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1 Field Trips and Informal Education: An Analysis of Hands On Science Curriculum By Christine McCormick A Thesis Submit ted to the Environmental Studies Program New College of Florida In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Arts Under the Sponsorship of Dr. Sandra Gilchrist Sarasota, Florida May 2012
2 For the Students Who will one day be our teachers
3 Field Trips and Informal Science Education: Overview, Proposal, and Analysis Table of Contents 3 Acknowle 7 8 Li 9 10 11 22 Field Trip Unit I: Dipnetting About the U 28 Adaptations f 28 29 35 37 Graphic 46 Dipnetting Pre 51 52 Field Trip Unit II: Birds and Feathers 53 53 65 Trashing the Mang 67 68 Feather Form and Function W Different Types of Feath 71 72 Birds and Feather s Pretest and Birds and Feathers Pretest an 74 Field Trip Unit III: Crabs and the Mangrove Ecosystem 75 75
4 Micro Field Trip Unit IV: Oceans and Climate Adaptations Field Trip Unit V: Natural Cycles 132 About the Pretest and Postt 137 Analysis of Pretest and Postt 139 143 Appendix A: Mandatory and Optional Fo 150 Appendix B: Florida Science Standards 160 Appendix C : Ken Thompson Park 161 Appendix D 165 Appe
6 Field Trips and Informal Education: An Analysis of Hands On Science Curriculum Christine McCormick New College of Florida, 2012 Abstract Students attending public schools in the United States h ave consistently declined on national and international achievement tests over the past decade (Honda, 2010) Only by understanding the importance of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education, and looking at the shortcomings of sc ience education in the state of Florida can improvements be made in the future After reviewing the concept of informal education and how it compares to formal education in terms of concept, content, and effectiveness, a number of Field Trip Units appropr iate for students in Kindergarten through eighth grade are presented. These trips address the concerns for budget shortcomings, student safety, and relevance to the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards. Data from a similar program implemented by Around the Bend Nature Tours are presented and analyzed, and indicate significance. This indicates that the methods and material presented were successful and recommended for future use. D r S a n d r a G i l c h r i s t E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d i e s P r o g r a m
7 Acknowledgments: I would like to thank those who helped this thesis come to life : Dr. Sandra Gilchrist, who gave me opportunities to learn beyo nd the classroom, and tolerated four years of terrible biology jokes. Dr. Eirini Poimenidou, who jumped in without question Dr. Alfred Beulig, who was always w illing to lend a hand Karen Fraley, who gave me a chance to experience outdoor education through my own eyes
8 List of Figures Figure 4.1 The Wrack Line. Figure 4.2 Organisms Cling To Blades of Sea Grass. Figure 4.3 Aerial View of Ken Thompson Park. Figure 4.4 Seagrass Scars Caused By Boat Propellers Figure 5.1 Measuring the Carapace (A) and Propadus (B) Figure 5.2 Measuring the Overall Length (A) and the Aperture (B) Figure 6.1 Tide Heights Measured Over A Ten Day Period in Hawaii Figure 6.3 Example of a Sun Clock Figure 6.4 Measuring the Distance Between High and Low Tide on the Shore Figure 6.5 How to Measure the Distance a Tide has Fallen. Figure C.1. The Boardwalk at Ken Thompson Park. Figure C.2. Brown Pelican at Ken Thompson Park Figure C.3. Aerial View of Ken Thompson Park Figure D.1 The Entrance to the Mote Marine Laboratory Aquarium in Sarasota Figure D.2 Entrance to the South Florida Museum. Figure D.3. A Glimpse Into the Wetland Exhibit at the Florida Aquarium Figure D.4 Entrance to G Dollar Facility Figure D.5 The Pritzker Marine Lab.
9 List of Tables Table 1.1 Features of Formal and Informal Science Learning Table 1.2: Field Trip Requirements Table 1.3. Required Forms to be Completed Prior to any School Sanctioned Field Trip Table 1.4 Webcam and Virtual Field Trip Opportunities for Students Table 1.5: Student Performance by Country on the Programme for International Student Assessment Table 2.1: Examples of Grade Level Expectations for Kindergarten through Eighth Grade Table 2.2: Example of Pre and Post Test Data Collected By Around The Be nd Nature Tours Table 3.1: Examples of Grade Level Expectations for Kindergarten through Eighth Grade Table 3.2: Example of Pre and Post Test Data Collected By Around The Bend Nature Tours Table 6.1 Examples of Biological and Astronomical Cycles Table 7.1 Improvement for Individual Pre Test and Post Test Questions Table 7.2 Statistical Analysis of Overall Improvement on Pre Test and Post Test Scores Table 7.3 Improvement for Individual Pre Test and Post Test Questions Table 7.4 Statistical Analysis of Overall Improvement on Pre Test and Post Test Scores Table 8.1. Examples of NGSSS that Emphasize the Importance of Scientific Observation Table 8.2. The Importance of Peer Work is Emphasized Throughout the NGSSS
10 List of Acronyms NGSSS Next Generation Sunshine State Standards STEM Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics FCAT Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test PISA Programme for International Student Assessment K 8 Kindergarten through Eight h Grade ATBNT Around the Bend Natur e Tours LLC Introduction
11 Ken Thompson Park 1 has picnic tables, a winding boardwalk that meanders through the mangrove forest, a shoreline that borders sea grass beds teeming with fish and invertebrates, and a long pier that extends over the water overlooking Sarasota Bay. It does not have desks, a chalkboard, an overhead projector, or shelves of textbooks. There is a stark contrast between this county run park and the traditional classroom setting, yet Ken Thompson serves as a learning environment for hundreds of school age visitors from Manatee and Sarasota counties each year as they partake in ecologically focused field trips that complement the curriculum being taught in their school classrooms. This park, located in Sarasota County, serves as an ideal location for engaging students through inform al learning --scientific learning that does not take place within a traditional formal setting. While it must be acknowledged that an incredible amount of learning takes place in the classroom, it is just as important to recognize that students spend abo ut 85% of their time outside of the classroom (Medrich et al., 1982). Learning that takes place during this extracurricular 85% falls into the category of informal learning --education without a teacher leading a formal chalkboard lecture or textbook assi gnment within a classroom. Learning that takes place outside of the classroom is not somehow separate from the subjects taught inside of the classroom; both aspects complement and strengthen each other. Teachers often plan field trips to connect hands on e xperiences to the curriculum in the classroom. In addition, many teachers also aspire to promote possible in any number of different environments (Kisiel, 2005). This is als o not to say that informal learning does not occur during school hours. Arguments throughout the literature on formal versus informal education determine that informal scientific learning can take place within the typically formal setting of a classroom (E shach, 2007), but largely centers on activities that take place away from the classroom setting. Because of this overlap, it cannot be said that the environment determines whether education is formal or informal. Instead of attempting to distinguish betw een formal and informal education by their physical setting, Hofstein and Rosenfeld (1996) suggest defining each by looking at the identifying characteristics of each. Their suggestion allows for the fact that informal education can take place in a formal setting and vice versa. This method also allows for a hybridization of formal and informal learning which allows for a setting in which characteristics from both methods are used. A table of their defining characteristics is shown in Table 1.1 For the pur poses of this study, experiences that take place outside the classroom will generally be referred to as informal education, though it should be recognized that this is not always the case. 1 For more information about Ken Thompson Park, see Appendix C.
12 Table 1.1 Features of Formal and Informal Science Learning (Hof stein and Rosenfeld, 1996) Perhaps the most important characteristic of informal education is the emphasis on open ended, student directed activities. These activities generally require active participation by the student, unlike formal learning activiti es that are teacher led with little emphasis on creativity or student led exploration. Throughout history, most education has focused on this teacher led paradigm, which is evident even in the Latin root for the word. Derived from the Latin educere meanin s that occur as a part of formal education are generally not hands on, immersive, or creative experiences. Alternatives to this method of learning can be found through informal education. Although the environment is not a defining characteristic that dis tinguishes formal from informal education, many informal education programs take place outside of the classroom. These informal experiences can be found in zoos, aquariums, parks, or museums. The focus of this study is to examine whether effective informal science education takes place in outdoor parks, by connecting students to ecology by engaging them in outdoor field trips. For many students who participate in classroom study that focuses on written or oral information, being engaged in an immersive, ha nds on experience is an entirely different, often effective approach to learning (Semper, 1990). Textbooks simply do not allow students to explore and investigate in the same way that informal learning environments do. For science education to be effective it must engage the student. While textbooks, lectures, and in class demonstrations remain crucial to a well rounded education, the importance of field trips and immersive experiences must also gain recognition. These in class formal experiences do not req uire student engagement and exploration of ideas. Much of the classroom learning experience can be thought of as passive learning, requiring little direct participation from the student. This contrasts with
13 the active learning that occurs through the hands on experience of field trips or other informal experiences. Informal education not only enhances the learning experience, but fosters curiosity and an interest to continue learning beyond the end of a school day (Eshach, 2007). Formal and informal learn ing often address the same curriculum. Informal experiences, like field trips, can complement the curriculum taught in the classroom, often presenting the same material in a different context. Even so, whether a student is walking through a mangrove forest or simply reading about Florida ecology in a science textbook, the same material can be covered through either method, so it is reasonable to question the need for field trips that take place during school hours. Not only this, but field trips require ex tra funding and effort on behalf of the schools. School trips in Bradenton and Sarasota must meet certain guidelines defined by the county, as outlined in Table 1.2 that take into account student safety, students with special needs, and correlation to curriculum being taught in the classroom. In addition to meeting these specific guidelines, organizing a field trip is costly, time intensive, and must be approved by the school principal (though certain types of field trips, such as the a dip netting activ ity that requires students to enter the water, require approval by the Director of School Management, the Director of Risk Management, and potentially the Assistant Superintendent of Curriculum and Instruction. Certain schools, including Fruitville Element ary School in Sarasota, do not approve dip netting or other similar field trips) (Manatee County School District, 2011). Table 1.2: Field Trip Requirements (Manatee County School District, 2011) A typical field trip led by a local nature tour compan y to Ken Thompson Park costs around $360, not including the cost of transportation to and from the site (www.aroundbend.com, 2011). If the field trip is not covered through grants or other external funding, the trip coordinator must insure that funds are a vailable to students that have financial difficulties, and the budget must also be approved by the school. From 2008 to 2011, funding for public schools in Manatee County was slashed by more
14 than $45 million dollars, with much of that funding being taken f rom programs not seen for field trips has been reduced or eliminated. The field trip coordinator must request the transportation busses at least twenty days prior to the trip, and must be confirmed before any further field trip planning can be placed. For trips planned in Manatee and Sarasota Counties, a minimum of five separate forms must be submitted sometimes weeks prior to the trip (see Table 1.3 and Appendix A ) i n addition to parental permission forms signed by each parent or guardian. Table 1.3. Required Forms to be Completed Prior to any School Sanctioned Field Trip (Manatee County School District, 2011) Not only must these guidelines be met, teachers mus t ensure that the trip aligns with the classroom curriculum as defined by the Florida Sunshine State Standards (Favorite, 2011). These Standards address specific topics that must be taught to students in each grade level throughout the year. Before these n ew guidelines were instated, many school officials questioned the educational quality of the field trips. In the words of one assistant superintendent of schools in Florida, Ruth Reilly (Edutopia, 2005): "There have been a lot of things we've done to revi sit our field trip guidelines to make sure that they are educationally appropriate. We had some situations where schools had annual field trips that weren't necessarily aligned with the curriculum. [Now] there's a real focus on accountability, and making t he grade with the test score. And there's the feeling in many cases that field trips take time away from more focused classroom time." Under new guidelines, teachers have to demonstrate which standards each field trip will address, and make sure that the field trip is not a distraction from the curriculum. Increased concerns over standardized test scores have led to the drastic
15 reduction of time spent out of the classroom in informal learning centers. Instead, students spend more time indoors, providing te achers with more classroom time in hopes to, among other things, raise FCAT 2 scores. Instead of visiting local aquariums, national and state parks, or museums, students now spend more time focusing on textbooks and chalk board lectures. Fewer students are v enturing to the outdoors to experience the world through informal education and the scientific processes responsible for it. This increased concern coupled with the difficulty of coordinating, funding, and implementing a field trip (and related aspects lik e transportation), have contributed to the decline of field trips in local schools. In light of these concerns, why should a school bother to take students on field trips that require time, money, and extra effort? When a student visits a zoological park, aquarium, or natural park they encounter science in the real world. Science is not just pet ri dishes and microscope slides confined to the boundaries of a laboratory, but is instead something that takes place outside of these controlled settings (Wellingto n, 1990). The often dry, by the book science taught in schools rarely resembles the natural world, becoming a simplified and watered down version of reality. While perhaps physics or chemistry can be well suited to a classroom setting, other branches of sc ience --ecology, biology, and the environmental sciences --are not appropriately addressed through simple demonstrations and models. Bringing students out of the classroom and into the field does more than expose them to other presentations of the curric ulum. A field trip can play a number of roles in relationship to the curriculum as either a component of a unit, a starting point before the curriculum begins, to reinforce previously learned concepts, or as a way to conclude a unit of study (Cox Petersen and Melber, 2001). Informal learning environments promote exploration and play as part of the learning process. This exploration and play reinforces a child's natural curiosity, and often segues into more formal, conceptual learning (Bresler, 1991). For ma ny students who participate in classroom study that focuses on written or oral information, being engaged in an immersive, hands on experience is an entirely different, often effective approach to learning (Semper, 1990). Being present in a natural environ ment allows a student to connect the dots between the many different concepts presented in a textbook. When exploring a mangrove ecosystem, students can understand how the different concepts in their textbooks relate to one another. Bio geo chemical cycles food chains, weather patterns, and photosynthesis are no longer words and pictures, but real, tangible things that do not exist in isolation. A novel environment like a park, museum, or zoo sparks excitement. A chance to attentive, and interested in [the] activity in order for learning to occur Gassert, 1997). Bringing a student into a new environment can spark curiosity and a desire to investigate and learn, conditions which strongly coincide with what many teachers are hoping to achieve in their classrooms. 2 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test
16 Unfortunately, while field trips might be the ideal situation for engaging students in the sciences, they are not always possible because of budget issues, transportation difficulties, or other reasons. In these situations, t eachers are taking advantage of an effective alternative --virtual field trips. Through the use of webcams, simulations, or other computer locations without ever stepping foot out of their classroom. These virtual trips can also -outer space, deep ocean vents, or historical sites that no longer exist ( Table 1.4 ). There are many opportunities for virtual field trips even in local Manatee and Sarasota counties. website 3 T lives in an aquarium that can be observed through webcams on any computer equipped w ith a flash player. In this way students can see Snooty up close without paying museum admission, worrying about requ esting transportation, or organizing chaperones. Thousands of these webcams exist in sites around the country --students can observe sea turtle nests, aquariums, and even kelp forests on their computer s from their classrooms. In addition to these strictly programs. Students can submit questions via webcam or email, and receive instant responses from museum guides, naturalists, marine biologists, or other field experts inv olved in these programs. Because they can be targeted to small groups, they can have an intimate feel and be carefully tailored to the individual class at hand. These programs have been around for a number of years, but the most successful ones include sev eral for the material, a live interactive broadcast connecting students with knowledgeable experts, and follow up activities to be completed either in class or online. The se interactive virtual experiences often captivate the imagination and interest of students that may otherwise not actively participate in classroom activities, with many teachers erized for of class trip, to help prepare students for the experience. Exploring the field trip site via the internet before an actual visit can prepare the students, and sm ooth the transition from classroom to field trip site, and prepare the students for their visit (Cox Petersen and Melber, 2001). Technology can also be used to follow up an actual field trip, reviewing and reinforcing the material learned on site. 3 http://www.southfloridamuseum.org/TheAquarium/SnootyCam.aspx. The live Snooty Cam is available Monday through Saturday from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm during the week. Students can see divers interacting with Snooty, and watch the manatees feed four times daily.
17 We bcam and Virtual Field Trip Opportunities for Students NASA Virtual Field Trip An immersive multimedia application developed to support student and user exploration of areas on Earth that have been identified as analog sites to regions on Mars http://quest.nasa.gov/vft/ The Butterfly Conservatory Virtual Field Trip Tour exhibition highlights, butterfly cams, or the virtual tour of the butterfly exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/ butterflies/tour.html Museo Galileo Institute and Museum of the History of Science The Online Catalogue of the museum, located in Florence, Italy, presents the more than 1,200 objects on permanent exhibition through color images and detailed descriptio ns. http://www.museogalileo.it/en/ explore/virtualmuseum.html Yellowstone National Park Webcams Students can observe wildlife in several locations throughout Yellowstone with webcams http://www.yellowstone natl park.com/northcam.htm
18 Georgia Aquarium Ocean Voyager Webcam Watch whale sharks, manta rays, and thousands of other animals, including sharks, rays, grouper, guitarfish and more 6.3 million gallon exhibit. http://www.georgiaaquarium.org/explore the aquarium/interact/web cams.aspx Table 1.4 Webcam and Virtual Field Trip Opportunities for Students While there are many benefits to these virtual trips, there are several downsides that should be taken into account. In situations where field trips are not possible due to budget issues, virtual field tri ps may not be an ideal solution. Computers, webcams, and paid effective than out of school trips. In addition, they tend to be less immersive than actual trips out of the classr oom. Whereas students can only use some of their se nses --sight and sometimes hearing --on virtual trips, students visiting an actual mangrove ec osystem see, smell, hear, touch and can even taste the surrounding environment. By appealing to all of their senses, rea l trips can be more captivating especially in this high tech era where many students have grown blas about their experiences on the computer. Educators must recognize that these virtual trips are not a replacement for students interested in the sciences (Schmidt, 1997). Getting students excited about science is a major goal in the educators and legislators. Where the United States was once a leader in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), recent decades have shown a considerable decline in US performance compared to other countries (Friedman and Mandelbaum, 2011 ). During the Cold War conflict heavy emphasis was made on the STEM fields, leading to great scientific and technological innovations. Many educators during this time period put heavy emphasis on STEM, but since the end of the Cold War Era, the excitement surrounding these fields has declined. In the words of Thomas Friedman (2011): responses that wars have evoked, but without a major ongoing conflict it will be difficult to mobilize the American people to make the difficult policy choices needed to meet them. In seeking to rally support for such policies when he assumed office, President Obama careers in science and engineering, and related businesses, and
19 galvanized the country as a whole to invest in mathematics, science, The purpos e was to avoid falling behind the Soviet Union, but one of the by products was to update the traditional American formula for prosperity, which made the American economy even more The decline in STEM interest has extend schools. As the STEM w orkforce has reached retirement student enthusiasm, motivation, and competency to replace these workers has diminished. On international assessments for science, technolog y, engineering, and mathem atics the US has consistently declined in performance over the past decade. The Programme for International Student Assessment showed that US students ranked in the bottom 16% in science literacy among developed countries. In 2009 the average performance o f students in the natural sciences was lower than the scores in 1996, and had shown no improvement since the year 2000 according to the US National Assessment of Educational Progress (Honda, 2010). (See also: Table 1.5)
20 Table 1.5: Student Performance by Country in Mathematics, Reading, and Science on the Programme for International Student Assessment (Friedman and Mandelbaum, 2011) The decline in student performance can be attributed to several factors. Current federal efforts to improve STEM education are often underfunded or not organized in a manner that effectively introduces STEM education into district schools. Those efforts and funding that would be effective frequently fall through. For example, in 2006 the US Government sponsored more than 100 S TEM education programs at a cost of more than i nvestment gave little in return with student scores on STEM assessments as low as ever (Honda, 2011).
21 This decline in STEM education and performance can be directly linked to the economic decline in the United States. The need for growth in the science and technology marketplace can be directly addressed; this desired innovation is powered by better education for every Am erican student (Friedman and Mandelbaum, 2011). Increased student interest in the sciences will foster learning, and can be addressed through the implementation of field trips and other forms of informal education. Isolating students from the natural world and containing education in a classroom removes the inherent curiosity and exploration that forms the true nature of scientific learning. Engaging students and allowing them to participate in the learning process will spark a natural curiosity that ensure s that learning doesn't stop when the bell rings to signal the end of the school day.
22 Methods To increase variety of informal learning opportunities for students in Sarasota and Manatee counties, field trips must be accessible, economic, safe, and relevant to the classroom material. Presented here are relatively simple, hands on, and cost effective ideas for field trips designed to enhance a student's education by comple menting curriculum required by the Florida Depar tment of Education's Science Sunshine Standards (Florida Department of Education, 2011). These standards dictate what scientific material must be covered in classrooms across the state, with differing requirements for each grade level. Covering a broad ran ge of material from physics to the Earth sciences, the majority of the programs presented here focus on biology and ecology. While these field trips should ideally take place away from the classroom, many can be adapted for hands on activities taking place in school. Many of these programs can be adapted to suit a variety of grade levels by adding or removing components, or making slight modifications to the presented curriculum. The original Florida Sunshine Standards were developed by the State Board of Education and adopted statewide in 1996. These standards covered four subject areas (Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies) and were arranged into four K through twelfth grade. The Standards were implemented in a n attempt to define the expectations for academic achievement in public schools throughout the state by requiring more accountability concerning the material covered in the curriculum (Curriculum Planning and Learning Management System, 2011). After the or iginal the Board of Education also added specific Grade Level Expectations, which covered the basic body of knowledge each student should know before advancing to the next grade level (Sunshine State Standards Science Overvie w, 2011)(See Table 3 1 ). Examples of Grade Level Expectations for K 8 Kindergarten characteristics that they do not have in real life First Grade anybody could easily count and that they are not scattered evenly in the sky leaves, roots, and stems Second Grade many different shapes and sizes. repeat themselves, like weather and seasons
23 Third Grade support, water and nutrient transport, and reproduction. Fourth Grade oon over the course of about a month. molten rock); sedimentary (pieces of other rocks and fossilized organisms); and metamorphic (formed from heat and pressure). Fifth Grade ng the various forms of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, and hail), making connections to the weather in a particular place and time. different climate zones as they relate to latitude, elevatio n, and proximity to bodies of water. Sixth Grade built up and torn down by physical and chemical weathering, erosion, and deposition. types of scientific investigation, and explain the relative benefits and limitations of each. Seventh Grade deforestation, urbanization, desertification, erosion, air and water quality, changing the flow of water. producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web. Eighth Grade ng: rotation, structure of the s un, convection, sunspots, solar flares, and prominences. of Mass and Energy. Tab le 3 .1: Examples of Grade Level Expectations for Kindergarten through Eighth Grade (Florida Department of Education, 2011). Throughout the first decade that the Sunshine Standards we re im plemented in the public schools the need for more rigorous standards became apparent. The 1996 ased levels of achievement ). As a result, the Department of Education revised the standards to form a more rigorous, systematic system that became known as the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS). This system focuses on grade specific standards in eleven subject areas for grades K 8, 12. The standards for each
24 Appendix B ), and specific benchmarks that fall into each of these categories. The Board of Educat ion also devised a review cycle intending to revisit and revise the standards and integrate them into the system every six years (Sunshine State Standards Science Overview, 2011). The field trips designed in fulfillment of this thesis focus solely on the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for kindergarten through eighth grade (K 8). A different field trip, composed of several individual activities, covers a general theme but relates to many individual Sunshine Standards across each grade level. The scien ce standards for K 8 largely focus on ecology, Earth cycles, weather, seasons, life cycles, and other natural science subjects that are appropriate for field trips to parks or other outdoor destinations, whereas many of the standards for the high school gr ade levels emphasize cellular biology, genetics, or other subjects that are more suited for classroom study. The fo cus on K 8 standards also comple ments the differentiation found in the Sunshine Standards themselves --with individual benchmarks for each g rade in the K king skills, creative problem solving, and collaborative group work, which all form a solid foundation for thinking about science and the scientific method in more advanced study. It is important to note that there are no specific age levels targeted for each Field Trip Unit. Every activity presented can be adapted to suit any of the K 8 grade levels by modifying the requirements to fit the standards appropriate for each group At the beginning of each unit the relevant Sunshine Standards for all grade lev els are r eview or as previously studied material tied in t o new concepts. In each section a summary of the way activities can be adapted are listed to assist field trip coo rdinators when planning trips for the diff erent age groups. In most cases certain activities that call for written work can be adapted to younger groups by encouraging group discussion rather than using the worksheets provided. Almost all of the material i s suitable for higher grade levels; it is only the analytical and written aspects that will change for younger students. Because most of the questions presented to students are open ended, they are suit able for use with any age group Only the depth of the scientific reasoning will change between groups. Each main Field Trip Unit presents one unified theme to address multiple general and specific standards across a spectrum of subjects. For example, the third Field Trip Unit presents information about developmental biology, food chains, ecosystem niches, a nd crab biology, all under the general theme of Mangrove Ecosystem Ecology. Each of the five Field Trip Units is further unified under the general theme of Coastal Ecology. Most of the activities are place based; they focus almost exclusively on species or ecosystems present only in Florida. These activities are adaptable to a number of different locales within the state, but were designed with Ken Thompson Park --a location suitable for Manatee and
25 Sarasota County Schools --in mind 4 This park is easily accessible by school buses, has picnic tables that can seat a large number of students, a winding boardwalk with access to many of the micro ecosystems present in the Florida mangroves, a dock that overlooks the water, and a beach with easy access to the sea grass beds. The park is free to use for school field trips so long as the proper permits have been obtained through the county. Figure C.1. The Boardwalk at Ken Thompson Park. Visitors can get up close and personal with mangrove plants and animals on the meandering pathway through the mangrove forest. In addition to free use of the site, the Field Trip Units are designed with cost in mind. Because reduced funding is often cite d as a reason for reducing the number of field trips, the projected cost for these activities has been kept as low as possible. Each activity focuses almost exclusively on the resources available in the park; instead of using costly mat erials ordered from a classroom supply catalog, students will look at leaves, soil, and organisms provided by the park. With the exception of the dipnetting activity, students require nothing beyond printed worksheets to complete the Field Trip Units 5 Through perhaps not as immersive as an actual field trip, activities presented in the Field Trip Units can be modified for classroom use. When a field trip is not possible due to funding, safety, transportation or other issues, it is important to recognize that there are altern atives that do not involve chalkboard lectures and textbook assignments. As part of each Fi eld Trip Unit, I have included adaptations for the 4 Though Emerson Point Preserve, Desoto National Memorial, Joan M. Durante Park, and the New College of Florida Bayfront are other locations that many be considered for the implementation of these Field Trip Units. For more information about Ken Thompson Park, please see Appendix C. 5 Even the dipnetting activity could be adapted to not require any purchased materials; students can collect many slow moving organisms by hand in shallow water, rather than using dipnets.
26 c lassroom; modified or alternative activities that can be done without visiting a field trip site. Like virtual fi eld trips there are many benefits to using these in class informal learning activities, though they may not match an actual field trip in scope and immersion 6 Fields trips are meant to be an effective, comple mentary component to in class learning, not a diversion from it (Ramey Gassert, 1997). For a field trip to be approved in Sarasota or Manatee County, the Field Trip Coordinator must prove that the field trip is connected to the curriculum defined by the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (Favor ite, 2011). To demonstrate that these outdoor field trips are actually teaching students according to the Standards, Karen Fraley of Around The Ben d Nature Tours (ATBNT) uses pretests and post tests to measure student comprehension of the material presented on the field trips to Ken Thompson Park 7 These four or five question tests ( Table 2.2 ). Further information about th e specific method used by ATBNT can be found in the Da ta Analysis section of this thesis. Following the groundwork laid by ATBNT, I have outlined a method of assessing student learning through the use of pretests and post tests. The requiring written responses, rather than multip le choice answers. They asse ss individual learning rather than the collective resp tests, though they could easily be adapted for use in a group setting. In addition to evaluating student learning after a field t rip by providing a standard m easure of comparison, these pre tests actual ly give the students context in which to assimilate their learning during the field trip. It should be noted that these pretests and post tests serve two important functions as formative and summative evaluations. A summative evaluation simply is used to determine Summative assessment is useful in the fact that it helps to determine what students are learning over the course of the field trip, but formative evaluatio n helps determine the classroom. Data for Pre and Posttests Collected by Around The Bend Nature Tours Dipnetting and Ecosystems Field Trip, 58 Third Grade Students, February 2011 Correct Responses on Pretests Correct Responses on Post Test Percent Improvement Question 1 27 57 52% Question 2 12 55 74 % 6 See Introduction Page X 7 This is also in partial fulfillment of the requirements set forth by PIER (the Protection Involvment, Education and Restoration Program of Sarasota Bay) and SFWMD (the South Florida Water Management District). Student learning assessments must demonstrate that AT new material in order to receive funding for school field trips.
