ERROR LOADING HTML FROM SOURCE (http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu//design/skins/UFDC/html/header_item.html)

Parallel Kinship in Nihon Buyo

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004586/00001

Material Information

Title: Parallel Kinship in Nihon Buyo
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Ghirardi, Dominique
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2012
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Sensei
Nihon Buyo: Japan
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Nihon Buyou, like many other Japanese traditional arts, uses the iemoto system, which creates a family (ryuu) based in the art form from a surname exclusively associated with that art form. When a deshi reaches a certain level of mastery in the dance, he or she is given a name by the sensei to accompany that surname, initiating him or her into the kinship unit officially. Thus, the deshi holds the sensei in a parental role during dance contexts while simultaneously using his or her legal name and identity outside of this context. Drawing from ethnographic data gathered in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, combined with external research, I examine the levels of formality and familiarity of this relationship.
Statement of Responsibility: by Dominique Ghirardi
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2012
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Vesperi, Maria D.

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2012 G4
System ID: NCFE004586:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004586/00001

Material Information

Title: Parallel Kinship in Nihon Buyo
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Ghirardi, Dominique
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2012
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Sensei
Nihon Buyo: Japan
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Nihon Buyou, like many other Japanese traditional arts, uses the iemoto system, which creates a family (ryuu) based in the art form from a surname exclusively associated with that art form. When a deshi reaches a certain level of mastery in the dance, he or she is given a name by the sensei to accompany that surname, initiating him or her into the kinship unit officially. Thus, the deshi holds the sensei in a parental role during dance contexts while simultaneously using his or her legal name and identity outside of this context. Drawing from ethnographic data gathered in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, combined with external research, I examine the levels of formality and familiarity of this relationship.
Statement of Responsibility: by Dominique Ghirardi
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2012
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Vesperi, Maria D.

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2012 G4
System ID: NCFE004586:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

! PARALLEL KINSHIP IN NIHON BUYO BY DOMINIQUE GHIRARDI A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Social Sciences New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology Under the spon sorship of Maria D. Vesperi Sarasota, Florida April, 2012

PAGE 2

! ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There are so many people without whom this research would not have been possible. First of all, I would like to thank Professor Vesperi for sponsoring this research. Witho ut your guidance and editing, I would have been lost. I would also like to thank Professor Andrews and Professor Baram not only for being on my committee, but for all of the advice I was given on the thesis writing process. This research would also not h ave been possible without the knowledge and connections of my sensei Kaoru Fujima, who provided the inspiration for this thesis. As my sensei you have never stopped teaching me. I am also incredibly grateful for the contributions received from BJ Creigh ton and the John Cranor Research Fund. Within Takaoka, there are so many who have supported my research and myself. I am greatly indebted to my former host parents Yonneo and Tomoko Kanamori, who have been so supportive over the years. You have helped m ake Takaoka my second home. I would like to thank my former Japanese teacher Noriko Ibata for helping edit my keigo in my consent form. Though I cannot name them all, I would also like to thank those in Takaoka who helped participate in my understanding of the sensei /student relationship, especially Kantoe Fujima II, Kie Hanakawa, Kiku Hanakawa and her mother, Ikiko Takeda, Chizuru Orisaka, and the members of the Toyama National College nihon buyo club Everyone has been very kind. I would also like to thank Kimio Arai for allowing me to observe this relationship in tea ceremony, Yuki and her mother for providing me with a ticket to the Takaoka minnyo festival, and Mitsuki and Aguri, for being there for me even after six years. I would especially like t o thank Asato Fujima for having dinner with me and opening up to me about your relationship with your sensei Your input changed the course of my research. I would also like to show my gratitude to the Takaoka West Rotary Club for giving me the necessary connections to expand this project. I would also like to thank Dr. Yohko Tsuji for helping me verify the translation of a surprisingly obscure word. In the writing of this thesis, I have also had so much support. I would like to thank my loving parents for all of their support. I would also like to thank my Japanese class (currently Emily Donlan, Michael McGurl, Jessica Ploss, and Evan Darrow) for allowing me to discuss several themes from this thesis in class. You've had to put up with my spacey natu re long enough. I would especially like to thank Catherine Zakosuke, Jeff Guertin, Bailey Howard, and Danielle Korngold for listening to my thesis rants for over a year now. Finally, I would like to thank Evan Darrow for his love and support throughout t his process. This has been a crazy year.

PAGE 3

! "" TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS iv ABSTRACT v CHAPTER I: THE IEMOTO SYSTEM AND THE SENSEI /STUDENT RELATIONSHIP IN NIHON BU YO 1 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 22 CHAPTER III: PARALLEL KINSHIP 36 CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSION 76 APPENDIX I : INTERVIEWS 83 APPENDIX II: MAP OF TAKAOKA 139 BIBLIOGRAPHY 140

PAGE 4

! """ LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 1: THE HIERARCHY OF THE IEMOTO SYSTEM 14 FIGURE 2: THE HANAKAWA RYUU GENEOLOGY 43 FIGURE 3: THE FUJIMA RYUU GENEOLOGY (BEFORE THE DEATH OF KANTOE FUJIMA I) 45 FIGURE 4: THE CURRENT FUJIMA RYUU GENEOLOGY 46

PAGE 5

! "# PARALLEL KINSHIP IN NIHON BUYO Dominique Ghirardi New College of Florida, 2012 ABSTRACT Nihon Buyou like many other Japanese traditional arts, uses the iemoto system, which creates a family ( ryuu ) based in the art form from a surname exclusively associated with that art f orm. When a deshi reaches a certain level of mastery in the dance, he or she is given a name by the sensei to accompany that surname, initi ating him or her into the kinship unit officially. Thus, the deshi holds the sensei in a parental role during dance contexts while simultaneously using his or her legal name and identity outside of this context. Drawing from ethnographic data gathered in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, combined with external research I examine the levels of formality and familiarity of thi s relationship. _____________________________ Maria D. Vesperi Division of Social Sciences

PAGE 6

$ CHAPTER I: THE IEMOTO SYSTEM AND THE SENSEI /STUDENT REALTIONSHIP IN NIHON BUYO With the popularity of martial arts and martial arts movies such as The Karate Kid many Americans view the concept of a sensei as an older, wiser, strict male master of an art, who com municates in abstract and seemingly more enlightened phrases for the pupil to think about and come to understand. The re is the idea of the pupil undertaking intense training to learn the lessons the sensei provides, requiring years of devotion to the study of the art in question. This process ends when the pupil is enlightened and trained enough in the sensei 's ways to open his or her own practice and begin teaching others in the sensei role. Although such popular assumptions are not far from the way the process can play out, this stereotypical model assumes too much of both the sensei and the pupil. The words and less ons of the sensei are often portrayed as vague and seemingly unrelated to the task itself, and the demands of the pupil as almost unreasonable. Not only does this portrayal make studying under a sensei appear incredibly difficult, it also develops the sen sei as a mysterious figure rather than a human being. Though studying under a sensei requires a degree of devotion, no good sensei would expect his or her pupils to do something impossible. Sensei are human beings with lives that are as difficult and con fusing as those of their students. While their training may have brought them to realizations of the art they study which are more advanced than those of their current pupils, there are still qualities about that art that are unknown and difficult for the sensei as well. That is to say, even after having acquired the title of

PAGE 7

! % sensei ," sensei are still pupils to someone and thus are training every bit as hard or harder than their pupils. The word sensei ( ) consists of two kanji (before, precedence) and (life, birth), roughly translating to "born before." 1 Although when used in English, sensei usually refers to a master of a martial art, in Japanese, sensei is used for a master of any art, particularl y the traditional ones, as well as to refer to teachers in a school classroom. Sensei is also used as an honorific for those classroom teachers and for doctors and traditional art instructors. Thus, it is important to differentiate between a sensei who i s a teacher and a sensei who is a master. I will be focusing exclusively on the sensei who are considered masters. Specifically, I will discuss the relationships, methods, and hierarchical details concerning sensei of nihon buyo a traditional style of J apanese dance. Although a master can be a teacher, one would not say, for instance, that Tanaka sensei, who teaches geometry at a high school, is a "master of geometry." 2 Though it is true that he has some mastery of geometry to be able to teach it, it d oes not require the same devotion or abstract understanding as that of !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 Kanji are the 2,000 Chinese characters used in the modern Japanese alphabet. While the material of my thesis is possible to understand without extensive knowled ge of kanji I feel that in a language such as Japanese, where each word is structured essentially like an English compound word, it is important to know and understand the meaning of the characters that make up a word in order to truly understand its mean ing. This also helps with the fact that the meanings behind Japanese words do not always translate directly into English, since kanji can help convey the attitude behind each word. Thus, I will be using the kanji for each significant term I cover, either in footnotes or explained in the paragraph in which it is introduced. Thereafter, all such terms will be italicized. 2 In Japanese, the honorific (such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr.) follows the name of the recipient. (Ex. Mr. Yamashita would be written Yamash hita san .)

PAGE 8

! & Hanakawa sensei, who is an instructor and one of many masters of the Hanakawa school of nihon buyo which is a traditional art. I n his "Seven Characteristics of a Traditional Japanes e Approach to Learning" (1998) Gary DeCoker mentions that sensei are on the same level as their students, the only differing factor being that the sensei began his or her study prior to his or her pupils. Upon first reading this, I disagreed with him. I have studied under a sensei in nihon buyo tea ceremony, calligraphy, and karate Though the sensei of whom he spoke was a karate sensei I have noticed that the same level of respect and a similar relationship exists in nihon buyo Built on respect, th is relationship is part of a clear hierarchy that places pupils at the bottom and sensei on a much higher level. I felt that to say that sensei were merely upper level students would be disrespectful to a sensei 's knowledge and mastery of his or her art. However, when reviewing source after sou rce of authors' experiences studying with a sensei I realized that understanding DeCokers assertion was the key to understanding a sensei 's true role in the traditional arts. The karate sensei of whom DeCoker wro te may be the highest in rank in the class he instructed, but in order to be permitted to instruct students in that style, the sensei would also be required to be enrolled in classes himself. So long as a sensei teaches a particular style, in order to be connected to and grow in that style (or in the case of nihon buyo school), that sensei must continue to be instructed as well. In my research, I learned that this also applies to nihon buyo sensei The Iemoto System In the hierarchy of nihon buyo known as the iemoto system, sensei actually comprise the upper middle section. All traditional Japanese arts have their own

PAGE 9

! version of this system, but I will focus exclusively on the make up of the nihon buyo iemoto system here. Each ryuu ( ), or school of da nce has its own iemoto but the general makeup of the system itself is the same (Klens: 1994: 231). 3 The term iemoto ( ) has been defined in a variety of ways. 4 One author, Tomie Hahn, referred to the iemoto system as a "guild," as it is comprised of performing artists who share a particular style and attitude towards dance among themselves (Hahn: 2007). Robert F. Smith, in his article on iemoto in Learning in Likely Places described the iemoto as a corporation in that with every generation a new suc cessor must be chosen so that the iemoto doesn't "die" (Smith: 1998: 24). The decision is based on the skill and capability of the candidate rather than actual blood relation to the iemoto himself. 5 This makes the iemoto selection similar to selection of a successor to the head of a corporation in both the American and Japanese sense, although the overriding connotations are of "family." 6 In Iemoto: Heart of Japan (1975), anthropologist Francis L. K. Hsu compared the iemoto system to the chia system of China, which shares the same kanji Hsu !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3 The translation of ryuu 's kanji isn't as helpful in understanding the word as in other examples. simply means "flow," referring to the style specific to a given school. 4 The two characters of which iemoto is comprised are (house) and (origin). They serve to communicate that the iemoto is like a traditional Japanese family, with a head and rank. It is from this "household" that a school of dance origins. 5 While I cannot speak for other Japanese arts, the iemoto of nihon buyo schools are always male. If there is no male successor, the art is simply passed on until one is born. 6 This is further supported by the fact that many Japanese companies are run by the same family for generations, with authority transmitted from parent to child so long as the child is capable. Thus, even if the most capable candidate is related to the current iemoto (or in the metaphor, CEO), the fact that he were considered first for the position and his biological relation to the current head of the school or corporation is no coincidence.

PAGE 10

! ( found it interesting that the kanji used for both had the same meanings in each respective language ("home" and "origin"), yet the systems themselves were so different. Although both represented "home" in the sen se of family, the Chinese chia consisted only of biologically related members without many opportunities for adoption outside of blood relatives, while the Japanese ie was a system into which anyone could be adopted (1975: ix). 7 However, this is not unusu al, as biological relation has never been the primary factor for determining kinship in Japan. Those who live and work together are closer in being "ritual" relatives than those who are biologically related yet live separately, since the "ritual" relativ es partake in the same rituals of day to day life together. For this reason, it wasn't uncommon for servants to take their master's surname or for members of both ritual and biological kin to be buried in the same graveyard (1975: 39). With this, the uch i deshi or live in apprentice comes to mind. Though no longer as common, an uchi deshi is an apprentice who would live with his or her master in order to improve not only skills in an art or trade, but also all other aspects of daily life that less exten sive training had omitted (Haas: 1998: 109). In this regard, an uchi deshi became a "ritual" relative of his or her master and therefore could be adopted. The iemoto system, Hsu argues, makes this step standard with regard to the arts by creating a famil y built upon the "family business" of that art and being able to choose talented members to participate in and promote that art. In this way, Hsu's take on the iemoto system is not far from Smith's corporation in that the successor to the role of family h ead can be an adopted member if the biological family members !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 7 Alone, ie means house or home.

