he z i ne w i l l pr oba bl y not he r a l d t he ne w r a t i ona l s oc i a l or de r I do t hi nk t ha t i t r e i nf or c e s t he i de a of s e p a r a t i on a s a m e a ns of pa r t i c i pa t i on. T ha t be i ng s a i d, t hi s i s w h a t m a ke s t he z i ne a pow e r f ul c r i t i c a l r e s pons e W hi l e t he f or m of t he z i ne c e r t a i nl y e nc our a ge s ot he r s t o t r y out t he pr a c t i c e f or t he m s e l ve s ( a s i t r e a l l y onl y r e qui r e s t i m e pa t i e nc e a nd a phot oc opi e r ) t he c ul t ur e of t he z i n e i s one t ha t s t i l l doe s c om e f r o m punk a nd l e f t w i ng pol i t i c a l gr oups T ha t be i ng s a i d, not e ve r ybody m a ki ng z i ne s w oul d c a t e gor i z e a s e i t he r or bot h of t ho s e gr oups but t he y a r e t he s ubc ul t ur a l gr oups m o s t a s s oc i a t e d w i t h z i ne m a ki ng. J us t f or a vi s ua l r e f e r e nc e t he c ove r of Z i ne s V ol I I f e a t ur e s a young w om a n w i t h s hor t s pi ky dye d bl ond ha i r t w o e ye br ow a nd t w o l i p pi e r c i ng, a l a r ge c ha i n ne c kl a c e w i t h a l oc k ha ngi ng f r om i t a nd goe s by t he na m e T oa d.

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R os e n 72 W hi l e a l l of t he s e vi s ua l s ym bol s c r e a t e i m por t a n t s oc i a l c ode s w i t hi n s ubc ut ur e s i t c a n ke e p out s i de r s f r om pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he m o r e v a l ua bl e pr a c t i c e s or i de a l s a s ubc ul t ur e e na c t s or hol ds f o r f e a r of not f e e l i ng a ut he nt i c e nough. M y e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he B a y A r e a how e ve r w e r e of di ve r s e z i ne m a ke r s a nd r e a de r s M o s t w e r e i n t he i r 30s a nd h a d pr of e s s e d t o ha ve l e f t punk be hi nd. H ow e ve r t he r e be l l i ous c r e a t i ve a nd a c t i on or i e nt e d i de a l s s t a ye d w i t h t he m Z i ne w r i t e r s w ho di d not ha ve a ny punk i nf l ue nc e us e d t he z i ne m e di um a s t he i r onl y out l e t i nt o t he w or l d f ul l of pe opl e w ho m i s unde r s t ood a nd di s r e ga r de d t he m B ut t he z i ne e ve n w he n pr oduc e d f r om de s pa i r i s not a l w a y s a s om b e r doc um e nt I t i s pa r t i c i pa t or y i n s pi r i t a nd hope f ul of i t s pr ope ns i t y f or c ha nge A s a c ul t ur a l s pa c e c a r ve d out by t he m a ke r t he z i ne w or l d i s bot h l a r ge a nd s m a l l I t i s i nt i m a t e a s i t i s c ons t r uc t e d by t he m a ke r bu t e nc om pa s s i ng of t he z i n e c om m uni t y, a s i t i s di s t r i but e d a nd s ol i c i t s f e e dba c k. A pl a c e t ha t pr oba bl y w on t s t a r t a r e vol ut i on but w i l l ge t pe opl e t hi nki ng, di s c us s i ng a nd i m a gi ni ng w ha t t ha t m i ght l ook l i ke A nd a s a pr a c t i c e t ha t ge t s pe opl e a w a y f r om t he i r j ob, f r om t he a nnoyi ng l i ne s a t gr oc e r y s t or e s f r om t he ga s s t a t i ons a nd m e ga m a l l s i f onl y f or a f e w hour s t o p r oduc e s om e t hi ng w i t h c a r e a nd c ons c i ous i nt e nt i on.