27 Question 3 53 58 9% Question 4 34 58 41 % Question 5 19 58 67 % Question 1: Is the watershed the land or the water? (Correct Answer: Land) Question 2: Which is a native plant, the orange tree or gumbo limbo? (Correct Answer: Gumbo Limbo) Question 3: If we see a poisonous snake, should we kill it? (Correct Answer: No) Question 4: Is an estuary a place where fresh water a nd saltwater meet, or is it a saltwater lagoon? (Correct Answer: Where fresh water and salt water meet) Question 5: Does a mangrove grow in fresh water, or salty water? (Correct Answer: Salty water) Table 3 .2: Example of Pre and Postt est Data Collected By Around The Bend Nature Tours The general use of a pre test is to define what students know and do not know, and to use as a reference when evaluating learning at the end o f a defined time. These pre and post tests accomplish more than a simple evaluation of comprehension. When a student takes a pretest (in their classroom, before visiting the site outside of their school), they begin to think about the material to be presented on the field trip. As stated by Hartley and Davies (1976), ird's eye supplies the student with a useful perspective of what lies ahead. It also serves as a framework on which subsequent learning can be arranged and related, as well as a e, a pre test outlines the material to be covered during the actual field trip, and alerts students to the kind of material that should be learned through the experience. This allows students to them to issues, problems, or events that they ordinarily may not have noticed, and can lead them to evaluate the task in terms of its apparent relevancy or meaning (Hartley and Davies, pp. 241) students pre tests or exposing them to the material t hrough another method prior to a field trip gives them a framework through which to organize their learning, and often has a positive result on overall student comprehension (Gennaro, 1981). These presented Field Trip Units and accompanying materials should be considered a starting point for further informal education. There are hundreds of opportunities for students to learn in informal environments in Sarasota and Manatee Counties alone, man y of which tie into the themes of the activities presented here. Ideas for future study can be found online or Appendix D: Other Informal Education al Opportunities.
28 Dipnetting Field Trip Unit About the Dipnetting Field Trip Unit This unit introduces students to several key concepts important to the study of biology and science in general. Using dipnets to capture, study and release organisms exposes students to the practice of field research. Using dichotomous keys to classify org anisms is a valuable lesson in the classification of organisms, and serves to sharpen their critical thinking skills. Students deal with qualitative and quantitative information to determine the species of the organisms they have caught, and think about si milarities and differences to other organisms. The use of dichotomous keys also familiarizes students with the Linnean concept of taxonomic classification to think about the relationships between different species. Adapting the Dipnetting Field Trip Unit to the Classroom: For safety reasons some local schools do not permit field trip activities that involve students entering any body of water. There are several inherent risks --sharp --but most can be avoided with proper footwear and appropriate supervision and instruction. If a school group is unable to participate in a marine dipnetting program, there are several activities that could be used in a classroom to cover similar materia l: Have students gather materials from their classroom, like a text book, a pencil, a box of tissues, etc. After explaining the concept of a dichotomous key, have them write their own to classify the materials. Then have the students switch keys with a p artner. Were the keys an effective means to identify materials? This project could also be done with rubber animal toys from the dollar store, photographs of actual marine organisms, or students in the classroom (categorize students based on gender, hair c olor, height, eye color, etc). Go on a campus safari --search for trees, wildflowers, insects, reptiles, and amphibians. Have the students attempt to identify the different species using dichotomous keys. If a dichotomous key is not available, students can look through field guides and create their own. To prepare for this activity by collecting a large bucket of water and plant material from a local pond or other body of water. Have the students sort through the material with nets or their hands, and search for macro invertebrates --insects, larvae, worms, or other pond creatures. There are a variety of pond life dichotomous keys available to practice classifying organisms. Have the students sort the organisms into smaller containers by grouping thos e with similar characteristics.
29 Dipnetting: Introduction and Methods Florida Sunshine State Standards: SC.K.L.14: Organization and Development of Living Organisms SC.1.E.6.2: Describe the need for water and how to be safe around water SC.2.L.17.2: Recognize and explain that living things are found all over Earth, but each is only able to live in habitats that meet its basic needs SC.3.L.15.1: Classify animals into major groups (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, arthropods, vertebrates an d invertebrates, those having live births and those which lay eggs) according to their physical characteristics and behaviors. SC.3.N.1.6: Infer based on observation. SC.6.L.15.1: Analyze and describe how and why organisms are classified according to s hared characteristics with emphasis on the Linnaean system combined with the concept of Domains. Objectives: Students will understand that the estuary functions as a marine nursery, where many creatures begin their life cycles. Students will understand th at wildlife comes in a variety of forms small to large. They will learn to classify organisms by phylum and species, and will learn to use a key to identify different species of fish, mollusks, echinoderms, crustaceans, and plants (younger students can u se graphic keys, and older students can begin with written, more descriptive dichotomous keys). Students will also be introduced to collecting methods as they gather organisms in the sea grass beds, and will be introduced to water safety. Students are resp onsible for their actions affecting this wildlife. Introduction: An ecosystem is a biological system composed of living (biotic) organisms interacting with their non living (abiotic) environment and each other. These extremely complex systems of interactions vary from ecosystem to ecosystem as the species and physical f actors change from location to location. Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface, and include deep sea vents, coral reefs, coastal lagoons, open ocean, and the focus of this activity; estuaries. Sea grass beds are often located in th ese areas where fresh and saltwater mix, and beds contain a remarkable abundance of organisms, from the large spotted eagle ray to the tiny arrow crab. Sea grass beds are remarkably important to the reproduction of marine organisms. They offer a safe envir onment for young animals with plenty of
30 food and shelter from predators. The diversity of these animals indicates the well being ecosystem, and the presence or absence of certain organisms (known as indicator species ) can tell us much about the water quali ty and overall health of the estuary. Because these ecosystems are found close to shore, they are easily impacted by human pollution. Discussion Points: Think about and discuss the following points before entering the water to collect organisms Sea grasses are not seaweed. Seaweed is composed of marine algae, whereas sea grasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) with roots that anchor them to the sandy line (see Fi gure 4 1 ) upon the shore. These grasses are eaten by decomposers and are home to all kinds of tiny organisms ( Figure 4 2 ). Figure 4.1 The Wrack Line. Sea grass deposits form a line just about the high tide point. (Image source: http://www.wickedlocal. com/capecod/archive/x593042238/g12c00000000000000028502952457a7583237b73a43dd1385a8e57a9e 3.jpg)
31 Figure 4.2 Organisms Cling To Blades of Sea Grass. Snails and bivalves are some of the many creatures that can be found when dipnetting the in the seagrass beds (Image source: http://coz.southernfriedscience.com/wp content/uploads/2011/02/Scallop.seagrass1.jpg) When observed from the shore, we can see dark and light areas in the water. The light areas indicate a sandy bottom, and the darker areas indicate areas where the sea grasses grow ( Figure 4.3 ) Figure 4.3 Aerial View of Ken Thompson Park. Dark areas indicate sea grass beds, light areas indicate a sand bottom. (Image source: http://maps.google.com/maps?q=27.335413, 82.570807&hl=en&ll=27.336119, 82 .571043&spn=0.00529,0.010225&sll=27.335413, 82.570807&sspn=0.00529,0.010225&vpsrc=6&t=h&z=17) Human activities can damage the sea grass beds. Boat anchors or prop ellers can drag through an area Figure 4.4 ) Point and non point pollution sources also influence the health of the sea grass beds. A point source of pollution comes from a discrete source, like a leaking pipe or wrecked ship. A non point source comes from a broad area, like a sea side neighborhood that applies pesticides and fertilizers near the water. Because the sea grass beds are located near the watershed, these non point sources can greatly impact the health of the ecosystem.
3 2 Figure 4.4 Seagrass S cars Caused By Boat Propellers Suggested Procedure: Safety First! Students must dress appropriately before entering the water to collect organisms. In order to safely enter the water they need to wear close toed shoes. While there are very few risks in these shallow waters, there are sharp beds of oysters which can easily cut through skin. Flip flops or other unsecured sandals can fall off in the water, exposing feet to dangerous oyster shells which can cause infection. Students should also shuffle their feet as they move through the s ea grass beds to avoid surprising sting rays which can deliver a nasty sting. 1 .) Emphasize that students are responsible for the animals collected in the estuary. They are living creatures that must be returned to the water unharmed. 2 .) Demonstrate proper dip netting technique to the students, and allow them to enter the water to collect organisms from the sea grasses. Spread out and move slowly. Looking near rocks, fallen trees, mangrove roots, or other micro ecosystems can yield many different organisms. Place creatures in a five gallon bucket filled with water from the estuary to be sorted later. Students may also wish to collect a small bucket full of loose sea grass ( do not pull out rooted sea grasses ) to search for organisms attached to the blades. 3 .) Return to shore and sort the organisms into tubs by phylum (have students make educated guesses concerning the proper organization --does it have an exoskeleton? It's probably a crustacean.) 4 .) Using the graphic or dichotomous keys, have students begin t o classify organisms by species. They can sketch the organism and label it to confirm identification and continue study upon returning to the classroom. They may also wish to describe the l ocation the animal was found. 5 .) Upon finishing the activity return the organisms to their marine environment.
33 Thought Questions: These questions can serve as a starting point for discussion upon returning to the classroom. Answers to these questions can be found in Appendix E Which species was most abundant? Why do you think this is? How many species were found? Do you think this indicates a high level of diversity? Does this mean our ecosystem is healthy? Were any of the species closely related? How can you use a scientific name to learn about the relationship between species? How do you think the species might vary from season to season? (Think about migration or breeding cycles). Why are sea grass beds ideal locations for young animals? How can humans impact the health of the sea grass beds? What animals might live in sea grass bed s that were not found while dip netting? Why do you think we didn't find any of those animals? Words to Know: These words can be useful when discussing ecosystems and classification of organisms Estuary a partially enclosed body of water where a freshwater source meets a saltwater source (for example, where a river flows into an ocean) Brackish water a mixture of both fresh and salt water; usually determined by salinity Sea Grass f lowering plants that grow in marine an d brackish environments Pollution the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem. Ecosystem a system of organisms interacting with their phys ical environment and each other. Indicator Species species whose presence or absence indicate the healthiness of an ecosystem
34 Wrack Line t he part of shore just above the high tide line where sea grasses are deposited Dichotomous Key a system of identifying species by answering two part questions until a final species is reached Phylum A category of classification between kingdom and class. In general, it organizes species by body type Species the most specific category of classific ation. Animals of the same species reproduce together Classification s orting organisms into categories by grouping them with species that share similar characteristics Biotic a living factor in an environment like a plant, animal, or bacterium Abiotic a non living factor in an environment like water, wind, sand, or temperature Salinity saltiness of the water, usually measured in parts per thousand
35 Before any science educator can grab a net and st art collecting marine organisms they must obtain the proper certification through the Florida Fish and Wildlif e Conservation Commission (FWC) or the Florida Marine Science Educators Association (FMSEA) though there are other ways to obtain permits. Not only does permitting prevent the collection of certain restricted species for reasons not pertaining to education, it also ensures that educators understand proper procedures for safely collecting, caring for, and releasing marine species (FWC, 2011). The FWC offers two types of special activity licenses for educators; the first is a Marine Special Activity regulations. ntific research, education, exhibition, aquaculture, the use of non conforming gear (for research purposes only), the testing of innovative gear, the use of marine chemicals, the release of marine organisms, and the use of dredges for harvesting marine org educators interested in these activities, or for out of state educators interested in harvesting marine organisms in Florida, the MSAL is appropriate. However, in state educators interested in activities like dipnetting or collecting fid dler crabs for observation should consider obtaining a permit through FMSEA. The FMSEA/FWC Aquatic Species Collecting Certificate is valid for three years from the issue date, and covers both marine and freshwater species. This permit is available to Flo rida certified educators, or employees of educational organizations like Around the Bend Nature Tours, and each certified educator may supervise up to 25 students participating in collecting activities. Educators must participate in a workshop to obtain th eir Collecting Certificate. After successfully completing a three hour indoor workshop (which covers collecting methods, safety, and release methods, among other topics), they venture outside to practice various collection methods and safe transportation o f life aquatic species. The workshop and certification costs $25, and allows certificate holders to collect species that would otherwise be restricted under general fishing licenses (FMSEA, 2011). FMSEA holds these workshops at their annual conferences, bu t additional workshops can be arranged through the Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota (Mote Marine Laboratory, 2011). For More Information: Mote Marine Laboratory Teacher Workshops http://www.mote.org/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=Education%20Programs%3A %20T eacher%20Workshops&category=Education Schedule of Upcoming FMSEA Conferences and Workshops http://www.fmsea.org/events/default.html#workshops
36 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Regulated Species Information http://myfwc.com/media/290251/SW_RegulatedSpecies.pdf Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Policy on the Release of Marine Organisms http://myfwc.com/media/290194/SAL_ReleasePolicy.pdf Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Educat License Application http://myfwc.com/media/290182/SAL_Education Exhibition.pdf
37 Written Dichotomous Keys For Plant Life, Mollusks, Crustaceans, Fish, and Echinoderms Dichotomous Key for Plant Life 1.) It is a plant Go to question 2 It is seed Go to question 15 2.) Go to question 3 Go to question 12 3.) It is grass Go to question 4 It is not grass Go to question 7 4.) Turtle Grass (Thalassia testudinum) Go to question 5 5.) Manatee Grass (Syringodium filiforme) Go to question 6 6.) Ruppia Grass (Rup pia maritima) Cuban Shoal Grass (Halodule wrightii) 7.) It has air Go to question 8 It does not have air Go to question 9 8.) Balloon Seaweed (Colpomenia pereg rine) The bladders are one to two millimeters across Pelagic Sargassum (Sargassum spp.) 9.) It is hair Go to question 10 It is not hair 10.) Hair Algae (Cladaphora spp.) Hallow Gr een Weed (Enteromorpha spp.) 11.) Green Fleece (Codium spp.) It has wide, strap Sea Lettuce (Ulva spp.) 12.) It h Red Grapes (Botryo cladia occidentalis) Go to question 13 13.) Thicket Algae (Galaxaura spp.) Go to question 14 14.) It has branches with stiff, pointed branchlets in Red Spineweed (Bryothamnion triquetrum) Graceful Redweed (Gracilaria tikvahiae) 15.) It is long a pencil Red Mangrove Propagule (Rhizophora mangle) It is not long and pencil Go to question 16 16.) Grey Nickerbean (Caesalpinia bonduc) Go to question 17
38 17.) Seagrape Seed (Coccolobauvifera) Go to question 18 18.) Black Mangrove Fruit (Avicenniagerminans) Go to question 19 19.) It is small, and shaped like an White Mangrove Fruit (Lagunculariaracemosa) Coconut (Cocosnucifera) Dichotomous Key for Mollusks 1.) Go to question 5 Go to question 2 2.) Go to question 3 Mottle Sea Hare (Aplysiabrasiliana) 3.) It has eight It has eight Atlantic Long Finned Squid (Loligopaelei) 4.) Common Atlantic Octo pus (Octopus vulgaris) It has small, whitish wart Long Armed Octopus (Octopus macropus) 5.) The shell is shaped like an oval Go to question 6 6.) Keyhol e Limpet (Rissurella spp.) False Limpet (Siphonaria spp.) 7.) Go to question 8 Go to question 31 8.) (Nodipectennodosus) Go to question 9 9.) The shell is flattened, shiny, translucent, and metallic Common Jingle Shell (Anomia ephippium) The Go to question 10 10.) Go to question 11 Go to question 16 11.) Go to question 12 Go to question 13 12.) The shell is deep and scoop Atlantic Giant Cockle (Dinocardium Robustum)
39 Pen shell (Atrina spp.) 13.) Sunray Venus (Macrocallista nimbosa) The shell is Go to question 14 14.) Atlantic Geoduck (Panopea bitruncata) Go to question 15 15.) Southern Surfclam (Spisulara veneli) The shell has clearly v Souther n Quahog Clam (Mercenaria campechiensis) 16.) Go to question 17 Go to question 24 17.) The shell edge is asy Go to question 18 Go to question 20 18.) Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Go to question 19 19.) The shell is somewh at rectangular, with rough ribs and a zigzagging striped Turkey Wing (Arca zebra) The shell has strong, concentric ridges, with half the edge rounded and the other Pointed Venus Clam (Anomalocardia auberiana) 20.) The shel Stout Tagelus Clam (Tagelus plebeius) Go to question 21 21.) Go to question 22 Go to question 23 22.) The shell has 17 18 well Atlantic Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians) Coloration is gray, cream, or white with highlighted Dwarf Surfclam (Mulinia lateralis) 23.) The shell is ivory colored and covered with fine, wavy parallel lines that look like Cross Hatched Lucine (Divaricella quadrisulcata) The shell is brown with highly contrasting streaks of white radiating from the hinge, Spectral Bittersweet (Glycymeris spectralis) 24.) Go to question 28 Go to question 25 25.) Th Horse Mussel (Modiolus spp.) Go to question 26 26.) Leafy Jew elbox (Chama macerophylla)
40 Go to question 27 27.) The shell is glossy, smooth, and has small grooved teeth. It has one elongated half, Coquina Clam (Donax variabilis) The shell has lopsided earlengths, with the front one five times longer than the Scaly Scallop (Cariba chlamyssentis) 28.) Yellow Pricklycockles (Trachycardium maricatum) Go to question 29 29.) The shell has squ Atlantic Calico Scallop (Argopecten gibbus) Go to question 30 30.) The shell is deep pink with lighter highlights along the growth ridges Rose Petal Tellin (Tellina lineata) Sunrise Tellin (Tellina radiata) 31.) Lightning Whelk (Busycon sinistrum) Go to questio n 32 32.) Florida Wormsnail (Vermicularia knorii) Go to question 33 33.) It h Go to question 34 Go to question 36 34.) Common Purple Sea Snail (Janthina janthina) Go to question 35 35.) White (Sinum perspectivum) (Neverita duplicate) 36.) The shell is glo ssy, egg Go to question 37 The shell is not glossy and egg Go to question 38 37.) Atlantic Deer Cowrie (Macrocypraea cervus) The shell is yellow with brown Atlantic Yellow Cowrie (Erosaria acicularis 38.) The shell has a straight sided, cone Go to question 39 The shell does not have a straight sided, cone Go to question 40 39.) Sculp tured Top Snail ( Calliostoma euglyptum) The shell surface is rough, with saw Long Spined Star
41 40.) Go to question 41 Go to question 47 41.) T Giant Eastern Murex (Murex fulvescens) Go to question 42 42.) The shell is up to a foot across, has some spines along the spire, a smooth body, and Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) Go to question 43 43.) Go to question 44 Go to question 45 44.) Horse Conch (Triplofusus giganteus) Florida Fighting Conch (Strombus a latus) 45.) Atlantic Figsnail (Ficus papyratia) The shell has a pointed spire, rounded whorls, and a stem Go to question 46 46.) The shell has fine, reddish Banded Tulip Snail (Fasciolaria lilium) True Tulip Snail (Fasciolariatulipa) 47.) Go to question 48 Go to question 49 48.) H (Epitonium humphreysii) Common American Auger (Terebra disolocata) 49.) Junonias (Scaphella junoni) The shell is glossy, covered with over Lettered Olive (Oliva sayana) Dichotomous Key for Crustaceans 1.) Go to question 2 Go to question 5 2.) Land Hermit Crab (Coenobita clypeatus) Go to question 3 3.) The legs are lightly striped with evenly Striped Hermit Crab (Clibanarius vita t tus) Go to question 4
42 4.) The body is red, with heavy, knobby, unequally Giant Red Hermit Crab (Petrochirus diogenes) Long Wristed Hermit Crab (Pagurus longicarpus) 5.) The animal is immobile, and found clustered growing on a Go to question 6 Go to question 8 6.) Goose Barnacle (Lepas spp.) Go to question 7 7.) The anima Striped Acorn Barnacle (Balanus a mphitrite) The animal has small (less than a half Star Barnacle (Chthamalus stellatus) 8.) The animal has a central carapace and ten legs, two of which are claws designed for Go to question 9 Go to question 14 9.) The animal has a central body with lo ng, spider Go to question 10 The animal does not have a central body with long, spider Go to question 11 10.) Arrow Crab (Stenorhynchus seticornis) The body is round, often Spider Crab (Libinia spp.) 11.) Go to question 12 Go to question 13 12.) Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) The Stone Crab (Menippe mercenaria) 13.) Calico Box Crab (Hepatus epheliticus) Speckled Crab (Arenaeus cribrarius) 14.) The body is horseshoe shaped with a triangular abdomen, and long, thick, pointed Horseshoe Crab ( Limulus polyphemus) Go to question 15 15.) The animal is found in the intertidal zone a Go to question 16 The animal is not found in the intertidal zone and is shrimp Go to question 17 16.) The carapace is oval shaped and convex, the legs are held tightly below the carapace, and there are f Atlantic Mole Crab (Emerita talpoida)
43 The body is shrimplike with tiny black eyes and the exoskeleton is made of Big Eyed Beach Flea (Talorchestia megalophthalma) 17.) Go to question 18 Go to question 20 18.) Go to question 19 Mantis Shrimp (Squilla empusa) 19.) The smooth exoskeleton is pink with paralle Red Lined Cleaning Shrimp (Lysmata wurdemanni) Banded Coral Shrimp (Stenopus hispidus) 20.) Broken Back Shrimp (Hippolyte pleurocanthis) The abdomen is not sharp Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Dichotomous Key for Fish 20.) Go to question 5 Go to question 2 21.) The fish has a flat body with a long, whip Go to question 3 The fish does not have a flat body and a long whip Go to question 4 22.) Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari) The fish is kite Southern Stingray (Dasyatis a mericana) 23.) The fish has sharp teeth, an elongated snake SpottedMoray Eel (Gymnothorax moringa) The fish has a long body, curled and grasping tail, tube like snout, and fan shaped fin Lined Sea horse (Hippocampus erectus) 24.) The fish has large pectoral fins that are oriented for bottom Go to question 6 Go to question 7 25.) The fish has a high backed body, three large spines an d spined fins, and a blotchy Spotted Scorpionfish (Scorpaena plumieri) The fish has an elongated, slender body, broad snout, mottled body, and large, wing like Leopard Searobin (Prionotus scitulus) 26.) The fish has a tube like elongated b Go to question 8 The fish does not have a long, tube Go to question 11 27.) Go to question 9 Go to question 10 28.) The fish h as a long, fragile, beak like mouth w ith the bottom jaw extending past the top, Redfish Needlefish (Strongylura notate)
44 The fish h as an elongated jaw with sharp teeth, the bottom jaw protruding past the top, and a distinctiv Atlantic Needlefish (Strongylura timucu) 29.) The fish is dark green, with a tube Dusky Pipefish (Syngnatush floridae) The fish ha s spines along the back and a long snout that ends with a Trumpetfish (Aulostomus mascalatus) 30.) Go to question 12 Go to question 13 31.) The fish has a protruding jaw an Southern Flounder (Paralichthyus lethostigma) Hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus) 32.) The fish has a round or box Go to question 14 The fish is not round or box like... 33.) Striped Burrfish (Chilomyeterus schoepfi) The fish has horn Orange Filefish (Aluterus scho epfi) 34.) The fish has a spiny dorsal fin and yellow and blue stripes that run the length of its Pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides) Dichotomous Key for Echinoderms 1.) Go to question 2 Go to ques tion 7 2.) Go to question 3 Nine Armed Sea Star (Luidia senegalensis) 3.) The arms are attached to a pentagon Go to question 4 The arms are not attached to a pentagon Go to question 5 4.) The arms Smooth Brittle Star (Ophioderma spp.) Spiny Brittle Star (Ophiocoma echinata) 5.) Cushion Star (Oreaster ret i culatus) Go to question 6 6.) E Lined Sea Star (Luidia clathrata) Thorny Starfish (Echinaster spinulosus) 7.) Go to question 8 Go to question 9
45 8.) Brown (Hairy) Sea Cucumber (Sclerodactyla briareus) It is elongated, gray or green striped, with a boomerang Green (Striped) Sea Cucumber (Thyonell a gemmat a ) 9.) It is flat, disk shaped, with a five Go to question 10 It is not flat and disk Go to question 11 10.) Notched (Arrowhead) Sand Dollar (Encope michelini) There are five slot Five Holed Keyhole Urchin (Mellitaquinquies perforata) 11.) The animal is covered in extremely long, banded, needle Long Spined Urchin (Diadema ant illarum) The spines are not long and needle Go to question 12 12.) The spines are short, light Short Spined Variegated Urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) The spines are slightly longer, and mono P urple Sea Urchin (Arbacia p unctualata)
46 Graphic Dichotomous Keys For Plant Life, Mollusks, Crustaceans, Fish, and Echinoderms Dichotomous Key for Plant Life ( Image Sources: Turtle Grass http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/southflorida/seagrass/images/turtlegrass.JPG Manatee Grass http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/southflorida/seagrass/images/manateegrass2.JPG Shoal Grass http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/southflorida/se agrass/images/halodule2.JPG )
47 Dichotomous Key for Mollusks Image Sources: Octopus http://i2.squidoocdn.com/resize/squidoo_ images/590/draft_lens17557939module14 7723252photo_1319574817octopus_color ing_pages.jp Squid http://i1.squidoocdn.com/resize/squidoo_ images/250/draft_lens17877209module14 9724530photo_1303501427Squid.jpg Oyster http://img178.imageshack.us/img178/119 9/oyster.png Scallop http://www.wpclipart.com/animals/aquati c/shell_and_shellfish/Bay_Scallop.png Cla m http://i2.squidoocdn.com/resize/squidoo_ images/250/draft_lens10161811module14 1126061photo_1292509504ocean quahog Cyprina isla Sunray Venus http://www.duke.edu/~jspippen/mollusca /sunray venus101229 1193marcoz.jpg Coquina http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe dia/co mmons/d/d2/Coquina_variation3.jpg Jingle Shell http://www.follybeach.com/jingle shell.jpg Tulip Snail http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/exploratio ns/03mex/background/plan/bandedtulips nail_220.jpg Lettered Olive http://www.featurepics.com/FI/Thumb30 0/2009 1008/Lettered Olive Shell Oliva Sayana Seashell 1344457.jpg Fighting Conch http://shellmuseum.org/imgs/swflshells/4 4/alatus2.jpg Lightning Whelk http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/IMAGES/ Texas/lightning whelk.jpg Crown Conch http://www.jaxshells.org/image90.jp g
48 Dichotomous Key for Crustaceans Dichotomous Key for Fish Image Sources: Common Barnacle http://www.glf.dfo mpo.gc.ca/folios/00031/images/img_balanus_sp_2.jpg ,, Grass Shrimp http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/sp dest/visitorcenters/seacenter/education/coastal_habitats/saltmarshes/anim als/images/207_grass_shrimp.jpg, Horseshoe Crab http://www.wpclipart .com/a nimals/aquatic/cr ab/crab_2/horseshoe_crab_BW.png, Hermit Crab http://www.discountmugs.com/discountmugs/uploa d/cliparts/images/hermitcrab_1301 940309.jpg ,, Stone Crab http://www .fl seafood.com/i/stonecrab.jpg, Blue Crab http://www.marylandcrabs.com/images/blue crab.jpg Arrow Crab http:// www.dnr.sc.gov/marine/sertc/images/photo%20gallery/arrow.jpg Spider Crab http://img.tfd.com/wn/06/6141E spider crab.gif
49 Dichotomous Key for Fish Image Sources: Lined Seahorse http://gulfofmaine census.org/wp content/images/illustrated_taxonomy/fishes/fish08_6b.jpg Stingray http:// upload .wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Dasyatis_brevica udata_(Short tail_stingray).gif, Spotted Eagle Ray http://upload.wikimedia.org/w ikipedia/commons/e/e 5/Spotted_eagle_ray_lineart.jpg, Pipefish http://www.glaucus.org.uk/SnakeP.GIF Southern Puffer http://www.sms.si.edu/ IRLSpec/imag es/snephelus1.jpg, Pinfish http://floridasportfishing.com/magazine/images/stories/pin fish bait fish 12e.jpg Gulf Toadfish http:/ /www.rodnreel.com/gulffish/ images/regular/GulfToadfish.jpg, Mullet http://wahinoho.net/i mages_olelo/images_vocab/mullet.gif Sea Robin http://northern clingfish.tropicalfishss.co.uk/images/northern sea robin 3.jpg Code Goby http://www.southeasternoutdoors.com/wildlife/fish/ images/code goby.jpg
50 Dichotomous Key for Echinoderms Image Sources: Sand Dollar http://rivercityrubberworks.com/images/products/1453 B.jpg Sea Cucumber http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_FGXiaOUYep4/SLfNUnIf jLI/AAAAAAAAAGA/K5N1OqWXUzY/s400/16.jpg Variegated Urchin http://images.enature.com/seashore/seashore_l/sc009 0_1l.jpg Long Spined Urchi n http://www.seacare.org.au/images/seaUrchin_scetch.jpg Cushion Star http://www.seasky.org/reeflife/assets/images/starfish_cushion.jpg Common Starfish http://www.shuanglong6688.com/wp content/uploads/2011/05/Starfish.jpg
51 Dipnetting Pretest & Posttest 1.) Why is it important that people shuffle their feet when walking through the sea grass beds ?_________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _________________ ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.) What is brackish water ? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.) What is an ecosystem ? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4.) Where is the wrack line located ? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5.) List three abiotic factors found in t he sea grass beds: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________
52 Dipnetting Pretest Posttest Answers There may be more than one correct answer which may not be listed below 1.) Why is it important that people shuffle their feet when walking through the sea grass beds? Stingrays or other animals like to hide in the sea grasses. If they are startled, they might attack. Shu ffling your feet gives them plenty of warning that someone is coming, so that have time to get away. 2.) What is brackish water? Brackish water is a mix of salt water and fresh water. 3.) What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem is a biological system composed of liv ing (biotic) organisms interacting with their non living (abiotic) environment and each other. 4.) Where is the wrack line located? The wrack line is the deposits of dead sea grasses that form on the beach as the tide moves in and out. It is located just above the high tide line. 5.) List three abiotic factors found in the sea grass beds. Sand, water, salt, rocks
53 Birds and Feathers Field Trip Unit About the Birds and Feathers Field Trip Unit: This unit introduces students to the idea that humans can impact ecosystems, and emphasizes the importance of observation in scientific studies. Students explore the concept of modeling as they participate in a small scale oil spill experiment, and they consider the historical impacts of humans on bird populations. Stud ents also compare and contrast the structure and behavior of different birds, and think about structure and function of different physical adaptations birds have for life in the mangrove forest. Adapting the Birds and Feathers Field Trip Unit to the Class room: While this field trip has relatively few safety concerns (students do not need to be close to the water to complete the activities), funding or scheduling issues could prevent students from taking a trip to the mangrove forest to learn about birds and human impacts on ecosystems. Here are several suggestions for adapting the activities presented in the Birds and Feathers field trip unit for the classroom: Go bird watching on campus. Many species of birds frequent urban areas --finches, grackles, vultures, and even some gulls can be found in near by parking lots or other areas. If the school has a retention pond or other body of water, this too can serve as a sight to watch herons, egrets, or other water dwelling birds. Search for nests in trees. Ha ve students think about the ways birds have adapted to coexist alongside humans. Set up a bird feeder near a classroom window. Students can watch birds throughout the year, and watch as the species change throughout the year. What birds are common in fal l? Winter? Spring? Do any of the birds change their plumage throughout the year? The Oil Spill and Florida Feathers activities are already well adapted to classroom learning. Since students will not be observing real birds, supplement the Florida Feathers activity with real feathers from a craft store. Students may try trimming feathers to create new shapes ---how might a bird use a rectangular feather? A triangular feather? A feather with no bristles at all? After the Oil Spill activity have th e students experiment with other substances to see how they affect feathers. How does soap, vinegar, water, mud, or other materials change a feather?