PAGE 11

! ) are not suitable. Likewise, one looking to enter into a ryuu can choose which ryuu to follow, allowing him or her to chose "parents" in this manner (Hsu: 1975: 44). And, like a corporation, ea ch ryuu seeks new members so that it can grow and expand its trade (1975: 76). Of course, at the core of this analysis of the iemoto system, according to Hsu, is the "fictive kinship" the members of a ryuu share with each other (Hsu: 1975: 68). Althoug h the widespread adoption of "ritual" relatives that formed the Edo period ie is no longer practiced, it is upon this practice that the modern ryuu were formed and still operate today. Therefore, if one is in a ryuu he or she is involved with two differe nt families on two different levels: a biological or legal family and the ryuu to which a person belongs. For this reason, while I do agree with Hsu that the iemoto system represents a form of kinship, I prefer the term "parallel kinship" over "fictive ki nship." This is because, though the members of a ryuu devote a considerable part of their lives to join and practice in that ryuu and ultimately develop name s and i denties from the ryuu itself, that identity exists only in the context of nihon buyo Whil e in some cases, the extent to which one's ryuu acts like a legal family may be considerable, these relationships within the ryuu are not intended to replace or replicate their counterparts within a legal family. A sensei may view her apprentice like a da ughter, but this view would never seek to override the respect that sensei would have for her apprentice's legal mother. Furthermore, this identity typically does not leave the studio, performances, or other contexts in which the members of a ryuu interac t with each other in nihon buyo Thus, I offer the term "parallel kinship" to accommodate the nature of having two names, and thus two identities: a legal, given name with

PAGE 12

! biological relatives and a given stage name with relatives that the apprentice has chosen to join. There are many instances where these realms overlap, but that will be addressed in the ethnographic chapter. In nihon buyo this "parallel kinship" is founded on the relationship between sensei and apprentice, which can be best explained by examining the hierarchy of the iemoto system in nihon buyo The Hierarchy of the Iemoto System When I was having dinner one night with one of my host fathers, he mused that a ryuu was like a brand name since naming is so important in the iemoto system and people come to expect a certain style from one bearing that particular name. 8 In one sense, he was correct. Without being named, one cannot really enter the iemoto system. In the period before being named, the pupil is called a deshi ( ), meaning "apprentice." 9 Anyone who has ever studied nihon buyo is a deshi and even though one may enter and become promoted in the hierarchy, one is always a deshi That fact alone that one is an apprentice for l ife illustrates the point DeCoker was trying t o make in "Seven Characteristics of a Traditional Japanese Approach to Learning." On some level, everyone is a student. But though one is a deshi for life, after an extended period that deshi enters the first actual rank, called natori Natori ( ) comes only after a sensei has decided !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 8 From 2005 2006, I was an exchange student in Takaoka City, Toyama, Japan. Since then, I have kept in touch with many of my former host families and friends, whom I visited while conducting my research. 9 The term deshi is made from ( faithful service to elders) and (child), showing the childlike nature assumed of one who is eager enough to learn to become an apprentice.

PAGE 13

! + that a student is serious enough to become an official part of the ryuu 10 I've been told that the average duration of study for a deshii to be promoted to natori is ten years. Promotion is not taken lightly. On ce the sensei has determined that the deshi is prepared for promotion, the sensei and deshi discuss the name he or she will receive. Naming typically consists of taking one kanji from the deshi 's name and another from the sensei 's name. The combination o f these results in the deshi 's new "given name" in terms of dance, while the name of the ryuu becomes the deshi 's new "family name." Sometimes, a sensei gives or the deshi requests a specific name unrelated to either person's name. More about the specifi cs of the significance of naming will be discussed in the ethnographic chapter. The process is made complete when the sensei takes the deshi to visit the head of the ryuu called the iemoto As it was explained to me, the deshi meets and performs for the iemoto so that the iemoto can determine whether the deshi is actually properly prepared. This occurs after the deshi 's sensei speaks with the deshi about this process, as it can be expensive. In addition to this, a sum of 1,000,000 yen is presented to the iemoto at this time. 11 Sometimes, during this visit, the iemoto requests to name the deshi which is called jikimon ( ). 12 At this point, the deshi has demonstrated hard work, the investment of time, and now the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 10 Natori is quite literal. means "name" and means "to take. Therefore, when one becomes a natori he or she literally "takes a name." 11 This amounts to about $12,077, as of July, 2011. 12 I was told that the term jikimon refers not only to the naming of a natori directly from the iemoto his or herself, but also becomes part of that natori 's title to show the closeness shared with the iemoto of the ryuu The kanji the word consists of are (frankness, honesty) and (gate). Dr. Yohko Tsuji, a fluent Japanese speaker who has a background in linguistic anthropology, indicated that the term might suggest where the name comes from, rather than a type of naming itself (personal communication).

PAGE 14

! investment of money. According to Hsu, he or she has entered the second stage of the mentor disciple relationship, and thus the study of the art, by entering the "pseudo family" of the ryuu (Hsu: 1975: 63). He or she is now part of that ryuu and the iemoto system. Upon becoming a natori it is assumed that the pupil has learned most of the basics of the process of learning nihon buyo is familiar with the iemoto system itself, and can, therefore, show the proper respect. The natori is a serious apprentice, and even if he or she never progres ses further, so long as nothing is done to fall out of favor with the ryuu the natori will retain his or her name and rank. This dance name will be used in performance brochures, when discussing roles, and any time the natori dances, whether it be practi cing in the studio or performing officially. Unless the sensei and the natori have a previously existing relationship outside of the natori 's study of nihon buyo the sensei will address the natori by his or her dance name. The natori is now an official member of the ryuu but is still ranked fairly low and is not permitted to teach. Four or five years after becoming a natori an apprentice can be tested to become a shihan ( ). 13 The test for shihan is somewhat standardized within each ryuu In the Fuj ima ryuu the candidate visits the iemoto and performs several dances !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 13 The term shihan ( ) translates as instructor, although the term itself is only used for rank rather than actual profession. As I discuss in the following paragraph, a shihan is not a sensei unless he or she has a student. However, sensei are still at the rank of shihan so the term is appropriate. Shihan is comprised of the kanji (expert) and (pattern), which represents the rank as professional in the world of nihon buyo

PAGE 15

! $! for the iemoto a panel of five judges, and his or her own sensei 14 In order to take the examination, another payment of 1,000,000 yen must be paid to the iemoto Should the candidate f ail his or her exam, 800,000 yen will be refunded. 15 I was told that there are typically three dances performed: Nanatsu ni Naru Ko ("A Seven year old Child"), Seki no Komari ("Komari of Seki"), and Yari Yakko ("The Footman's Spear"). Each dance sho ws a different ability important to the versatility and stage presence required of a shihan This is based on the fact that shihan is the first rank in nihon buyo in which one is permitted to teach. T herefore the candidate must be able to teach people o f both genders and all ages. Nanatsu ni Naru Ko and Seki no Komari are both kabuki dances originally intended for children, meaning that they have a set story line and require both acting and reacting to the sung lyrics. These are also children's dan ces, meaning that the candidate is required to learn something intended for dancers outside of his or her age group. 16 Yari Yakko is a man's dance, which might fall outside of the intended performance group for many candidates, as a considerable percenta ge of the participants in nihon buyo are female. Yari Yakko is also important because there are several points within the dance at which the dancer !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 14 I use this vague wording because the large number of ryuu in nihon buyo makes it difficult and problematic to make broad assumptions about something such as a test. In my research, I watched the practice of a natori about to become a shihan in the Fujima ryuu Therefore, the specifics are from the Fujima ryuu test, but the general layout of the test, I've been told, is similar for all ryuu : three dances are performed for the iemoto which include a kabuki dance, a children's dance, and a dance with spoken lines. 15 This is approximately $9,661, as of July, 2011. 16 Because i t takes at least fifteen years of study in order to test to become a shihan it can be assumed that no one testing for shihan is a child. This may be the reason that two of the three dances for shihan in the Fujima ryuu are children's dances: it requires the dancer to perform outside of his or her comfort zone.

PAGE 16

! $$ must call out spoken lines. This requires the candidate to have a vocalized stage presence that is commo n in kabuki but rare in nihon buyo However, this is appropriate to the rank, as shihan are in the middle of the nihon buyo hierarchy and are considered professionals in the sense of both performance and teaching. Even if the shihan does not decide to b ecome a sensei he or she is now committed to nihon buyo as more than just a casual hobby. From this rank, dances become more varied and difficult, testing the shihan 's stage presence further. As this was described to me by my own sensei, who belongs to the Fujima ryuu because the Fujima ryuu is very large, each candidate must perform within a specific examination schedule every year. Candidates perform five at a time, each dancing the same dance at the same time. This can be very stressful for some, c onsidering that most dances in nihon buyo are performed alone. In the Hanakawa ryuu the candidate for shihan promotion also dances before the iemoto and his or her sensei but there is no specific examination. Following this performance, the iemoto and the sensei judge the candidate's ability and decide whether or not he or she is ready for promotion, but there isn't the same amount of pressure, as the candidates are viewed and judged one at a time. As soon as a shihan takes on an apprentice, he or she becomes a sensei Though sensei seem to be respected more than shihan without apprentices, sensei and shihan share the same rank. However, once a shihan takes an apprentice and becomes a sensei the honorific sensei is used at the end of his or her na me, meaning that Hanayagi san would become Hanayagi sensei 17 A shihan may take an apprentice as !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 17 It should be noted that this honorific would only be used with the shihan 's dance name, as he or she is only a sensei in the realm of nihon buyo

PAGE 17

! $% soon as he or she is promoted; yet many shihan never become sensei due to either lack of personal interest or lack of apprentices. Once a shihan becomes a sen sei he or she is always considered to be a sensei regardless of whether or not there are apprentices studying under him or her. Osensei ( ) are sensei of sensei and are promoted when one of their shihan level apprentices takes on an apprentice and becomes a sensei 18 Since few people progress to the point of sensei in areas outside of Tokyo, I've been told that osesnei are somewhat rare. It is fairly common for children of nihon buyo sensei who study nihon buyo to progress to the level of sensei making many osensei the biological parents of at least one of their sensei level apprentices. 19 Since it takes at least fifteen years to become a shihan may take several years to gain an apprentice and become a sensei followed by fifteen years for that student to become a shihan combined with pote ntially a year or so before obtain ing an apprentice, the process of becoming osensei takes a minimu m of thirty years. This assumes, of course, that both the osensei and the apprentice, upon becoming shihan gained an apprentice within that first year. Because of this, osensei are typically older, and are therefore shown !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 18 There are two points I would like to explain con cerning my use of the term "osensei." First, the kanji for osensei ( ) literally translating to "great sensei ," and would technically be written as oosensei because of the longer "o" sound in the kanji However, I feel that osensei looks better than oosensei and can be defended as being similar to the way the city of Osaka (written with the same first kanji seen here: ) is written. On another note, many have tried to translate the term osensei as "master" and "grand master." I prefer to keep terms in Japanese whenever possible in order to avoid any implications or misunderstandings caused by the difficulty in translating Japanese into English and vice versa. 19 In my research, I only encountered one osensei who wasn't biologically related to her apprentice who became a sensei though I know of osensei who has sensei level apprentices who are not biologically related to them in addition to those who are.

PAGE 18

! $& further respect for both their experience and their execution in being able to instruct an apprentice to the level of a sensei themselves. Therefore, when speaking of or to osensei keigo one of the highest levels of polite Japanese speech, must be used. 20 Osensei also take the honorif ic osensei ," rather than sensei to show further respect. Though they may be elderly, osensei still teach, and commonly do so for the rest of their lives. This rank is the farthest of the iemoto hierarchy to which someone unrelated to the core "famil y" of the ryuu can progress. Though there are many osensei in most ryuu they are second in rank only to the iemoto himself. In each ryuu there is only one iemoto The iemoto is considered to be the head of the family, and manages the affairs of the r yuu itself. Iemoto are commonly kabuki actors, and many teach even after taking up the role. Although there are some exceptions, iemtoto are usually male, despite the fact that the majority of ryuu members are female. Unlike osensei and sensei iemoto a re usually biologically related to their predecessors, meaning that the successor is most often the son of the current iemoto (Klens: 1994: 231). Of cour se, there are occasions when this rule cannot stand. For instance if a suitable successor is unavaila ble, or if a direct apprentice of the iemoto looks to be a better candidate than the current iemoto 's son, another apprentice of the iemoto will be considered for the position (1994: 231). In this, one can see the corporate manner in which Smith and Hsu a rgued the ryuu is managed, with skill holding weight against heredity. Unfortunately, it is often the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 20 Unfortunately, English doesn't really have clear levels of polite speech as Japanese does (in Japanese polite speech, entirely different words and phrases are used), and therefore I cannot use a keigo equivalent in my discussion of osensei here. For now, I will at least avoid using articles such as "an" when describing osensei as I feel this shows mild disrespect.

PAGE 19

! $' case that if the iemoto has only daughters, the one to whom the teachings are passed will have all of the knowledge and technical authority of an iemoto but lack the rank and title. Her job is, then, to bear a son and provide him with the proper teaching in order for him to fulfill his duty. I've been told that even if a more capable female apprentice is available to be a successor, usually she will not be considered over the current iemoto 's biological son.

PAGE 20

! $( The Hierarchy of the Iemoto System Figure 1 : The iemoto hierarchy: Based on field notes from conversations with Kaoru Fujima and Kiku Hanakawa, from July 22, 2011. Iemot o : Head of the family Osensei : Sensei of a sensei ; considered a respected elder regardless of age. Shihan : Professional. Equal in rank to a sensei Permitted to teach. Sense i : Professional and teacher. Equal in rank to a shihan Natori : Member of the ryuu and family. Not permitted to teach Deshi : Unnamed apprentice. Not a part of the ryuu

PAGE 21

! $) Problems Within the Iemoto System The iemoto system has been criticized in many ways for the restriction brought by hierarchy as well as the manner and price of promotion. Barbara Sellers Young argues that the high price of entering the hierarchy as a natori limits the number of serious students actually able to belong to a ryuu (1993: 24). Though the reasoning behind the financial aspects of the iemoto system are rooted in the family structure and guild like system from which if evolved, it appears the same traditions that gave rise to the iemoto system in nihon buyo are causing its decline. Many students who study nihon buyo never reach the rank of natori despite years of dedicated study. Not only is the price of promotion high, but the period of at least ten years of committed, active study required to be acknowledged as a serious student ( natori ) also acts as a barrier for those who take up nihon buyo but are unable to commit ten consecutive years of their lives. For instance, those who are enro lled in nihon buyo lessons as young children are taught according to the traditional Japanese path of studying the arts in a society whose demands no longer allow them to fully do so. Traditionally, on the 6 th day of June after the child's sixth birthday, parents would decide which art that child would study (Klens: 1994: 232 ). T oday increasing focus on testing to enter acceptable universities, high schools, and now even middle schools make s the traditional path inconvenient, placing the child to receive his or her name at age sixteen, right in the throes of high school entrance exam related stress. With this in mind, it is no surprise that those children who were not enrolled until later are even less likely to continue their study of nihon buyo long en ough to earn their names. Most students quit studying nihon buyo right before entering high

PAGE 22

! $* school. There are, of course, exceptions in the cases of serious nihon buyo students, students who are children of sensei or who have sensei in their families, an d, as I will describe in my ethnographic chapter, students who actually begin their study of nihon buyo in high school in an attempt to become better acquainted with the traditional Japanese arts. The desire to become more in touch with Japanese tradition al culture through dance allows for an interesting investigation of the meaning of the term "traditional" and its significance in contemporary Japanese culture. Of course, there are those who begin their study of nihon buyo as adults. Because this was no t typical when the iemoto system was formed, though adjustments are made to accommodate these students, the iemoto system does not always meet their needs. Of those who study as adults, there are two particular groups for whom the iemoto system's slow and costly promotion may be a problem: young women (ages 18 30) and the elderly (ages 65 and over). In the case of young adults, nihon buyo is commonly studied as both a hobby and, for women, a means of becoming more cultured prior to marriage 21 (Sellers Yo ung: 1992: 72). In either case, the financial strain of paying for lessons and the costs of meeting the iemoto are considerable, especially when travel exp enses of the latter are added to the fee of earning a name. For this reason, nihon buyo still bears the mark of an art studied by the mid upper to upper class. Even if a young female !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 21 In terms of this practice, I am speaking only from my experiences with women from Toyama Prefecture. I am not sure whether this practice is common elsewhere in Japan, and therefore do not wish to make any generalizations. In Toyama, however, it is not uncommon for a young woman to begin study of nihon buyo or other dance, flower arrangement, tea ceremony, or an instrument in order to prepare for marriage. These studies actually begin as early as high school, and I knew severa l girls who did this when I was an exchange student during my own junior year of high school.