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R os e n 73 A p p e n d i x I : Z i n e I m age s C ove r o f I ndul ge nc e

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R os e n 74 C ove r of T he C I A M ak e s Sc i e nc e F i c t i on Se e m U n e x c i t i ng. I ns i de vi e w of t he C I A M ak e s Sc i e nc e F i c t i on Se e m U ne x c i t i ng.

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R os e n 75 Z i ne t ha t c om pl i e s t hr e e di f f e r e nt z i ne s : T hr e e a m ; B r ai ns c an; J our nal s ong I ns i de vi e w of c om p l i e d z i ne T hr e e a. m B r ai ns c an, J our nal s ong.

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R os e n 76 C ove r of F at ?So!

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R os e n 77 I ns i de vi e w of F at ?So!

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R os e n 78 C ove r of D oubl e H app i ne s s

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R os e n 79 I ns i de vi e w of D oub l e H appi ne s s C ove r of K e r B l oom T hi s z i ne i s c om pl e t e l y l e t t e r pr e s s e d, i nc l udi ng t he de s i gne d f l our i s he s

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R os e n 80 C ove r of C r ap H ound 4 C l ow ns D e vi l s & B a i t I ns i de vi e w of C r ap H ound 4. C l ow ns D e vi l s & B a i t L e f t ha nd s i de s how s R ona l d M c D ona l d a nd J e s u s s i m i l a r i t i e s

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R os e n 81 I ns i de vi e w of C r ap H ound 6. S upe r s t i t i ons

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R os e n 82 C ove r of P r oj e c t or I ns i de vi e w of P r oj e c t or P oe m e nt i t l e d M a r r i a ge

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R os e n 83 C ove r of C r os s hat c h

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R os e n 84 I n s i d e vi e w of C r os s h at c h P oe m e n t i t l e d M

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R os e n 85 Wor k C i t e d A dor no, T W A e s t he t i c T he or y T r a ns C L e nha r d t L ondon: R out l e dge & K e ga n P a ul pl c 1984. P r i nt A nz a l dua G l or i a B or de r l ands / L a F r ont e r a: T he N e w M e s t i z a 3r d e d. S a n F r a nc i s c o: A unt L ut e 2007. P r i nt B a r c l a y, H a r ol d. C ul t ur e and A nar c hi s m L ondon: F r e e dom P r e s s 1997 P r i nt B r e w t on, J ohnny. X R a y. Z i ne s V ol I S a n F r a n c i s c o, C A : R E S e a r c h 1996 P r i nt D e vr a F a t G i r l Z i ne s V ol I S a n F r a nc i s c o, C A : R E S e a r c h 1996 P r i nt D i s hw a s he r P e t e D i s hw a s he r Z i ne s V ol I I S a n F r a nc i s c o, C A : R E S e a r c h, 1997. P r i nt D unc om be S t e pha n. N ot e s f r om U nde r gr ound: Z i ne s and t he P ol i t i c s of A l t e r nat i v e C ul t ur e s N e w Y or k: N e w L e f t B ooks 1997 P r i nt G unde r l oy, M i ke W hy P ubl i s h R e ns s e l a e r N Y : P r e t z e l P r e s s 1989. P D F f i l e H a r be r J a y. N ot e s F r om O bl i vi on. W hy P ubl i s h R e ns s e l a e r N Y : P r e t z e l P r e s s 1989. P D F f i l e H e l l e r E m i l y. P e r s ona l I nt e r vi e w 28 M a r c h 2011 H of f m a n, F r e de r i c k J ohn T he L i t t l e M agaz i ne P r i nc e t on, N J P r i nc e t on uni ve r s i t y pr e s s 1946. P r i nt H ut h, G e of T he S ubt l e J our na l of R a w C oi na ge W hy P ubl i s h R e ns s e l a e r N Y : P r e t z e l P r e s s 1989. P D F f i l e J ur i s J e f f r e y S c ot t a nd G e of f r e y H e nr i P l e ye r s A l t e r A c t i vi s m : E m e r gi ng C ul t u r e s of P a r t i c i pa t i on A m ong Y oung G l oba l J us t i c e A c t i vi s t s J our nal of Y out h St udi e s V ol 12 N o 1 ( 2009 ) : pp 57 75.