54 Birds and Feathers: Introduction and Methods Florida Sunshine State Standards: SC.1.E.6.2: Describ e the need for water and how to be safe around water SC.2.L.17.2: Recognize and explain that living things are found all over Earth, but each is only able to live in habitats that meet its basic needs SC.3.L.15.1: Classify animals into major groups (m ammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, arthropods, vertebrates and invertebrates, those having live births and those which lay eggs) according to their physical characteristics and behaviors. SC.3.N.1.6: Infer based on observation. SC.4.L.17.4: Rec ognize ways plants and animals, including humans, can impact the environment SC.5.L.14.2: Compare and contrast the function of organs and other physical structures of plants and animals SC.5.L.17.1: Compare and contrast adaptations displayed by animals and plants that enable them to survive in different environments SC.7.E.6.6: Identify the impact that humans have had on Earth, such as deforestation, urbanization, desertification, erosion, air and water quality, changing the flow of water Objectives: Students will observe and describe birds found in Florida's mangrove ecosystems to compare and contrast their physical structures and roles in the ecosystem. They will also consider how different types of feathers help these birds adapt to life in the mangroves. Students will then consider the role humans play in the mangrove ecosystems, considering both positive and negative effects of their activities on the birds and other animals that live there. Introduction: There are around 10,000 differ ent species of birds in the world. This diverse class of animals includes the penguin and kiwi bird, the parakeet and the ostrich. Birds are feathered, two legged, egg laying, warm blooded animals, and many are capable of flight. Florida is home to a wide variety of birds, including herons, egrets,
55 hawks, eagles, and gulls. The state is even home to an endemic species, the Florida Scrub Jay, which is found nowhere else in the world. While the Florida Scrub Jay is sought after by bird watchers who travel fro m afar to witness it, people used to come to Florida for more than just a glimpse of our many feathered creatures. The use of feathers in the European fashion world began in France during the d hats with the use of feathers (and even whole stuffed birds), and the fad soon caught on throughout most of Europe. It then crossed the ocean, making the use of decorative feathers popular among the upper class in the American colonies. The feather fev er spread throughout the with the majority of hats being adorned with feathers. In 1886 an ornithologist (a person that stu dies birds) counted feathers from more than 40 different species on the hats of women in New York. Of the 700 different hats he saw, more than three quarters were decorated with feathers. Florida was a prime hunting ground to provide plumes for the feather trade. Large wading birds like herons and egrets with elaborate mating plumage were found all over the Everglades, and could b e found lumped together in nesting colonies. Hunters often took the adults, leaving the baby birds to die in the nests. Snowy Egrets suffered greatly from the feather trade because of their delicate, large breeding feathers. They almost bec ame extinct in t until the National Audubon Society spread the information about the near extinction. They eventually fou nd a colony of thirty birds and protected them from plume hunte rs. After decades of protection the Snowy Egret is once again a common sp ecies in Florida mangrove forests. Act passed in 1900, and restricted the trade of wildlife across state lines, but did nothing to prevent bird feathers from being sold or t raded locally. To fill this loophole came the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, which protected all native migratory birds. Under both the Lacey Act an d the Migratory Bird Treaty Act people that are caught collecting feathers illegal ly can face up to five years in jail and fines of up to $500,000. These two laws have helped protect many species of birds in Florida, saving their feathers from becoming a fashion statement. Women still continued to wear elaborate hats, but chose hats decorated with lace, je wels, pearls, or silk ribbons, sparing thousands of birds each year. While the feather trade has died down, humans still impact mangrove birds in many ways --oil spills, litter, and other forms of pollution impact the ability of birds to survive. This information and more can be found at: The Endangered Species Handbook: The Animal Welfare Institute, 1983. http://www.endangeredspecieshandbook.org/legislation_lacey.php The Plume Trade: Paul Ehrlich, David Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye, 1988. http://www.stan ford.edu/group/stanfordbirds/text/essays/Plume_Trade .html
56 (Image Source: http://fw.dpnr.gov.vi/education/Docs/NatHistGuidePDF/ANIMALS/Birds/Birds_files/image031.jpg) Discussion Points: Think about and discuss the following points before entering the mangroves to observe birds Many different types of birds live in the mangroves. They have special physical characteristics that help them adapt to live in the mangrove forests, and may nest or roost there. Othe r animals live in the mangroves and inter act with the birds found there. Think about the different way these organisms might coexist. Humans also impact mangrove ecosystems. Keep an eye out for evidence that humans have visited or impacted these ecosystems, and think about what affect that migh t have on the birds that live there. We may find evidence that different birds are present in the mangroves, even if we don't see the different birds themselves Suggested Procedure: Beware! It is illegal to collect the feathers of many bird species. Because of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, it is illegal to collect the feathers of more than 800 different bird species, including several that are commonly found in mangrove ecosystems. P lease do not remove any feathers that you may find while visiting the mangroves! Also, beware that there are some dangerous animals that live in the mangroves. Though an encounter is extremely rare, venomous snakes and spiders make their homes in the man groves. Please do not disturb any animals that you may see, and stick to marked paths to avoid meeting one of these creatures! Mangrove Birdwatching Activity 1.) Emphasize that students should not disturb any birds or other animals they see. By moving slowly and quietly, students will have the greatest opportunity to see these animals in the natural habitat.
57 2.) Have the students sit in small groups, making observations about the birds on the accompanying Mangrove Birdwatching Worksheet. 3.) After making observations try and identify the bird species using a local field guide 4.) Have students discuss the questions listed on the Mangrove Birdwatching Activity sheet. Encourage them to compare and contrast the different species, and think about their importance to the man grove ecosystems of Florida. Humans and the Mangrove Forests: Trashing the Mangroves and Oil Spill 1.) Begin by reading the story of the Feather Trade, introducing students to the fact that humans have long had an impact on the birds of the mangrove forests 2.) Have the students think about how humans might still affect these birds, even with the protection offered by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. 3.) Complete the Trashing the Mangroves activity using physical or graphic examples to encourage students to think ab out the way common trash items can injure birds. Optional: Bring along a plastic bag and collect garbage as you walk through the mangroves. Think about how this garbage may impact animals that live in the mangrove forest. 4.) After discussing the impact of litter on mangrove animals, complete the Oil Spill demonstration to illustrate the way humans can impact the mangroves on a larger scale. Florida Feathers 1.) Ask the students to reflect on the kinds of feathers they saw during their Birdwatching Activity. Students should think about the shape, color, size, patterns, and textures they saw. 2.) Discuss the many different uses of bird feathers --there are more than 20 different ways birds around the world use their feathers! Discuss how size, shape, texture, and color indicate how feathers are used. 3.) Using the graphics, have the students complete the Florida Feathers worksheet (or, alternatively, use real feathers purchased from a craft store to discuss the form and function of feathers). They should think about the way different mangrove birds use their feathers, and compare these feathers to those they saw during the Birdwatching Activity. Thought Questions: These questions can serve as a starting point for discussion upon returning to the classroom.
58 What e vidence did you find to suggest that humans had visited the mangroves? How might that evidence affect the animals living in the mangroves? What common characteristics did the birds you found share? How were they different? Would these same characteristics be useful in another environment? What would happen in the mangroves if all of the birds disappeared? What kinds of feathers were most common in mangrove birds? Think about size, shape, and color. What roles do the mangroves play in the survival of the birds? What was the feather trade? How did the Migratory Bird Treaty Act protect birds? How do humans impact the mangroves in negative ways? Positive ways? What can be done to minimize the negative impacts of humans? Words to Know: These words can be useful when discussing birds and the mangrove ecosystem Bird a f eathered animals with two wings and two legs, and most fly. They are warm blooded and hatch from eggs Feather f eathers cover the body of birds and can be used for fligh t, keeping warm, water proofing and camouflage, among other functions. They are made of keratin, similar to the hair that covers mammal bodies. Camouflage u sing color or texture to blend in with the environment and hide Mangrove s alt tolerant trees that grow alo ng Florida's coastline. There are three different types (the red, black, and white mangrove) that can be found in Florida's mangrove forests. Adaptations a physical or behavioral characteristic that allows an organism to survive in its habitat Estuary a partially enclosed body of water where a freshwater source meets a saltwater source (for example, where a river flows into an ocean)
59 Pollution the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem Species the most specific category of classification. Animals of the same species reproduce together Ornithologist a person that studies birds Talons the sharp claws found on the feet of many birds that hunt fish Migration w hen large groups of birds travel to new areas during specific times of year Extinct when there are no longer any individuals of a species alive Other Sources: http://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/feather biology This in depth site offers pictures, diagrams, and worksheets that cover feather biology in more detail, discussing the evolution of feathers, the physics of flight, and more. http://www.fws.gov/pacific/migratorybirds/mbta.htm This website covers the hist ory of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, listing the specific birds covered under the law, and links to the written law itself.
60 Birdwatching Activity In this activity, students will observe and describe different birds commonly found in mangrove ecosystems throughout Florida. They will then consider their similarities and differences in both behavior and appearance, thinking about how these different adaptations enable these birds to survive in the mangroves. They will also think about th e different roles birds play in this ecosystem, thinking about where they live, what they eat, and who eats them, comparing and contrasting these roles between species. Split the students into pairs or small groups, and have each group find a quiet spot t o sit and observe. Have each student quietly record their observations, describing each bird they see (students can later identify the birds after the observation time has ended). Each group will need between 10 and 20 minutes to observe the birds in the m angroves. Use the accompanying Mangrove Birdwatching Worksheet to assist the students in their birdwatching. After the observation period is over, consider the following questions with the students. Discussion Questions: What were some common physical characteristics of the mangrove birds? Which birds species seemed to have the most physical characteristics in common? In what ways did the birds differ? Which birds species seemed to be the most different physically? What were some common behaviors of the mangrove birds? In which ways did the birds' behaviors differ? Which bird species seemed to behave in similar ways? If we wanted to sort these birds into different categories, how might we do this? What categories would you suggest? Why do you t hink these birds have chosen the mangroves as their home? Why do you think birds are important in the mangrove ecosystems?
65 Oil Spill An oil spill is a form of pollution where petroleum products are released into the ocean. They can occur when a ship carrying oil products wrecks, or when an oil rig malfunctions. The oil products released during an oil spill can remain in the environment for years despite attempts to clean up the oil. Although oil spills effect many different aspects of the ecosystem, birds and marine animals perhaps suffer the most. Oil penetrates the once waterproof feathers of birds, making them less buoyant in the water, and causing them to lose body heat more quickly. It can also impair their ability to fly, catch food, and escape predators. Birds also ingest oil, which can damage their internal organs. After an oil spill, many groups attempt to catch, clean, and release oil soaked birds in hopes to save them. Most birds that do not have the oil removed from the feather s will die, and some studies suggest that even many birds that do undergo cleaning may still suffer the same fate as those birds that go untreated. Perform the following experiment to learn about the way oil can affect the way a and to discover which method of cleaning oily feathers is the Discuss the questions as you go through each step. Before you begin, think about the following questions: What do water birds use their feathers for? What would happen if these feathers could no longer do these things? Step 1: Fill a large bowl or pan with room temperature water. Take a few feathers and dip them in the bowl. When you take them out of the water, has the feather changed in any way? Does the feather repel or absorb water? Step 2: Pour enough vegetable oil into the bowl to allow it to cover the surface of the water. Now take a few feathers and dip them in the bowl. When you take the feathers out of the oiled water, has the feather changed in any way? How might this change effect birds that get their feathers coated in oil? Remember that the petroleum based oils that are released into an oil spill are toxic, not edible like the oil used in the experiment. Step 3: Humans will often try to clean the feathers of birds that become coated in oil. Take three separate bowl s, and fill one with hot water, one with cold water, and one with room temperature water with a few squirts of dishwashing liquid. Try washing a feather using the liquid in each bowl. Does hot water clean the oil off of the feathers?
66 Does cold water clean the oil off of the feather? Does the detergent clean the oil off of the feathers? Which method works best? How could you use this information to help a bird caught in an oil spill? Step 4: There are several methods for cleaning up oil spills. One involves the use of soaking up the oil from the water using a cotton ball. Was this an effective way to clean up the oil? Why or why not? Try using a folded paper towel to suck u p the oil. Is this an effective way to clean up the oil? Why or why not? Step 5: Dispersants are another common way to get oil off of the surface of the water. Add a small squirt of detergent to the bowl. What happens? Is this an effective way to clean up the oil? Why or why not? Clean Up: All of the materials used in this experiment are non toxic, and can be disposed of in the trash or sink. Review: Think about the following questions and how they relate to your experiment. 1.) Is ocean water different fr om tap water? How is it different? 2.) Did the oil sink or float when poured into the bowl of water? Why is that important to think about during an oil spill? 3.) What happens to feathers when they get coated in oil? How might this harm birds that come in contact with the oil? 4.) Based on what you learned in the experiment, how would you try cleaning a bird that was coated in oil? 5.) How are sorbents (like those used in Step 4 of the experiment) useful when dealing with an oil spill? What are the downsides of using a sor bent? Can you think of any other materials that might make good sorbents? 6.) How might a dispersant (like the detergent used in Step 5 of the experiment) be useful when dealing with an oil spill? What are the downsides of using a dispersant? 7.) What do you think is the best method for cleaning up an oil spill?
67 Image sources: Fishing line http://www.fish4fun.com/images/polomar3.gif, Soda Can Rings http://www.gma.org/tidings/snailtale/6pack.gif, Plastic Shopping Bag http://library.oregonmetro.gov/images/plastic bag_fin.jpg Cigarette Butt http://www.boston.com/lifestyle/gre en/greenblog/butts.jpg
68 Functions of Feathers Florida birds use their feathers for more than just flying, and each type of feather can have multiple uses. Think about which mangrove dwelling birds might use their feathers in the following ways: Visual S ignals: Feathers with different colors and patterns can send signals to other birds. Big, showy feathers can attract a mate, or be used to scare off competing or enemy birds. Warmth: rom catching a chill. They can even adjust their feathers to let in cool air, or trap more warm air to regulate their temperature up and down. Swimming and Diving: Some feathers are coated in a natural body oil to repel water. Birds can use these waterpro ofed feathers on their wings underwater like flippers, gliding through the water like a feathered fish. Flotation: By trapping air in the downy feathers and protecting them with waterproofed contour feathers, birds can use their feathers for floatation. Flying: The stiff feathers found along the wings and tail can be used to lift a bird off the ground, giving them an efficient way to find mates, find food, and flee from predators. Digestion: Believe it or not, some fish eating birds will eat their own fe athers to prevent sharp bones from injuring their insides. The soft lining keeps sharp, tiny bones from tearing through internal organs. Fleeing from Predators: If a bird is attacked or frightened by a predator, it can actually hers. This can distract or confuse a predator, and give the bird a chance to escape from harm. Camouflage: While bright feathers can attract mates, they can signal predators. Feathers that blend in with the colors and patterns of the surroundings help to h ide a bird and keep it from being targeted by predators. Or, if the bird is a hunter, it can keep it hidden while prey approaches close enough to be caught. Keeping Clean and Healthy: Some birds can crush their downy feathers in their beaks to form a powde r, which they then use to coat and condition their other feathers. This powder helps loosen dirt, and may also help keep away pesky feather parasites. Hearing: Some predators have their feathers arranged in a cone shape, which helps concentra te sounds. Th ey use these amplified sounds to locate and hunt prey in the dark. Making Sounds: By rubbing their feathers together in various ways, birds can actually produce sound to communicate. Muffling Noise: Predator birds can use their feathers to muffle noises that might signal to their prey that they are approaching. Transporting Water: Some birds can soak the feathers on their bellies wi th water to bring back to the nest. This water can keep eggs moist, or provide a drink to baby chicks. This allows the birds to nest away from the water.
69 Protection: The stiff, waterproof contour feathers provide protection from the elements, keeping them dry in rainy weather. They also shield them from the wind, and protect their delicate skin from the sun. Physical Support and Balance: The stiff flight feathers can be used to brace an animal against the ground or trees. They use these feathers as supports when walking from branch to branch. Feeling: Feathers do not h ave nerve endings (just like human hair lacks nerves), but the area where the feather attaches to the skin has many sensitive nerves. Birds can reposition their feathers to stimulate these nerves, signaling wind direction, movement of nearby animals, or other environmental factors. Building Nests: Soft downy feathers make the perfect lining for a nest. The soft feathers keep the eggs warm and provide a cushiony bed for baby birds.
70 Image Sources: Flight Feather http://www.nativetech.org/feather/vulture.jpg Down Featherhttp://1.bp.blogspot.com/_S Qq7mqYD3JY/S_VpdGRF02I/AAAAAAAACuc/6ttnm5c4SX8/s1600/ LAAL_down_white.jpg Filoplume feather http://www.biosci.ohio state.edu/~jcondit/images/class_images/feath ers/contour_feather200.jpg
72 Image Source: http://askabiologist.asu.edu/sites/default/files /feather_anatomy.jpg
73 Birds and Feathers Pretest & Posttest 1.) What was the Migratory Bird Treaty Act? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.) List three different ways birds use their feathers: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.) How do oil spills affect birds? _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ _______________________ 4.) Wh at is one negative impact that humans have on the mangrove ecosystem? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5.) What are some characteristics common to all birds found in the mangroves? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________
74 Birds and Feathers Pretest and Posttest Answers There may be more than one correct answer which may not be listed below 1.) What was the Migratory Bird Treaty Act? Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 protects all native migratory birds. Under both the Lacey Act and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, people that are caught collecting feathers illegally can face up to five years and jail and fines of up to $500,000. This was to protect bird populations that were being hunted for the feather trade. 2.) List three different ways birds use their f eathers. Warmth, flying, camouflage, attracting mates, building nests, diving and swimming, etc. 3.) How do oil spills affect birds? The oil is toxic and can poison the birds. It also causes the feathers to lose their insulating properties, causing the bird s to get cold and wet. 4.) What is one negative impact that humans have on the mangrove ecosystem? They leave behind litter, dump pollutants into the water, overhunt, and destroy areas where animals live. 5.) What are some characteristics common to all birds fo und in the mangroves? They all fly, the y all have feathers, they all rely on the water to live, they all lay eggs, they all have two wings and a bill or beak.
75 Mangrove Ecosystems Field Trip Unit About the Mangrove Ecosystems Field Trip Unit This unit introduces students to the Florida mangrove forest as they study the biology of invertebrates and ecosystems ecology. They also learn about the flow of energy through an ecosystem, and think about the importance of photosynthesis. The importance of ob servation is emphasized, as students work hands on with fiddler crabs, and draw conclusions based on their own experiences in collaboration with their partner. Students will practice their scientific investigation skills and work in small groups to complet e the activities in this unit. Adapting the Mangrove Ecosystems Field Trip Unit to the Classroom: Mangroves are common throughout coastal areas in Florida, but many mangrove forests are not easily accessible. Without a boardwalk or cleared pathway, acce ss to different portions of the ecosystem can be next to impossible with a large group of students. While Ken Thompson Park allows students to get up close to the mangroves, the following activities could be used in the classroom for those that cannot expl ore the mangrove forest on a field trip: The Fiddler Crab Observation activity can be adapted for classroom use. Students will not be able to witness the crabs in their natural environment, but live specimens can be obtained through supply catalogs. For around $60 educators can order a dozen live fiddler crabs for observation without obtaining a collecting permit. Caring for these creatures are relatively simply (see the resources listed below), and can serve as a class project. Students will learn how to recreate natural conditions as they care for the crab s and extended observation is possible. Students can track behavioral patterns and observe the burrowing process as well. To keep expenses low, teachers might consider ordering fewer crabs and having s tudents work in larger groups to observe the creatures. Live Fiddler Crab Supply :http://www.carolina.com/product/living+organisms/animals/ live+crustaceans/fiddler+crab%2C+living%2C+pack+3.do?sortby=ourPicks Care and Maintenance: http://sites.ncf.edu/msoi /teachers/fiddler crabs The Food Chain activity can easily be done in a classroom setting. Students may wish to research their creature before participating in the activity. Alternatively, go on a nature walk around campus in search of different plants an d animals. Students can through the outdoor environment surrounding their school.
76 The micro ecosystem activity can also be completed in a classroom, but could also be adapted to consider the micro ecosystems on campus. Using the list animals and campus these organisms might choose to make their homes. Mangrove Ecosystems: Introduction and Methods Florida Sunshine State Standards: SC.K.L.14.3: Observe plants and animals, describe how they are alike and how they are different in the way they look and in things they do SC.K.N.1.1: Collaborate with a partner to collect information SC.K.N.1.5: Recognize that learning can come from careful observation SC.1.L.14.1: Make observations of living things and their environment using the five senses SC.1.L.14.2: Identify the major parts of plants, including stem, roots, leaves, and flowers SC.1.L.17.1: Through observation, recognize that all plants and animals, including humans, need the basic necessities of air, food, and space SC.2.E.6.2: Describe how small pieces of rock, and dead plant and animal parts can be the basis of soil and explain the process by which soil is formed SC.2.L.16.1 Observe and describe major stages in the life cycles of plants and animals including beans and butterf lies SC.2.L.17.2: Recognize and explain that living things are found all over Earth, but each is only able to live in habitats that meet its basic needs SC.3.L.14.1: Describe structures in plants and their roles in food production, support, water, and nutrient transport, and reproduction SC.3.L.14.2: Investigate and describe how plants respond to stimuli (heat, light, gravity), such as the way plant stems grow toward light and their roots grow downward in response to gravity
77 SC.3.L.15.1: Classify an imals into major groups (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, arthropods, vertebrates and invertebrates, those having live births and those which lay eggs) according to their physical characteristics and behaviors SC.3.L.17.2: Recognize that plant s use energy from the sun, air, and water to make their own food. SC.4.L.17.2: Explain that animals, including humans, cannot make their own food, and that when anim als eat plants or other animals the energy stored in the food source is passed to them. SC.4.L.17.3: Trace the flow of energy from the sun as it is transferred along the food chain through the producers to the consumers SC.5.E.7.5: Recognize that some of the weather related differences, such as temperature and humidity, are found among diff erent environments, such as swamps, deserts, and mountains SC.5.l.17.1: Compare and contrast adaptations displayed by animals and plants that enable them to survive in different environments, such as life cycles variations, animals behaviors, and physica l characteristics. SC.6.E.6.2: Recognize that there are a variety of differe nt landforms on Earth's surface such as coastlines, dunes, rivers, mountains, glaciers, deltas, and lakes, and relate these land forms as they apply to Florida SC.7.L.17.1: Exp lain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web SC.7.L.17.2: Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, c ompetition, and commensalism SC.7.L.17.3: Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites. SC.8.L.18.1: Describe and investigate the process of photosynthesis, such as the roles of light, carbon dioxide, water, and chlorophyll, production of food, and the release of oxygen
78 Objectives: Students will learn that mangrove ecosystems are home to a diverse variety of organisms, many of which use resources both on the land and in the water. They will learn that the plants and animals found here come in a multitude of forms that have different function throughout the ecosystem. They will learn about th e variety of plants found in the mangrove ecosystem, with emphasis on black, white, and red mangroves. The relationships between different plants and other organisms are emphasized, and students will learn about the way producers and consumers interact wi th one another to form food chains and complex food webs. By answering questions based on their observations of fiddler crabs, students will improve their scientific investigation skills, and make generalizations about crabs as a whole. Introduction: An ecosystem is a biological system composed of living (biotic) organisms interacting with their non living (abiotic) environment and each other. These extremely complex systems of interactions vary from ecosystem to ecosystem as the species and physical fac tors change from location to location. Mangroves are relatively unique in that they can tolerate being partially submerged in water, and are specially adapted to tolerate the high salt levels of the marine or brackish waters they grow along. In Florida, shrubby trees form the foundation for the unique mangrove ecosystem. Coastal winds prevent mangroves from growing to the heights seen in the mangrove forests in other locations around the globe. The webs of roots offer a sheltered area for young animals to thrive. Depending on the location, these roots are either always submerged, or periodically submerged with tidal movements. In areas where roots are always submerged, this unique mesh of roots provides a home for barnacles, oysters, and algae which requir e a hard substrate to grow upon. Crabs, shrimp, and small fish also use live in these micro ecosystems, feeding along the muddy bottom. The leaves also provide food for insects, and the leaf litter houses many important detritivores. Discussion Points: Think about and discuss the following points before visiting the mangrove ecosystem. Think about what types of animals might be found in the mangrove ecosystems, and how these organisms might interact with each other Think about what kinds of food might be available to these different animals that live in the mangrove ecosystems, and where this food comes from Crabs play an important role in the mangrove ecosystem. Think about how they might interact with the mangrove trees, and how they interact with other organisms that live in the mangroves. Think about why mangroves might be important both in the mangrove ecosystem, and
79 what services they might provide beyond their ecosystem role. What services do they provide for humans? What services do they provide that extend beyond the mangrove ecosystems? Suggested Procedure: Safety First! Be sure to poke holes in the crab containers. Fiddler crabs cannot live without air! Also, beware that there are some dangerous animals that live in the mangroves. Though an encounter is extremely rare, venomous snakes and spiders make their homes here. Please do not disturb any animals that you may see, and stick to marked paths to avoid meeting one of these creatures! Micro Ecosystems Activity 1.) This activity will introduce students to the different components of the mangrove forests. You can begin with a short walk through the mangroves, and then distribute the cards assigning each student to a specific organism. If there are not enough cards, st udents can work in pairs or small groups. 2.) After completing the activity have the students think about the basic requirements needed by each organism. Could these resources be found outside of the mangroves? What would happen to these animals without the m angrove forest? Fiddler Crab Activity 1.) Before this activity, collect enough fiddler crabs (or other species found in the mangroves) for each pair of students to observe one. Be sure that you have an up to date collecting permit, and follow all Fish and Wildlife Conservation (FWC) regulations. You must give 24 hour notice to your local FWC office before collecting. Be sure that you collect some sand in the large container that you transport the fiddler crabs in, and keep it damp, but not soaked. 2.) Each pa ir of students will need a fiddler crab in a clear plastic container with a lid. You may also wish to provide magnifying glasses for close observation. 3.) Have the students complete the Crab Observation Worksheet, or answer the questions together as a group. 4.) Return the fiddler crabs to the loc ation they were collected within the time period specified by the FWC. Food Chain Activity 1.) For this activity each student should receive a card assigning them to a role
80 as a different organism found in the mangrove ecosystem. You may choose to assign each student the same species they were given during the Micro Ecosystem activity, or assign them a new role. 2.) As a group, complete the Food Chain Activity. Encourage the stu dents to pay close attention to the way various organisms interact with one another, and how interfering with one part of the food chain affects the rest of the organisms. Allometry Activity 1.) In this activity students will look at the relationship betwee n body parts as an animal develops. 2.) Students can work in pairs or groups to record their measurements. 3.) Complete the discussion questions as a group. Thought Questions: These questions can serve as a starting point for discussion upon returning to the c lassroom. Which animals and plants were most abundant? Why do you think this is? What micro ecosystems are present in the mangrove forests? What animals live in these micro ecosystems? Do they interact with organisms in other areas of the mangrove forest? What is the difference between a food chain and a food web? Give an example of a possible food chain found in the mangrove forest, moving from producer through the various levels of consumers. What are some of the defining characteristics of crabs? How are fiddler crabs similar to and different from other species of crabs? Words to Know: These words can be useful when discussing ecosystems and classification of organisms Estuary a partially enclosed body of water where a freshwater sourc e meets a saltwater source (for example, where a river flows into an ocean) Brackish water a mixture of both fresh and salt water
81 Ecosystem a system of organisms interacting with their physical environment and each other Species the most specific ca tegory of classification. Animals of the same species reproduce together. Biotic A living factor in an environment like a plant, animal, or bacterium Abiotic A non living factor in an environment, like water, wind, sand, or temperature Crabs Crabs be long to a large group of animals known as crustaceans, animals whose skeletons are on the outside of their bodies. Crabs have five parts of legs, two of which typically have claw like pincers. Some species of crabs live in discarded mollusk shells, and are known as hermit crabs. Micro Ecosystem a loose term used to define a small part of a larger ecosystems. Examples of micro ecosystems include leaf litter on a forest floor, hallow cavities in trees, or under rocks. Food Chain A sequence of who eats w hat in an environment. Plants are at the bottom of the food chain, and predators are at the top. Food Web Food chains often overlap, with some species eating more than one kind of food, or being hunted by more than one kind of predator. Food webs consist of overlapping food chains. Competition When two animals require the same scarce resource, they must compete for them. Competition can occur between different species, or between different members of the same species. Photosynthesis The process where plants make energy from the sun, storing it as sugar in their leaves. Herbivore An animal that eats only plants. Omnivore An animal that eats both plants and animals. Carnivore An animal that eats only other animals. Predator An animal that hunts other animals for food. Prey An animal that gets eaten by other animals.