PAGE 23

! $+ student does earn her name, it is unlikely that study of nihon buyo would continue after she marries. This is largely due to the practice of the continued support of wome n by their parents until marriage, with many women living wi th their families until that time With marriage come s new expenses, which may not allow for the study of nihon buyo While those who do become natori before their study of nihon buyo ends retai n their name and rank for the rest of their lives, it is uncommon for a woman in this cir cumstance to return to nihon buyo and continue on to the rank of shihan or beyond. In the case of older people who study nihon buyo time is more of an issue than the financial concerns. With dances and dance roles specifically designed for the elderly and the belief that one is in his o r her dancing prime at age 40 or 50 nihon buyo is a good form of exercise and study for elderly students. This is furthered by the attention to respect for one's elders in nihon buyo philosophy, regardless of where in the iemoto hierarchy one falls. I saw an example of this when I observed a lesson between my own sensei Kaoru Fujima and two deshi The senior student was a woman who was 39 years old and the other deshi was an older woman who was 65 years old. Though the younger deshi was farther along in her study, she was always respectful in referring to the other woman. Even Fujima sensei was respectful, since the woman was at l east ten years her senior. However, while there are several positive points to entering the study of nihon buyo later in life, the slow promotion is a concern. If one begins his or her study in middle age, this is not such a concern. Though life may b e busy with work and children, there is plenty of time to earn the right to enter the iemoto system officially

PAGE 24

! $, as a natori Yet, if one enters later on, when health issues might interfere with the study of nihon buyo the extent of time required to become a natori becomes an issue. Worse still, if one ent ers late enough, he or she will study knowing that there is not enough time to enter or progress in rank. This is only an issue in that accommodations are not made with regard to the speed of promotion, although often when one begins study of nihon buyo late in life, it is more for entertainment than the desire to teach. In my interview with her, Fujima sensei proposed a possible solution to both of these problems. This was brought about by her experi ence in kyomi dance, a casual dance style that uses dance "matches" to progress in rank. While teaching and performing nihon buyo is part of Fujima sensei 's profession, kyomi dance is more of a personal hobby. Because each performance occurs at a dance m atch, with each performance c omes the potential for advancement This gives the performance more weight than would typically be present in a nihon buyo performance, which is more like a recital. Therefore, a student of kyomi dance practices harder prior to a performance and, without much pressure or too large of a fee, if the student performs well enough, he or she is promoted to the next rank. This positi ve reinforcement encourages students to continue working hard in their study of dance while also all owing them to celebrate a little for being promoted. Though this approach would offset the weight of the current nihon buyo ranks, since there are at least five to ten years in between each rank in the current system, progressing through a system with mor e ranks with less weight seems much less daunting. It also removes the financial strain, as the payment to participate in kyomi dance matches is considerably smaller than the 1,000,000 yen fee of nihon buyo promotion. Considering that students of

PAGE 25

! %! nihon b uyo typically perform once a year, this suggestion has some validity but will not likely to occur without branching off from the main nihon buyo schools as the practice of nihon buyo is centered more around the art of dance and narrative rather than adva ncement through the ranks These ranks exist only to reflect the level of mastery of the dancer, not as a means of competition. A talented dancer may excel in nihon buyo but will not advance if he or she does not fully understand what he or she is danci ng or how to participate in the dance community Reform, or lack thereof, is another issue for the iemoto system as a whole. Though nihon buyo and the form of the iemoto system of today are surprisingly young in terms of t raditional arts, this hierarchy and the dances it passes on have become more set than dynamic. In the case of change to the iemoto hierarchy or change in the choreography of the dances, ryuu differ in opinion and therefore in structure. For instance, while the Fujima ryuu and the Hana kawa ryuu keep the tradition of the iemoto always being male, the Tachibana ryuu currently has a female iemoto In terms of choreography, the Hanayagi ryuu permits regional sensei to choreograph their own dances as well as make adjustments to existing cla ssics. The Fujima ryuu on the other hand, does not allow the choreography of the classics to be altered with the exception of accommodating students with specific needs. For example, sensei teaching small children may simplify a dance if a student is ha ving difficulty understanding it. However, even the iemoto of the Fujima ryuu may not significantly alter an existing dance or choreograph a new one. In the following chapters I will review the lite rature I ha ve read on the subject of sensei /student re lationships and how they are manifested in nihon buyo Similar

PAGE 26

! %$ relationships in other traditional arts will also be explored, as there are works that convey the same central idea in areas such as pottery and martial arts. I will also focus on material co ncerning the history of nihon buyo with the aim of situating nihon buyo as a younger tradition, and showing how nihon buyo was able to ride on the age and tradition of the much older kabuki from which its danc es are derived. Throughout I will focus on t he evolution of the sensei /student relationship over time and how the association of ryuu and family arose. I will then bring in my own fieldwork showing this relationship in several examples from rural Toyama prefecture. Using participant observation a nd interviewing techniques, as well as comparing my fieldwork to that of others, I will describe the various forms that this relationship can take. F inally, I will conclude by disc ussing how nihon buyo has and has not change d leading the reader into the related fields of shin buyo and soseki buyo

PAGE 27

! %% CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW What follows is a rev iew of some of the literature I ha ve read while researching the relationship between sensei and apprentice in nihon buyo and the Japanese traditional arts in general. Though some of the sources are more relevant than others, I feel that every source reviewed here reflects either important information about nihon buyo and it s history or hierarchy, the relationship of sensei and student or the iemoto hi erarchy elsewhere. I have taken care to include both Japanese and non Japanese authors with a variety of experiences, both successful and unsuccessful in their endeavors to study the traditional arts. This way the successful scenario is not the only exp erience examined in this study. I hav e provided information about each author's background, where he or she stands in relation to understanding Japanese dance or culture and a general summary of his or her work as a whole and why I've decided to include it in my research. Dance of Japan by Asuda Ma suno, is a very short, poorly translated book, but a good starting point for my research. This was the first book I received from Interlibrary Loan, and therefore the first book I read. It described five t ypes of dance: Kagura (sacred music or dance), Bugaku (court dance imported from China), Noh Kabuki "modern" Japanese dance, and Minnyo (folk dance) and the ir basic histories (1958:1). Considering this book was written in 1955, before the New Dance Move ment in Japan during which nihon buyo was deeply examined, the description of "modern" dance wasn't really relevant, though it was an interesting look into perception s of dance in Japan during the post war period However, as every other dance style descr ibed is more than 300 years old, the book was still relevant

PAGE 28

! %& (1955:21). The iemoto system describing dance schools was also discussed. I noted that Masuno recognized ten ryuu as the "main" ryuu in this description: Ichikawa, Bando, Nakamura, Nishikawa, S higayama, Saruwaka, Mizuki, Wakayagi, Hanayagi, and Fujima (1955:42). The ryuu that are co nsidered "main" vary from author to author which is the reason I include them here. The reader is told in the preface that Masuno belongs to one of these dance s chools, although it is never mentioned which. This is strange, as in order to join the iemoto system, one must receive a specific dance name from the ryuu 's head, including the ryuu 's name. Still, Masuno's descriptions of specific nihon buyo dances show that she possessed considerable knowled ge. H er descriptions of Fuji Musume ("Wisteria Maiden") and Dojoji particularly helped to supplement my fieldwork, as both were dances discussed by participants in my study. She also briefly compared Japanese da nce with Western dance in terms of the body, explaining that while Western dancers give the dance up as they age, Japanese dancers are considered to be more skilled as they age. The subject of the body in nihon buyo turned out to be a common theme among m y sources. Eiry! Ashihara, known for promoting and analyzing ballet in Japan is considered a scholar within the dance world T herefore he provided a different viewpoint on nihon buyo in The Japanese Dance (1964). Ashih ara makes some useful comparisons between ni hon buyo and ballet, and subsequently, Eastern and Western dance. The two are often compared because of the agility and spatial aw areness required but, according to Ashih ara, it is nihon buyo 's strong narrative ability which separates it from ballet. Ea ch phrase in nihon buyo represents an action, such as

PAGE 29

! %' weeping, while ballet's individual phrases lack this sort of meaning. A shihara likens ballet's phrasing to phonemes, leading the reader to understand nihon buyo 's phrasing as being similar to morphemes in the language of dance. Paradoxally, Ashikara also argues that one cannot simply break a nihon buyo dance into individual parts, although this may be a reference to the manner in which the dance is taught without explanation to the student. The majori ty of The Japanese Dance is committed to explaining the history of nihon buyo and kabuki dance in general, beginning with the origin myth of a dancer enticing the sun goddess Amaterasu to leave the cave in which she'd been hiding and ending with the New Da nce Mo vement that was underway during the writing of this book in the 1960s Ashikara goes on to describe themes, costumes, props, and stage setup of kabuki and kabuki dance, exploring the gender roles of the dancers themselves. It is interesting to note that not only was the first kabuki performed by only women, but that these women subsequently had to imitate men. Due to the potential for promiscuity, women eventually were banned from kabuki to be replaced by young men, and finally by the adult men wh o perform the art today. When nihon buyo was developed using kabuki dances performed by women, the critique was made that women were not suited to dance these roles, even though they were intended for onnagata or female impersonators. This was because t he onnagata had developed exaggerated methods of imitating women so as to appear more feminine and, as a result, the dances looked ridiculous to Japanese audiences when performed by actual women.

PAGE 30

! %( As me ntioned earlier, Gary DeCoker provides a generalized explanation of the learning process of the Japanese traditional arts in "Seven Characteristics of a Traditiona l Japanese Approach to Learning (1998) While I feel that each traditional Japanese art is different, I have noticed the similarities DeCoker di scusses in my personal studies of the traditional Japanese arts. He lists seven cha racteristics, which he labels: copying the model, discipline, master disciple relationship, secrets/stages/and the hierarchy of study, established lineages, nonverbal commu nication, and art as a spiritual quest (1998:69 70). "Copying the model" refers to the examples, rather than explanations, that sensei use in instruction. In the case of nihon buyo while there are common move combinations, these are never shown as such, nor are there any warm up exercises at the beginning of a lesson. Instead, the sensei just begins to teach a dance and, as the student builds his or her repertoire, he or she comes to realize the commonalities. The characteristic of "discipline" is self explanatory. This thesis focuses specifically on the "master disciple" relationship, as a student of a traditional art is more committed to in depth study of that art than viewing it as a hobby. In exploring that art, the student needs a guide, and the sensei is his or her guide, allowing this relationship to deepen. This naturally ties in with the concept of stages" of study and secrets dancers learn as they progress through these stages. "Established lineages" refers to the iemoto system, to which a ny long term student of an art inevitably feels connected through study. The characteristic of "nonverbal communication" is actually an aspect of the "master disciple relationship," as the bond between master and disciple is deepened by the fact that they do not require verbal communication. I will explore that concept later with my review of

PAGE 31

! %) Sensational Knowledge: Embodying Culture through Japanese Dance (Hahn: 2007) The final characteristic, "art as a spiritual quest," also ties into the "master disci ple relationship" with the concept of the sensei as a guide for the student to learn not only about the art, but also about his or her self in the context of performing that art. Since this is just an article, Gary DeCoker does not give the reader much in the way of personal background beyond the fact that he studied several traditional Japanese arts as a form of religion in a controlled setting. Among these are the martial arts, which DeCoker mentions often enough to imply that perhaps he learned the m ost through his experience in that study. An observation he made piqued my interest: "From the student's point of view, the teacher's level may appear unreachable. But, according to my teacher, all that separates the teacher from the students is a few ye ars of study. (1998:74). As I mentioned before this notion did not fit immediately into the model I had While I had noticed from my own st udy in the martial arts that it i s clear the sensei is also a student, I did not feel that the nihon buyo sensei f it this description. In the martial arts, inevitably one's dojo travels and the members meet their sensei 's sensei see their sensei behave respectfully to that sensei hear their sensei express doubts and confusions about advanced topics. In my case, wh ere my martial arts sensei is the same age as myself, this is especially plausible. However, nihon buyo is taught "one on one." Thus, the student has no frame of reference outside his or her own study until he or she goes to group performances and meets others. If the study occurs at a dance studio, this is less isolated, but often lessons are held in a section of a sensei 's house or place of business. Either way, the sensei is always giving les sons, never receiving them. With regard to my own sensei it wasn't

PAGE 32

! %* until I did my research that I met her sensei and realized that she was still studying. Nihon buyo sensei seldom express their doubts about advanced concepts because the concepts to which a student is exposed are so controlled. If a topic is so advanced the sensei is having issues with it, that topic isn't mentioned to the student. However, upon closer inspection, this idea still holds true for nihon buyo It's just more hidden than in the case of the martial arts. Buyo: The Classical Dance i s an extensive history of traditional dance in Japan, including the history of the iemoto system in dance, its associated schools, and the birth of nihon buyo itself. Masakatsu Gunji (1970) makes it a point to deconstruct the concept of nihon buyo as "tra dition," arguing that "tradition" is too easily assigned to the arts in Japan. Nihon buyo broken down into its individual kanji is (Japan) (dance). pronounced "mai" on its own, refers to a flowing, refined, and constrained style of dance perform ed on tatami at banquets. pronounced "odori," refers to the leaping style of dance favored in a laid back, rural setting. Their combination into buyo didn't occur until around 1912 26, around the same time nihon buyo became distinct from kabuki (1970: 74). Therefore, while kabuki is more than 300 years old, nihon buyo is b arely 100 years old. Guji says this is important to note because he feels that creativity has been restricted on the grounds of preserving old dances and preventing new choreography. This is an appropriate argument at the end of th e New Dance Movement, which argue d for new choreography in the kabuki dance world. It is even more appropriate coming from Masakatsu Gunji, who is the 15 th generation iemoto of the Shigayama ryuu the olde st school of Japanese dance (1970:183).