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R os e n 86 K e r r C hr i s t ophe r P e r s ona l I nt e r vi e w 7 J une 2011 L i c ona A de l a C ( B ) o r de r l a nds R he t or i c a nd R e pr e s e nt a t i ons : T he T r a ns f or m a t i ve P ow e r of F e m i ni s t T hi r d S pa c e S c hol a r s hi p a nd Z i ne s N W SA J our nal V ol 17 N o 2 ( 2005) : pp 104 129. J ST O R P D F f i l e M c D ona l d, B a r ba r a F a t G i r l Z i ne s V ol I S a n F r a nc i s c o, C A : R E S e a r c h, 1996 P r i nt M a r e k, J a yne E W om e n E di t i ng M ode r ni s m : "l i t t l e M agaz i ne s & L i t e r ar y H i s t or y L e xi ngt on: U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s of K e nt uc ky 1995 P r i nt M a r x, K a r l F r i e dr i c h E nge l s a nd R obe r t C T uc ke r T he M ar x E nge l s R e ade r N e w Y or k: N or t on 1978 P r i nt M e l uc c i A l be r t o. T he S ym bo l i c C ha l l e nge of C ont e m por a r y M ove m e nt s Soc i al R e s e ar c h V ol 52 N o 4 ( 1985) : pp. 789 8 16 J ST O R P D F f i l e M oni z T om a s P e r s ona l I nt e r v i e w 7 M a r c h 2011. N a s h, W i l l i a m R H a r l e m R e na i s s a nc e P D F f i l e N guye n, M i m i S l a nt Z i ne s V o l I I S a n F r a nc i s c o, C A : R E S e a r c h, 1997. P r i nt O r w e l l G e or ge W hy I W r i t e w w w o r w e l l r u/ l i br a r y 1946. P D F f i l e S c hm i dt B r a ndt P e r s ona l I nt e r vi e w 7 A pr i l 2011. T e j a r a t c hi S e a n. C r a p H ound Z i ne s V ol I S a n F r a nc i s c o, C A : R E S e a r c h, 1996 P r i nt T oa d. R e vol ut i ona r y K ni t t i ng C i r c l e Z i ne s V ol I I S a n F r a nc i s c o, C A : R E S e a r c h, 1997. P r i nt T r a ube E l i z a be t h G T he P opul a r i n A m e r i c a n C ul t ur e A nnual R e v i e w of A nt hr opol ogy V ol 25 ( 1996) : pp. 127 151 J ST O R P D F f i l e

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R os e n 87 W i l l i a m s P a ul I nt e r v i e w e d by C hr i s t ophe r G ur k a nd P a t T hom a s T he G odf at he r of R oc k C r i t i c i s m : A n I nt e r v i e w w i t h P aul W i l l i am s W e b. A ugus t 2001. W r i ght F r e dr i c h A F r om Z i ne s t o E Z i ne s : E l e c t r oni c P ubl i s hi ng a nd t he L i t e r a r y U nde r gr ound. D i s s K e nt S t a t e 2001.

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R os e n 88 Z I N E S A nde r s on, A va R oxi e P e r ki ns A nna R e ut i nge r C r os s ha t c h V ol 3. O a kl a nd, C A A ugus t 2009. P r i nt A r t noos e K e r B l oom #76 P i t t s bur g, P A J a n F e b 2009. P r i nt E l a nor I ndul ge nc e #7 P r i nt T e j a r a t c hi S e a n. C r ap H ound #4 : C l ow ns D e v i l s and B ai t S e c ond E di t i on. P or t l a nd, O R : S how a nd T e l l P r e s s 2010. P r i nt W r e kk, A l e x. St ol e n Shar pi e R e v ol ut i on: A D I Y Z i ne R e s our c e P r i nt


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