82 Micro Ecosystems Activity In this activity, students will look at the mangrove ecosystem through the eyes of the plants and animals that make their home in the forest. Students are asked to think about the basic requirements of living organisms --food, water, and shelter --and where these things could be found within the mangrove forest. Each student should receive a card assigning them a role as a plant or animal commonly fou nd in the mangrove ecosystem. They will then think about the basic requirements of their specific animal or plant including what they eat and where they would find shelter in the mangrove forest. After exploring the mangrove forest students will try and d ecide on the ideal location for their plant or animal in the ecosystem. Activity Instructions: 1.) Shuffle and distribute the cards. Have the students decide think about the basic needs of their organism. What do they eat? Where would they find food? Does their organism have predators? Where could they live to avoid predators? Are there any other special needs of the organism? Where do they breed, and do they need special materials to build nests? 2.) Walk through the mangrove forest sticking to marked paths. E ncourage students to notice the variety of micro ecosystems found within the mangroves --the shore line, the shallow waters under the mangrove root systems, the canopy of the trees --while thinking about the needs of their organism. 3.) By the end of the ma ngrove exploration, the student should pick an ideal location for their organism to live. Have them complete the Micro Ecosystems worksheet individually, and then answer the following discussion questions as a group. Discussion Questions: Did any of the organisms live in similar areas? Why do you think this is? Are there any species that could not live in the same areas? Why? Were the needs of animals different from the needs of plants? How so? Were the needs of predators different from the needs of prima ry consumers? Were there animals that could have lived in more than one area? Were there animals that could live in only one specific area? Did you see any signs of the animals listed on the cards (nests, footprints, burrows)? Were they in the locations y ou suspected?
83 Image Sources: Banded Water Snake http://www.arthursclipart.org/snakes/BANDED.gif, Red Mangrove http://www.garf.org/12/12mud/293353redmangrove.JPG, Turtle Grass http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/southflorida /seagrass/images/turtlegrass.JPG
84 Image Sources: Laughing Gull http://clipartist.net/www/COLOURINGBOOK.ORG/Letters/T/the_laughing_gull_black_white_line_art_colorin g_book_colouring 1979px.png Leaf Miner Moth http://www.kth.se/polopoly_fs/1.170284!/image/moth.jpg Orb Spider http://gener ic.pixm ac.com/4/golden orb web spider nephila inaurata madagascariensis agains front picture 76255935.jpg Cotton Mouse http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/ 21000/21029/mouse_21029_lg.gif
85 Image Sources: Raccoon http://www.animalstown.com/animals/ r/raccoon/coloring pages/raccoon color page 1 s.jpg Great Blue Heron http://www.stampingsensations.com/Merchant2/graphics/00000001/BA026.gif Osprey http://images.fineartamerica.com/images medium/osprey with white perch edith thompson.jpg Red Drum http:/ /www.chefs resources.com/files/Red Drum Fish/Red_Drum by Duane Raver USFWS.jpg
86 Image Sources: Pinfish http://floridasportfishing.com/magazine/images/stories/pin fish bait fish 12e.jpg Long Spined Urchin http://www.seacare.org.au/images/seaUrchin_sc etch.jpg Mangrove Snail http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4081/4795340902_8c39926d28.jpg Green Sea Turtle http://www.fws.gov/northflorida/SeaTurtles/Turtle%20Factsheets/images%20for%20factsheet/green drawing.gif
87 Crab Observation Activity In this activity, students will obs erve and describe fiddler crabs using their investigative skills to infer about crabs in general. They will learn about general crab mangrove eco systems. This activity could also be used to observe and describe mangrove crabs, another common species in the mangrove forests. However, mangrove crabs can be more difficult to collect compared to the fiddler crabs, which can easily be located by searc hing for their burrows. General Information about Fiddler Crabs: Fiddler crabs do not have back bones, and are invertebrates. Instead of an shell protects them from predators, but does not grow with the crab. Instead, the crabs Fiddler crabs have ten legs, but the front pair is modified into grasping claws. They use their legs to walk, and move sideways a s they travel over sand and rocks. Male fiddler crabs have one large claw, and one small claw. Females have a pair of small claws that are equal in size. Male fiddler crabs use their claws to attract females, and fight off competing males. The smaller claw is used for foraging and eating. The female is at an advantage when it comes to getting food, because she can use both of her small claws to feed. When a male fiddler crab loses its large claw in a fight, the other claw will grow to replace it. It then g rows a new, smaller claw in place of the lost one. Most fiddler crabs are born with a large right claw, which is viewed as more attractive by female crabs. Similar to fish, crabs breathe through gills, but cannot live for extended periods of time underwat er. They have eyes on long stalks and live in burrows underground. These burrows can be up to three feet deep. When the fiddler crab is in their burrow, it is very dark. In the dark, special body parts in their eyes release a hormone that allows them to br eathe underwater. This allows them to stay in their burrows when the tide release this hormone, and will drown if they remain submerged in their flooded burrows. Fiddler crabs tend to gather in large groups are diurnal, which means that they are active during the day and sleep at night. They spend their day foraging for food, fighting with other males, and mating. They dig through the sand for food, searching for bacteria, a lgae, and decomposing plants that they filter through their mouth parts like a sponge. They leave behind tiny balls of sand in piles after they filter out the food.
88 Activity Directions: 1.) Have the students split into pairs for observation. Each pair will receive a hermit crab in a clear plastic observation container. Magnifying glasses may be useful for helping the students observe smaller details. Be sure that the containers are securely closed, and inform the students that the containers should not be o pened during the activities. Fiddler crabs have a powerful pinch that can injure fingers! 2.) Inform the students that they are going to be scientists, and will be learn ing about the fiddler crabs by observing them closely in the containers. Give the students a few minutes to sit and watch the crabs in the containers before considering the questions on the Fiddler Crab Observations worksheet. Younger students may prefer to give their answers in a group discussion instead of submitting written responses. 3.) After completing the Crab Observations worksheet, return the crabs to the location they were collected Students can use their worksheets to recall their observations upon returning to the classroom.
90 Food Chain Activity In this activity, students will observe mangrove organisms and will describe different ways they interact with each other as part of the food web. Each student will take on the role of a different organism, and arrange themselves in food chains or food webs. Each student should receive a card assigning them a role as either a producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, or tertiary consumer. Additionally, one stu dent will play the role of the s the food web. After the a ctivity consider the discussion questions that follow after the activity Activity Instructions: 1.) Shuffle and distribute the cards. Have the students think about the role their organism plays in the mangrove ecosystem. Are they a producer? A consumer? A decomposer? Which group of organisms does the sun interact with? 2.) Have the consumers split into different levels. Which animals are primary consumers? Secondary consumers? Tertiary consumers? 3.) Have the students arrange themselves into simple food chains (matching one producer with one primary consumer, one secondary consumer, and one tertiary consumer, and a decompos er). How are food chains a good model for the interactions between organisms? What are the flaws of a simplif ied food chain? Where does the s un factor into this food chain? 4.) Food webs are similar to simple food chains, but can include interactions between o rganisms on more than one level (eg; there can be more than one consumer that preys upon a single producer, or vice versa). Have the entire class arrange themselves into a food web by holding hands with every organism their species interacts with. Is this possible? Why or why not? What does this tell us about the interactions between different species in the mangrove ecosystem? 5.) What happens when the s un is removed from the system? What happens when the producers disappear from the system? What happens when the consumers are removed? The decomposers? Discussion Questions: What were some common characteristics of producers? Why is the s un important to the food web? What happens when the s un is removed from the food web? What happens with other organisms are removed from the food web?
91 What did the activity show us about the careful balance of the mangrove ecosystems? Are there any animals that eat the same types of foods? How does this relate to competition? Part of this food web is missing. What happe ns to animals that die of natural causes? How are food chains different from food webs? Which is a more realistic model?
92 Image Sources: Banded Water Snake http://www.arthursclipart.org/snakes/BANDED.gif, Red Mangrove http://www.garf.org/12/12mud/293353redmangrove.JPG, Turtle Grass http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/southflorida /seagrass/images/turtlegrass.JPG, Sun http://www .lucytravels.com/images/sun coloring page 1.gif
93 Image Sources: Pinfish http://floridasportfishing.com/magazine/images/stories/pin fish bait fish 12e.jpg Long Spined Urchin http://www.seacare.org.au/images/seaUrchin_scetch.jpg Mangrove Snail http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4081/4795340902_8c39926d28.jpg Green Sea Turtle http://www.fws.gov/northflorida/SeaTurtles/Turtle%20Factsheets/images%20for%20factsheet/green drawing.gif
94 Image Sources: Raccoon http://www.animalstown.com/animals/r/racc oon/coloring pages/raccoon color page 1 s.jpg Great Blue Heron http://www.stampingsensations.com/Merchant2/graphics/00000001/BA026.gif Osprey http://images.fineartamerica.com/images medium/osprey with white perch edith thompson.jpg Red Drum http://www.c hefs resources.com/files/Red Drum Fish/Red_Drum by Duane Raver USFWS.jpg
95 Image Sources: Laughing Gull http://clipartist.net/www/COLOURINGBOOK.ORG/Letters/T/the_laughing_gull_black_white_line_art_colorin g_book_colouring 1979px.png Leaf Miner Moth http://www.kth.se/polopoly_fs/1.170284!/image/moth.jpg Orb Spider http://gener ic.pixm ac.com/4/golden orb web spider nephila inaurata madagascariensis agains front picture 76255935.jpg Cotton Mouse http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/ 21000/21029/mouse_21 029_lg.gif
96 Allometry Activity In this activity, students will learn about allometry --the relationship between the sizes of body parts as an animal grows. This activity combines biology and mathematics as students compare the mathematical propo rtions of claw and carapace sizes (the activity may also be done with shells, comparing total size to the aperture). This activity could also be used to observe and describe mangrove crabs, another common species in the mangrove forests. However, mangrove crabs can be more difficult to collect compared to the fiddler crabs, which can easily be located by searching for their burrows. About Allometry: Though allometry typically looks at the relationship between growth of one body part in comparison to another, there are several other applications of this term. Allometry also includes the relationship between physiological traits (eg; heart rate and body size), or ecological traits (eg; body mass and the size of a burrow). In this activi ty students will focus strictly on morphological traits --the scaling relationship between one body part in comparison to the rest of the body. This activity can be done using either fiddler crabs or any sort of snail shell. For More Information: The Study of Allometr y http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/allometry the study of biological scaling 13228439 Materials Needed: An assortment of male and female fiddler crabs of varying sizes or an assortment of snail shells (all from the same species) in varyin g sizes, a ruler or tape measure. Activity Directions: 4.) Students may work individually, or in groups. Each group should receive an assortment of crabs or shells (which may rotate between the groups to allow everyone to take measurements from as many shel ls as possible). Photographs can also be used in place of actual crabs or snail shells. 5.) For the fiddler crabs students will measure the sizes of the carapace and the propadus (the base of the claw) (See Figure 5 1 ). For snail shells, students will measure the overall length of the shell, and the length of the aperture (see Figure 5 2 ). They should not these measurements in the table below.
97 Figure 5.1 Measuring the Carapace (A) and Propadus (B) Figure 5.2 Measuring the Overall Length (A) and the Aperture (B) Length of Measurement A Length of Measurement B
98 6.) Students should then graph the relationship between Measurement A (the carapace or shell length) and Measurement B (the propadus or aperture) on the graph below. Students should define the scale and give their graph a title. 7.) Complete the following discussion questions as a group. Discussion Questions: Was the relationship between Measurement A and Measurement B positive or negative? Was the relationship between Measurement A and Measurement B proportional (a line with a slope of 1)? What does this tell us? Using your graph, make some predictions: What if Measurement A was twice as large as the largest recorded measurement, how big would Measurement B be? What if it was half the size of our smallest recorded Measurement A?
99 Mangrove Ecosystems Pretest & Posttest 1.) What is a food chain? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2.) Where does a primary producer get its energy? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 3.) What is the difference between an abiotic and biotic fa ctor? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 4.) erent? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 5.) What is a predator? ____________________________ ______________________________________ __________________________________________________________________
100 Mangrove Ecosystems Pretest Posttest Answers There may be more than one correct answer which may not be listed below 1.) What is a food chain? A food chain illustrates the flow of energy from one organism to another, from a primary producer to a primary consumer, secondary consumer, and tertiary consumer. 2.) Where does a primary producer get its energy? A primary producer gets energy from the sun through p hotosynthesis. 3.) What is the difference between an abiotic and a biotic factor? A biotic factor is a living thing in an ecosystem, like a plant or animal. An abiotic factor is a non living thing, like wind, rocks, or sand. 4.) How are male and female fiddler cra A female fiddler crab has two small, evenly sized claws. A male fiddler crab has one large claw and one small claw. 5.) What is a predator? A predator is an animal that hunts and eats other animals to survive. A predator can be a carnivore (an animal that eats only other animals) or an omnivore (an animal that eats plants and animals).
101 Oceans and Climate Field Trip Unit About the Oceans and Climate Field Trip Unit This unit introduces students to large scale subjects like the oceans and water cycle that impact Florida coastal ecosystems on a smaller scale. Through a small scale experiment, students begin to understand how long, almost unobservable processes have visible consequences in the natural world. Stude nts will witness these natural processes on a smaller scale through hands on ex perimenting. Students also learn to take measurements with scientific tools, and think about the differences between qualitative and quantitative observations as they learn abou t the climate of several micro ecosystems. Adapting the Oceans and Climate Field Trip Unit to the Classroom: If students cannot visit an estuary to complete the activities listed in this field trip unit, they can easily be adapted to work on campus. The following activities present similar material, but do not require a coastal setting to complete: Students can complete the sands of time activity using materials either purchased from a hardware store or found at school. Gravel or rocks can easily be substituted for the sand, rocks, and shells found along a beach. This activity should still be completed outdoors for safety reasons. Students can take measurements using scientific tools around campus. Have the students think about the different areas where they could take measurements --how do playgrounds, retention ponds, and parking lots differ in temperature, windspeed, or moisture levels? By completing this activity at school, measurements could be taken periodically throughout the school year, a nd students can observe how time of year affects weather conditions. The Salty Seas activity can also be completed indoors using a saltwater solution mixed up with table salt, and can be sped up by using a hotplate. Try adding food coloring or other mate rials to the water to see what happens when the water evaporates. How does water in a closed container differ from water in an open container when evaporation occurs? Students can build a miniature ecosystem inside a terrarium, and make observations abou t the climate and water cycle. Wh en the terrarium is kept closed, what happens to the water? How does this relate to the water cycle? Students can take other qualitative and quantitative measurements as well.
102 Oceans and Climate: Introduction and Methods Florida Sunshine State Standards: SC.1.E.6.1: Recognize that water, rocks, soil, and living organisms are found on Earth's surface. SC.1.E.6.2: Describe the need for water and how to be safe around water. SC.1.E.6.3: Recognize that some things in th e world around us happen fast and some happen slowly. SC.2.E.6.1: Recognize that Earth is made up of rocks. Rocks come in many sizes and shapes. SC.2.E.6.2: Describe how small pieces of rock and dead plant and animal parts can be the basis of soil and explain the process by which soil is formed. SC.2.E.6.3: Classify soil types based on color, texture (size of particles), the ability to retain water, and the ability to support the growth of plants. SC.2.E.7.5: State the importance of preparing for seve re weather, lightning, and other weather related events. SC.2.P.8.2: Identify objects and materials as solid, liquid, or gas. SC.2.P.8.4: Observe and describe water in its solid, liquid, and gaseous states. SC.3.P.9.1: Describe the changes water undergo es when it changes state through heating and cooling by using familiar scientific terms such as melting, freezing, boiling, evaporation, and condensation. SC.4.E.6.2: Identify the physical properties of common earth forming minerals, including hardness, c olor, luster, cleavage, and streak color, and recognize the role of minerals in the formation of rocks. SC.4.E.6.4: Describe the basic differences between physical weathering (breaking down of rock by wind, water, ice, temperature change, and plants) and erosion (movement of rock by gravity, wind, water, and ice).
103 SC.4.E.6.6: Identify resources available in Florida (water, phosphate, oil, limestone, silicon, wind, and solar energy). SC.4.P.8.2: Identify properties and common uses of water in each of its states. SC.4.P.10.2: Investigate and describe that energy has the ability to cause motion or create change. SC.5.E.7.2: Recognize that the ocean is an integral part of the water cycle and is connected to all of Earth's water reservoirs via evaporation an d precipitation processes. SC.5.E.7.3: Recognize how air temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation determine the weather in a particular place and time. SC.5.E.7.6: Describe characteristics (temperature and precipitation) of different climate zones as they relate to latitude, elevation, and proximity to bodies of water. SC.5.P.8.1: Compare and contrast the basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases, such as mass, volume, color, texture, and temperature. SC.5.P.8.2: Investigate and identify materials that will dissolve in water and those that will not and identify the conditions that will speed up or slow down the dissolving process. SC.6.E.6.1: Describe and give examples of ways in which Earth's surface is built up and torn down by physical and chemical weathering, erosion, and deposition. SC.6.E.7.2: Investigate and apply how the cycling of water between the atmosphere and hydrosphere has an effect on weather patterns and climate. SC.6.E.7.5: Explain how energy provided by the sun influences global patterns of atmospheric movement and the temperature differences between air, water, and land. SC.6.E.7.6: Differentiate between weather and climate. SC.8.E.5.9: Explain the impact of objects in space on each other including: 1. The Sun on the Earth including seasons and gravitational attraction 2. The Moon on the Earth including phases, tides, and eclipses, and the relative position of each body. Objectives: Students will understand that water cycles continuo usly and changes between solid, liquid, and gaseous phases. They will understand the different parts of the water cycle, which includes evaporation, condensation, and precipitation, and how
104 these cycles relate to weather and climate. Additionally, they will learn about how evaporated water contains only H2O, leaving behind salts and impurities found in the original water sample. They will also learn about the important roles water and wind pl ay in erosion and the formation of sands and soils. Introduction: supply. The amount of water on Earth is relatively finite, and the same water gets cycled repeatedly through a process k nown as the water (or hydrologic) cycle. Water from rivers, lakes, and oceans evaporates into steam or vapor in the air. When the air cools, this water condenses to form clouds. Eventually the clouds contain too much water vapor, and water in the form of r ain, snow, sleet, or hail falls from the sky. This is known as precipitation. Several things can happen to this precipitation. It can soak into the soil to be used by plants, it can soak into the ground and become part of the groundwater system, or it can collect in puddles that eventually evaporate. Some water can also freeze and become part of a glacier, which may take millions of years to melt completely. 332.5 million cu bic miles of water is part of the hydrologic cycle. temperature, humidity wind, rainfall, and atmospheric pressure that prevails in an area over a very long period of time. This is i n contrast to weather, which consists of this same elements, but over a much shorter period of time. Weather can change very quickly, but climate takes a much longer period of time to change. Only about 30% of the water. Water has special chemical properties This water also moves continuously, as though it were on a long conveyor belt moving it from the surface, to the depths, and back to the surface. This movement, known as keep the temperature even throughout the oce ans. located along the oceans to change more slowly too. The heat stored in the water helps to keep the land from changing temperature too quickly --think about how regulated land states that are surrounded only by land. Just as the oceans play an important role in weather they play an important role in weathering --water causing rocks and other materials (like shells) to break down and form soils and sand. Movement from the waves causes particles to rub against one another, and break into smaller and smaller pieces until they are no bigger than a grain of sand. Discussion Points: Think about and discuss the following points before visiting the field trip site and
105 beginning any experiments. Water found in oceans is different from the water found in lakes and rivers. Most of and is found in the oceans and bays. Less than 3% of frozen in glaciers. Water can also be a mix of fresh and salt water, and is called brackish water. All water --fresh or salt --is part of the hydrologic cycle. Large bodies of water help to regulate climate; areas that are situated close to oceans or l arge lakes tend to have more stable climates. Water also influences the climate of a particular ecosystem as well. Dry ecosystems, like deserts, tend to have more temperature fluctuations than moister ecosystems like mangrove ecosystems. Weathering can be a very slow process. It can take thousands, or even millions of years for rocks to break down into small soil particles. It can also happen very quickly. Events like tsunamis or hurricanes, though rare, can make significant impacts on rocks, sands, and soils. Water is not the only thing that cases weathering. Wind, scraping ice, freezing and thawing, chemicals, and even plants can break rocks down into soils. Suggested Procedure: Safety First! Student should take caution near the water. Proper foot wear can protect from sharp rocks and shells. Safety goggles or protective eyewear is recommended for the weathering activity. Small pieces of sand or rock could accidentally get into ure that the water is not contaminated by pollutants or hazardous chemicals before tasting it. The Sands of Time Activity 3.) This activity demonstrates to students that over a long period of time, motion from ocean waves can break down large pieces of shell and rock into small grains of sand. Please remind students that safety is a priority before beginning the experiment. 4.) After the experiment concludes, have the students return the shells and rocks to the shore. Salty Seas 1.) This activity demonstrates a small portion of the water cycle. Review the water cycle with students before beginning the activity. 2.) Prepare containers to use for the experiment. Cutting the top off of a two liter soda bottle provides a good sized container for the experiment, but any l arge can or
106 wide mouthed bottle will work well. 3.) Have the students perform the experiment, and consider the discussion questions with their group members. Micro Climates Activity 3.) In this activity, students use scientific instruments to take measurements for temperature, wind speed, and other weather related factors in a several areas. They will also learn to distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data. 4.) After the activity, review the discussion questions as a group. Thought Questions: These questions can serve as a starting point for discussion upon returning to the classroom. What is the difference between weather and climate? What are some similarities between weather and climate? What are some differences? old today. Scientists are wrong about global How would you expect a coastal city to differ from a city hundreds of miles inland at the same latitude? Why? become contaminated with a toxin. Humans cannot drink salt water. What could we do to find new sources of drinking water? Besides weathering caused by the movement of waves, where else does weathering occur? Can humans cause weathering? Why or why not? Words to Know: These words can be useful when discussing weather, climate, and weathering Ocean divided into several named oceans (like the Atlantic or Pacific) and smalle r seas. Climate the general temperature, humidity wind, rainfall, and atmospheric pressure that prevails in an area over a very long period of time.
107 Weather the temperature, humidity wind, rainfall, and atmospheric pressure over a short period of time. Weathering the breaking down of rocks, soils and minerals through contact with water, wind, or other physical factors Water Cycle the continuous movement of water throughout the Earth as it changes states between liquid, gas, and solid. Also known as the hydrologic cycle. Condensation when water (or any other substance) changes from a gaseous state to a liquid state. It is the opposite of evaporation. Evaporation when water (or any other substance) changes from a liquid state to a gaseous state It is the opposite of condensation. Precipitation results when water vapor in the air condenses and is pulled down to the Earth by gravity. Precipitation includes rain, sleet, snow, and hail. Ocean Current the continuous movement of water cause d by wind, temperature, salinity, and the spinning motion of the Earth. Heat Capacity given amount. A high heat capacity helps the oceans store heat without extreme changes in temperature. Ocean cu rrent water moves continuously as though it were on a long conveyor belt moving it f rom the surface to the depths, and bac k to the surface. This movement Met eorology the study of the atmosphere, especially weather conditions. For This Information and More, Visit: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.html http://www.atmosphere.mpg.de/enid/basics/1__Oceans_and_climate_1v9.html http://www.gdrc.org/ocean s/fsheet 01.html http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/pd/oceans_weather_climate/welcome.html
108 The Sands of Time In this activity students will think about how weathering can break down large rocks and shells into small grains of sand. They will then g et a chance to make their own sand by using physical force to crush rocks and shells, mimicking the action of the oceans waves over a long period of time. Materials Needed: Safety goggles, a canvas or heavy plastic bag. Activity Instructions: 1.) Students should work in pairs or small groups for this activity. Each group of students should receive a bag and safety goggles. Cloth bags are best, but heavy duty plastic bags are also suitable. 2.) Each group of students should walk down to the shore line and gather a few handfuls of rocks and shells (both big and small pieces), and place them in the bag. Tie or zip the bag closed, and have the students put on their safety goggles. 3.) Explain that the students are going to play the role of small waves, using physical f orce to break down rocks and shells into smaller pieces. Have them each take turns gently rolling, tossing, or rocking the bag for five to ten minutes. Then open the bag and examine the contents. Has anything changed? 4.) The students will then play the role o f larger waves. Have them take turns rolling, tossing, and rocking the bags with a moderate amount of force. After five to ten minutes, open the bag and examine the contents. Has anything changed? 5.) Lastly, the students will play the role of strong waves, li ke those that occur during hurricanes or other severe weather. W hile still being safe have the students toss, smash, roll, drop, and stomp on the bag with a strong amount of force. After five to ten minutes, open the bag and examine the contents. Has anyt hing changed? Discussion Questions: Was there any noticeable change in the condition of the shells and rocks at the end of each stage of the experiment? Why or why not? How could the types of shells or rocks affect the way the sand looks after it has c ompletely weathered into sand?
109 different? (Think about time, and the level of force) Which level of force cause s the greatest amount of weathering? Why do you thin k this is? Based on the results of the experiment, in what kinds of areas would weathering occur the fastest? The slowest?
110 Salty Seas In this activity, students will witness the water cycle in action. They will learn about the ways water changes as it undergoes the different parts of the hydrologic cycle, and how the water cycle relates to salt water and fresh water. Materials Needed: A two liter soda bottle with the top cut off, plastic wrap, a rubber band. Activity Instructions: 1.) This activity works best on a warm, sunny day. Have the students work in small groups of three or four. Each group should receive a large soda bottle with the top five inches cut away, leaving behind a large container with a wide mouth (a l arge coffee can or other container will work as well). Each group of students should walk down to the water and fill their container half full with water from the ocean. 2.) Think about the water in their container. Is it salt water or freshwater? How do you k now? Dip a finger into the water and touch it to your tongue to test your hypothesis. 3.) Loosely cover the container with a piece of plastic wrap, and secure it with a rubber band. The plastic should not be stretched over the container. Leave the container in a warm, sunny location for a couple of hours. 4.) Return to the bottle, but do not touch or pick up the container. Have little beads of water formed on the plastic wrap? Where did this water come from? How? 5.) Remove the rubber band and very carefully flip over the plastic, trying to keep as much of the evaporated water in place as you can. Do you think this water is fresh or salty? Dip a finger into the water and touch it to your tongue to test your hypothesis. 6.) it on plants or grass --it will kill any plants that are not salt tolerant! Discussion Questions: Did the evaporated water contain any salt? Why or why not? Think about how the results of your experiment relate to the hydrologic cycle. Is water in the ocean fresh or salty? Is the water that forms clouds fresh or salty? Is rain fresh or salty?
111 If you took the plastic off of the container and let all of the wa ter evaporate, what would happen to the salt? What if it then rained into the container? How does this relate to the oceans? Which parts of the water cycle correspond to the different parts of this experiment? Evaporation? Condensation? Precipitation?