PAGE 33

! %+ In "Learning to be an Apprentice," Bill Haase (1998) describes his experience as an uchi deshi or live in apprentice in a pottery studio in Japan. Since the article is only relevant from the perspective of unde rstanding the master disciple relationship, I will only review what his experience showed me. It appeared that Haase was not a very successful apprentice, as he constantly spoke of failure and anger from his sensei Though it is true that the life of an uchi deshi is not easy, and the rules are never formally stated, he ultimately gave up and left after only 13 months of study. While that is unfortunate for him, it is useful in determining some key differences between the concept of an apprentice in the United States versus the concept of an apprentice in Japan. First, Haase noted that he had to learn how to be an apprentice, as the Japanese expectations were far more intense than he had previously expected. For instance, Haase would leave the studio wh en the others did, to take walks or relax. This bothered his sensei who expected him to spend every free moment at the potter's wheel. Haase noted as well that even with years of art school and ceramics behind him, the first thing he learned was that he knew nothing, as the sensei had his own way of working and running his studio. In order to be a successful apprentice, Haase had to trust his sensei and work exceptionally hard. While the master disciple relationship isn't always this strict, when the a pprentice lives with h is or her master the study intensifies. As a normal apprentice, the art is not a hobby, but it isn't a full day's work either. As an uchi deshi however, every moment possible must be devoted to the art in question. My research dre w upon two works from performer and ethnolo gist Tomie Hahn. The first an article titled "Singing a Dance: Navigating the Musical

PAGE 34

! %, Soundscape in Nihon Buyo (2001 2) focuses on oral transmission of knowledge observed during the nihon buyo lessons of the i emoto of the Tachibana ryuu Yoshie Tachibana, and the soke or founder of that ryuu Hiroyo Tachibana at their headquarters in Tok yo (Hahn: 2001 2: 61). Because Hahn has been studying nihon buyo since age four, she is able to successfully portray the exp erience of practicing nihon buyo for those who are not aware of this type of language used with dance (2001 2:61). There are several levels of transmission occurring nearly simultaneously during dance practice. These are broken down to recreate the dance r's experience of the music in a way that is surprisingly accurate considering that this article is a printed source without any audio demonstration. This phenomenon, Hahn says, is a sort of "metalanguage" developed specifically for instruction to make th e student aware of the complex nature of nihon buyo music (2001 2: 61). This "metalanguage" covers the lyrics, instrumental cues, the rhythm of the instruments, and the instructional cues for teaching the dancer. To enhance the narrative elements for th e dancer, t ransmission of the lyrics and instructional cues occur s along with the music. Since nihon buyo music is usually derived from kabuki plays, it usually involves a narrative told through song, costume, setting and of course, dance. These cues he lp to give the dancer a sense of his or her role. The instrumental cues and rhythms, when vocalized in place of the recorded music also give the sensei a better ability to control time and tempo. Listening to and dancing to these cues instead of to the recorded music requires the student to adjust to new and different renditions of the song rather than memorizing the tape recorded version used in practices. While performances usually use that same music, this

PAGE 35

! &! prepares the student for the possibility of one day dancing to live music, which may not even be rehe arsed with the same players as i n the actual performance itself (2001 2: 71). The name of furi ," or large memorized phrase s of movement, can also be called out during a student's lesson to help him or her anticipate the movements involved. However, furi are not always the same from dance to dance, so observation of the sensei by the apprentice is still crucial (2001 2: 62). Sometimes narrative phrases are added by the sensei to make the dancer awa re of his or her surroundings during the performance. The dancer will, in turn, act on these cues. Though the cues are omitted in the actual performance, their addi tion in the practices enable student s to "hear" the sensei 's voice whenever they dance the piece. Hahn says, this "carries a depth which their dancing and teaching embody movements that emanate from within the complex musical structure and exist as embodied cultural knowledge" (2001 2: 65). This is also done with narrative lyrics, in the ch aracter of the dancer him or herself in this piece. When hearing the sound of a female, the dancer will dance in a more feminine manner, while the gruff sound of a man will cause the dancer to dance in a more masculine manner. This helps with dances such as Mitsumen Komori ," in which the dancer is required to code switch between male and female folk characters as a little girl plays with masks that represent them. Because the dancer must be distant and still within these characters of varying gender, he aring and being able to imitate these voices helps the dancer's movements represent the whole situation of both character and little girl playing that character (2001 2: 63 64). The second work of Tomie Hahn that I examined, Sensational Knowledge: Embody ing Culture Through Japanese Dance (2007) was published six years later

PAGE 36

! &$ Hahn based her study of "Hatchobori" the Tachibana ryuu headquarters, on "transmission" between sensei and student and the "embodied learning" that resulted. The latter concept is b ased around sensory ethnograp hy, as Hahn emphasizes the less than straightforward methods of studying nihon buyo using all of the senses. This can be accomplished because of the close bond between sensei and student, created much in the way the close bond between a parent and child is formed. Hahn notes that the student mimics the sensei to a degree, acquiring the sensei' s "presence" ultimately in the same way children develop behaviors from parents. In addition to this, each phrase of a dance is taught without overt direction by using tactile cues, gestured visual cues, and verbal cues in the sensei 's singing the music The moves that are common between dances are only learned with experiencing more dances rather than explained, making this process not unlike a child learning new vocabular y. Though there is a firm concept of right and wrong in dance, the reason an action is wron g is never explained, but worked through. In this way, the fee ling of a dance is "transmitted rather than taught. Hahn studi ed students of all levels at Hatchobori. They came from many walks of life, including but not limited to college students, teachers, aerobics instructors, geisha housewives, and actresses (2007:31 32). The research was done by participant observation, v ideo recording, and interview. Hatchobori is home to the Tachibana school's iemoto with whom all the students took lessons. The soke was also present, a situation similar to my own research when I had both a sensei and an osensei present, albeit Hahn's study is much higher up in the hierarchy. Hahn herself is also higher on the hierarchy, as she is a nator i ; she has taken the dance name Samie

PAGE 37

! &% Tachibana with her initiation formally into the Tachibana ryuu (2007:12). Although she ha s been studying nihon buyo since childhood, all but one year of her study was done in New York, making Hahn's experience particularly inter esting. She places importance o n her appearance as hal f Japanese and half German as an aspect of her experience, about which I ha ve mixed feelings. While I have found that looking more foreign does change the way one is perceived in Japan, the fact remains that Hahn was born and raised in the United States, which m ight make this experience less peculiar than she feels it to be. At any rate the author describes the Tachibana school to be somewhat open minded, subtly changing choreography from time to time and allowing students of other schools to take lessons at Hatchobori. Despite the title, anthropologist Francis L. K. Hsu's, Iemoto: T he Heart of Japan (1975) proved to be less useful than I originally anticipated, although it does provide some good basic description and was widely cited for that purpose by other sources I read. The book is based on Hsu's comparisons of relationships in Chinese, Japanese, and Western cultures with the iemoto system as a supp osed focus. There is a strong emphasis on kinship, and it is true that the iemoto system is based on kinship in some fashion, but Hsu does not make many overt connections between the se kinship discussions and the iemoto system. He does note, however, that the kinship provided by the "adoption" of heirs in the iemoto system is not fictitious in nature, an argument I a gree with due to the strength of the bond between sensei and student although I am not sure how this relates to all iemoto systems (1975:39). Hsu also describes the iemoto system as a corporation, explaining that each member works with rather than in competition with other members in terms of business and recruiting new

PAGE 38

! && members in the form of students. To a degree, this seems accurate, although it is more businesslike than other views Even within the kinship aspect, the concept of a "family business" c omes to mind and makes this interpretation seem valid. Chikako Ka shino's Continuity in Discontinuity" in Nihon Buyo: Analysis of a Japanese Classical Dance (1991) i s a short and unexpectedly theoretically dense thesis on analyzing the movements of nihon buyo based on the concept of ma ( ). Ma is a difficult concept to explain, as it is the space "in between" moments, actions, and words. I have noticed several authors attempt to explain ma but Chikako Kashino's explanation is the eas iest for me to understand In nihon buyo she argues, the transitions between phrases have meaning, but they are so difficult to notice that meaning is lost to the untrained viewer. Nihon buyo is said to have no logical sequence of time, but, rather, shows scenes that may or may not align with the accompanying vocals. While it is true th at many straightforward narrative dances from kabuki still exist, there are just as many abstract songs whose lyrics are filled with double meanings and may be accompanied with visuals that tell of reactions more than the story itself. This is so the view er can feel closer to the performan ce and experience it in a more intimate way. Therefore, the transitions are important but not easy to disc ern. The more Kashino describes the importance of these pauses and interpre ting them, the more I am reminded of t he expression "read between the lines." While I do not claim that ma is that simple, this idea certainly makes it more accessible. As for the author's experience with nihon buyo she explains that she is a student of the Hanayagi ryuu although it is not mentioned whether she has taken a

PAGE 39

! &' name. Kashino is a native Japanese, born and raised in Japan, making her explanations of the Japanese concepts of time and space, though confusing and abstract, more creditable. R egarding the importance of feeling she describes dance in a way that is similar to Hahn. Feeling, Kashino argues, is how one learns a dance, since no aspects of the dance are ever explained to a student. The student must assume a character, but what character and how it behaves is never expli citly explained so that, once the student realizes the part, the acting is genuine. Kashino refers to this method as "institutional ignorance," and she argues that it requires one to trust in his or her sensei in order to figure out the role in the dance. Since the music for nihon buyo uses archaic vocabulary, one is not safe merely by being able to speak Japanese. This is furthered by the nature of kanji in Japanese, which tend to have similar pronunciations with different meanings. Therefore, the same word can mean different things and dual meanings are common in songs and poetry. Barbara Sellers Young's ethnography Teaching Personality With Gracefulness (1993) has a rocky start reminiscent of Haase's article about his uchi deshi experience with a Jap anese potter. Fresh from a two month crash course in nihon buyo in Japan, Sellers Young arrives at Kanriye Fujima's dance studio in Oregon only to find that in interviews, Sensei Fujima" refuses to answer personal questions and finds Sellers Young rude. Sellers Young's book tells of her learning the rules of the master disciple relationship and coming to terms with the lack of control it entails. While Sellers Young was the ethnographer, Sensei Fujima was in charge within the studio, and so the ethnogra pher went from an observer who participates to a participant who observes.

PAGE 40

! &( In the end, Sellers Young is very respectful, and her analysis of her relationship with Sensei Fujima reflects that respect. Since Sellers Young doesn't speak Japanese and lessons are conducted with Japanese cues, she found that the master disciple relationship, when really understood, helps one communicate cross culturally. The study focuses on three Fujima dance studios in Oregon, giving case studies as examples of the variety w ithin the "typical" students. Only one of these represents a natori as in order to take a name one has to meet the iemoto in Japan. Due to the cost and intensity of this experience, only five of Sensei Fujima's students had taken names at the time of th is study. Within the school, Sellers Young notes the balance created by the responsibility of the older, more experienced students to take care of the younger students, many of whom are children. There is mention of the lack of verbal communication neces sary between advanced students and their sensei as they pick up on more subtle cues. She also notes the enclosed nature of nihon buyo performances in that it is usu ally those involved in dance and their friends and families who go to performances. Rob ert T. Smith's "Transmitting Tradition by the Rules: An Anthropological Interpretation of the Iemoto System" (1998) i s a very short and straightforward article discussing the flexibility of the iemoto system in terms of lineage, particularly after the lega l adoption aspect was removed. It was once the case that when someone joined the iemoto system, he or she joined that ie or household, by adoption, regardless of age. There were a variety of reasons for this, some involving the common practice of appren ticeship at an early age (in the form of uchi deshi ) as well as the criteria for a suitable successor. In the case of an art, whether it was performance or production

PAGE 41

! &) based, talent was more important than heredity. If no appropriate successor was availab le, succession could even be suspended until one was born. In this way, no ie ever dies out. While some believe that the iemoto system dilutes "purity" of some forms due to the loose nature in which one may enter the system, Smith clearly states otherwis e. Without the continuation of the iemoto system, Smith argues, many of the Japanese arts might be lost without sufficient family to sustain them. Now that the history of nihon buyo and the construction of the iemoto system have been discuss ed through th is review of the literature, I will share my own fieldwork conducted in the summer of 2011. With these other studies in mind, the experiences of the sensei and students whom I observed and interviewed will be examined to determine how they compare in defi ning the nature of the sensei /student relationship.

PAGE 42

! &* CHAPTER III: PARALLEL KINSHIP My fieldwork was conducted for six weeks during the summer of 2011 in Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture, Japan. As I walked to each engagement through Takaoka's narrow s treets, my senses were treated to an atmosphere unique to Takaoka itself. Erratic drivers followed alternative lanes, disregarding those established to make way for parked cars, speeding cyclists, and pedestrians of all ages. During a rainy day, or somet imes even on a sunny one, it could be hazardous to walk with an umbrella or parasol down the tight residential streets, which, against all odds, managed to squeeze cars traveling in both directions as well as a bike lane that was often interrupted by a poo rly placed telephone pole or mailbox. In neighborhood shops that sold produce and fish, one could hear idle chatter as purchases were made. These voices were usually older and female. Sometimes, the voices of children and their parents from within house s could be heard as one passed. At this point, cicadas had begun to cry out quietly, not yet reaching their full summer volume. Though it was the rainy season, most days were clear, and many young women could be seen with their parasols, attempting to bl ock their skin from the sun even underneath the covered walkways that lead the way to Takaoka station. There were some merchants on that route with whom I always conversed when I passed. The air was hot and humid, warded off by the use of tiny towels car ried in purses and pockets, to wipe sweat from foreheads and to dab at faces. Though air conditioning was available in buildings, many forwent it in their attempts to preserve power i n the face of the controversy over the nuclear power plant on the Noto p eninsula that had been shut down after the crisis in Fukushima caused by the great earthquake of March 11, 2011. Sounds often heard

PAGE 43

! &+ in the more urban areas of Takaoka were those of cars, the chirping of crosswalks to signal the blind, and the sound of fee t or hurried bicycles passing. At night, the city became nearly silent, save for the occasional footsteps and the insects calling softly in the air. With the rusted roofs and the overgrown vegetation on the side s of traditional style houses, along with t he mixed fragrances of cooked food and raw fish in the air, Takaoka has always had a rustic sort of beauty in my eyes. It was in this atmosphere that I had learned Japanese and studied nihon buyo in the past, wh ich lead to my decision to do research on the sensei /student relationship in this same location. From 2005 2006, I studied nihon buyo under Kaoru Fujima in Takaoka 22 Though I have not been able to keep up with my studies due to the lack of a sensei in my area, Fujima sensei and I continue d to write to each other. Even through email, our relationship has remained fairly formal. 23 Yet from this distance, Fujima sensei continues to teach me what she can about nihon buyo Whenever she has a performance, she sends me a DVD of both her and her students' dances. It was primarily through my contact with Fujima sensei that I was able to complete my research. I observed the practices of four adults, five high school students, and two children. Of the adults, one was a natori who was about to be tested f or shihan These practices were conducted by two sensei and two osensei I !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 22 Kaoru Fujima is the dance name of Akiho Aikawa. I have been given permission by all of my participants to use real names, including dance names and legal names 23 This is accomplished through the usage of teinei or the polite form of Japanese speech. Japanese has at least five distinct levels of formality expressed through vocabulary and styles of verb conjugation.

PAGE 44

! &, interviewed six of the eight informants. 24 The interv iews were conducted in Japanese and translated by me into English. Transcriptions of these interviews can be found in the int erview appendix. 25 Though I would have liked to expand my project further, the number of young sensei (under age 50) in Takaoka is rather low, and Fujima sensei worried that older sensei might not feel comfortable talking to me. 26 In addition to this, one of the participants who agreed to be interview ed could not be reached after our first meeting, and another changed her mind at the last minute. All of the participants in this research were women. The ages of those observed ranged from age six to 56. Ev eryone with whom I spoke had different reasons for studying nihon buyo which will be explored later in this chapter. All of the women I interviewed were Japanese. Though I've been told in more urban settings that men are more active in nihon buyo I've also been told that many men are turned off by nihon buyo 's feminine qualities. Therefore, the number of men practicing nihon buyo in rural areas such as Takaoka is quite low. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 24 My IRB paperwork did not originally include children and thus children were not interviewed. Those under age 20 are considered children in Japan. After consulting with my advisor, I observed the practices of the high school students and the children, but did not formally interview them. My obse rvations are included in this chapter. 25 It should be noted that the Japanese in which the interviews were conducted deviated slightly from standard Japanese, which is common in areas outside of Tokyo, particularly in mountainous regions such as Toyama. T o acknowledge this, I've changed the translated English whenever English equivalents were available. 26 This may be due to the fact that Takaoka is a small town with a relatively low non Japanese population. Although during my recent research the people o f Takaoka were relatively warm and helpful, I do remember people being afraid to talk to me during my first visit. I have been told that this may be due to a fear that I won't be able to understand Japanese and that English may be necessary. I've also be en told that this is a common problem in rural Japan for people who do not look Japanese.

PAGE 45

! '! I am an American woman and at the time of this research I was 22 years old. Though I had lived in Takaoka for a year when I was 16 and returned once thereafter, about six years had passed since I had lived in Takaoka. Because I had only studied nihon buyo officially for a year, I was an unranked deshi in the iemoto hierarchy. D uring my stay in 2005 06, I had performed four times in nihon buyo with the last performance being featured on local television. I mention this because one of the sensei I interviewed, Kiku Hanakawa had seen this performance and remembered me from it. This helped establish my role as a student of nihon buyo in addition to that of a researcher. Because of this student role, I was already equipped with the proper terms for the research, was familiar with the system of respect used in interaction with a s ensei and was taught the sort of things that, as Fujima sensei phrased it, are "not found in a book." However, this also worked against me in the beginning because my key informant was my sensei Even if I was not paying for lessons at the time, once the roles of sensei and apprentice were established between Fujima sensei and myself, they were nearly impossible to shed. Furthermore, since I still intend to continue my study of nihon buyo as far as Fujima sensei was concerned I was still her apprenti ce. While this made my experience very educational in my studies of both anthropology and nihon buyo there was an issue of reputat ion that caused anxiety for Fujima sensei and, subsequently, for me In being introduced to a sensei and osensei there is a strict etiquette that one must follow. Since it had been six years since I had followed this etiquette, at first my performance was clumsy. Fujima sensei helped refresh my skills, but that I had forgotten them made her start to doubt other aspects of t he research as

PAGE 46

! '$ well, namely, my ability to understand what was being said. Nihon buyo though not as old as assumed, is an older traditional art that uses traditional Japanese terms. In my first meeting with a sensei in this case, Hanakawa sensei every time Hanakawa sensei would answer a question of mine, Fujima sensei would then "translate" that answer into simplified Japanese. Though I didn't want Hanakawa sensei to think that I didn't understand her, in the context of being introduced, I was unable to clarify that I didn't need this service without showing disrespect towards Fujima sensei Luckily, when Hanakawa sensei 's student arrived for the practice I was to observe, Fujima sensei left. However, she was so worried that I didn't understand and t herefore would misrepresent what I was being told that she emailed me requesting that I give her a report on what had occurred or she would not introduce me to any other sensei I decided to translate my notes in response to this. 27 This allowed her to co rrect any problems I had and helped her to realize that I was able to understand what had been said. This issue of reputation is interesting because it shows in Fujima sensei and my relationship something I was never able to formally ask while interviewin g. This is due to my failure to find the proper phrasing of the question "How does your apprentice's reputation affect your own?" in Japanese. I attempted this question in all of my interviews but the people I interviewed never understood what, exactly, I !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 27 I find it is easier to take notes in a language other than the one I am speaking. This is not to keep the notes from the informants, but rather to save time. Thou gh Japanese takes less time to write, if I take notes in my own Japanese shorthand, I run the risk of being corrected on minor grammatical mistakes, which is distracting from the fieldwork itself.

PAGE 47

! '% wanted to know. 28 Yet reputat ion has always been a factor in my relationship with Kaoru Fujima. I was her first, and so far, only non Japanese apprentice. Fujima sensei does not speak English, and though in my first lessons with her she tried to accom modate my lack of Japanese, she has since been my most harsh judge in terms of my Japanese and understanding of Japanese culture. 29 Whenever she and I have met someone at a performance, she never spoke ill of my dancing ability, but found no issues with at tacking my skills in respect to Japanese or Japanese etiquette prior to our first lesson together. This may sound odd at first, as her primary job was to teach me nihon buyo rather than language or culture. However, in my interviews and observations I h ave found that, even for Japanese students, studying proper dress and etiquette are a part of studying nihon buyo This is not surprising, considering the decline of kimono wear o n formal occasions and yukata wear in festivals. 30 It is not uncommon for a typical high school student to be unable to tie the bow of the obi (sash), or properly maneuver in a kimono or yukata 31 Therefore, as nihon buyo is a traditional art conducted in this type of dress, it is considered the sensei 's job to educate the apprent ice i n traditional manners beyond dance While interviewing Fujima sensei I asked her ab out this tendency to teach customs along with dance, to which she replied: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 28 Of course, this question was altered for the interviews o f non sensei 29 When I first came to Japan in 2005, I didn't know very much Japanese besides daily ritual terms (such as "I'm home!") and the numbers. 30 Nihon buyo is performed in a variety of kimono and is practiced in yukata the cotton summer version of the kimono 31 This statement is based on my own observations as a high school student in Japan and from my research this summer. It was originally the case for the five high school students I observed in nihon buyo practice as well.

PAGE 48

! '& Between a master and apprentice, the mentoring portion of instruction, mm, in that instruct ion It isn't just technique. In that sort of instruction, you learn, for instance, that you don't wear shoes in the performance area, or how to properly greet someonethose kinds of things that isn't just dance, right? Etiquette such as this? Yeah. A master teaches all this, the behavior etiquette or the etiquette in bowing, if you teach all of these, whenever I think of nihon buyo yeah, for instance"Take this." (She holds up her fan.) "Do this like this." (She gestures with her fan.) It's not only that. Mm. One could say that one can do all of that when they first start studying nihon buyo [without any help.] Mm. But now I think that has meaning when I do it [because the context of these actions was taught by my sensei .] Therefore, Fujima sensei 's apprentices learn not only the dances of nihon buyo but also the manner in which one conducts his or herself as a student of nihon buyo This system of dress, etiquette, and ritual is both taught to the apprentice explicitly and transmitted f rom sensei to apprentice through observation of the sensei 's own behavior during dance practice and other nihon buyo events. From having personally undergone both this transmission and teaching process, I feel that, in many ways, the manner in which an ap prentice absorbs and utilizes his or her sensei 's mannerisms and attitudes in dance is similar to the transmission of manners and mannerisms from parent to child. Specifically, this similarity applies to the unspoken manner in which these rules and ritual s are transmitted, relying heavily on what is called minnarai or "learning by observation." 32 In this way, much as a child might develop similar habits and attitudes as those transmitted by his or her parent, an apprentice not only borrows from his or her sensei 's personal flair when performing, but will also likely hold the art of nihon buyo in a focus similar to his or her sensei If a sensei takes a lighthearted approach to nihon buyo his or her apprentice is likely to !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 32 The kanji for minn arai or are (to see) and (to learn), making this translation quite literal.

PAGE 49

! '' do the same. Likewise, if a sen sei is strict and formal in his or her approach to nihon buyo that sensei 's apprentice will treat nihon buyo in a similar matter. If this does not coincide with the apprentice's desire for the experience of learning nihon buyo depending on that apprenti ce's experience with the nihon buyo world as a whole and whether or not he or she has met a sensei whose habits are more fitting to his or her desired experience, that apprentice would either switch sensei or stop studying nihon buyo al together. S imilarit y in attitude is an important factor on which to focus when examining the cases of the sensei /student relationship I will present, because there is a definite corelation between the sensei 's approach and the apprentice's attitude towards dance. This is, o f course, adjusted to meet the apprentice's needs depending on the reason he or she is studying nihon buyo in the first place. The process of naming is another element transmitted from sensei to apprentice that is similar to that between parent and child. When a deshi is being prepared to be promoted as a natori the first thing discussed between that deshi and his or her sensei is what name he or she will take. Of course, the deshi will take the surname of the sensei which is typically the name of the ryuu to which the sensei belongs. From that point, a kanji would be taken from the sensei 's stage name and combined with a kanji from the deshi 's legal name, forming the deshi 's given stage name. This process can be observed in my charts of the Hanakawa genealogy ( Figure 3 ) and the Fujima genealogy ( Figures 3 and 4 ). In the case of the Hanakawa chart, which extends further than the Fujima chart, one can see how one or both characters of a sensei 's name can be passed down through several generations with this method. This furthers the bond between sensei and natori as the natori carries part of his or her sensei with

PAGE 50

! '( his or her new identity in the nihon buyo world. Likewise, the sensei has the final say in the natori 's naming, and therefore pa rt of his or her identity in nihon buyo Of course, as in the case with Kaoru Fujima, sometimes a natori can request to have a specific name unrelated to his or her sensei 's name or legal name, but the aforementioned method is more the norm.

PAGE 51

! ')

PAGE 52

! '* Sometimes this process can be taken further when a particularly revered sensei or osensei passes away. A case such as this can be seen with the Fujima genealogy presented here. The first chart is the Fujima family as it was when Kaoru Fujima was a natori At th at point her sensei Kantoe Fujima I was an osensei teaching five apprentices of varying levels. Her biological daughter and highest ranking apprentice, Hirofumiyu Fujima, was a sensei as well, but had no natori students at that time. By the time Kaoru sensei became a shihan Kantoe Fujima I had passed away, leaving Hirofumiyu sensei her name, her apprentices, and therefore her rank. The second chart represents the Fujima family after the death of Kantoe Fujima I. After her mother's death, Hirofumiyu sensei retired her name and became Kantoe Fujima II, taking all of her former siblings in nihon buyo as apprentices. In my observation of Kaoru sensei and Asato Fujima's interactions with the current Kantoe sensei though they know that her capabilities a re not the same as her mother's, they show her the same respect they would have shown Kantoe Fujima I. This inheritance of identity with the inheritance of a name is not unusual, as these stage names function as separate identities for performers separate d by the physical boundaries of the practice area as well as the social boundaries of nihon buyo events, interaction in the context of nihon buyo with fellow performers and sensei and doing work on behalf of a nihon buyo sensei However, it should be not ed that though Kantoe Fujima II inherited her mother's rank in inheriting her shihan and sensei level students, neither Kaoru sensei nor Asato Fujima refer to Kantoe Fujima II as "Kantoe osensei ." However, Asato Fujima does consider Kantoe sensei "like a parent," though it should also be noted that the difference in age between Asato and many of her other siblings in nihon buyo

PAGE 53

! '+ is such that she doesn't see them as her siblings at all. Therefore, the transition from Hirofumiyu sensei as her "sister" in ter ms of dance to Kantoe Fujima II as her sensei might have been smoother than it was for the elder apprentices of Kantoe Fujima I, such as Kaoru sensei THE FUJIMA RYUU GENEOLOGY (BEFORE THE DEATH OF KANTOE FUJIMA I) Figure 3 : This is the Fujima family tre e while Kantoe Fujima I was still alive. At this time, Kaoru Fujima was only a natori Here, Hirofumiyu Fujima, Kantoe Fujima II's original dance name, is used. /012345! 678"91: /;"<4=79">7! 678"91:!! /?@"<45! 678"91:! /014<7! 678"91:! /AB"B"<45! 678"91:! /?C134! 678"91:!