112 Any Way The Wind Blows In this activity students will act as meteorologists and record the different aspects of daily weather in three locations: in the mangrove forest, on a sandy beach, and in a grassy field. They will then compare the similarities and differences between the measurements, an d draw conclusions about the different factors that influence temperature, wind speed, and sunlight. Materials Needed: Thermometer, compass, wind gauge or piece of flagging tape. Activity Instructions: It is important that students understand the difference between qualitative and quan titative data. In this activity students will deal with both qualitative and quantitative measurements. See the following table to determine which types of data are qualitative, and which are quantitative (from Regent sPrep.org): Qualitative Data Quantitative Data Uses descriptive words Uses numbers Can be observed but not measured Can be measured Describes colors, textures, tastes, and other sense oriented qualities Describes length, height, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, and other quantities Students may work individually, in pairs, or in small groups. Each student (or locations for measurements should be indicated. Have the class begin in one area, record their measurements, and move on to the next area until measurements have been recorded for the forest, beach, and field. Some notes about the taking the measurements: Measurements for temperature should be recorded in both Fahrenheit and Celsius. Celsius in the standard unit for temperature in the world of science. Taking both measurements help students to understand how they correlate. Wind speed can be measured in quantitative units or through qualitative descriptions Holding a piece of flagging tape at arms length can be used in place of a wind gauge to detect the wind direction and approximate speed. Below is a table of
113 descriptive words, and their corresponding wind speeds from the National Weather Service: Wind direction is noted as the direction the wind is coming from not blowing towards Have the students use a compass to determine which direction is north, and then approximate the direction the wind is blowing in from. Instructions for using a compass are s hown below: First, align the compass with North. Typically the red end of the magnetic needle points North. Turn the compass until the red part of the needle lines up with the North on the compass face. Observe the letters on the compass face. N is north, E is east, S is south, W is west. Between these four Cardinal directions are northeast, southeast, northwest, and southwest. By aligning the needle with North, you can figure out whic h way south, east, and west are (TLC Family Guide, 2011). Soil moisture can be approximated by picking up a handful and giving it a squeeze. If the soil clumps together, the soil contains some moisture. If the soil does not stick together, it contains very little or no moisture. Wet soil may drip and leave behind water on you r hand. Discussion Questions Which measurements used quantitative data? Which measurements used qualitative data? Were any measurements the same for each location? Why do you think this is? Were any measurements different for each location? Why do you think this is?
114 Did every student or group get the exact same results? Why or why not? Which measurement (wind speed, temperature, etc.) do you think is the most important in determining climate? Why? For More Information: National Weather Service Forecast Office http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/mtr/glossary.php How To Use a Compass http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/camping safety tips for kids4.htm Qualitative Vs. Quantitative Data http://regentsprep.org/REgents/math/ALGEBRA/AD1/qualquant.htm
116 Oceans and Climate Pretest & Posttest 6.) What is condensation?____________________________ ________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 7.) List three types of precipitation.___________ __________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ ________________ __________________________________________________________________ 8.) __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 9.) What is an ocean current?___________________________________ ______ _________________________________________________________________ ______________________ ____________________________________________ 10.) What is climate? ___________________________________________ ______ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________
117 Oceans and Climate Pretest Posttest Answers There may be more than one correct answer which may not be listed below 1.) What is condensation? When water (or any other substance) changes from a gaseous state to a liquid state. It is the opposite of evaporation. When water condenses in the sky it forms clouds. 2.) List three types of precipitation. Rain, snow, sleet, hail. 3.) by a extreme changes in temperature. 4.) What is an ocean current? Water moves continuously, as though it were on a long conveyor belt moving it from the surface, to the depths, and back t o the surface. This movement, known currents help to keep the temperature even throughout the oceans. 5.) What is climate? The general temperature, humidity wind, rainfall, and atmosph eric pressure that prevails in an area over a very long period of time.
118 About the Natural Cycles Field Trip Unit This unit introduces students to the observable repeating cycles of nature. Students will study the rise and fall of the tides, the movement of the sun through the sky, and the life cycle of trees in the mangrove forest. They will think about how the Earth is affected by other astronomical bodies, and how annual physical changes affect living organisms. They will practice th eir investigative skills as they explore the mangroves in search of mangroves in various stages of the life style, and practice making predictions as they measure tides and create a solar clock. Adapting the Natural Cycles Field Trip Unit to the Classroom : For safety reasons some local schools do not permit field trip activities that involve students approaching or entering any body of water. While there are risks involved anytime a stud ent is close to or in water, many of these risks can be minimized wi th proper adult supervision. If a school group is unable to participate in these field trip activities for safety reasons, the follo wing activities could be done without leaving school: The Tracking The Time activity coul d easily be done just outside an on campus classroom. Because there would not be the same time restraints associated with field trips, students could potentially create a solar clock that tracks time from the beginning to the end of a school day. They could also compare the shadows cast f rom one time of year to another. The tidal cycle activity cannot be done without access to a beach, but students could attempt to recreate tidal activity using a model. Perhaps in conjunction with the Fiddler Crab Observation activity as part of the Mang rove Ecosystems Field Trip Unit, students could attempt to recreate the tidal cycle in their fiddler crab aquarium. By erve how these tidal changes affect the The Life Cycle of the Red Mangrove activity can be adapted for classroom use in several ways. With the proper collecting permit, red mangrove propagules can be obtained for classroom study. While they typically root in sand near brackish water, the red man grove will typically grow in any type of soil, and can be watered with fresh water. Plant the propagule with an inch or two of the blunt end under loose soil. The propagule must be planted in partial sunlight or under a broad spectrum light bulb intended f or growing plants indoors. As the plant grows, students can make observations about the transition from propagule to tree. This activity could also be combined with the tidal activity --
119 environment by manipulating r ising and falling water levels? If the mangrove is grown in a tank, this could also be an ideal habitat for fiddler crabs. Students could try watering with brackish water and with spring water to see if there are any differences in growth. Plants can be returned to the wild after observation. Mangroves transplant easily. Using Google Earth, have students identify areas in Sarasota and Manatee Counties where mangroves grow. What do these areas have in common? Where are mangroves most abundant? There are other ways for students to observe life cycles in a classroom. Many seeds can be grown in a plastic bag containing a damp paper towel. Taping the bag to a window will provide plenty of light, and will illuminate roots and shoots for observation. Plenty of living creatures can be ordered through science supply magazines for life cycle observations --caterpillars and mealworms can be purchased for a few dollars a piece. Painted Lady Butterfly Larvae http://www.carolina.com/product/living+organisms/anim als/butterflies/painted +lady+butterfly+larvae+culture.do?sortby=ourPicks Mealworm Starter Kit http://www.carolina.com/product/mealworm+%28tenebrio%29+assortment%2C +living.do?keyword=mealworm&sortby=bestMatches
120 Natural Cycles : Introduction and Methods Florida Sunshine State Standards: SC.K.L.14: Organization and Development of Living Organisms SC.K.E.5.2: Recognize the repeating pattern of day and night. SC.K.E.5.3: Recognize that the Sun can only be seen in the daytime. SC.1.E.6.3: Recognize that some things in the world around us happen fast and some happen slowly. SC.1.L.14.2: Identify the major parts of plants, including stem, roots, leaves, and flowers. SC.1.L.14.3: Differentiate between living and nonliving things. SC.2.E.7.1: Compare and describe changing patterns in nature that repeat themselves, such as weather conditions including temperature and precipitation, day to day and season to season. SC.2.L.16.1: Observe and describe major stages in the life c ycles of plants and animals, including beans and butterflies. SC.3.L.15.2: Classify flowering and non flowering plants into major groups such as those that produce seeds, or those like ferns and mosses that produce spores, according to their physical char acteristics. SC.3.L.17.1: Describe how animals and plants respond to changing seasons. SC.4.E.5.3: Recognize that Earth revolves around the Sun in a year and rotates on its axis in a 24 hour day. SC.4.E.5.4: Relate that the rotation of Earth (day and ni ght) and apparent movements of the sun, m oon, and stars are connected. SC.4.L.16.1: Identify processes of sexual reproduction in flowering plants, including pollination, fertilization (seed production), seed dispersal, and germination. SC.4.L.16.4: Compa re and contrast the major stages in the life cycles of Florida plants and animals, such as those that undergo incomplete and complete metamorphosis, and flowering and nonflowering seed bearing plants. SC.4.L.17.1: Compare the seasonal changes in Florida p lants and animals to those in other regions of the country.
121 SC.5.E.7.3: Recognize how air temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation determine the weather in a particular place and time. SC.5.E.7.4: Distinguis h among the various forms of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, and hail), making connections to the weather in a particular place and time. SC.5.P.9.1: Investigate and describe that many physical and chemical changes are affected by temperature. SC.6.E.7.2: Investigate and apply how the cycling of water between the atmosphere and hydrosphere has an effect on weather patterns and climate. SC.6.E.7.6: Differentiate between weather and climate. SC.7.P.10.1: Illustrate that the sun's energy arrives as radiation with a wide range of wavelengths, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, and that white light is made up of a spectrum of many different colors. SC.8.E.5.9: Explain the impact of objects in space on each other including: 1.) the s un on the Earth including seasons and gravitational attraction 2.) the m oon on the Earth, including phases, tides, and eclipses, and the relative position of each body. SC.8.P.9.2: Differentiate between physical changes and chemical changes. Objectives: Stud ents will recognize patterns in nature that occur over different periods of time. Some patterns, like the rise and fall of tides, take less than a day to cycle through. Daily patterns occur in a 24 hour period, and other patterns like seasons occur over a much longer time period. Students will learn how these physical patterns relate to cycles for animals. Sleeping cycles are in sync with these physical patterns, and life cycles are in sync with seasonal changes. Students will obser ve physical cycles to te ll time and observe part of the mangrove life cycle. They will also learn about how the moon affects cycles on the Earth by observing the rise and fall of the tides, and practice keeping scientific records by graphing the changes over time. Introduction: Many processes on Earth occur in cycles. These cycles can be extremely short (like tidal cycles which occur more than once per day), or these cycles can be extremely long (like the rock cycle, which can span millions of years). Other s fall so mewhere in between --like the annual change of the seasons. Daily cycles, like the Earth spinning on its axis, occurs once every 24 hours for a total 365 times each year. Some of these cycles are astronomical cycles, and deal with the movements of the pl anets, stars, or moons. Others, like the life cycle of plants, are biological. Some cycles, like the seasons, are a mix of the two. Astronomical changes, like the Earth being tilted away from the sun on its axis, affect biological cycles on Earth, as seaso nal changes
122 cause plants to drop their leaves and trigger hibernation in animals. In many places, there are four distinct seasons; spring, summer, fall or autumn, and winter. Tides are an important semi diurnal cycle (in most places. There are some areas where tides do not semi diurnal, and occur only once daily as a diurnal cycle), which means that they occur roughly twice a day. Every twelve hours the sea level rises and falls because of the rotation of the Earth, and the gravitational forces of the moon and sun. Not only do tides follow a twice daily pattern, they also cycle through different stages throughout the year depending on the position of the sun and the moon. The height of the high and low tide changes each day on a two week cycle depending on the position of the sun and the moon relative to the Earth (see Figure 6.1 ). Figure 6.1 Tide Heights Measured Over A Ten Day Period in Hawaii (http://www.princeton.edu/~pccm/outreach/scsp/water_on_earth/tides/inquiry/tideactivities.htm) There are sp ecific names for the different points in the tidal cycle (see Figure 6.2 the moon align, resulting in elevated high tides. These are known as spring tides, though the name i s confusing --it has nothing to do with the spring season, but instead occurs when the moon is new or full. The tides are less dramatic when the sun and moon are not aligned, but are instead at right angles; their gravitational pulls cancel each other out somewhat, resulting in a neap tide. These tides occur during quarter moons.
123 Figure 6.2 Gravitational Pull of the Sun and Moon on The Tidal Cycle ( http://www.tocardo.com/cms/images/fotoarchief/spring neap cycle.gif) Living plants and animals follow cycles as well. Seeds grow into seedlings, seedlings grow into adult plants, and these plants produce seeds which grow into new seedlings. Birds lay eggs, which hatch fledgling birds, which in turn grow up to reproduce and lay eggs of their own. These biol ogical life cycles can occur in a few days for some insects. For some trees, these cycles can take decades. Some cycles, like those that span over many ye ars, can be very hard to record directly For instance, it is hard to measure growth of trees that li ve hundreds of years directly. However, you can use an indirect method of examining the growth rings of a tree. Other cycles, like the rising and falling tides, can be easily recorded though visual observation. For examples of some biological and astronom ical cycles, see Table 6.1 Examples of Biological and Astronomical Cycles Magicicada Insect Cycle This insect, found in North America, has a 13 or 17 year long biological cycle, depending on the species. Most of this time is spent underground feeding on tree roots until they hatch and spend about a month as adults, laying new e ggs that will hatch and live underground until they emerge above ground more than a decade later. Lunar Cycle The lunar cycle takes about 29.5 days. The moon moves through eight different phases, beginning with no visible moon in the sky (a new moon), t o a fully illuminated moon (a full moon),
124 and back to a new moon. The Tidal Cycle Tides are t he rises and falls in sea level caused with the gravitational pull of the sun and m oon. Most places experience and two low tides during each 24 hour period. Bird Migration This cycle occurs once a year. About 1800 different species of birds partake in seasonal migration. They travel thousands of miles away from their home range due to seasonal changes or availability of food, and then return to their home range. Table 6.1 Examples of Biological and Astronomical Cycles (See sources below for more information) Discussion Points: Think about and discuss the following points before visiting the field trip site to observe different cycles Some cycles occur quickly and others take a very long time. Many cycles are closely linked; for example, many species give birth to young in the spring, when seasonal cycl es mean plenty of available food for baby animals. Physical cycles, like the temperature throughout different times of the year, affect biological cycles. Cycles can involve either living or non living things, or both. Many human activities, like sleep or fishing, are linked to physical cycles. Humans have often recorded physical cycles --like the Earth spinning on its axis or rotating around the sun --to record the passing of time. Humans are diurnal animals, meanin g that they are primarily active during the day. Many animals are nocturnal, which means that they are primarily active at night. Think about the advantages and disadvantages of each. What kinds of sensory modifications are needed for night activities? M any animals go through distinct biological cycles, which can often be observed. Plants grow seeds which then grow into other plants. Insects lay eggs, which eventually grow into adult insects. These cycles can be relatively fast or slow depending on the sp ecies.
125 Suggested Procedure: Caution! It is illegal to harm or alter mangrove trees in any way. If you collect any mangrove propagules (seeds) to grow, they must be collected after they have dropped from the tree. It is illegal to pluck or cut these seeds off of the trees. In the Ris e and Fall of the Tides activity someone may need to enter the water to measure the distance the tide has risen. Wear close toed shoes and use caution. Because these activities track cycles, they may require addition al time at the field trip site. Expect the first two ac tivities to span over a five to six hour time period for best results. Tracking the Time 1.) affects shadows, an d how these shadows can be used to tell time. 2.) Th is activity takes several hours and should be started as soon as students arrive to the site. The entire class may work together, or students can work in small groups. 3.) Once the activity is completed, review the discussion questions as a group. 4.) If natural materials (like rocks and sticks) were used to make the sun clock, return them to their proper place at the end of the activity. Any materials brought from the classroom should not be left behind. The Rise a nd Fall of the Tides 1.) In this activity, students measure the rise or fall of the sea level as the tide moves in or out. 2.) This activity takes several hours, and should be started as soon as students arrive to the site, preferably at a time that the tide wil l be moving in one direction (ie; do not start 3.) Studen ts should complete the activity filling out the Tide Measurement Chart during each hourly marker placement. 4.) Once the activity is complete, markers should be removed and either returned to their original location or brought back to the classroom if they were brought to the site. Complete discussion questions as a group. Life Cycle of the Red Mangrove 1.) Teach the stu dents how to recognize a red mangrove by looking for arching prop roots. 2.) In this activity students should explore the mangrove forest as a group, keeping an eye out for the different stages of the red mangrove life cycle. They should then complete the Stag es of a Red Mangrove Life Cycle worksheet by drawing each stage and comparing it to the others. 3.) Complete the discussion questions as a group.
126 Thought Questions: These questions can serve as a starting point for discussion upon returning to the classroom. Which cycles were observed on the field trip? How long does each cycle take? Which cycle is the longest? Which is the shortest? How many tidal cycles occur every 24 hours? How many 24 hour cycles does it take for a mangrove flower to grow into a mature propagule? Which season is it (spring, summer, fall, or winter)? What evidence did you see to support your conclusion? How is the mangrove life cycle related to the tidal cycle? How is the rotation of the Earth around the sun related to the t idal cycle? What are some other cycles that might be observed in the mangrove forest or on the beach? Words to Know: These words can be useful when discussing mangrove life cycles, tides, or the relationship of the Earth and Sun Estuary a partially enclosed body of water where a freshwater source meets a saltwater source (for example, where a river flows into an ocean) Brackish water a mixture of both fresh and salt water Photosynthesis The process where plants make energy from the sun, storing it as sugar in their leaves. Propagule the living, germinated fruit that the mangrove uses to reproduce. Rather than producing dormant seeds, these propagules are developed, photosynthesizing immature trees that root themselves in soil once dropped from the parent tree. Viviparous a viviparous organism gives birth to live young. In the context of the mangrove, this means that the young plants germinate and partially mature while still attached to the parent tree before being dropped. Germinate when a plant emerges from a seed and begins to grow, typically after being planted in soil. Mangroves germinate while they are still attached to the parent, before rooting in soil. Cycle a series of events that are repeated regularly in the same order. Semi diurnal a period or cycle that occurs roughly twice a day or every twelve hours. Tidal cycles are typically semi diurnal.
127 Tides the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the moon and the sun and the rotation of the Earth. Most places in the ocean usually experience two high tides and two low tides each day (semi diurnal tide), but some locations experience only one high and one low tide each day (diurnal tide). Spring Tide When the moon is full or new, the gravitational pull of the moon and sun are combined. At these times, the high tides are very high and the low tides are very low. Neap Tide During the moon's quarter phases the sun and moon work at right angles, causing the gravitatio n pulls to counteract each other. The result is a smaller difference between high and low tides. Gravitational Pull the attractive force of extremely large objects like stars or planets. The strength of the pull is directly proportional to the mass of th e object. Day day is the 24 hour period that it takes for the Earth to rotate completely on its axis. Year The time taken by a planet to make one revolution around the s un. The length of the earth's year is about 365 days long. Angiosperm A plant that has flowers and produces seeds. For this information and more: Teacher's Guide for Tides Discovery Activities http://www.princeton.edu/~pccm/outreach/scsp/water_on_earth/tides/inquiry/ guide.htm The Tidal Cycle and the Moon http://home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/moon/moontides/
128 Tracking the Time Throughout time, mankind has tracked time in many different ways Clocks were needed to measure time in smaller units than naturally occurring cycles like days or lunar months. The sundial is one of the most ancient methods for measuring time, using the sun to cast shadows on a circular tablet (similar to the clock tha t will be made in the activity). Water clocks, which carefully recorded a liquid dripping from one vessel to another (similar in the way a sand clock works) were also used in ancient times. More advanced clocks relied on the use of a pendulum --a heavy o bject swinging back and forth on a string or wire. This clock could be used with greater accuracy to measure the passing of time in seconds. In this act ivity students will learn how the will create a solar clock that measures shadows cast by the sun to tell time. They will begin by comparing the length of shadows to the time on a watch to mark out several hours of measurements, and then use estimation to determine where the other markers should be. Th is acti vity takes several hours and should be start ed as soon as students arrive at the site. After the activity, complete the discussion questions as a group. Materials Needed: A two or three foot stick that can be stuck into the ground, rocks or other small objects to use as markers, a clock or watch. Terminology: Whole hour interval any one hour mark on a clock (eg; 12:00, 3:00) Half hour interval any thir t y minute mark on a clock (eg; 12:30, 3:30) Activity Instructions: 1.) This activity is best started just before any whole hour interval on a clock, and can be done as a large group. Begin by placing the tall stick vertically in the ground like a flag pole. This will be the center of the sun clock. Wait until the clock reaches the whole hour interval, an d place a marker at the topmost point of the shadow cast. You may also choose to place additional markers at half hour intervals (see Figure 6.3 ). 2.) Wait one hour (this is a great time to begin working on one of the other activities), and then return to the sun clock. Place another marker at the top of the shadow cast by the stick. If you are making a sun clock that measures half hour intervals, repeat this procedure ever thirty minutes instead of every hour. It may be useful to use different markers for the whole hour and half hour intervals. 3.) Repeat this procedure for each hour (or half hour) that you are at the field trip site. Is there a noticeable pattern? 4.) After several whole hour (or half hour) intervals have been marked, have the students estimate where the next marker will fall. Wait an hour (or half hour), and see how accurate the guess was.
129 5.) Once four or five markers have been placed, the students estimate the placement of the remaining markers. If there is enough time, see how close these estimations fell to the actual locations of the shadows. Figure 6.3 Example of a Sun Clock (Image created by the author using the following sources: http://www.lucytravels.com/images/sun coloring page 1.gif, http://throughtheweb.org/wp content/uploads/2011/03/ston es.png) Discussion Questions: Why does the shadow move over the course of each hour? Does the shadow stay the same length? Would this same sun clock be accurate one day from now? One month from now? Six months from now? A year from now? Why or why not? e the time on the solar clock how could you estimate what time of day corresponds to each hour marker? What are some of the benefits of using a solar clock versus an electrical watch or clock? What are some disadvant ages?
130 The Rise and Fall of the Tides In this activity students will observe a portion of the tidal cycle and indirectly measure the rise and fall of the water by looking at the high and low tide lines on shore (see Figure 6.4 to see how the two are related). Note that higher winds can significantly affect the distance the tide rises or falls, especially in a protected bay area. Tides in different areas rise and fall different heights, sometimes drastically. The Bay of Fundy in North America can rise and fall by more than forty feet! Students will mark the distance waves move up or down the shoreline over a period of a few hours. If the tide has changed from low to high, students can physically measure the change in sea level. I f the tide has gone from high to low, they can use a level and a piece of string to measure the distance. This activity works best in an area where the beach slopes gently, and the waves are not rough. This activity takes several hours, and should be start ed as soon as students arrive to the site, preferably at a time that the tide will be moving in one direction (ie; do not start this activity if the tide is supposed to activity complete the discus sion questions as a group. Figure 6.4 Measuring the Distance Between High and Low Tide on the Shore (Image created by the author) Materials Needed: Tape measure or yard stick, a level (or a protracter and weighted line, which can be made in the classroom at little expense), a long piece of string and several tall sticks for marking tide lines on the beach Activity Directions:
131 1.) For this activity, students will mark the highest point the waves wash up onto the shore at hourly intervals, noting how the distance between each point changes each hour as the tide rises or falls. They will then measure the rise or fall of the sea level. 2.) Watch the waves lapping on the beach for several minutes. Then mark the point furthest up the beach that the waves touched with a tall stick, burying the tip at least a foot into the sand to prevent it from washing away. 3.) After one hour return to the site. Watch the waves for several minutes, and again m ark the highest point on the beach with a tall stick. Measure and record the distance between this marker and the previous one, as well as this marker and the first marker, using the Tide Measurement Chart Repeat this step two to four times. 4.) Once there a re several markers in place, the students will measure the distan ce the tide has risen or fallen using one of two methods: If the tide has risen: Walk out to the first marker (this is the one furthest from the shore). Using a yard stick or tape measure, measure the distance from the water level to the bottom of the marker. If the tide has fallen: Using a piece of string and the level, form a straight line from the bottom of the first marker out to the last marker. Measure the distance from the bottom of the last marker to the level piece of string. ( See Figure 6.5 ). Figure 6.5 How to Measure the Distance a Tide has Fallen. Middle markers not shown. (Image created by the author) Discussion Questions: Were the distances between each marker evenly distributed? Why or why not? Would the distance the tide rose or fell be the same tomorrow? In one week? In one month? Could this activity be done at any time of day? Why or why not? How many times in a 24 hour period could a person do this activity?
132 L ife Cycle of the Red Mangrove Activity Red mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle ) are an angi found in estuaries throughout the tropics, and are common in Florida mangrove ecosystems. They provide a habitat for birds, crabs, snails and other mangrove dwelling animals. Red Mangroves contain tannins, the same bitter chemical found in acorns and black tea. These chemical protect their leaves by making them distasteful to herbivores (with the exception of the Mangrove Leaf Miner discuss ed in the Food Chain Activity). Red mangroves are trunk and branches. Beca use of the way these roots grow, red mangroves have been the base of each tree. They are typically around twenty feet tall. Red mangroves typically grow very close to the water, and oftentimes their root system will be partially submerged during high tid e. They grow in estuaries, which means that the water is brackish --a mix of salty and fresh water. Their roots are e specially adapted to prevent the absorption of salt. In most locations R h isophora mangle but produces an abun dance of flowers in the summer. After four to seven months these flowers produce fruit which develop into propagules four to six months after that. These long, pencil like propagules are actual living trees that begin to develop on the parent plant. Plants that --either falling on the ground around the base of the parent plant, or being carried to other locations by the water. Propagu les may float for over a year before rooting into sand or soil. For this information and more: Gill, A., and Tomlinson,P., 1971. Studies on the Growth of Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) 3. Phenology of the Shoot Biotropica Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 109 124. The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation. < http://www.jstor.org/stable/2989815>
133 Florida Forest Tree: The Red Mangrove < http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/4h/Red_mangrove/redmangr.htm> Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce: Red Mangrove < http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Rhizop_mangle.htm> Activity Instructions: 1.) Each student should receive a Stages of a Red Mangrove Life Cycle worksheet. As a group, walk through the mangrove forest in search of red mangroves at different points in the life cycle. Search for any animals found living among the roots or in the branches of the tree. 2.) Once students have investigated the forest in search of the different stages of the red mangrove, they should complete the worksheet, drawing pictures of the three major life stages, and comparing each stage to the others. 3.) After completing the worksheet, think about the following questions as a group. Discussion Questions Which life stage was most common? Adult mangrov es? Propagules attached to an adult? Rooted propagules? Why do you think this is? Was there anything in common for all three stages? What was it, and why do you think this is? How did the rooted propagules get to their location? How do you know? How are propagules similar to and different from seeds?
135 Natural Cycles Pretest & Posttest 11.) What is a spring tide, and what causes it? ____________________ _______ __________________________________________ ________________________ __________________________________________ ________________________ __________________________________________ ________________________ 12.) Tides follow a semi diurnal cycle. What does this mean? _________________ __________________________________________ ______ ______________ __________________________________________ ________________________ __________________________________________ ________________________ 13.) What is a propagule, and where can one be found? ________ _____________ ____________________________________ ______ ________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________ __________________________________________ ________________________ 14.) What is a day? What is a year? ______________________________________ ______________________ ________________________________ _________ __________________________________________ ________________________ 15.) What does a red mangrove look like? _________________________________ ______________________________________________ _________________ ______________ __________________________________________________________ __ __________________________________________________________
136 Natural Cycles Pretest Posttest Answers There may be more than one correct answer which may not be listed below 1.) What is a spring tide, and what causes it? A spring tide happens when the moon is full or new, and the gravitational pull of the moon and sun are combined. At these times, the high tides are very high and the low tides are very low. 2.) Tides follow a semi diurnal cycle. Wh at does this mean? This means that they happen twice a day, or roughly once every twelve hours. The tides rise and fall twice a day. 3.) What is a propagule, and where can one be found? A propagule is the living, germinated fruit that the mangrove uses to r eproduce. Rather than producing dormant seeds, these propagules are developed, photosynthesizing immature trees that root themselves in soil once dropped from the parent tree. They can be found attached to the parent tree, floating in the water, or on the ground around a parent tree. 4.) What is a day? What is a year? A day is the 24 hour period that it takes for the Earth to rotate completely on its axis. A year is the time taken by a planet to make one revolution around the sun. The length of the earth's ye ar is about 365 days long. 5.) What does a red mangrove look like? A red mangrove is a flowering tree that is found in the mangrove forest in Florida. They are typically around 20 feet tall and have green leaves, and may have pencil shaped propagules attache d to their branches. Red mangroves are easily identified branches.
137 About the Pretest and Postt est Data Though the field trips and evaluations specifically designed as part of this thesis have not been implemented, there are similar programs being carried out in Sarasota and Manatee Counties. Karen Fraley of Around the Bend Nature Tours (ATBNT) has been contracted by local schools for more than ten years, lea ding field trips with an ecological focus 8 While many of their field trips are privately funded by the district schools, ATBNT also receives funding from several other agencies, with PIER and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) as their la rgest contributors. As part of their funding agreement, ATBNT is required to provide evidence that their field trips environments. Students are evaluated before and after the f ield trip, and improvements are noted. These figures are reported to PIER and SFWMD at the end of each school year. The data presented here were gathered from 53 separate trips that took place during the 2010 2011 school year. Two types of field trips ar e included in these data. The figures recorded include the pre and post test scores from more than 2200 students in grades from Kindergarten through 8 th grade, from schools in both Sarasota and Manatee County. These trips cover similar material to the ori ginal trips included in the previous chapters of this thesis. The Crab Field Trip closely parallels the Mangrove Ecosystem field trip, and the Dipnetting and Ecosystems Field Trip covers material similar to both the Dipnetting and Mangrove Ecosystems Field Trips. These two trips introduce topics such as crab anatomy, mangrove ecology, watersheds, and safety around water; the tests questions reflect upon this material. Thus, it is reasonable that assessment results could be similar for the trips designed f or this thesis. Before each fiel d trip, the students took a pre test as a group that introduced the students to the topics to be covered during the field trip. The students responded to the question as a group, raising their hand to indicate which answer t hey believed to be correct, and the totals are recorded. The quiz consists of either four or five questions, three of which overlapped between the two activities. After a two to four hour field trip led by specially trained naturalist guides, the students retook the same quiz in the same manner, and the new totals were tallied. No student names were recorded, and responses to questions were anonymous. There are some inherent problems with this method 9 Because the students respond to the questions as a gro up, individual student improvement cannot be assessed. Individually, students may answer th e question correctly on the pre test, and answer incorrectly on the post test, while the overall numbers reflect only overall improvement. In addition, because the st udents respond as a group, peer pressure 8 Around The Bend Nature Tours also offers field trips with a social studies focus that visit Native American archaeological sites, which are not inc luded as part of this study. This LLC is located in Palma Sola in Manatee County. 9 This method was designed and implemented by ATBNT, and was in no way collected as an experimental part of this thesis. Karen Fraley provided these data voluntarily in a for mat that did not reveal the identity of any students.