PAGE 54

! ', THE CURRENT FUJIMA RYUU GENEOLOGY Figure 4 : This is the Fujima family tree as of July, 2011, after Kantoe Fujima I's passing. Note that Kantoe Fujima II inherited Kantoe Fujima I's apprentices as well as her name, giving Kantoe Fujima II the rank of osensei The final manner in which this transmission of knowledge and custom be tween sensei and apprentice resembles that of a parent and child is the encompassing nature of the knowledge transmitted. This aspect is one of the primary differences between the relationship between a sensei and an apprentice and that of a regular teach er and student. While a regular dance teacher might provide some sort of context for the dance he or she teaches, this teaching stops at the end of the dance class, with the student having learned only the technique. On the other hand, a nihon buyo sense i teaches not only technique alone, but also the vocabulary of the style, the rituals of bowing in and out, the proper dressing habits, and the history of the dance and the style. In addition to this, while the student of a regular dance teacher is expect ed to /012345!678"91: /012345!678"91!DD:!! /?@"<45!678"91:! /014<7!678"91:! /AB"B"<45!678"91:! /?C134!678"91:!

PAGE 55

! (! remember the moves and feel of a dance, the apprentice of a nihon buyo sensei is expected to follow the rules of the style, showing respect for those higher in the iemoto hierarchy than he or she when interacting in a nihon buyo context, regardles s o f his or her place outside the nihon buyo world. Though respect is paid to the elderly, elderly students must respect their superiors regardless of age. Throughout this, the sensei acts as a guide for the apprentice to gauge the proper manner in which on e behaves to a superior depending on the situation, in the same way that a parent is a child's guide to behaving properly in the presence of those "ranked" higher in everyday experiences. If an apprentice fails to behave appropriately, as I have personall y experienced, the sensei will correct him or her and apologize on his or her behalf. In this way, the sensei takes responsibility for teaching that apprentice these rules and rituals much in the way that a parent takes responsibility to teach his or her child. Therefore, it is not surprising that long term apprentices describe their sensei as being "like parents." I noticed that whenever this particular phrase was used, it was never worded as "a sensei is like a mother," but rather "a sensei is like a parent." Kie Hanakawa, a shihan who n I interviewed, told me that this was because she "still had parents," meaning that her sensei respected that she still had biological parents and had no desire to intr ude on their territory However, Kie's sensei did bring her places, teach her the vocabulary of nihon buyo and save her when she needed help, bringing her sensei into the guiding role of a parent in terms of nihon buyo This was furthered by the fact that Kie had been studying with her sensei from an ea rly age, meaning that

PAGE 56

! ( $ her sensei watched her grow both in nihon buyo and in life, forming what Kie described as a close bond between them. Though I was aware of this bond through my own experience with Kaoru Fujima as my sensei when I initially studied w ith her as both someone new to nihon buyo and Japanese culture itself, I wasn't able to phrase at first why the bond between sensei and apprentice was different from that of a typical teacher and student. For several weeks, I observed nihon buyo practices and conversed with Hanakawa sensei and Kaoru Fujima sensei at length without being able to adequately describe why this relationship was different. This issue originally arose when I realized that I was having difficulty explaining what I was really rese arching. Though I said that my research was not focused on nihon buyo itself as much as it was about the relationship between sensei and student, no one within the world of nihon buyo could understand why I was interested in such a relationship. I attemp ted to explain it with the image of the strict and sometimes confusing sensei that I discussed in my introduction, an image that is inaccurate, but has some truth to it. However, this was immediately shot down with claims that though nihon buyo once had a pprentices such as uchi deshi who lived with their sensei and learned art through everyday acts, this sort of learning was no longer widely practiced. I knew this as well, but I still felt that there was more to this relationship than just learning dance Attempting to unearth this difference I used the question "How is a master different from a teacher?" This question yielded several interesting points about the difference between a shishou or master, and a sensei but what I didn't realize was that linguistically speaking, that was not the question I was really asking.

PAGE 57

! (% A shishou is not so much a rank as it is a status. Once reaching the rank of shihan one has the ability to become a sensei by taking an apprentice. As that sensei trains his or h er apprentice, if the apprentice becomes a shihan and then takes an apprentice as well, his or her sensei becomes an osensei As I mentioned in my introduction, it is assumed that osesnsei are more advanced in their practice not only because of the greate r amount of experience, but also because he or she was able to train an apprentice to the point of becoming a sensei In a sense, because of this level of skill, the term osensei is sometimes translated as "master." A shishou however, while also meani ng master, is something different entirely. One can study nihon buyo for a lifetime without reaching the status of a shishou The kanji for shishou are meaning "expert," or "teacher" and meaning "artisan." Therefore, while an osensei may be conside red a master in rank, a shishou is a true master of the art itself. From what I have heard from Kaoru sensei and the current Kantoe sensei Kantoe Fujima I was a true shishou Not only was she gifted in dance, but she also worked hard to improve her unde rstanding of nihon buyo throughout her lifetime. Her daughter, the current Kantoe sensei told me that she no longer believes that shishou exist anymore, because people don't really have the time to devote their whole lives to understanding an art as a sh ishou does.

PAGE 58

! (& Though this was useful to my understanding of the term that, according to Kaoru sensei was used in the way that apprentices once addressed their sensei Oshishou san ," it did not answer the question I really wanted to ask. 33 In English, this question, "What is the difference between a sensei and a teacher?" is easy enough to phrase, since in English, the term sensei is assumed to mean more of a master in the sense of shishou rather than a teacher. However, as I have explained the term sensei is used in Japanese both to describe teachers in traditional arts and teachers of lighter material, such as school subjects or hobbies. Therefore, my question had so far gone unanswered due to my poor phrasing, and I began to doubt that there wa s really such significance in this relationship at all. My doubts faded, however, with my first real interview with an apprentice. Though all sensei are apprentices to someone higher, until this point in my research, I had only interviewed those who had become sensei namely Kiku Hanakawa sensei and the current Kantoe Fujima se n s ei Though I interviewed natori whose practice I had observed (Asato Fujima) together with Kantoe sensei she was very quiet throughout the interview and, as I feared, only spoke when Kantoe sensei asked. When she did speak, her remarks weren't very personal, which might have been because this interview took place in front of Kantoe sensei and Kaoru sensei Though Asato and Kaoru sensei are technically "siblings" in the Fujima f amily, as I mentioned earlier, Asato does not consider Kaoru sensei as her sister because of the age difference. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 33 The addition of "o" in front of a noun in Japanese shows honor to that noun. The san suffix avoids redundancy, as theoretically no one can be a shishou without at least becoming a sensei

PAGE 59

! (' Therefore, Asato essentially saved the focus of this research when she offered to speak with me after the dance practice. As we left the st udio of Kantoe sensei at around 8 o'clock on a Saturday night, she asked me if I would like to eat dinner with her. I agreed, and we went to a restaurant specializing in udon located near my hotel. Over dinner, we spoke a little more about my research an d nihon buyo in general, and at that point, I attempted to ask her the question again: what was the difference between a sensei and a teacher? She told me that she didn't really understand, that Kantoe sensei had answered that already during our interview We ate quietly for several minutes before I realized that there was another way to phrase the question while still avoiding the trickiness of the wide usage of the term sensei ." I remembered that Kantoe sensei had mentioned that Asato studied piano, a Western art that, as far as I knew, would be considered to have a teacher rather than a sensei. So instead I asked her, "You studied piano, right? What is the difference between your relationship with your piano teacher and your relationship with your n ihon buyo sensei ?" She replied, "In piano, I study as a student, whereas in nihon buyo I am an apprentice. Piano is my hobby." Realizing that I had approached the original question from the wrong angle, I then asked, "So then, what is the difference be tween a student and an apprentice?" From this point, Asato began to explain how her piano sessions had a set time to begin and end, involving only the study of piano and perhaps some chit chat between herself and her piano teacher. In nihon buyo however there were expectations of her as a person made by her sensei involving more than just dance. If she failed to properly perform, she said, her sensei would become concerned, and so she felt pressure to make her sensei proud. She even confided that thou gh she didn't

PAGE 60

! (( personally want to become a sensei after reaching her shihan rank, she didn't want to tell Kantoe sensei this for fear that it might change her sensei 's opinion of her, and therefore the nature of her dance practices. In this way, Asato told me, Kantoe sensei was "like a parent" in her eyes. T he question "What is the difference between a s tudent and an apprentice?" not only provided an opportunity for informants to talk about their personal relationships with their sensei but it also refl ected their attitudes about the study of nihon buyo If he or she identified with the student, as was the case in my interview with the two unnamed students of Kaoru sensei then it showed nihon buyo to be more of a hobby for them. However, if he or she identified with the apprentice, as was often the case with those who were higher ranked in nihon buyo such as Kie Hanakawa, Asato Fujima, or any of the sensei this showed more of a dedication to the study of nihon buyo itself. As I mentioned before, a v ariety of people study nihon buyo for a varie ty of reasons, and the women I observed and with whom I spoke were diverse in age, attitude, and motive. Even casual students can study nihon buyo intently for many years and dedicated apprentices can still dec ide they would rather not become sensei even if they have the rank. Therefore, I will present several case studies of those I observed and interviewed so that I can illustrate the types of women who study nihon buyo in a rural area such as Takaoka. Kaoru Fujima During the day, Akiho Aikawa works alongside her mother and daughter in her mother's Buddhist shop selling home shrines, religious texts, and prayer beads. She is a graceful but strict woman in her mid forties with long brown hair that she always

PAGE 61

! () keeps tied up in a loose bun at the back of her head. Though she dresses in jeans and dress shirts at her day job, her stance always seems more natural in kimono which she dons at around 5 o'clock for her afternoon nihon buyo practices held in the buildi ng's second story. Through the side entrance behind the counter, up the narrow staircase and through the door on the right, she has her studio, divided by paper screens, and lined with dressers filled with costumes, clutters of props in the corner, and a full length mirror facing the entrance. Here, she teaches her apprentices the proper way to dress in kimono The floor is a smooth hardwood that is lightly colored, with no distinct line between the visiting area and the practice area, on the far side of the room. The room is well lit, though it goes unheated during the winter. Though in her work downstairs and outside she is Akiho Aikawa; once she climbs those stairs and enters the studio, she becomes Kaoru Fujima, a sensei in nihon buyo Kaoru sensei first started studying nihon buyo at the age of seven, when her grandmother took her to a local sensei to see if she liked it. That sensei who has since left the Fujima ryuu in favor of the Wakayami ryuu was very strict with young Kaoru sensei even st riking her with the fan when she made mistakes. Yet, despite this, Kaoru sensei said that she loved nihon buyo and did not want to stop taking lessons even when advised by her parents: If one doesn't say what he or she is thinking, the apprentice won' t understand, right? Mm, even if it's often said, the apprentice may not understand. Therefore, um, often, uh, a few times, right? I'd go to dance practice and I wouldn't bend my knees or, (She points her right index finger towards the ceiling at an ang le as she speaks.) I wouldn't angle my neck just so, during these occurrences, and (With a motion, she pulls the index finger down to the fan in her obi on her

PAGE 62

! (* left side, removing it as she speaks. 34 She taps the fan against her palm twice gently with t he fan. She holds up her left arm and slaps the fan over her wrist abruptly with the other hand) She would often hit. (She hits her knee, the other hand held parallel and striking her other knee gently.) "Your knees!" (She hits the fan against the knee s again. She holds the fan up to her neck, lining it diagonally with the slope of the neck's right side with her other hand still on her knee.) "Your neck!" She would often call out. It fairly hurt. (She holds out her left arm and taps inside of her e lbow with the fan lightly again.) When it struck me, it hurt a fair bit So, when this happened to me (She moves her hand and fan up to her heart, holding the fan on either end with both hands.) of course it hurt, and I was sad. So when I came back from dance practice? I would just be coming home, and on the way, because I was a child, I would cry. (She holds her empty, curved hands up below her eyes, miming crying.) But when I would get home, because I would still be crying when I returned, I was told, "If it makes you cry that much, stop taking lessons." Mm. My parents, mm, my parents reasoned that, look, "If it makes her cry, forget it. She doesn't have to go." But, even with that, I continued, I wanted to do it. Mm, therefore, I absolutely did not cry in the house. Mm. Even though I was a child. Mm. So, well if I wanted to cry, I would go outside, cry, and return with an energetic "I'm home!" From that point, she continued her study of nihon buyo until graduating from high school, at w hich point Kaoru sensei took a break while attending college. During this break, she married and had children, waiting until the youngest was at least four years old before returning to her study of nihon buyo By this time her former sensei had switche d ryuu and Kaoru sensei feeling loyal to the Fujima ryuu after 13 years of study, decided to switch sensei This led her to study with Kantoe Fujima I, who Kaoru sensei has a tremendous amount of respect for and with whom she received her name. Ten yea rs ago, Kaoru sensei continued her studies by working with the current Kantoe Fujima II, with whom she intends to study for the rest of her life. Though she has two daughter s, neither of them has expressed interest in studying nihon buyo !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 34 An obi is the sash worn at the waist when wearing kimono

PAGE 63

! (+ By 2011, Kaoru sensei had been teaching nihon buyo for about ten years, beginning soon after earning her shihan rank. Though she says that she would rather only teach nihon buyo due to the lack of interest in nihon buyo she is forced to work alongside her mother in th e shop as well. Kaoru sensei believes that this might be because people assume nihon buyo is only for the wealthy and those with strict self discipline: no matter how well you do nihon buyo eh, because it's really a historical art, because it's very pre cious, you'd think that everyone would want to study it, but the idea of nihon buyo in these modern times, well, Japanese things, well, have a "high threshold." A "high threshold" meanit's hard to learn, when people train, they watch, they take part, and they don't base their [opinions] only on this, but, um, once upon a time, a really long time ago it was something that only a rich, actual daughter of a high class family could learn. Mm. Now, um, it's something that a normal elementary schools student could learn. Though I agree with her philosophy that anyone can study nihon buyo with the steep price of taking a name and gaining rank one must be somewhat wealthy to officially enter the iemoto system. Currently Kaoru sensei has six adult apprentices and eight child apprentices. Of these, none have taken a name. Most of these apprentices study nihon buyo in what Kaoru sensei describes as "culture clubs" rather than one on one, as is the traditional method. Since they are taught as a group or in pair s, lessons are less strict and more casual. I observed two lessons taught by Kaoru sensei : a children's lesson taught to a pair of sisters, and an adults' lesson taught to two members of a long standing group. When I asked Kaoru sensei if she was close t o those students she taught in a group, she replied: To say I am close with them, um, how can I put this, if I were to treat them like guests, of course, how can I put this, because it wouldn't do

PAGE 64

! (, for me to show restraint to adults, of course, we couldn't do this if we couldn't have the sort of relationship that allows us to speak as friends, right? Mm. Therefore, also if I think they want to become good at dance, I would expect the apprentices to give it their all, that feeling would be mutual, and, mut ually if nothing was said (She lifts the fan in her right hand.) "This should not be like this." ( She gestures with the fan.) "Like this." (She gestures with the fan slightly altered.) Say what needs to be said, mention when something should be rais ed, of course, we, often to you, because we really want to become good, "This," (She holds up her left hand closed.) "This should be properly raised." (She lifts her left hand into a more proper position.) like that, right? That is, yes, if I think tha t they don't care how they dance, I wouldn't correct them so much, right? Mm. Child deshi I met two of Kaoru sensei 's eight young deshi right before their Saturday afternoon dance practice, when they were dropped off by their mother in front of the Da iwa department store, located just off of Takaoka's main street. They were two sisters, ages nine and 11, already dressed in their yukata Though Kaoru sensei tried to encourage them to practice their English with me by asking me questions about the Unit ed States, neither girl spoke a word. Once we arrived to the reception desk in the back of the store, Kaoru sensei asked both girls to lead me up to the dance studio on the 6 th floor, while she checked her reservation on the room. They complied, leading me to a large room with wooden floors and large mirrors covering two of the walls, similar to a ballet studio. We entered through one of two entrances, both of which had an area to remove one's shoes and lockers for storage. The wall to the far left was comprised mostly of a large window with curtains, which one of the girls closed for the sake of privacy for their lesson. While waiting in awkward silence, the girls arranged their tambourines and umbrellas used for the dance. Finally, Kaoru sensei enter ed the room as well, accompanied by the girls' mother, and the practice began

PAGE 65

! )! with Kaoru sensei and the girls in the middle of the room and their mother and myself seated on the floor near the room's entrances. The girls began their lesson by bowing to Ka oru sensei alongside their mother. The children performed what they had previously learned of a song. While they danced, Kaoru sensei mirrored their movements, using gestures and clapping her hands or stomping her feet with the beat as appropriate. At t imes, she would count off as a cue. She only spoke to them when they really didn't seem to understand what was being taught, or to praise them when they finally did understand. This wa s a good example of the non verbal transmission process. Since she wa s teaching both girls at once, Kaoru sensei had to constantly turn her head side to side. As she did this, I noticed that the sister who was not being watched began to slack off. Several times, Kaoru sensei stopped the music and repeated the steps for ea ch sister individually. More attention was paid to the younger sister, though it seemed more of an adaptation for what appeared to be a lack of experience in comparison to the elder sister. Both girls looked serious, yet both seemed to enjoy dancing as well. Periodically, the younger sister would sneak in a smile, joined by the elder sister when she wasn't being watched. Throughout the lesson, Kaoru sensei was never harsh with the children, but this lesson was distinctly less fun or casual than her le sson with the adults. Kaoru sensei 's face was always serious while teaching the children, but her lips hinted at a smile at times. During nihon buyo performances, one is not supposed to smile outright but may do so with his or her eyes. While teaching t he children, Kaoru sensei 's voice was higher pitched than usual, cushioning her strict remarks a bit. As the practice ended, everyone bowed out and took pictures.

PAGE 66

! )$ Adult deshi A week later, I accompanied Kaoru sensei to her group nihon buyo lesson held at the Toyama newspaper company, located near Kojo Park at Takaoka's center. These lessons have been held in Toyama Newspaper Company's tatami style room for more than six years, for a group of about six women with varying attendance. The tatami room itself was very large, with the capability for downsizing with a sliding wall located at its center. Like many tatami rooms in Western style buildings, the room could only be accessed through a wooden entranceway featuring a bench to remove one's shoes, and a s liding door leading to the room itself. Upon entering the room, I was treated to a wide window showing the dim lights of the surrounding area, with a tokonoma alcove on the left featuring a flower arrangement with a scroll for tea ceremony purposes. Only two students were present this time: Ikiko Takeda and Chizuru Orisaka. Ikiko Takeda is an energetic 39 year old woman with bright eyes, black hair pulled back, and an infectious laug h. I had met her six years before when I was an exchange student during a dress rehearsal of mine. I was surprised when she recognized me. In contrast to her fellow student, Chizuru Orisaka is a reserved 56 year old woman with dyed brown hair and a confidence about her which demanded respect. Though both were long term stu dents of Kaoru sensei with Ikiko having stu died nihon buyo for eight years and Chizuru having studied with Kaoru sensei for three years, neither student has plans for taking a name. Though Ikiko expressed the desire to take one, she also explained that s he didn't have the money to do so. Therefore, both students consider nihon buyo to be a hobby. Ikiko dances because she

PAGE 67

! )% finds it beautiful and has an interest in kimono Chizuru, who studied nihon buyo as a child, dances to exercise her body and mind. A fter some conversation between the students and Kaoru sensei introductions were made and the practice began. The students bowed in with Kaoru sensei who asked them to perform a dance they had already memorized. Though both women were nervous about havi ng to perform, they did so; speaking to each other and Kaoru sensei as they danced about aspects they didn't remember or understand. This illustrates the casual nature of this practice, as one would typically never speak while performing unless the dance had lines to be called out. Whenever Kaoru sensei called out her verbal cues, Chizuru would repeat them aloud, typically followed by some remark about how she didn't understand the movements correctly, had missed a step, or sometimes an affirmation that s he had finally understood the movement. At the point of the dance that was new to both students, Kaoru sensei danced in front and in between them, calling out movements and cue words as she did so. After the performance of this dance was over, Kaoru sen sei asked me if I knew that the fan could be used to represent a variety of objects. She explained that in the dance they were performing, the fans became sake and a cup. From here, she qu izzed Ikiko and Chizuru on uses of the fan to mime the usage of ot her objects, which spa rked a lively discussion among the three of a ll the possibilities. Though my personal experience and my observations of her lesson with the children suggest a strict theme in Kaoru sensei 's teaching style, du ring this lesson and disc ussion everyone appeared to be having fun. However, it should be noted that when the lesson resumed and Kaoru sensei resumed her teaching, though her voice was always kind,

PAGE 68

! )& her face was serious. Every time they finished working though a section, the stud ents would discuss their performance and their issues with the dance. Kaoru sensei never responded to their comments and seemed to ignore that they had ever been made. Following their lesson, Ikiko and Chizuru allowed me to interview them. When I asked them about their relationship with Kaoru sensei after laughing about the fact that they were right in front of Kaoru sensei while answering this, Chizuru described Kaoru sensei as a friend, while Ikiko described her as "a mentor, but we're comfortable [w ith each other]." Though both women found Kaoru sensei to be strict, they knew that this was because she wanted them to become better at nihon buyo Ikiko and Chizuru mentioned that they often talked with Kaoru sensei about subjects outside of nihon buyo such as relationships, over dinner after practice. Kantoe Fujima II I first met Yukiko Hirashita, also known as Kantoe Fujima II, on a warm summer evening in her home and studio, shortly before she gave Asato Fujima her Thursday night dance practice. Her studio, found immediately to the left upon entering her home, was likely built for the purpose of entertaining guests with its tatami flooring and tokonoma alcove on the left side, featuring a kokeshi doll in a glass case. Beside the alcove was a tal l cabinet with tassels hanging from its handles. On the far side, facing those who entered it, were paper screen shades slid open to reveal the red tones of the sky at dusk that could be seen from the low table and pillows to which I was led to sit. This view was interrupted by a full length mirror propped against the window. To the right of this window were the CD player, chair, and practice area, which was just large enough to fit two dancers comfortably. Above this

PAGE 69

! )' area was a low ceiling, extending f urther towards the outside, where wooden plaques featuring carved names of all the natori and shihan training under Kantoe sensei at the time. The practice area itself was hardwood and, as I was told in a harsh tone, not to be entered unless invited. K antoe Fujima II is a mild mannered 64 year old woman with a casual yet dignified manner about her. Though dressed in kimono with her hair pulled neatly and tightly to the back of her head, her demeanor seemed relaxed and even a little bored during our int erview. While I have no firsthand experience with her namesake, Kantoe Fujima II seemed comfortable in he r mother's role, though this had not been the case originally : When it happened it was a little scary, but little by little I began to like it, and of course, because I had taken the role, I thought I should try [to assume the role], and then I [tried] with [that] purpose. Kantoe sensei 's study of nihon buyo began at the age of four. Since then, studying under her mother Kantoe Fujima I, she took a name, reaching her shihan rank 40 years ago, and gained her sensei status two years later after returning to Toyama from Hiroshima, where she was married. Teaching nihon buyo is Kantoe sensei 's only job. Currently, Kantoe sensei teaches 15 apprentices, all of whom are adults. Her biggest concern is the lack of younger interest in nihon buyo : Children have become more scarce. That and those in their advanced age, the elderly, have become more common. Therefore, however we can help young people get into nihon buyo however we can hand down this tradition to them, that iswe want everyone to participate. Though she likes that nihon buyo can be practiced by even people of advanced age, she is concerned with the inability to pass the tradition to the new ge neration.

PAGE 70

! )( Asato Fujima Asato Fujima, whose legal name is Atsuko Shotani, is a natori on the verge of being promoted to shihan 35 Unlike many apprentices to advance to this level, Asato didn't begin her study of nihon buyo until she was a college student. Her studies began when her mother decided to take her to meet a nihon buyo sensei during one of her summer vacations. Finding that she liked it, she decided to continue her studies and for about ten years since, sh e ha s practiced once a week, every week, with Kantoe sensei Four years ago, she was given her Fujima name and became one of the younger members of this branch of the Fujima ryuu Though she has progressed far and shows talent for dance, Asato remarked that her movements don't seem as natural as those of the sensei around her. Since they all began their study of nihon buyo at an early age, Asato told me that she felt it was necessary to start early in order to be able to become a decent sensei Asato's practice with Kantoe sensei was focused a round her upcoming shihan exam, which, as I mentioned in my introduction, consists of the performance of three specific dances outside the typical apprentice's comfort zone. This practice focused specifically on Nanatsu ni Naru Ko and Yari Yakko ." As Asato danced Nanatsu ni Naru Ko ," a dance with which she seemed somewhat familiar, Kantoe sensei aided her apprentice by calling out cues while mirroring her movements. Because of her advanced ability as an apprentice, Asato was able to mirror Kantoe sen sei with very little delay, although Asato's form was less clear. Kantoe sensei 's voice was kind in her instruction, yet there seemed to be a strict undertone. Throughout both dances, !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 35 This is, of course, as of July 2011.

PAGE 71

! )) Asato's face was serious, as was Kantoe sensei 's. Even when Kantoe se nsei wasn't mirroring Asato, there were many visual cues. At the point when Asato seemed unfamiliar with the rest of the dance, Kantoe sensei stepped in beside her apprentice and danced with her. Asato was able to follow Kantoe sensei even using only her peripheral vision. In the second dance, Yari Yakko ," whenever there were callout lines, though Kantoe sensei recited them, Asato always remained quiet. There seemed to be a clear connection between Kantoe sensei and Asato that I did not observe elsewhe re. This may be due to Asato's experience in comparison with the other students I observed, though it could also be a product of her close relationship with her sensei Though I met Asato Fujima at her dance practice with Kantoe sensei as I mentioned bef ore, I wasn't really acquainted with her until we left the studio, when she became Atsuko Shotani once more. During my interview with Asato and her sensei Asato was very quiet and respectful, only speaking when specifically asked by Kantoe sensei Kaoru sensei or myself and usually looking at the floor or at Kantoe sensei rather than at the camera during the rest of the interview. This is a sharp contrast to her demeanor at the dinner following her lesson, when she was talkative, loud, and engaged in th e conversation. Her behavior suggested a deep respect for her superiors combined with a desire to act independently. Kiku Hanakawa Kiku Hanakawa (Kumiko Shibata) was the first sensei Kaoru sensei introduced me to who did not belong to the Fujima ryuu I met her on a Wednesday afternoon, in her mother's house located at the end of a narrow street leading off from the side of

PAGE 72

! )* the Daiwa department store. As Kaoru sensei and I had approached the house, Kaoru sensei pointed out that water had been thrown out into the street in front of the entrance, which was a gesture of coolness to welcome visitors in hot weather. As we e ntered the house itself, a bird shaped alarm "chirped" to notify the house's inhabitants of our arrival. From there we were greeted by K iku sensei and her mother, Kiyo Hanakawa, an osensei Kiku sensei led us up the stairs at the end of the hall, to the studio to the immediate right on the second floor. The studio was well lit and spacious, with the practice area only visible after one h ad fully entered. To the front was a tatami seating area with a low table and pillows, where Kiku sensei and Kaoru sensei spoke with me about my research and nihon buyo in general. Once seated there, the practice area came into better view as a large woo den floor with a closet for props and a mirror standing against the far wall. Above the area, just as in Kantoe sensei 's studio, were several wooden plaques showing the names of Hanakawa osensei 36 and her named apprentices of all ranks. Hanakawa sensei learned her first nihon buyo dance when she was only three years old, though she didn't officially begin her study of nihon buyo unti l June 6 of her sixth year S he was and still is taught by her mother, Hanakawa osensei I was told that Hanakawa sensei felt she was treated differently than Hanakawa osensei 's other apprentices because she was her biological daughter. Though Hanakawa osensei !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 36 T hough I have been using first names when discussing the sensei from the Fujima ryuu to avoid confusion, since I only know of one Hanakawa sensei (Kiku Hanakawa) and one Hanakawa osensei (Kiyo Hanakawa), I have opted to refer to them as "Hanakawa sensei an d "Hanakawa osensei to show respect. Unfortunately, to do so with the Fujima ryuu sensei would take up too much space, as both names would be necessary to avoid confusion.