138 could influence the choices st udents make on the pre or post test questions. Responding in front of trip guides or teachers could cause similar issues. Because ible that students may have not responded to the questions, or have responded to both possible choices, skewing response numbers. Responses were requested for both correct and incorrect answers, to prevent students from not submitting answers to either res ponse). Different guides were present for different field trips, which could have influenced the way the material was conveyed, though the same material was covered during each trips. Regardless of these inherent flaws (which could have been avoided if th e methods were developed with an experimental method in mind), the data serve as a valuable point to demonstrate that informal learning experiences are highly capable of conveying information to students in a field trip environment. These data are not inte nded to suggest that field trips are more effective than in class instruction --this argument would be invalid without a control group that covered the same material in a classroom setting. All that we can learn from these data are whether there was a sta tistical improvement in student group scores on evaluation quizzes after participating in an outdoor informal learning experience. The actual data used for the analysis can be found in Appendix J
139 Ana lysis and Discussion of the Pretest and Postt est Data Two different sets of pretest and post test questions were presented to 53 groups of K 8 students in Manatee and Sarasota Counties. The Crab Field Trip material was presented to 1136 s tudents in 25 different classes and the Dipnetting and Mangrove Ecosystems Field Trip material was presented to 1094 students in 28 different classes. All s tudents participated in the pretest and post test evaluations as a group. Each correct response was recorded. Incorrect responses we re not recorded. These data were then analyzed for each field trip as seen in Tables 7.1 and 7.2 and Tables 7.3 and 7.4 Data for Pre tests and Postt ests Collected by Around The Bend Nature Tours Crab Field Trip, 1136 K 8 Students, 2010 2011 Question 1 Qu estion 2 Question 3 Question 4 # Correct Pre Test 319 564 885 588 % Correct Pre Test 28% 50% 78% 52% # Correct Post Test 1021 1099 1118 1128 % Correct Post Test 90% 97% 98% 99% Improvement Between Pre and Post Test (Percentage Points) 62% 47% 20% 47% Table 7.1 Improvement for Individual Pretest and Postt est Questions Statistical A nalysis of Crab Field Trip Pretest and Postt est Overall Improvement Number of Students Mean Pre Quiz Mean Post Quiz Mean Difference Standard Deviation Degrees of Freedom Dependent T Test Value P Value 1136 51.8% Correct 95.4% Correct 43.6% Improvement 30.1 24 13.35 <.0001 Table 7.2 Statistical Analysis of Overall Improvement on Pretest and Postt est Scores Data for Pre tests and Postt ests Collected by Around The Bend Nature Tours Dipnetting Field Trip, 1120 K 8 Students, 2010 2011 Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 Question 5 # Correct Pre Test 492 474 970 551 637 Correct Pre Test 44% 52% 87% 49% 57% # Correct Post 1114 1118 1120 1090 1114
1 40 Test Correct Post Test 99% 100% 100% 97% 99% Improvement Between Pre and Post Test (Percentage Points) 55% 58% 13% 48% 42% Table 7.3 Improvement for Individual Pretest and Postt est Questions Statistical Analysis of Dipnetting Field Trip Pretest and Postt est Overall Improvement Number of Students Mean Pretest Mean Posttest Mean Difference Standard Deviation Degrees of Freedom Dependent T Test Value P Value 1094 57.1% Correct 100% Correct 42.9% Improvement 34.7 27 13.24 <.0001 Table 7.4 Statistical Analysi s of Overall Improvement on Pretest and Postt est Scores The data were analyzed in two ways --overall scores on the entire pre and post tests, as well as group responses on individual questions. For the overall scores, the t t est value for the pre and post tests were t=13.35 for the Crab Field Trip, and 13.24 for the Dipnetting Field Trip. The p < .0001 value indicated that the data was highly significa nt. The mean for the pretests 51.8% and 57.1% suggested rel atively low baseline knowledge. Correct responses may be attributed to classroom preparation, experience in prior activities, or chance (there is a 50% chance of getting a correct response on a question with only two possible answers, which closely correla tes with the responses recorded during the pre tests). The mean increase s assessed through post test scores were 43.6% and 42.9% for each field trip. The 95.4% and 100 % correct responses on the posttests indicate a high level of comprehension and learning over the course of the field trips. The overall improvement for ea ch group is highly significant and overall post test scores are much higher than overall pretest scores. This can easily be seen when total correct responses (the type of data recorded in th e original tables) are converted to percentages out of the total number of students. At minimum, each set of test subjects improved by at least 13% on each question, and in one case improvement was as high as 62%. In the lowest case of 13% improvement, response s were 100% correct on the post test (pre test scores were 87% correct, so 13% was the maximum improvement. For both tests, student comprehension was at least 90%, and averaged approximately 96% for the Crab Field T rip, and 99% for the Dipnetting and Ecosystems Field T rip. Out of the 265 individual questions presented to the test subjects, there were only two cases in which student comprehension on the pre test exceeded that on the post test, demonstrating overall improvement on 99.99% of test questio ns.
141 The data for both field trips has a relatively large sample size with over 1,000 students tested for each analysis. With more than 50 different classes covering age groups from Kindergarten through eighth grade, the data covers a wide variety of stud ents. Little is known about the individual students because of the group respo nse nature of the pre and post experiences, interest levels, or individual responses. Only overall group achievement c oul d be analyzed through these data. Group size (which ranged from 19 to 71 students per group) was not constant, but there does not appear to be a significant difference in pretest and post test means as a result of group size. The statistically signific the pretest to post test supports the hypothesis that outdoor field trips are an effective way to teach students, and allow students to grasp concepts of a biological or ecological nature. Similar studies, even years after a field trip initially took place, also support high levels of comprehension and recall (Falk and Dierking, 2010). These data may also be applicable to other students at other schools in Sarasota and Manatee Counties (or other areas in Florida with similar ecologies. The Next Generation Sunshine Standards remain the same, and would apply to all students attending public schools in the state). Because students from 20 different schools over nine grade levels pa rticipated in the pre and post tests, we can assume that this sample size is representative of all students in Sarasota and Manatee Counties. Because the Field Trip Units presented in earlier chapters of this thesis follow a similar format and cover the same standards as the field trips presented by Around the Bend Nature Tours, one might expect similar results for the curriculum presented here. Overall comprehension on the post test was high (97% or greater), with the exception of one question presented on the Crab Field Trip. Only 90% of stude nts responded correctly to the first question on the post test, which asked students to identify whether the watershed was part of the land or water. While we cannot conclusively determine why 10% of post test responses are incorrect, one might consider the perhaps confusing wording of the qu estion in which t he correct answer might seem counter intuitive to students. Students answered questions about invasive species and wildlife with almost absolute accuracy. O n two of the questions, responses were 100% cor rect for all students. The main purpose of the Field Trip Units is to make science material required by the NGSS relevant to students be presenting it in a hands on manner, and by relating test material and general concepts to tangible experiences. By en couraging students to participate actively, develop critical thinking and investigative skills, and fostering interest in the material, students may feel more motivated to learn the material, and demonstrate understanding of the concepts presented in the N GSSS. The material gathered through Around the B end Nature T and post tests and the material presented as part of the Field Trip Units in this thesis could be used in future studies. As noted earlier, there was not a control group used in this study. The data analyzed here suggest significant comprehension of material presen ted on field trips, but no argument can be made suggesting that field trips are more effective than other methods of formal or informal education. Another group that
142 experienced the information through lectures or other in class activities could provide a useful comparison to the students that participated in outdoor field trips and could be used to ascertain whether field trips are more effective, less effective, or similar in effectiveness to other types of activities. Without data to suggest that student s gain more from field trips than in class study, a strong case for using field trips over other methods to teach students cannot yet be made.
143 Discussion The material presented in the field trip units is in tended to sharpen scientific skills by encouraging critical thinking, observation, and group work, among other real world practices. By encouraging students to explore the material in an outdoor setting, there exists a possibility to engage students in a way tha t cannot be achieved in the sterile setting of a classroom. Encouraging students to understand scientific principles as they participate in hands on activities is critical in implementing a passion for science. Each activity is designed to not only address the NGSSS, but to encourage students to develop the skills to practice science in the real world. The Dipnetting Field Trip Unit encourages students to think critically and objectively, following a format used in a variety of situations. This is a pattern of thinking that most students are familiar with, though they may not be aware of it. At the end o f every episode of Caillou a Canadian children's program that has grown in popularity in the US, viewers as young as three are presented with a group of three to four different objects. These items are related to each other --items used to play baseball, items found at the beach --and is then given a moment to consider the options before Caillou reveals the answer; Disguised as a game, these young children are being exposed to the concepts of observation and critical thinking to discern how the items in question are similar and different 10 education. While these ski lls remain useful in many areas of study, it is perhaps in the natural sciences where they most rely upon the ability to observe, differentiate, and classify. As early as Kindergarten, students are asked to think about the organization of living organisms, 11 (Florida Department of Education, 2011) Dichotomous keys utilize simil Which Does Not Belong game, presenting a reader with a question concerning the object at hand, which could lead them in one of two directions. A dichotomous key ----divides objects into two su bsets multiple times, until the reader is eventually left with just one identified object (Cole, 1973). By comparing their observations of the objects to a list of physical descriptions, readers move through each question by agreeing with only one statemen t. Is the object rounded or angular? Is the object yellow or blue? Is it more than three inches wide, or less? For young scientists, these 10 I am not the first to make this comparison between children's shows and dichotomous keys; James Cole recognized this pattern in episodes of Sesame Street in the early 1970's. Since then, similar progr ams targeted at children include similar games during their shows. 11 Sunshine Standard SC.K.L.14, 2011 asks students to recognize that all plants and animals are alike and different in some ways, and that we can better understand the natural world through careful observation.
144 descriptions can help solidify their understanding of qualitative versus quantitative information (Glickstein, 1987). While dichotomous keys traditionally identify species of plants or animals, they can also be used to classify and sort almost any object, from hardware supplies to types of soft drinks, depending on the need. The dichotomous keys used by experts in thei r fields can easily become a muddled, confusing exercise for those not well versed in the technical jargon of ichthyologists or phycologists. 12 It is of no use to a second grade student to differentiate between a trilobite or auriculate shell aperture, with students focus on understanding these foreign words that have no real use in future applications. For an exercise using dichotomous keys to be useful to the very young student, they must be specially tailored, using simple object at hand. Even simple keys require that a student use careful observation and comparative analysis to arrive at the correct spec imen in their key (Watson and Miller, 2009 ). The use and creation of dichotomous keys are only a launching point for exploring both scientific thinking and the natural world, accessible to students of any level in any setting. Other activities emphasize the importance of observation in the natural sciences. While the Next Generation Florida Su nshine Standards (NGSSS) cover many different scientific subjects --astronomy, physics, biology, and ecology, among others --the importance of observation functions as a unifying theme, and is emphasized throughout the curriculum for all grade levels (se e Table 8.1 ). Observation and the NGSSS SC.K.L.14.3 Observe plants and animals, describe how they are alike and how they are different in the way they look and in things they do SC.2.L.16.1 Observe and describe major stages in the life cycles of plants and animals including beans and butterflies SC.2.P.8.4: Observe and describe water in its solid, liquid, and gaseous states. SC.3.N.1.6 Infer based on observation. Table 8.1 Examples of NGSSS that Emphasize the Importance of Scientific Observation The first Body Of Knowledge presented in the NGSSS addresses The Practice Of Science, emphasizing the importance of observation and inference to obtain scientific knowledge (Delta Education, 2009). Beginning at the Kindergarten level, students are expecte d to understand how scientific inquiry relies on scientific observations to support or reject hypotheses. Whether students are generating their ow n observations or drawing upon the observational records of other s (through the use of field guides or 12 Those that study fish and those that study algae, respectively.
145 other m aterials), scientific inference is dependent upon scientific observation. Many of the activities presented in these Field Trip Units emphasize the importance of learning through observation as students investigate the natural world. Before thinking about the importance of observation in scientific learning, it is important to define what observation is. At a glance, observation simply means using the senses to see and record scientific phenomena. While this may be true in some context s, observation in the context of scientific inquiry involves more than just seeing ; it requires the correlation of already obtained knowledge, hypotheses, and attentiveness rather than passive experience (Eberbach and Crowley, 2009). Though passive observa tion is an everyday skill, scientific observation requires more than just noticing and describing phenomenon (Norris, 1985). Throughout the history of scientific exploration, scientific observation was not defined, nor was it emphasized as an important ski llset, but was assumed to be second nature to those thinking in a scientific framework (Daston, 2008). It is important that observation in the context of the NGSSS emphasizes observation in the framework of scientific knowledge, rather than the sense based observation that students may already be familiar with --it must teach students to observe like scientists. This scientific observation is now recognized as a skill different from the day to day observations that students make outside of scientific conte xts. Students must also recognize the difference between observation and inference; observations use the senses and perception to obtain data, and inferences compare these observations to prior knowledge to create new information (Norris, 1985). One of th e easiest ways to encourage scientific observation in students is to emphasize the importance of comparisons in the context of an already known scientific framework (eg; how does the subject at hand relate to a subject that the student already understands? ) (Mayr, 1982 phide Eberbach and Crowley, 2009). For instance, upon discovering a new species biologists can think in the context of a similar, already known species to make meaningful observations about the newly found plant or animal. Encouraging the pr actice of making comparisons can help the young scientist by encouraging them to assimilate their newly acquired knowledge within their already understood scientific framework. There are many acceptable ways to do this in an educational setti ng --graphic organizers, like V enn diagrams, encourage students to think about similarities and differences in this manner. Making observations and comparisons also allow students to support or reject hypotheses without setting up an experiment. With a specific hypothe sis in mind, observational data is more likely to be pertinent to the question or problem at hand (Moore, 1993). Observations can address nearly any type of question ---What is happening? Why? How? When? Where? Scientific observation in the context of a q uestion or hypothesis can help students narrow down their inquiry, and ensure that data collection pertains to the subject at hand (Eberbach and Crowley, 2009). It can be easy for students to become lost when approaching a scientific problem without contex t. Asking a student to make general observations about a subject without some sort of pre founded framework can lead students to ask the wrong questions. The activities presented in the Field Trip Units encourage students to explore through guided
146 observat ion --specific questions are presented, and students are asked to collect observational data based upon this framework. Only after careful observation can students begin to draw conclusions through inference. It is important for students to understand the difference between observation and inference, and many of the activities in the Field Trip Units require students to do this as well. When students ob serve animal tracks in the sand they are making observations. They can, however, use these observations in context --while students may not obs erve the animals themselves, observing their tracks allow them to infer their presence in the ecosystem. Making solid observations is the first step towards another scientific skill: making comparisons. Students are asked to compare and contrast in many of the activities presented in the Field Trip Units. Perhaps most evident, the Life Cycle of the Red Mangrove Activity encourages students to mak e observations which they later use to identify similarities and differences between mangrove propagules, trees, and seedlings. Learning to make comparisons is an advanced thinking skill, and enables students to draw conclusions, form hypotheses, and think about causes (Biggs, 1999). Perhaps a more applicable life skill than critical thinking or observation, the Field Trip Units encourage students to work with their peers. NGSSS students are asked to recognize the impo rtance of working with peers in a scientific context, and recognize that scientific knowledge is the result of collaboration between those in the scientific community (Florida Standards, 2011)( Table 8.2 ). Next Generation Sunshine State Standards That Em phasize the Role of Peer Work SC.2.N.1.6 Explain how scientists, alone or in groups, are always investigating new ways to solve problems. SC.3.N.1.4 Recognize the importance of communication among scientists SC.3.N.1.5 Recognize that scientists question, discuss, explanations. Table 8.2 The Importance of Peer Work is Emphasized Throughout the NGSSS While students working together on an activity in class may appear to be learning about the migration patterns of sea turtles or mangrove food chains, they also learn skills which will be valuable in their careers once they leave the classroom. The with peers in a professional settin g, and polish skills like punctuality, compromise, dependability, and collaboration (Sieber, 1979). While learning to act under an authority figure (like a teacher) is an important skill, being able to function with peers --who may one day be coworkers --serves a perhaps even more important purpose. In addition to
147 teaching valuable life skills, group work can actually help students understand material. Peer collaboration may help students develop their own ideas, or peers may challenge their beliefs. This ideas, or further develop their beliefs and learn to defend them in an intelligent manner (Van Meter and Stevens, 2000). Students may also find opportunities to educate peers who do no t have as firm a grasp on the material; this peer teaching can benefit the students, requiring them to not only understand key ideas, but be able to communicate these ideas effectively and in their own words (Ramaswamy and others, 2001). Working in peer g roups contrasts with the more formal teacher student dynamic. In peer groups students influence the direction of the activity; when working directly with a teacher or other authority figure, students have little say in the outcomes or contents of the activ ity at hand. Also, answering questions in front of a teacher or an entire classroom of students may be stressful to students; working in front of peers reduces the competitive nature of responses given to teachers in front of a classroom of students (Dicki nson, 1985). As students advanced to applied sciences, technology, engineering, or complex task of creative problem solving. Unfortunately, much of the science education that o ccurs in a teacher student setting relies on passive methods like lecturing and note taking, and does not encourage active participation or collective action to solve a problem. Group work can encourage students to develop these skills in a group environme nt that mimics the setting of the workplace (Ramaswamy and others, 2001). Familiarizing students with the concept of group work and peer collaboration prepares them for working in a professional setting and allows them to experience the peer evaluation t hat is so important throughout the scientific fields. The majority of the activities presented in the Field Trip Units can be done with students working in pairs or small groups, and students should be encouraged to work with others to understand the mater ial. The experiments encourage students to learn to divide tasks and develop group dynamics, and the discussion questions provide opportunity for open discussion. Students could be encouraged to evaluate their peers at the end of each unit, and receive fee crustacean anatomy or recognizing different animal tracks in the sand. There is one aspect of these fi eld trip units intentionally discarded. Nowhere throughout this thesis do I suggest that these activities promote a sense of conservation. This is not to imply that conservation is unimportant and should not b e encouraged in the classroom. Education serves many purposes: improving test scores, preparing students for life after graduation, promoting cultural values, shaping human behavior, and training students to deal with new situations (Bailey, 2008, Yogi, 2008, Bass, 1997). One might conclude that educat ion with an environmental focus would serve the needs of environmentalists --conservation and protection of natural resources, and that educating students about the environment would promote these values. This argument has been made by several scholars (T anner, 1980, Asch, 1975). Yet beyond snippets of anecdotal evidence, no strong argument has linked conservation
148 values with environmental education. Beyond addressing the basic conservation material required by the NGSSS (as seen in the Birds and Feathers Field Trip Unit), I have done little to address conservation in the Field Trip Units presented in this thesis. Environmental education has several objectives, outlined by the 1977 Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education, which incl ude increasing awareness about environmental issues, developing skills to solve environmental problems, and encouraging active participation in conservation initiatives (Peyton, Hungerford and Wilke, 1980). The objectives laid out by environmental educator s over the past fifty years go beyond basic education that concerns itself only with awareness and comprehension of the material by expecting students to become motivated about environmental protection, develop skills to address the issues and invoke activ e involvement in remedying environme ntal problems (Stapp et al 1969). While these may be justified initiatives, there is little evidence to suggest that the current environmental science curriculum accomplishes any of these tasks. As stated by environm ental educator Harold Hungerford, it has been often assumed that they will, in turn, become more aware of the environment and its problems, and thus be conclusion makes sense on the surface, Hungerford and other environmental educators have questioned its value. Resear chers have completed several studies hypothesizing a relationship between numerous environmental education variables and responsible environmental behavior. None of these studies have shown a linear relationship between environmental education and conserva tion efforts of students. The theorized system set forth by the early environmental educators of knowledge leading to awareness and resulting in action has been negated (Hungerford and Volk, 1990). This not to say that environmental education has no impac t on conservation. Before an individual can act in a method consistent with the principles of environmental conservation, they must first recognize the existence of an environmental issue; thus education about the issue must happen before intentional actio n can occur (Hines and others, 1986). The activities presented in the Field Trip Units are consistent with this thinking. They merely introduce students to the concepts of human impact on the environment and remediation, and are not a call to action. Onl y through engaging students, addressing the material called for in the NGSSS, and improving our system of education can we produce students that are scientifically literate. T he United States must improve education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics to be a competitor in the global economy in the 21 st century (Bybee, 2010). The level of education attained by American students in public primary schools has declined in comparison to other developed countries. To remain competitive in the global market, the system of science education must be reevaluated to ensure that students are learning enough to obtain high quality jobs in a global market (Friedman, 2011). Not only do students need to grasp basic scientific concepts, they must also develop the thinking skills associated with scientific discovery and i nnovation. These skills, which include learning to make observations, hypothesize, experiment, think
149 critically, and investigate problems using the scientific method must be introduced early tate Standards intend for students to be familiar with these concepts before they finish Kindergarten (Florida Standards, 2011), it is critical that students be interested in the material and understand how it applies to the real world. Educating students in science, fostering the skills needed for scientific inquiry, and allowing them to experience science beyond the classroom will ensure a solid future in the upcoming century.
150 Appendix A : Mandatory and Optional Forms for Field Trip Planning
160 Appendix B: Florida Science Standards FLORIDA SCIENCE STANDARDS K 8 GRADE LEVEL STANDARDS Big Ideas The revised science standards include big ideas that flow throughout all grade levels and build in rigor as students move to higher grade levels. The eighteen big ideas used throughout this document are organized as follows: Body of Knowledge: The Nature of Science Big Idea 1: The Practice of Science Big Idea 2: The Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge Big Idea 3: The Role of Theories, Laws, Hypotheses, and Models Big Idea 4: Science and Society Body of Knowledge: Earth and Space Science Big Idea 5: Earth in Space in Time Big Idea 6: Earth Structures Big Idea 7: Earth Systems and Patterns Body of Knowledge : Physical Science Big Idea 8: Properties of Matter Big Idea 9: Changes in Matter Big Idea 10: Forms of Energy Big Idea 11: Energy Transfer and Transformations Big Idea 12: Motion of Objects Big Idea 13: Forces and Changes in Motion Body of Knowledge: Lif e Science Big Idea 14: Organization and Development of Living Organisms Big Idea 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms Big Idea 16: Heredity and Reproduction Big Idea 17: Interdependence Big Idea 18: Matter and Energy Transformations
161 Appendix C: Ken Thompson Park Ken Thompson Park 1700 Ken Thompson Pkwy Sarasota, FL 34236 1700 Ken Thompson Pkwy Sarasota, FL 34236 (Source: http://maps.google.com/maps?q=1700+Ken+Thompson+Pkwy+Sarasota,+FL+34236 ) Figure C .1. The Boardwalk at Ken Thompson Park. Visitors can get up close and personal with mangrove plants and animals on the meandering pathway through the mangrove forest. (Image Source: http://www.discovernaturalsarasota.org/_assets/dynamic_media/asset_images/dns_listing_10_2382_2.jpg) Ken Thompson Park is an ideal destination for fishermen, birdwatchers, and p icnicking families alike, but it also serves as a location for teachers and students who Mote Mari ne Laborator y, this 84 acre park contains paved paths and boardwalks that
162 meander through the mangrove forest, a fishing pier that gives a clear aerial view of the sea grass ecosystem, as well as facilities like clean restrooms and picnic tables that make it suitable for ecologically focused student field trips. Figure C .2. Brown Pelican at Ken Thompson Park. The park is home to herons, egrets, gulls and pelicans that nest or roost in the tree. Notice the pier in the background, which offers an up close birds eye view of the sea grass beds. (Image Source: http://www.conservationenterprises.com/pelican.jpg) T he hybrid urban park/coastal habitat and location on the Sara sota Bay Watershed also provide a dynamic that lends itself towards activities that encompass the idea of human impact on Florida ecosystems. The access road and parking lot are also designed wit h bus transportation in mind.
163 Figure C .3. Aerial View of Ken Thompson Park Located at the end of Ken Thompson Parkway, this location has a small mangrove ecosystem, a beach, access to sea grass beds, a fishing pier, and restroom facilities, in addition to a bus friendly traffic loop. (Image Source: http://maps.google.com/maps?q=27.335413, 82.570807&hl=en&ll=27.336119, 82.571043&spn=0.00529,0.010225&sll=27.335413, 82.570807&sspn=0.00529,0.010225&vpsrc=6&t=h&z=17) The park is open year round, f rom 5 am through 11 pm, which accommodates for field trips any day of the week. The park is owned by the city of Sarasota, but is maintained by the county, which leads to some permitting difficulty for organizers hoping to host commercial events. However, most of this red tape is cut for educators interested in using the site to host a non commercial field trip. Either the school or the educational organization hosting the field trip must fill out a City Park Permit (see Appendix L) which must be approved by Peter Schneider the Deputy City Manager of Sarasota before the event can take place. Fees associated with renting the site are waived for educational events.
164 For this information and more: Discover Natural Sarasota, 2011. Ken Thompson Park and New Pass Fishing Pier http://www.discovernaturalsarasota.org/listing/ken thompson park and new pass fishing pier sarasota/ Sarasota Gov, 2011. Public Works; Special Events http://www.sarasotagov.com/LivingInSarasota/Contents/PublicWorks/Special%20Events/Specia l% 20Events.html
165 Appendix D: Informal Education Opportunities While a trip to Ken Thompson Park may not be possible for every school group in Manatee and Sarasota Counties, there are other opportunities for informal education relatively close by. Each of the following locations offers programs specifically for K 8 students, and often conform to the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS). Mote Marine Laboratory 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL (941) 388 4441 Mote Marine Laboratory is an aquarium and research facility lo cated just a short distance southwest of Ken Thompson Park. It offers field trips as well as classroom experiences for students. The programs cost between $12 and $17 per student (not including their SeaSnooze Overnight Programs), and cover a wide variety of topics including sharks, manatees, fish, sea turtle rehabilitation, and inver tebrates. Their programs divide activities into appropriate categories for K 2, 3 5, and 6 8 grade levels. Their progra mming conforms to NGSSS requirements and corresponding standards are listed on the ir website ( http://www.mote.org/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=Education%20Programs%3A %20Field%20Trips%3A%20Overview&category=Education ) to help teachers when planning their trips they heavily emphasize applied science and resea rch with programs that discuss the scientific method, field work, and research. Figure D.1 The Entrance to the Mote Marine Laboratory Aquarium in Saraso ta (Image Source: http://www.mote.org/clientuploads/AquariumEntrance.jpg)
166 For more information: Mote Marine Laboratory School Programs and the NGSSS http://www.mote.org/clientuploads/NGSSS_Mote.pdf Mote Marine Laboratory Field Trip Program Overviews http://www.mote.org/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=Education%20Programs%3A %20Field%20Trips%3A%20Overview&category=Education South Florida Museum (Bishop Planetarium & Parker Manatee Aquarium) 201 10th Street West, Bradenton (941) 746 4131 The South Florida Museum houses three distinct opportunities for informal learning: a cultural and natural history museum, a high tech digital planetarium, and a manatee rehabilitation aquarium that houses the oldest known living manatee. They offer several pr ograms correlated to the NGSSS, which include tours (with a guide or self guided), a manatee program presentation, and a planetarium showing. Programs cost between $5 and $7 per student depending on content and grade level. Field trips for Manatee Country fourth grade students are free, including admission, transportation, and an additional teacher workshop. Figure D.2 Entrance to the South Florida Museum. (Image Source: http://www.southfloridamuseum.org/Portals/0/museum_front.jpg) For More Informati on: About the South Florida Museum http://www.southfloridamuseum.org/AbouttheSFM.aspx
167 School Program Field Trips to the Museum http://www.southfloridamuseum.org/AbouttheSFM.aspx The Florida Aquarium 701 Channelside Dr, Tampa (813) 273 4000 Located about an hour north of Sarasota, the Florida Aquarium immerses students in the aquatic world. Each year the education department at the aquarium chooses a new theme to center their on site programs and field t focus was on ocean di versity. The base price for a field trip, which only covers general admission costs, is $6 per student. This base ticket gives students access to four different aquatic exhibits, which include wetlands, bays and beaches, coral reefs, and the new Ocean Comm otion displays which feature unique marine organisms like octopi and spider crabs. For an additional $2 to $3 per student, Florida Aquarium educators present grade specific programming that conforms to NGSSS. Teachers can choose from classroom style or aud itorium style experiences for their students and choose from a variety of unique educational programs covering topics like underwater archeology and sedimentology. Figure D.3 A Glimpse Into the Wetland Exhibit at the Florida Aquarium (Image Source: http://www.flaquarium.org/userfiles/images/main%20images/wetlands top 565px.jpg) For More Information: Field Trips and On Site Programs http://www.flaquarium.org/education camps/school programs/field trips -on site programs.aspx
168 Aquarium Virtual Tour http://www.flaquarium.org/explore the aquarium/virtual tour.aspx G Wiz Science Museum 1001 Blvd of the Arts Sarasota, FL 34236 4807 (941) 309 4949 G Wiz began as a small hands on museum in 1990, occupying just 1,000 square feet with only ten exhibits. The museum has since expanded into a 33,000 square foot building located on the Sarasota Bay with exhibits that cover a variety of scientific topics including physics and ecology. The museum offers field trips to the museum starting at $5 per student wi th additional charges for special exhibits (which change periodically and features topics such as underwater archaeology or human anatomy). Teachers may also opt to include special educational programs for $3 per student. These special programs feature top ics like weather, animal defense mechanisms, and geology, and address the Florida Sunshine Standards. Figure D.4 The Entrance to G Dollar Facility For More Information: Preparing for a Field Trip at G Wiz http://www.gwiz.org/fieldtripsprevisit.html G Wiz Field Trips and the Sunshine Standards http://www.gwiz.org/documents/SchoolProgramBenchmarks11 12.pdf
169 Pritzker Marine Biology Research Center 5800 Bay Shore Road, Sarasota (941) 487 5000 Founded in 2001, the 9,000 square foot Pritzker Marine Biology Research Center is home to a marine science education program aimed at students in grades K 12. In addition to housing the Living Ecosystems Teaching and Research Aquarium (LETRA), much of the marine lab staff is involved in the Marine Science Outreach Initiative (MSOI), which aims to introduce local elementary students to marine science through hands on learning, giving students as sisted access to the laboratory. In addition to these field trip services, MSOI staff provide workshops for teachers. Students can visit the marine lab on field trips with undergraduate students and marine science instructors guiding their experience. Interactive lessons engage students with hands on activities, including a touch tank with critters found in the local area, including urchins, starfish, and hermit crabs. The MSOI remains committed to teaching students about the marine environment by assisting teachers through numerous workshops, helping them integrate scientific pri nciples and marine science into their curriculum when they return to the classroom. Figure D.5 The Pritzker Marine Lab. Located on the New College of Florida Campus. (Image Source: http://sites.ncf.edu/media/science outreach/back facade.jpg) For More Information: Gilchrist, S., Silva, F., and Tiffany, W., 2007. Marine Science Educational Outreach: Growth of the Program at Pritzker Marine Biology Center. faculty.ncf.edu/gilchrist/FAS%20MLOP%20Poster.ppt About The Marine Science Outreach Initiative at the Pritzker Marine Laboratory http://sites.ncf.edu/msoi/pritzke r
170 Appendix E: Dipnetting Answer Key Dipnetting: Answer Key for Worksheets and Discussion Questions Answers presented in the following key are just suggestions and guidelines. Individual responses to these open ended questions will vary based on activity results. Thought Questions: Which species was most abundant? Why do you think this is? Species abun dance will vary, but there are a number of factors that influence the species composition. Time of year, collecting method, and location all influence the abundance of individual species. Slow moving species are typically easier to collect. The species com position of the collected specimens does not necessarily reflect the actual diversity of the ecosystem. How many species were found? Do you think this indicates a high level of diversity? Does this mean our ecosystem is healthy? Typically, a higher number o f collected species reflects an ecosystem with a high level of diversity. A large number of different species typically reflects a healthy ecosystem, but lack of keystone species may indicate a different situation. Were any of the species closely related ? How can you use a scientific name to learn about the relationship between species? Students can look at the scientific classification name of the organisms to determine whether or not they are closely related. Organisms are classified by kingdom, phylum /division, class, order, family, genus, and species. The closer the species are, the more overlapping classifications they will have. Species in the same genus are very closely related. How do you think the species might vary from season to season? (Think about migration or breeding cycles). Species composition changes from season to season. Certain species will be rare or absent in the sea grass flats during parts of the year, and highly abundant during others. These peaks in population are a result of br eeding or migration. Why are sea grass beds ideal locations for young animals?
171 Sea grass beds provide shelter from predators and from rough waters. The sea grasses can also provide a reliable source of food (either from the grasses themselves, the algae t hat grows on their blades, or the small animals that find shelter among them). How can humans impact the health of the sea grass beds? Humans have many negative impacts on the sea grass beds. Pesticide and fertilizer runoff alter the water quality causi ng algal blooms that reduce the dissolved oxygen available in the water. Litter can impact the health of the organisms that live among the sea grasses, and anchors from boats can damage the root systems of the grasses What animals might live in sea grass bed s that were not found while dip netting? Why do you think we didn't find any of those animals? Large fish or other fast swimming organisms often escape dipnets. Organisms that latch onto the grasses (like mollusks or seahorses) can also be difficult to collect. Animals that are smaller than the mesh of the net will slip right through the holes. Burr owing organisms are also not collected by the nets.
172 Appendix E: Birds and Feathers Answer Key Birds and Feathers: Answer Key for Worksheets and Discussion Questions Answers presented in the following key are just suggestions and guidelines. Individual responses to these open ended questions will vary based on activity results. Thought Questions: What evidence did you find to suggest that humans had visited the mang roves? How might that evidence affect the animals living in the mangroves? Litter, footprints, or man made structures like boardwalks are all evidence that humans have visited the area. Litter can harm the animals living in the mangrove. Man made structu res can be helpful or harmful; they might provide shelter for some organism, but they may disrupt a food source or disturb the home of another. What common characteristics did the birds you found share? How were they different? Would these same characteri stics be useful in another environment? Many mangrove birds share some common characteristics. The wading birds tend to have long, thin legs with long and narrow toes, and narrow, pointed beaks that are used for spearing fish. Hawks, eagles, and some bir ds that live near the water have stocky bodies, and feet with sharp talons designed for snatching fish out of the water. Other birds have webbed feet for swimming or diving. Some of these characteristics could be useful in other ecosystems that include a w ater source as a main feature, like a lake or riverside forest. What would happen in the mangroves if all of the birds disappeared? Cer tain animals that feed on birds or bird eggs, would lose a food source. Organisms that are eaten by mangrove birds -like fish, crabs, or mollusks --may experience a population boom. The equilibrium could be disrupted. What kinds of feathers were most common in mangrove birds? Think about size, shape, and color. Most feathers found in the mangroves will be waterpro of. All of the birds commonly found in the mangroves fly, and need flight feathers for locomotion. The herons and egrets often have showy display feathers during the mating season. Downy feathers are important for lining nests, and keeping warm during the cooler months. What roles do the mangroves play in the survival of the birds?
173 They provide an area in which birds nest and roost, and an area in which birds can find a mate. Mangroves also provide protection from predators, and the organisms that the birds need to eat. What was the feather trade? How did the Migratory Bird Treaty Act protect birds? on hats and clothing, and this trend spread to many other countries, including the United States. Hunters would collect hundreds of thousands of birds for the sole purpose of collecting their feathers, leading to the near extinction of many species. In 1918, a federal law known as the Migratory Bird Treaty Act was instated to prevent to collection and trade of feathers, allowing many bird populations to slowly recover. How do humans impact the mangroves in negative ways? Positive ways? Humans impact the mangroves in negative ways by leaving behind trash and litter, huntin g mangrove animals, introducing sources of pollution, and by disturbing the homes and nesting sites of the organisms found there. They can impact the mangroves in positive ways by providing nesting sites for ospreys, removing invasive species, planting nat ive plant species, and rehabilitating birds that have become injured. What can be done to minimize the negative impacts of humans? Provide trash cans or other receptacles for litter, have accessible collection areas for discarded fishing line, provide b oard walks or marked paths to prevent disturbing protected areas, and educate people on the way their behavior impacts the mangroves. Oil Spill Activity: What do water birds use their feathers for? Feathers have more than twenty different uses, but am ong the most important are flight, keeping warm, and swimming. What would happen if these feathers could no longer do these things? The birds would not be able to escape from predators, find food, or keep warm, and would eventually result in death. Is ocean water different from tap water? How is it different? Ocean water and tap water are very different. Ocean water contains high levels of salts and dissolved minerals, and often is contaminated with pollutants.
174 Did the oil sink or float when poured i nto the bowl of water? Why is that important to think about during an oil spill? Because the oil is less dense than the water, it floats on the surface. This means that any birds or other animals that come in contact with the surface of the water will als o come in contact with the oil. What happens to feathers when they get coated in oil? How might this harm birds that come in contact with the oil? The feathers get matted, heavy, and are less water resistant. This affects a birds ability to fly, keep wa rm, and swim. Petroleum oil is also toxic, and birds may ingest it as they try to fish or clean their feathers. Based on what you learned in the experiment, how would you try cleaning a bird that was coated in oil? Soaps and detergents are effective ways feathers. Unfortunately, it also removes the natural oils that help the feathers to naturally repel water. How are sorbents (like those used in Step 4 of the experiment) useful when dealing with an oil spill? What are th e downsides of using a sorbent? Can you think of any other materials that might make good sorbents? Sorbents are a way to completely remove oils from the water, instead of breaking them down or dispersing them to other areas. One of the downsides is that the sorbents must be disposed of, leading to lots of litter soaked with toxic petroleum. Fabrics, natural fibers, or synthetic sponges might make good sorbents. How might a dispersant (like the detergent used in Step 5 of the experiment) be useful when d ealing with an oil spill? What are the downsides of using a dispersant? Dispersants are useful for dispersing and breaking down oil, and remove the oil from the surface of the water where it comes in contact with birds a nd marine mammals. However, the dis persants remain in the water even after the oil is dispersed, which may cause problems of its own. Vinegar, bleach, or other cleaning products may make good dispersants, but could contaminate the water in other ways. What do you think is the best method f or cleaning up an oil spill? Sorbents have the advantage of removing oil without leaving behind additional pollutants. Dispersants are faster soaked trash to be disposed of. Each method has advantages and disadvantages.
175 Birdwatching Activity Discussion Questions: What were some common physical characteristics of the mangrove birds? Many mangrove birds share some common characteristics. The wading birds tend to have long, thin legs with long and narrow toes, and narrow, pointed beaks that are used for spearing fish. Hawks, eagles, and some birds that live near the water have stocky bodies, and feet with sharp talons designed for snatching fish out of the water Which birds species seemed to have the most physical charact eristics in common? The herons and egrets share many common characteristics, the gulls share many characteristics, ospreys and eagles have many similarities, the diving birds share similarities, etc. In what ways did the birds differ? Coloration, size, shape of the legs and feet, shape of the bill, length of the neck, etc. Which birds species seemed to be the most different physically? In terms of size, the Great Blue Heron differs significantly from the smaller gulls and shore birds. In terms of color ation, the white egrets and herons differ dramatically from the colored patterns of other birds. Pelicans differ significantly in many aspects from the other species of birds. What were some common behaviors of the mangrove birds? Diving, wading, swimmin g, nesting, vocalizations, and flying are all common behaviors in many mangrove species. In which ways did the birds' behaviors differ? Some birds catch fish with their beaks and others use talons, some swim below the surface of the water while others only get their feet wet, some birds fly frequently and other tend to stand and walk, some birds tend to stay in the trees or air while other stay on the ground. Which bird species seemed to behave in similar ways? The herons and egrets share many common behaviors, the gulls share many behaviors, ospreys and eagles have many similarities, the diving birds share behaviors, etc.
176 If we wanted to sort these birds into different categories, how might we do this? What categories would you suggest? We could org anize them by the biological classification system (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) or we could arrange them by behavior; wading birds, fishing birds, diving birds, etc. Size, color, beak shape, leg/foot shape, or roosting location a re other ideas for classification. Why do you think these birds have chosen the mangroves as their home? The mangroves provide food, shelter from predators, nesting sites, mates for breeding, materials for building nests, etc. Why do you think birds are important in the mangrove ecosystems? They play a role in the ecosystem that is not filled by any other organism. They provide food for some predators, the keep their prey populations under control, etc. Feather Form Worksheet: The first type of f eather is a flight feather, and is found on the wing of a bird. It has a thick calamus and the barbs are different lengths on each side. This feather is used for lift and steering in flight. Most of the birds have this sort of feather, but they are most no ticeable on vultures, hawks, and eagles. The second type of feather is a filoplume feather. It has a long calamus, and barbs are only present at the very tip. There are no downy barbs or afterfeather. These feathers uch the same way mammals use sensitive whiskers, and some birds use these sensitive feathers to help keep feathers in the right place during flight. While many of the birds had these feathers, the herons and egrets have highly noticeable filoplume feathers when they display their breeding plumage. The third type of feather is a downy feather. It has a very short rachis and soft barbs. They help insulate a bird and keep them war m and are found on all species of birds. Baby birds or birds that are in the process of building nests tend to have many downy feathers. Trashing the Mangroves Worksheet: How would fishing line get into the mangrove forest?
177 Fishermen might accidentally leave line behind if it snaps because of a large catch, or gets tangled in th e trees, or they may intentionally leave it behind rather than dispose of it properly. How could fishing line hurt birds or other animals that live in the mangroves? Birds or other animals get tangled in it, preventing them from swimming, choking them, or cutting into their skin. What could people do to prevent fishing line from harming animals in the mangroves? Fishermen can be careful to dispose of their line properly, and fishing line receptacles can be placed in common fishing sites. How would sod a can rings get into the mangrove forest? People picnicking near the ocean leave behind soda can rings, or scavenging animals remove them from trashcans in search of food. How could soda can rings hurt birds or other animals that live in the mangroves? to choke. Other body parts can easily get tangled in the tough plastic, leading to drowning or injury. What could people do to prevent soda can rings from harming animals in the mangroves? They can be sure to dispose of the litter in trash cans, or bring it home with them. Before throwing it away, they should cut the rings to prevent it from slipping over an How would shopping bags get into the mangrove forest? They can be left behind by fisherman bring ing bait or gear, picnickers carrying a lunch, or be blown in from nearby areas. How could shopping bags hurt birds or other animals that live in the mangroves? Shopping bags are frequently mistaken for food by sea turtles, who think that the clear, floating plastic is a tasty jellyfish. Birds may eat smaller pieces mistaking it for food, and then feed the plastic to their young. They also pose a risk for suffocation or entanglement.
178 What could people do to prevent shopping bags from harming animals in the mangroves? They can properly dispose of them or recycle them, or use reusable shopping bags instead of the plastic ones. How would cigarette butts get into the mangrove forest? Smokers may throw t he cigarette butts on the ground or bury them in the sand if a trashcan cannot be found, or they may be taken out of trashcans by scavenging animals. How could cigarette butts hurt birds or other animals that live in the mangroves? Cigarette butts could easily be mistaken for food if they are floating in the water. The butts contain toxic chemicals from the tobacco which can harm birds or other animals. What could people do to prevent cigarette butts from harming animals in the mangroves? Trashcans wi th ashtrays can be put in areas commonly visited by people. Smokers can extinguish their cigarette butts and carry the trash out with them at the end of their visit.
179 Appendix G: Mangrove Ecosystems Answer Key Mangrove Ecosystems: Answer Key for Worksheets and Discussion Questions Answers presented in the following key are just suggestions and guidelines. Individual responses to these open ended questions will vary based on activity results. Thought Questions: Which animals and plants were m ost abundant? Why do you think this is? The answer to this question depends on the specific location, but at Ken Thompson Park, the red and black mangroves are most abundant. This is because these species do well living in close contact with the brackish water, and white mangroves tend to live slightly further inland. Fiddler and mangrove crabs are among the most populous animals because of the abundant detritus and available habitat (soft sands and mangrove trees). What micro ecosystems are present in the mangrove forests? What animals live in these micro ecosystems? Do they interact with organisms in other areas of the mangrove forest? Animals could live in the complex web of mangrove roots, up in the tree canopy, under the boardwalk, beneath the doc k, or in the low lying plants, among others. A variety of animals, including crabs, birds, mammals, and insects can be found in these micro ecosystems, and they many interact as part of the food chain. What is the difference between a food chain and a fo od web? Give an example of a possible food chain found in the mangrove forest, moving from producer through the various levels of consumers. A food chain is a simple flow of energy from producer to consumer. Food webs take into account the fact that cer tain animals eat more than one type of food, or are eaten by more than one type of predator, and consist of overlapping food chains. One example of a food chain: sea grasses get energy from the sun and are primary producers. Sea urchins eat sea grasses. Ra ccoons will catch and eat sea urchins. What are some of the defining characteristics of crabs? How are fiddler crabs similar to and different from other species of crabs? Crabs have five pairs of legs. In most species, the front two legs are a modified pair of claws used for getting food, defense, attracting mates, and competing with other crabs for resources or mates. They have a hard exoskeleton and are invertebrates. They shed their exoskeleton when they molt, and then regrow a larger exoskeleton. Cr abs have gills, but not all crabs can live underwater for extended periods of time.
180 Fiddler crabs share all of these characteristics. They live on land, dig burrows, and show sexual dimorphism (the males and females are different in appearance). Males ha ve one large and one small claw, whereas females have two small claws. Crab Observation Worksheet Answers: The crab drawing should have a carapace with two eye stalks and five pairs of legs. The front two legs are modified into claws, which may or may not be the same size. The drawing may also include mouth parts. How many claws does your crab have? Unless the crab has been injured in some way, the front pair of legs should be modified into grasping claws. Are the claws the same shape and size? If they are different, which claw is bigger? The claws may both be small, or the crab may have one big claw and one small claw. Typically the right claw will be larger, but if the fiddler crab has lost it in a fight, the left claw may be enlarged. Can you tell by the size of the claws whether your fiddler crab is male or female? Males have one large and one small claw, and females have two small claws. How many legs (not counting the claws) does your crab have? How many pairs of legs? Not counti ng the claws, there should be eight legs split into four pairs. Describe the body of the fiddler crab. How is it shaped? Does the body look like it is hard or soft? The legs and eye stalks are attached to a round or oval carapace, which may be slightly pointed over the legs. The body should be hard and shiny looking unless the crab is molting. the tips of t wo long stalks.
181 below the eye stalks. It looks like a series of moving, interlocking, feather or comb like plates. The feathery, interlocking pieces on the outside move from side to side. What color is your crab? Is it the same color all over? The crabs come in a variety of colors from black and gray to purple, reds, oranges, and blues. They colors may be solid or patterned with other shades or colors. Does your crab make any noise? If so, what does it sound like? The crab itself does not m ake any detectable noises, but the legs may make a small clicking noise as it travels moves around the plastic container. What body parts does your crab use to move? Describe the way it moves. The fiddler crab uses its leg pair to move. They tend to move in a sideways manner. Micro Ecosystems Activity Discussion Questions: Did any of the organisms live in similar areas? Why do you think this is? Some of the species lived in similar micro ecosystems. This is because many species play similar roles in the ecosystem; they eat the same types of foods, hide from the same types of predators, etc. F or example, many bird species and many crab species have almost identical needs. Are there any species that could not live in the same areas? Why? Yes. Man y species have extremely different needs. A sea urchin needs to occupy a very different micro ecosystem then a cotton mouse. Were the needs of animals different from the needs of plants? How so? Yes. Plants need access to sunlight, soil, and water. Some animals can travel away from these resources for periods of time. Some animals must hunt for food, whereas plants get their energy from the sun. Were the needs of predators different from the needs of primary consumers?
182 Yes. Primary consumers must live near their food source, especially if they are slow moving (like the snails found on the mangroves). They must also have shelter from predators. Were there animals that could have lived in more than one area? Yes. Many species can or do live in a variety of micro ecosystems. For example, raccoons can be found in trees during the day, wandering the shoreline at night, or hiding in the low lying plants. They can even by found in areas typically inhabited by humans. Were there animals that could live in only one specific area? Mangrove snails are an example of an animal that lives in one specific area, as well as the mangrove leaf miner larvae. Did you see any signs of the animals listed on the cards (nests, footprint s, burrows)? Were they in the locations you suspected? Students are more likely to find signs of animals in the early morning, before they can be disturbed by other visitors. Soft sand often has imprints of raccoon or other animal footprints, and spider webs can be seen spreading from tree to tree across the boardwalk. Food Chain Activity: What were some common characteristics of producers? They are stationary (with the exception of some types of algae which move in the ocean currents), and need acc ess to soil, water, and sunlight. Why is the Sun important to the food web? Primary producers get their energy from the sun, and all subsequent levels of the food chain require this energy to be passed along. What happens when the Sun is removed from the food web? What happens when other organisms are removed from the food web? If the sun is removed from the food web, there is no energy to be passed along to the other levels and the food web collapses. Some animals may be removed from the food web a nd only affect one or two other organisms, but some species affect a large portion of the food chain (primary producers often affect the many different levels of the food chain when they are removed. Top predators have less of an impact, but their prey
183 pop ulations can quickly expand if they are not controlled by other predators.) What did the activity show us about the careful balance of the mangrove ecosystems? Impacting one aspect of a food chain or a food web can impact the rest of it. The organisms exist in a careful balance, and disrupting one aspect of the ecosystem can have wide spread impacts. Are there any animals that eat the same types of foods? How d oes this relate to competition? Many different animals eat fish, and many different animals eat the same types of primary producers. This means that these animals must compete with each other for the same resources, and if the resource is scarce, not all of the competitors may survive. Part of this food web is missing. What happens to animals that die of natural causes? Detritivores and decomposers eating rotting materials like dead plants and animals. Mushrooms, insects, certain crabs, and bacteria ar e important decomposers in the mangrove ecosystem. How are food chains different from food webs? Which is a more realistic model? A food chain are more simple, and only show flow of energy from producer to consumer. Food webs take into account the fact that certain animals eat more than one type of food, or are eaten by more than one type of predator, and consist of overlapping food chains. Food webs are more realistic models because they show the multiple levels of interaction between all of the organi like the actual flow of energy through an ecosystem).
184 Appendix H: Oceans and Climate Answer Key Oceans and Climate: Answer Key for Worksheets and Discussion Questions Answers presented in the following key are just suggestions and guidelines. Individual responses to these open ended questions will vary based on activity results Thought Questions: What is the difference between weather and climate? What are some simila rities between weather and climate? What are some differences? Weather is th e temperature, humidity wind, rainfall, and atmospheric pressure over a short period of time. Climate consists of these same factors, but over a much longer period of time (centu ries, compared to a few days). Weather and climate are similar because they both take into account things like temperature and rainfall, but climate does not change nearly as quickly as weather. is wrong with this statement? Climate consists of the repeated weather patterns over an extremely long period of time. While the temperature can change by many degrees over a period of a day or two, it tends to be relatively similar day to day from year to year. A winter day in one year will be similar in temperature to one the next year, but may be very different from the temperature a month earlier. How would you expect a coastal city to differ from a city hundreds of mile s inland at the same latitude? Why? Coastal cities tend to have moderate climates. Because of the heat stored in the water (which gets released as the water cools), cities located very close to the water tend to stay warmer in the winter than a city a fe w h undred miles in land. Humans cannot drink salt water. What could we do to find new sources of drinking water? There are several sources for drinking water other than the lakes and rive rs. Because water leaves behind dissolved material when it evaporates, the water that forms clouds (and the rain that falls from them) would be toxin free. People might also consider melting glacial ice to find water.
185 Besides weathering cau sed by the movement of waves, where else does weathering occur? Can humans cause weathering? Why or why not? Weathering can be caused by wind, chemicals, plant roots, or changing temperatures. Human activity can cause weathering as well, but it generally happens on a smaller scale. Sands of Time Activity: Was there any noticeable change in the condition of the shells and rocks at the end of each stage of the experiment? Why or why not? There should be at least a small noticeable change in the materials at the very end of the experiment. The first one or two stages may not result in any changes because the force applied is not strong, and is not done over a sufficient period of time. Stronger forces will result in more changes. How could the types of shells or rocks affect the way the sand looks after it has completely weathered into sand? The color of the shells and rocks can affect the appearance of the sand. This is why some beaches have pink, white, or even black sand. How is rolling, smashing, different? (Think about time, and the level of force) It is similar because it causes the rocks and shells to rub against one another and break into smaller pieces. It is different because it happened over a much shorter period of time, and probably with more force than would normally happen on a beach. Which level of force s cause the greatest amount of weathering? Why do you think this is? The last stage, which used the most force, pro bably resulted in the greatest amount of weathering. The greater the force on the rocks and shells, the more we can expect the rocks and shells to break. It requires energy to break down rocks and shells --greater force provides more energy. Based on the results of the experiment, in what kinds of areas would weathering occur the fastest? The slowest?
186 Areas with strong waves would experience more weathering. Areas with small waves would experience weathering at a slower pace. Protected lagoons or bay wo uld probably experience weathering on a smaller scale than exposed cliffs or shores along the ocean. Salty Seas Activity: Did the evaporated water contain any salt? Why or why not? No, it did not contain salt. Water leaves behind dissolved material wh en it evaporates. Think about how the results of your experiment relate to the hydrologic cycle. Is water in the ocean fresh or salty? Is the water that forms clouds fresh or salty? Is rain fresh or salty? The water in the ocean is salty, and the water than forms clouds is fresh water. This is why the rain that falls from the sky is not salty. If you took the plastic off of the container and let all of the water evaporate, what would happen to the salt? What if it then rained into the container? How do es this relate to the oceans? The salt would be left behind and would form a powdery, crystallized film at the bottom of the container. If rain water were added to this powder, it would form salt water. This is why the amount of salt in the ocean remain s the same; fresh water lost through evaporation is replaced with fresh water from rain. Which parts of the water cycle correspond to the different parts of this experiment? Evaporation? Condensation? Precipitation? The water that forms vapor from the water collected at the beginning of the experiment is evaporation. When it condenses to form water droplets. When the beads of water grow heavy enough to fall back into the container it is similar to how precipitation forms. Any Way the Wind Blows Activity:
187 Which measurements used quantitative data? Which measurements used qualitative data? The quantitative measurements include the temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. The soil moisture and sunlight levels are qualitative (though they could be measured in quantitative units in other ways). Were any measurements the same for each location? Why do you think this is? This information will vary based on the specific results of the experiment. Were any measuremen ts different for each location? Why do you think this is? This information will vary based on the specific results of the experiment. Did every student or group get the exact same results? Why or why not? The results could vary from student to student. Some instruments that take quantitative measurements may be precise (it gets the same measurement each time it is repeated), but not accurate (similar to the true value of the measurement), so the measurements taken on individual instruments could differ. Human error (misreading instruments) can also lead to different results. Which measurement (wind speed, temperature, etc.) do you think is the most important in determining climate? Why? This opinion question will differ from student to student but temperature and rainfall heavily influence the climate of an area.
188 Appendix I: Natural Cycles Answer Key Natural Cycles: Answer Key for Worksheets and Discussion Questions Answers presented in the following key are just suggestions and gui delines. Individual responses to these open ended questions will vary based on activity results. Thought Questions Which cycles were observed on the field trip? How long does each cycle take? Which cycle is the longest? Which is the shortest? Tidal cycles, red mangrove life cycles, and the daily cycle of the sun moving across the sky. The tidal cycle repeats twice a day, and lasts for twelve hours. The red mangrove life cycle occurs once every 24 hours. The tidal cycle is the shortest, and the red mangrove life cycle is the longest. How many tidal cycles occur every 24 hours? How many 24 hour cycles does it take for a mangrove flower to grow into a mature propagule? Two tid al cycles occur every day. It takes about a year for a flower to grow into a mature propagule, which is 365 days long. Which season is it (spring, summer, fall, or winter)? What evidence did you see to support your conclusion? This answer will vary base d upon the field trip. The abundance of mangrove flowers, the temperature, the level of the sun in the sky, or the types of birds present will all change with the time of year. How is the mangrove life cycle related to the tidal cycle? Tides carry mang rove propagules out to sea, and later deposit them higher on the shore where they develop into trees. How is the position of the Earth, the moon, and the sun related to the tidal cycle? The relative positions of the moon and sun to the Earth cause the tides. When the pull of the sun and moon are lined up, the tides vary drastically. When the sun and moon are at right angles in relation to the earth, their pull cancels out and the tides are less dramatic. What are some other cycles that might be observe d in the mangrove forest or on the beach?
189 The sleep cycles of different animals that live in the mangrove forest. The yearly migration of birds that may pass through the mangroves. The changing plumage of birds throughout the year. The flowering, seeding, and growth cycles of plants. Tracking th e Time: Why does the shadow move over the course of each hour? As the Earth rotates on its axis, the position of the sun in the sky changes. The sition relative to the stick at the center of the solar clock causes the shadow to move. Would thi s same sun clock be accurate one day from now? One month from now? Six months from now? A year from now? Why or why not? Because the Earth rotates on its axis at an angle, the position of the sun in the sky changes throughout the year. The clock would be accurate over the course of a couple of days. After a month, the accuracy of the clock would decline. In six months, the clock would be very inaccurate. After a year, the sun and Earth would be in the same relative position as when the clock was first set up and would be very accurate again. e the time on the solar clock how could you estimate what time of day corresponds to each hour marker? If you know what time the sun rises or sets on a given day, you c ould figur e out the time based on when the sun first appears in the sky. If yo u did not have this information you could roughly figure out when it was noon. When the sun is highest point in the sky it is roughly 12:00 in the afternoon (give or take half an h our). What are some of the benefits of using a solar clock versus an electrical watch or clock? What are some disadvantages? s to be wound up. However, the solar clock becomes less accurate over time becaus sky over the course of a year. Rise and Fall of the Tides: Were the distances between each marker evenly distributed? Why or why not? This answer will vary depending on the particular beach. If the beach slopes a t an evenly, the distances will vary (a steeper slope will have less distance between each marker).
190 Would the distance the tide rose or fell be the same tomorrow? In one week? In one month? The distance would be very close from on e day to the next. After a week the changes beco me more noticeable. In one month the cycle would be back at the start, and the distances would be equal. Could this activity be done at any time of day? Why or why not? How many times in a 24 hour period could a person do this activity? This activity must be started soon after the tide turns. If the activity is started just befor e the tide changes directions, ensure that all of the measureme nts go in the same direction (up or down the beach). The activity could be done four times in a 24 hour period --two times for a rising tide, and two times for a falling tide. Life Cycle of the Red Mangrove: Which life stage was most common? Adult mang roves? Propagules attached to an adult? Rooted propa gules? Propagules are typically the most common life stage. Because not all propagules will develop into adult trees, more are produced than needed. Each tree can produce hundreds of propagules, but onl y a few will develop into adult trees. Was there anything in common for all three stages? What was it, and why do you think this is? All three stages are greenish in color. This is because each stage of the mangrove life cycle is capable of photosynthe energy). The green color indicat es the presence of chloroplasts which are the organelles capable of photosynthesis. How did the rooted propagules get to their location? How do you know? The rooted propagul es can be deposited in a couple of different ways; the propagules can be dropped into the water or onto land and carried out by the rising and falling tides. They are then re deposited onto land by waves. They could have also fallen from the parent tree ri ght into the soil. How are propagules similar to and different from seeds?
191 Propagules are similar to seeds because they come from a parent tree and can be carried off to different areas to grow. They are also similar because they can go up to a year wi thout growing roots and shoots. They are different because they are already germinated, and are capable of photosynthesis, whereas seeds that are dormant cannot produce their own food.
192 Appendix J : Around the Bend Nature Tours Pretest and Posttest Data Crab Field Trip Pre test and Postt est Data School Group To tal Quest 1Pre Quest1 Post Quest 2Pre Quest2 Post Quest 3Pre Quest3 Post Quest 4Pre Quest4 Post Quest 5Pre Quest5 Post 1 35 25 35 1 27 33 35 16 35 2 36 17 21 31 36 35 36 36 36 3 36 4 32 19 35 28 36 24 35 4 71 5 68 38 71 64 69 37 71 5 58 3 58 53 58 45 58 34 58 6 43 3 39 25 43 34 42 19 43 7 45 10 36 24 45 24 45 45 45 8 26 7 24 21 24 25 24 14 24 9 48 22 31 11 39 27 48 14 46 10 32 7 30 6 25 4 28 18 32 11 37 13 31 8 37 29 35 13 35 12 32 10 16 8 32 22 31 13 32 13 52 9 52 24 52 31 51 22 52 14 54 10 54 26 54 50 54 44 54 15 50 24 50 20 50 46 50 24 50 16 61 29 58 50 59 41 61 24 59 17 47 17 47 21 45 41 48 18 48 18 51 5 47 26 51 45 51 41 51 19 54 15 54 12 54 22 54 10 54 20 38 17 32 16 37 27 38 7 38 21 51 15 50 24 51 41 49 34 51 22 46 17 40 16 46 42 46 23 46 23 37 13 33 15 37 37 37 32 37 24 41 4 29 22 41 37 37 18 41 25 55 18 54 47 50 55 55 8 55 Question 1: Is the watershed the land or the water? (Correct Answer: Land) Question 2: Which is a native plant, the orange tree or live oak? (Correct Answer: Live Oak) Question 3: If we see a poisonous snake, should we kill it? (Correct Answer: No) Around the Bend Pre test and Postt est Data for Crabs Field Trip (Around The Bend Nature Tours, 2010 2011)
193 Dipnetting and Field Fo rest Lagoon Pre test and Postt est Data School Group To tal Quest 1Pre Quest1 Post Quest 2Pre Quest2 Post Quest 3Pre Quest3 Post Quest 4Pre Quest4 Post Quest 5Pre Quest5 Post 26 54 34 54 35 54 44 54 23 54 34 54 27 39 12 35 9 39 29 39 8 35 21 37 28 36 31 36 6 36 34 36 13 36 9 36 29 37 24 37 11 37 36 37 22 37 22 37 30 46 25 44 22 46 45 46 23 46 33 46 31 46 20 46 10 46 22 46 19 46 17 46 32 33 19 33 26 33 32 31 13 33 1 33 33 60 14 58 20 60 48 60 31 60 31 60 34 60 27 57 12 55 53 58 34 58 19 58 35 18 8 18 12 18 14 18 14 18 8 18 36 50 2 49 48 48 49 50 21 50 30 50 37 48 36 48 8 48 48 48 12 48 19 48 38 50 2 50 35 50 50 50 35 47 35 50 39 41 11 40 4 41 25 41 21 26 7 39 40 19 9 19 17 18 17 19 6 19 16 19 41 43 11 42 28 43 35 43 28 43 31 43 42 31 16 31 9 28 27 29 18 29 19 31 43 54 18 51 19 54 42 53 28 54 29 53 44 42 4 41 1 39 39 42 18 41 30 42 45 32 21 32 9 32 30 32 28 32 31 32 46 31 29 31 25 29 30 31 16 30 3 29 47 28 12 28 28 28 28 28 1 28 3 25 48 42 12 39 8 40 27 42 5 26 26 37 49 43 26 41 20 42 36 40 27 40 28 38 50 48 16 48 3 48 36 48 20 48 43 48 51 29 0 29 22 29 24 25 4 29 23 28 52 33 10 33 21 33 29 33 24 33 25 33 53 44 43 44 6 44 41 41 39 44 44 44 Question 1: Is the watershed the land or the water? (Correct Answer: Land) Question 2: Which is a native plant, the orange tree or gumbo limbo? (Correct Answer: Gumbo Limbo) Question 3: If we see a poisonous snake, should we kill it? (Correct Answer: No) Question 4: Is an estuary a place where fresh water and saltwater meet, or is it a saltwater lagoon? (Correct Answer: Where fresh water and salt water meet) Question 5: Does a mangrove grow in fresh water, or salty water? (Correct Answer: Salty water) Around the Bend Pre test and Postt est Data for Dipnetting and Field, Forest, Lagoon Field Trip (Around The Bend Nature Tours, 2010 2011)
194 Appendix K: About Around the Bend N ature Tours From A Personal Interview with Karen Fraley Operating out of Palma Sola, Around the Bend Nature Tours (ATBNT) has offered outdoor tours, classes and field trips to Sarasota and Manatee County students since March of 1999. Among their recent achievements, ATBNT has also earned a district wide Business Partner of the Year award through the Chamber of Commerce in Manatee county for their work with the school district. Owner and master naturalist Karen Fraley began teaching and developing field education programs in 1993, using her 25 years of related experience in horticulture and the environment, and focuses on heritage. ATBNT offers field trips for students of all ages, and stringently aligns their programs with the cur In 2010, ATBNT brought their programs to more than 4,000 students. These trips were free of charge to students, and paid for through education grants funded by the South West Florida Water Management District ( SWF W MD) and the Protection, Involvement, Education and Restoration Program (PIER) of the Sarasota Bay Estuary Program. An additional 4700 students were scheduled to participate the following year. Fraley and her team has worked closely in a partnership wit h the Manatee County School Board Curriculum Team to ensure that field study trips are closely tied to the Next Generation Sunshine Standards (NGSSS). The trips cover a wide variety of material in the science and social studies categories of the NGSSS, and include dipnetting, mangrove and shoreline exploration, Native American technology, archaeology, invertebrate studies, and water quality assessments, each of which closely correlates with classroom curriculum. These field trips take place at several sites throughout Sarasota and Manatee Counties, including Ken Thompson Park, Emerson Point Preserve, and Joan M. Durante Park, programs also emphasize writing, reading, an d math skills. Via the ATBNT website, www.aroundbend.com, teachers can view which trips cover which NGSSS, and view suggested activities to prepare for field trips, and to expand on the material when they return to the classroom. Though the majority of the trips ATBNT offers to Sarasota and Manatee students are free of charge because of their grant funding, Fraley still finds that many teachers are unwilling to bring their students on trips because of the extensive process required by the school districts.
195 order to have a trip approved by the school and the district. One year, a teacher filled o ut the wrong permission slip form, and the principal cancelled the trip a week before the students were scheduled to come. These teachers have to go through so many s even more stringent policy earlier this year (Favorite, 2011), Fraley feared that more While many of the new requirements emphasize closer corre lation to NGSSS, Sarasota County schools, there is a mandate [put in place by the district] concerning student safety around the water. Some of the trips offered by ATB NT involve wading in the water. Though students are not allowed in past their thigh level, we time the trips to take place at low tide, and there are always at least two ATBNT guides in the water with ny of the schools do not allow their students in the water --period --since the mandate, but it all depends on how the In the twelve years that ATBNT has taken students outside and in the water on field trips, there has never bee n any accident that has required more than a band aid. For those students that cannot take field trips due to safety concerns or funding issues, ATBNT has been working closely with teachers to bring the field trips to their wildl ife to study the science curriculum. After a nature walk around their campus, learning to identify exotic and invasive plant species, students visit their on campus retention pond to participate in an aquatic study. They test water quality, and learn to id entify invertebrate species collected with nets and buckets. Fraley also offers a Low Impact Development (LID) storm water management study to older students. site study is cutting LID as part of their permit application process, and including LID principles as part of their new codes for storm Whenever possible, Karen Fraley tries to assist teachers when they want to incorporate other cutting
196 often take p ictures of plants or animals to identify when they return to their classrooms, and some teachers are even incorporating these digital photos into online websites and portfolios for their students. difficult to do ourselves with the time limitations of our trips. Two and a half hours just very closely with teachers that want to use their own equ ipment and incorporate it in In addition to her work with students, Fraley has also made connections with teachers through numerous workshops introducing activities designed to integrate hands on science education into the classroom c archaeology and Growing Up Wild, a national early childhood education program that a NOAA grant that will pay for teacher training, and one of our current grants covers at least an hour of teacher training, which means that teachers will serve as leaders for some of the ATBNT ning of the school year that teachers serve as chaperones on the trips, and participate alongside the students. It would be great if we could introduce them to the materi al beforehand through a said Fraley. Above all, ATBNT offers students a unique experience, connecting them to the natural world in a way that is synchronized with the sch taking students to these different sites, connecting them to the outdoors, and introducing them to an experience that many students never get to experience, ATBNT field studies bring students into the natural world where they can get their hands and hearts into what is really happening. When students feel an emotional connection, they
197 Appendix L: Form Required f or Event at a City Park CITY PARK PERMIT (Groups of 75 or larger who do not require City Services) Name of Applicant: _____________________________ _______Phone: __________ Applicant Address: ____________________________________ Fax: ____________ __ Over age 18: Yes___ No____ Sponsor of Event: ___________________________________Phone: __________________ (If other than applicant) Sponsor Address: ___________________________________Fax: ____________________ On site Contact Person: ____________________On Site Phone:__ __ Name of Event: __ ___________________________ _______________________________ Park Location: __ _____________________________________________
198 Type of Event: Athletic Event ____ Community Event ____ (Check all that apply) Carnival ____ Ceremonial Function ____ Concert ____ Educational Event __ Historical Event ____ Public Assembly, Rally ____ Street Fair ____ Wedding Ceremony ____ Picnic ____ Wedding Reception ____ Cultural Event ____ Water Related Activities __ Day & Date of Event: _____________________________________________ _________ Event Time(s): Begin Set up : ___________________ Teardown Completed : _____________ Operating Time: From: ________ To: _______________________________ Estimated Attendance: ____ _______________________ _____________________________ Will the following items be dispensed or activities take place? None (Check all that a pply) Generators ____ Non Commercial Vendors or Booths ____ Music ____ Tents, Shade Covers ____ Dancing ____ Signs, Posters, Banners ____ Games ____ Pyrotechnic Display ____ Tables ____ Food or Beverages ____ Stages ____ Co oking Equipment ____ Use of Sports Equipment (list types)__________________________________________
199 Do you need any City Services? Yes_____No___ If yes, additional permits may be required. Are any services being contracted with another person or co mpany? Yes____ No__ A G R E E M E N T The undersigned, in consideration of being granted this City Park Special Event Request, hereby covenants and agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the City of Sarasota and all of its Officers and Agents from any and all liabilities, claims, actions, suits or demands by any person, firm, or corporation for injuries, death, or property damage arising out of or in connection with this event. Map/diagram is attached hereto and incorporated herein by reference. The under signed shall satisfy all governmental requirements for this event; shall be responsible for obtaining any and all necessary permits for this event from City, County, State, or Federal departments and shall make all arrangements directly with such departmen ts; shall pay any fees or charges in connection with this event; shall remove all structures, trash, or other evidence of the event when this permit expires; must provide name(s) of contractor(s) and telephone number(s) in writing for all contracted servic es prior to approval; and further agrees that such event shall be held in accordance with all City or County ordinances and State or Federal statutes Sponsor: ____________________________________________________________________ By: _________________ ___________________ ___ Owner ____________ __________ Applicant Signature Title (if applicable) Date NOTE: If Insurance is required, an original certificate of insurance must be provided, list 1656 First Street, Sarasota, F lorida 34236 as and as and include date of event and appropriate coverage as listed below. Public Liability $1,000.000 per person/ $2,000,000 per occurrence (required)
200 Property Damage $ 500, 000 per occurrence (required) Liquor Liability $1,000,000 per occurrence (if applicable) Pyrotechnic Liability $1,000,000 per occurrence (if applicable) Please return this form to: V. Peter Schneider, Deputy City Manager 1565 First Street, Room 101 Sarasota, Florida 34236 Phone (941) 954 4102 ****************************************************************************** (To be completed by Staff) Restrictions or Additional Requirements: ____________________________________________ Approved: ____ Denied: ____ _______________________________________________ _____________________________ V. Peter Schneider, Deputy City Manager Date E mail notice & copies mailed/faxed to: _____ City Police Dept. _____ City Publ ic Works _____ County Fire Rescue
201 _____ County Fire Marshal _____ County Parks & Recreation _____ Other:______________________________
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204 Gilchrist, S., Silva, F., and Tiffany, W., 2007. Marine Science Educational Outreach: Growth of the Program at Pritzker Marine Biology Center. faculty.ncf.edu/gilchrist/FAS%20MLOP%20Poster.ppt Gill, A., and Tomlinson,P., 1971. Studies on the Growth of Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) 3. Phenology of the Shoot Biotropica Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 109 124. The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation. Glickstein, Niel. 1987. Introducing Dichotomous Keys and Taxonomy. The American Biology Teacher, Vol. 49, No. 8 (Nov. Dec., 1987), pp. 438 439. University of California Press on behalf of the National Association of Biology Teachers Harlen, W., and James, M., 1997. Assessment and Learning: Differences and Re lationships Between Formative and Summative Assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy, and Practice, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp 365 379. Hartley, J., and Davies, I., 1976. The Role of Pretests, Behavioral Objectives, and Advance Organizers Review of Educational Research, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp 239 265. American Educational Research Association. Hines, J., and others, 1986. Analysis and Synthesis of Research on Responsible Environmental Behavior; A Meta Analysis Journal of Environmental Education. Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp 1 8. Hofstein, A., and Rosenfeld, S. 1996. Bridging the gap between formal and informal science learning Studies in Science Education 28: 87 112. Honda, M., 2010. Stem Education Must Be Coordin ated Across The Nation. The Hill Archives. < http://thehill.com/blogs/congress blog/education/121695 stem education must be coordinated across the nation rep mike honda Hungerford, H, and Volk, T., 1990. Changing Learner Behavior through Environmental Educa tion Journal Of Environmental Education. Vol. 21, Issue 3, pp 8 22. Hungerford, H., Peyton, B., and Wilke, R., 1980. Goals for Curriculum Development in Environmental Education The Journal of Environmental Education. Vol. 11, Issues, 3. Taylor and Franc is Ltd. Kisiel, J. (2005). Understanding elementary teacher motivations for science fieldtrips. Science Education 89(6): 936 955. Livingstone, D., and C. O. F. F. EDUCATION. 2006. Learning in Places: The Informal Education Reader : 203 227.
205 Manatee County School District, 2011. Manatee County School District Field Trip Hand Book Revised February 2011. Mayr, E. (1982). Growth of biological thought Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Medrich, E. A., Roizen, J., Rubin, V., and Buckley, S. (1982). The Serious Business of Growing Up. University of California Press, Berkeley. Moore, J. A. (1993). Science as a way of knowing: The foundations of modern biology Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mote Marine Laboratory, 2011. Teacher Wo rkshops http://www.mote.org/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=Education%20Programs%3A%20Tea cher%20Workshops&category=Education Norris, S., 1985. The Philisophical Basis of Observation in Science and Science Education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Vol 22, No. 9, pp 817 833. Institute for Educational Research and Development. Newfoundland, Canada. O'Donell, C. 2011. Manatee schools look to furloughs, pay cuts and outsourcing. May 23, 2011. Herald Tribune.< http://www.heraldtribune.com/article/20110523/ARTICLE/110529800?p=1&tc =pg > Ramaswamy, S., Harris, I., and Tschirner, U., 2001. Student Peer Teaching: An innovative Approac to Instruction in Science and Engineering Education Journal of Science Education a nd Technology, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 165 171. Springer. Ramey Gassert, L. 1997. Learning Science beyond the Classroom. The Elementary School Journal, Vol. 97, No. 4, Special Issue: Science (Mar., 1997), pp. 433 450 Schmidt, E, 1997. Learning from Electron ic Field Trips. The Journal of Museum Education, Vol. 22, No.1, pp. 10 12. Left Coast Press, Inc. Semper, R. J. (1990). Science museums as environments for learning. Physics Today, 43, 2 8. Sieber, T., 1979. Classmates and Workmates; Informal Peer Activity in the Elementary School. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp 207. Blackwell Publishing.
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207 Online Sources Mote Marine Laboratory Teacher Workshops http://www.mote.org/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=Education%20Programs%3A %20Teacher%20Workshops&category=Education Schedule of Upcoming FMSEA Conferences and Workshops http://www.fmsea.org/events/default.html#workshops Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Regulated Species Information http://myfwc.com/media/290251/SW_RegulatedSpecies.pdf Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Policy on the Relea se of Marine Organisms http://myfwc.com/media/290194/SAL_ReleasePolicy.pdf License Application http://myfwc.com/media/290182/SAL_Education Exhibition.pdf The Study of Allometry http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/allometry the study of biological scaling 13228439 National Weather Service Forcast Office http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/mtr/glossary.php How To Use a Compass http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/camping safety tips for kids4.htm Qualitative Vs. Quantitative Data http://regentsprep.org/REgents/math/ALGEBRA/AD1/qualquant.htm Mote Marine Laboratory School Programs and the NGSSS http://www.mote.org/clientuploads/ NGSSS_Mote.pdf
208 Mote Marine Laboratory Field Trip Program Overviews http://www.mote.org/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=Education%20Programs%3A %20Field%20Trips%3A%20Overview&category=Education About the South Florida Museum http://www.southfloridamuseum.org/AbouttheSFM.aspx School Program Field Trips to the Museum http://www.southfloridamuseum.org/AbouttheSFM.aspx Field Trips and On Site Programs http://www.flaquarium.org/education camps/school programs/field trips -on si te programs.aspx Aquarium Virtual Tour http://www.flaquarium.org/explore the aquarium/virtual tour.aspx About The Marine Science Outreach Initiative at the Pritzker Marine Laboratory http://sites.ncf.edu/msoi/pritzker Mote Marine Laboratory Teacher Workshops http://www.mote.org/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=Education%20Programs%3A %20Teacher%20Workshops&category=Education Schedule of Upcoming FMSEA Conferences and Workshops http://www.fmsea.org/events/default.html#workshops Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Regulated Species Information http://myfwc.com/media/290251/SW_RegulatedSpecies.pdf Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Policy on the Release of Marine Organisms http://myfwc.com/media/290194/SAL_ReleasePolicy.pdf Fl License Application http://myfwc.com/media/290182/SAL_Education Exhibition.pdf
209 The Water Cycle http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.html Oceans and Climate http://www.atmosphere.mpg.de/enid/basics/1__Oceans_and_climate_1v9.html About the Oceans http://www.gdrc.org/oceans/fsheet 01.html Oceans, Weather, and Climate http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/pd/oceans_weather_climate/welcome. html Teacher's Guide for Tides Discovery Activities http://www.princeton.edu/~pccm/outreach/scsp/water_on_earth/tides/inquiry/ guide.htm The Tidal Cycle and the Moon http://home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/moon/moontides/ Florida Forest Tree: The Red Mangrove http://www.sfrc.ufl.e du/4h/Red_mangrove/redmangr.htm Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce: Red Mangrove http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Rhizop_mangle.h tm Ken Thompson Park and New Pass Fishing Pier http://www.discovernaturalsarasota.org/listing/ken thompson park and new pass fishing pier sarasota/ Special Events in Sarasota Parks http://www.sarasotagov.com/LivingInSarasota/Contents/PublicWorks/Special%20Event s/Special%20Events.html The Endangered Species Handbook: The Animal Welfare Institute, 1983. http://www.endangeredspecieshandbook.org/legislation_lacey.php The Plume Trade: Paul Ehrlich, David Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye, 1988. http://www.stanford.edu/group/stanfordbirds/text/essays/Plume_Trade.html
210 Image Sources Many of the image sources listed below have been modified with photo editing software to construct a cohesive style throughout. Around The Bend Nature Tours Logo ht tp://evbdn.eventbrite.com/s3 s3/eventlogos/4956301/735983346.jpg Turtle Grass http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/southflorida/seagrass/images/turtlegrass.JPG Manatee Grass http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/southflorida/seagrass/images/manateegrass2.JPG Shoal G rass http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/southflorida/seagrass/images/halodule2.JPG Octopus http://i2.squidoocdn.com/resize/squidoo_images/590/draft_lens17557939module147723252p hoto_1319574817octopus_coloring_pages.jp Squid http://i1.squidoocdn.com/resize/squidoo_images/250/draft_lens17877209module149724530p hoto_1303501427Squid.jpg Oyster http://img178.imageshack.us/img178/1199/oyster.png Scallop http://www.wpclipart.com/animals/aquatic/shell_and_shellfish/Bay_Scallop.png Clam http://i2.squidoocdn.com/resize/squidoo_images/250/draft_lens10161811module141126061p hoto_1292509504ocean quahog Cyprina isla Sunray Venus http://www.duke.edu/~jspippen/mollusca/sunray venus101229 1193marcoz.jpg Coquina http://upload.wikimedia.org/w ikipedia/commons/d/d2/Coquina_variation3.jpg Jingle Shell http://www.follybeach.com/jingle shell.jpg Snowy Egret
211 http://fw.dpnr.gov.vi/education/Docs/NatHistGuidePDF/ANIMALS/Birds/Birds_files/image031.j pg Fishing line http://www.fish4fun.com/images/polomar3.gif Soda Can Rings http://www.gma.org/tidings/snailtale/6pack.gif Plastic Shopping Bag http://library.oregonmetro.gov/images/plastic bag_fin.jpg Cigarette Butt http://www.boston.com/lifestyle/green/greenblog/butts .jpg Feather http://askabiologist.asu.edu/sites/default/files/feather_anatomy.jpg Feather Types http://adobeclass.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/feather_types.jpg Flight Feather http://www.nativetech.org/feather/vulture.jpg Down Feather http://1.bp.blogsp ot.com/_SQq7mqYD3JY/S_VpdGRF02I/AAAAAAAACuc/6ttnm5c4SX8/s1600/L AAL_down_white.jpg Filoplume feather http://www.biosci.ohio state.edu/~jcondit/images/class_images/feathers/contour_feather200.jpg Sun http://www.lucytravels.com/images/sun coloring page 1.gif Tulip Snail http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03mex/background/plan/bandedtulipsnail_220.jpg Lettered Olive http://www.featurepics.com/FI/Thumb300/20091008/Lettered Olive Shell Oliva Saya na Seashell 1344457.jpg Fighting Conch http://shellmuseum.org/imgs/swflshells/44/alatus2.jpg Lightning Whelk http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/IMAGES/Texas/lightning whelk.jpg
212 Crown Conch http://www.jaxshells.org/image90.jpg Sand Dollar http://rivercityr ubberworks.com/images/products/1453 B.jpg Sea Cucumber http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_FGXiaOUYep4/SLfNUnIfjLI/AAAAAAAAAGA/K5N1OqWXUzY/s400/16. jpg Variegated Urchin http://images.enature.com/seashore/seashore_l/sc0090_1l.jpg Long Spined Urchin http://www.seacare.org.au/images/seaUrchin_scetch.jpg Cushion Star http://www.seasky.org/reeflife/assets/images/starfish_cushion.jpg Common Starfish http://www.shuanglong6688.com/wp content/uploads/2011/05/Starfish.jpg Common Barnacle http://www.glf.dfo mpo.gc.ca/folios/00031/images/img_balanus_sp_2.jpg Grass Shrimp http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/spdest/visitorcenters/seacenter/education/coastal_habitats/saltm arshes/animals/images/207_grass_shrimp.jpg Horseshoe Crab http://www.wpclipart.com/animals/aquati c/crab/crab_2/horseshoe_crab_BW.png Hermit Crab http://www.discountmugs.com/discountmugs/upload/cliparts/images/hermitcrab_1301940309 .jpg Stone Crab http://www.fl seafood.com/i/stonecrab.jpg Blue Crab http://www.marylandcrabs.com/images/blue crab.jpg Arrow Crab http://www.dnr.sc.gov/marine/sertc/images/photo%20gallery/arrow.jpg Spider Crab
213 http://img.tfd.com/wn/06/6141E spider crab.gif Lined Seahorse http://gulfofmaine census.org/wp content/images/illustrated_taxonomy/fishes/fish08_6b.jpg Stingray http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Dasyatis_brevicaudata_(Short tail_stingray).gif Spotted Eagle Ray http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e5/Spotted_eagle_ray_lineart.jpg Pipefish http://www.glaucus.org.uk/SnakeP.GIF Southern Puffer http://www.sms.si.edu/IRLSpec/images/snephelus1.jpg Pinfish http://floridasportfishing.com/magazine/images/stories/pin fish bait fish 12e.jpg Gulf Toadfish http://www.rodnreel.com/gulffish/images/regular/GulfToadfish.jpg Mullet http://wahinoho.net/images_olelo/images_vocab/mullet.gif Sea Robin http://northern clingfish.tropicalfishss.co.uk/images/northern sea robin 3.jpg Code Goby http://www.southeasternoutdoors.com/wildlife/fish/images/code goby.jpg Red Mangrove http://www.ga rf.org/12/12mud/293353redmangrove.JPG Mangrove Snail http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4081/4795340902_8c39926d28.jpg Green Sea Turtle http://www.fws.gov/northflorida/SeaTurtles/Turtle%20Factsheets/images%20for%20factsheet/ green drawing.gif Raccoon http:// www.animalstown.com/animals/r/raccoon/coloring pages/raccoon color page 1 s.jpg Great Blue Heron http://www.stampingsensations.com/Merchant2/graphics/00000001/BA026.gif
214 Osprey http://images.fineartamerica.com/images medium/osprey with white perch edith t hompson.jpg Red Drum http://www.chefs resources.com/files/Red Drum Fish/Red_Drum by Duane Raver USFWS.jpg Laughing Gull http://clipartist.net/www/COLOURINGBOOK.ORG/Letters/T/the_laughing_gull_black_white_lin e_art_coloring_book_colouring 1979px.png Leaf Miner Moth http://www.kth.se/polopoly_fs/1.170284!/image/moth.jpg Orb Spider http://generic.pixmac.com/4/golden orb web spider nephila inaurata madagascariensis agains front picture 76255935.jpg Cotton Mouse http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/21000/21029/mouse_ 21029_lg.gif Banded Water Snake http://www.arthursclipart.org/snakes/BANDED.gif Stones http://throughtheweb.org/wp content/uploads/2011/03/stones.png Tide Cycles http://www.princeton.edu/~pccm/outreach/scsp/water_on_earth/tides/inquiry/graph2.jpg Spri ng and Neap Tides http://www.tocardo.com/cms/images/fotoarchief/spring neap cycle.gif Ken Thompson Aerial View http://maps.google.com/maps?q=27.335413, 82.570807&hl=en&ll=27.336119, 82.571043&spn=0.00529,0.010225&sll=27.335413, 82.570807& sspn=0.00529,0.010225&vpsrc=6&t=h&z=17 Sea Grass Organisms http://coz.southernfriedscience.com/wp content/uploads/2011/02/Scallop.seagrass1.jpg Boat Scar http://www.seagrasswatch.org/latest_news/florida/LA_times/46960377.jpg
215 Wrack Line http://www.wick edlocal.com/capecod/archive/x593042238/g12c000000000000000285029524 57a7583237b73a43dd1385a8e57a9e3.jpg Ken Thompson Boardwalk http://www.discovernaturalsarasota.org/_assets/dynamic_media/asset_images/dns_listing_10 _2382_2.jpg Ken Thompson Fishing Pier ht tp://www.lettuceshare.com/wp content/uploads/2011/05/026.jpg Pelican http://www.conservationenterprises.com/pelican.jpg Mote Marine Lab Entrance http://www.mote.org/clientuploads/AquariumEntrance.jpg South Florida Museum http://www.southfloridamuseum.or g/Portals/0/museum_front.jpg Florida Aquarium Wetlands http://www.flaquarium.org/userfiles/images/main%20images/wetlands top 565px.jpg Pritzker Marine Laboratory http://sites.ncf.edu/media/science outreach/back facade.jpg Fiddler Crab Allometry http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/51600/51606/51606_fiddler_crab.htm Shell Allometry https://content.ncetm.org.uk/images/self_evaluation/se_tool/knowledge/ks2/AW_KS2_UA_01. jpg