PAGE 73

! )+ has a reputation of being strict to all of her apprentices, Hanakawa sensei claimed that it was with her that she w as most strict. While other apprentices are given the option to take a name once they've reached a certain point of study in nihon buyo for Hanakawa sensei it was never a matter of "if" but rather "when" she would take her name. In contrast to her moth er's approach, though Hanakawa sensei has a daughter who has had an interest in dance, this interest is sporadic at best. "When she wants a practice, she comes over and we have a lesson." Hanakawa sensei said, laughing. According to her mother, Hanakawa sensei 's daughter has no plans to become a natori Hanakawa sensei and Hanakawa osensei currently teach five students as a team, while Hanakawa sensei teaches five students by herself, not including those from the Toyama National College of Technology. Th is team approach to teaching nihon buyo is not uncommon when an osensei reaches the point when his or her movement is restricted by age. By combining Hanakawa sensei 's physical ability with Hanakawa osensei 's wisdom and experience, the two make an effecti ve pair. Of the students taught by both Hanakawa osensei and Hanakawa sensei five have taken names, though not all five still practice nihon buyo today. Hanakawa sensei allowed me to observe her teaching nihon buyo to high school students, as well as in terview her in her home. With a laid back approach to teaching, she is cheerful and sweet, preferring to promote the fun in learning nihon buyo rather than keeping strictly to tradition. This showed in her interactions outside of dance practice and with the high sc hool students. However, with the older students

PAGE 74

! ), she teaches alongside her mother, I noticed that Hanakawa sensei 's demeanor changed once the practice began, entering a much quieter and strict mode of teaching. Adult deshi On the same day I was introduced to Hanakawa sensei and Hanakwa osensei I was permitted to stay in order to watch the dance lesson of one of the adult deshi Hanakawa sensei and Hanakawa osensei teach as a team. Though initially I was supposed to interview this deshi since t hat day I have never been able to successfully contact her and thus, though I have permission to discuss her lesson and interaction with her sensei I was not given permission to use her name. As she and her mother arrived at the studio, Kaoru sensei w ho had been speaking with Hanakawa sensei and myself up to that point, bowed in her direction and left. Hanakawa osensei entered the room and sat in a ch air beside the small table, which held a CD player Everyone seemed to already know each other. This did not surprise me, as this deshi was a long term former student of Hanakawa osensei whose studio is in essentially the same neighborhood as Kaoru sensei 's. Furthermore, the mother of this deshi is a minnyo sensei, making traditional dance something th at all of these ladies practice. As Kaoru sensei left, everyone but Hanakawa osensei bowed to each other and the practice began. The practice essentially consisted of the deshi performing Fuji Musume ," or "Wisteria Maiden," a dance that she would be p erforming that Saturday in order to give nihon buyo a place in the minnyo festival. As the deshi danced, Hanakawa sensei sat on the far right side of the room, with Hanakawa osensei controlling the music and coaching from her chair to my right. To my lef t, the deshi 's

PAGE 75

! *! mother watched while sitting seiza Hanakawa sensei served as the stagehand for the portions of the dance in which the performer changed prop or costume. As she danced, Hanakawa osensei gave her advice, words to set the atmosphere, and cor rection when she made a mistake. Her tone was friendly, yet held considerable authority. Hanakawa sensei was mostly quiet throughout the dance, holding her comments until the end. Once the dance had finished, Hanakawa sensei gave the deshi all of her ad vice at once. When later speaking with Hanakawa sensei about this, she told me that this was done deliberately so that the deshi would perform with confidence on Saturday. If she corrected her the whole time, that deshi might become hesitant in her ste ps and as she had only half a week before her performance, Hanakawa sensei understood that there wasn't much she could do to change her performance overall. Therefore, to watch and give advice in the end would build the confidence necessary for this deshi to perform well. I noticed that once the performance began, Hanakawa sensei 's expression changed from her usual smiling face to something much more serious. While there wasn't the same "strict" quality present in Hanakawa osensei 's face at the time, the kind nature seemed to disappear. Once the dance was over, however, her tightened face became more loose and gentle as she listened to the deshi 's mother sympathize with her daughter over how heavy the wisteria branch was. Hanakawa sensei joined in this s ympathy, showing a motherly concern from both the deshi 's biological mother and sensei At this point, Hanakawa osensei became quieter.

PAGE 76

! *$ Students from the Toyama National College of Technology The Toyama National College of Technology has both a college and a high school, with both programs featurin g focused majors of study. The high school program an alternative to the typical Japanese system, allows students to study subjects such as engineering or cultural studies. The students attend high school f or three years, the norm in Japan, followed by two years of college level study. Since the school is located far from most public transportation, surrounded on all sides by rice fields, a special school bus is provided to shuttle them to and from Takaoka Station. Some of the study programs at the Toyama National College of Technology require students to study abroad. While abroad, many students wish to show the world traditional Japanese arts, and it is from this desire that the Toyama National College of Technology's nihon buyo program was born. Since 2007 Hanakawa sensei has been teaching nihon buyo to interested students once a week after school for approximately two hours, with a break halfway for snacks and discussion. These students usually hav e no experience with nihon buyo beforehand, and therefore are taught from the beginning. Though the average age for someone to begin studying nihon buyo is four or five years old, Hanakawa sensei says that because these students are much older, they are a ble to learn the simple dances much more quickly and therefore can progress much faster. Of course, it also helps that these students study kouta rather than traditional songs. Though kouta are sung in traditional style with traditional instruments and speak of traditional subject matter, the Japanese used is more modern, allowing the dancer to readily understand the lyrics without much outside study. Therefore, technically, these dances are not nihon buyo in the traditional sense.

PAGE 77

! *% However, they are sh orter, with the potential for multiple dancers, making them ideal for these groups of students to learn. This is especially useful, as there were five girls particip ating in the dance practice I observed. The dances practiced were in preparation for the students' trip to Australia over their summer break. When we arrived at the school after a 30 minute drive from Takaoka Station, we entered a sturdy, w hite building with many windows Once inside, we climbed a large staircase to the second floor, where we saw two sturdy wooden doors. Hanakawa sensei carried umbrellas and other props in a shopping bag. As we reached the door s we heard loud chattering and laughter. Hanakawa sensei looked to me and said, "I think that's us." With that, she opened the do or and announced herself to the four girls dressed and dressing in yukata behind tables that had been pushed to either side of the room. They stopped their chattering and acknowledged her. Shortly thereafter, they resumed talking, showing the casual mood of the lesson. At this point, Hanakawa sensei explained to me that they normally practiced in the tatami room of the building, but since more people were involved than usual with dance practice, they needed a bigger room. It was true that the room was fairly wide, though the look of the tables pushed to either side gave the opposite impression. The back wall was halfway covered in windows, making the room well lit and ideal for practice. I was shown to one of many chairs li ned up next to the windows as the practice began. I noticed right away that the students interacted with Hanakawa sensei in a manner that was shy yet enthusiastic. Hanakawa sensei instructed the girls two at a

PAGE 78

! *& time, though those seated beside me would mimic the movements in thei r seats to help them remember. As she instructed, she called out the movements and gave helpful tips to understanding them. For the portions of the dance that were newer material for the students, Hanakawa sensei would step in between the two dancing stu dents and dance with them. Periodically, she would step away from them and mirror the dance, so that they could see what they should look like as the y performed. Often, she would stop the music and go through the movements a gain and again, using her voic e to sing both music and lyrics so as to control the rate at which the music flowed. Thi s was repeated until each student had a better grasp of the material. The atmosphere was casual, not unlike Ikiko and Chizuru's lesson with Kaoru sensei Hanakawa se nsei 's voice was always high pitched and gentle, and she often laughed along with her students whenever something was amusing or difficult. Three different dances were covered in this lesson, and every student had a chance to practice with Hanakawa sensei Hanakawa sensei 's physical involvement, such as the dancing alongside her students, varied from group to group based on how well the students grasped the dance. Though the mood was definitely more li ghthearted than in the lesson with the adult deshi de scribed earlier, there was still a switching of demeanor. When Hanakawa sensei taught something new or reviewed a piece of the dance that caused a student trouble, she became a little more strict and quiet. Once the students understood, ho wever, this moo d would loosen; Hanakawa sensei smiled and nodded as she watched her students perform with improvement. Sh e would still offer advice, but after the initial seriousness, her mood was light. Hanakawa sensei told me that she took particular care to keep the mood light, as it is students such as these, with

PAGE 79

! *' no experience in nihon buyo who perceive nihon buyo as something serious and strict. Making the practice more fun and less serious takes the intimidation away from nihon buyo and therefore encourages the students to continue their study. To her, breaking tradition is not as important as promoting increased participation in the traditional arts. Kie Hanakawa Shortly before I left Takaoka, Hanakawa sensei offered to introduce me to one of her Hanakawa s iblings, Kie Hanakawa. Legally named Eiriko Yokohori, Kie Hanakawa is a lovely shihan level dancer of nihon buyo for 46 years. I met Kie at Hanakawa sensei 's house, in the same room in which I interviewed Hanakawa sensei Though I never had the opportu nity to see Kie practice or perform, I was given the chance to speak with her, and therefore gain more insight into one of the many different paths taken with the study of nihon buyo. Though Kie is a shihan and has studied nihon buyo for most of her life, she has made the decision not to become a sensei, a choice that holds some weight considering that it takes at least 15 years to reach the rank at which one is permitted to teach. Instead, Kie prefers to practice nihon buyo just for fun. Kie began studyi ng nihon buyo under Hanakawa osensei when she was five years old, at the suggestion of her parents. As a child, she remembers enjoying wearing kimono whenever she danced. By the time she was 18, she had received her name and joined the Hanakawa ryuu Th ough this branch of the Hanakawa ryuu has many members, Kie considers them as her siblings, remarking, "everyone's close." When asked about Hanakawa osensei Kie describes her as "kind, but strict." As I mentioned before, Kie has a strong bond with her s ensei because Hanakawa osensei

PAGE 80

! *( essentially watched Kie grow into an adult. However, because Kie had biological parents growing up, this bond didn't strengthen until she had reached adulthood. On closer examination of the experiences of the members of t he Fujima ryuu and Hanakawa ryuu one fact becomes clear. There are no sensei or prospective sensei below the age of 40. This presents a clear problem for the future of nihon buyo in Takaoka, which I will describe next. Without any new sensei to teach t he next generation, will nihon buyo phase out of rural Japan? If that is the case, then, how are other styles of traditional dance faring in rural areas such as Takaoka?

PAGE 81

! *) CH APTER IV: CONCLUSION It was a cool, rainy Thursday afternoon. As we sat down for tea ceremony held in the tatami room at Grandpa and Grandma Kanamori's house, the rain picked up, making all of the other usual summer sounds impossible to hear. 37 Earlier, a large thunderclap had shaken the house, a rare event in Toyama. We were seated at a table placed on the tatami mats. Grandma Kanamori said that she and her friends were too old to sit seiza comfortably, so she decided to install table and chairs in the tatami room. A scroll of bamboo and a ball hung in the tonokoma alc ove in honor of the upcoming Tanabata festival. Mrs. Kanamori, seated at my left, prepared matcha for her in laws and myself by whisking the matcha powder in tea bowls. One o f the bowls, given to me, bore a picture of bamboo leaves in a bold green repres entation. Another was a simple, purple gray made in a sort of lumpy style. The other two had a more "modern" construction that was wider and shallower, made of clear crystal. As we drank our tea, our conversation shifted to my research. We talked abo ut how there weren't many young sensei and in the case of the Fujima ryuu no young natori or shihan training under anyone in Kaoru Fujima's generation. Grandma Kanamori remarked that young people had no interest in nihon buyo I agreed with her, and fr om there, the conversation drifted into speculation about the future of nihon buyo There is a clear pattern in the evolution of traditional Japanese dance: as one form ages, it is considered higher in class, and from there the common interest shifts to !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 37 The Kanamoris were my second host family when I lived in Japan from 2005 06. I use the words "grandpa" and "grandma" to differentiate between the generation of Kanamoris with whom I stayed and Mr. Kanamori's parents, with whom I became close.

PAGE 82

! ** a new art form. Nihon buyo at this point in time, is only a little more than 100 years old. Has its popularity come to an end? In 50 years, where will nihon buyo be? The use of ethnographic techniques, especially participant observation, has allowed me and other dancers to view nihon buyo in a whole new way. Since nihon buyo is usually studied one on one with only the sensei and apprentice present, though one may interact with one's dancing peers, it can be hard to look past the individual level when co nsidering where the practice as a whole is going. Unless one becomes particularly close and progresses through the ranks, he or she may not know the extent to which those who participate in nihon buyo are neither progr essing nor passing the art down. Wi th progression to the natori and shihan ranks costing the apprentice 1,000,000 yen, there is a clear financial constraint on even entering a ryuu Further, if there is an exam required to progress to the shihan rank, as in the Fujima ryuu if the exam is not passed on the first try, at least 200,000 yen must be paid for every new attempt. Though it is true that nihon buyo is no longer specifically closed to those who are not, as Kaoru Fujima describes it, "rich daughters of high class families," these fin ancial barriers prevent otherwise promising students from becoming serious apprentices because they lack the funds to do so. Even if an aspiring apprentice takes a name, the ability for him or her to come up with the 1,000,000 yen necessary to be promote d high enough to be able to teach is much more difficult considering the short period between ranks and the financial position of the natori This continues to prevent teaching, which, in turn, prevents continuation of the art.

PAGE 83

! *+ Teaching itself is also an i ssue. Many apprentices such as Asato Fujima and Kie Hanakawa do progress to the point of shihan only to decide that they do not wish to teach. Asato said that she lacked the skill to teach, because she didn't start at an early age, something that could b e argued but is irrelevant if someone feels too insecure about his or her abilities. Yet, eve n in the case of Kie Hanakawa, who had been studying nihon buyo since she was five years old, just because she had more experience didn't mean that she was comfo rtable teaching others. In Kie's case, she danced because it was fun, and therefore did not welcome the responsibility that teaching entails. While that is understandable, as teaching can sometimes be stressful and teaching incorrectly can have repercuss ions, the truth behind this is that by the time students of nihon buyo reach the shihan rank, they've studied the art for at least 15 years without ever having to teach a thing. This is an important factor to consider, since not all Japanese traditional arts are the same in this respect. In the martial arts, such as karate for instance, it is often a higher ranking student's duty to teach the basics to new members of the dojo The experience of doing so teaches the higher ranking student not only the patience and trials of teaching, but it also helps him or her review that old information and remember the experience of being new. Sin c e students of nihon buyo seldom practice together and are never permitted to teach material before the shihan rank, the y might be reluctant to teach material that they haven't reviewed themselves in quite some time. This is critical in a traditional style of dance that leaves very little room for alteration of choreography. For some, the separation from that experience o f being new may also be too great for them to relate to their new students. It could also be a

PAGE 84

! *, lack of full commitment, as any long term student of nihon buyo knows that a sensei would typically remain open to teaching his or her apprentice for the rest o f his or her life. Though nihon buyo may be more than a just a hobby for a shihan he or she may not be open to that type of commitment. Further, in a generation that clearly values the traditional arts enough to preserve them but not enough to actually practice them, arts such as nihon buyo seem to be in danger in less populated areas such as Takaoka. This issue is both a matter of the val ue of traditional dance and of the demographics of rural Japan itself. With low birthrates and many leaving the to wn after graduation from high school, unless younger interest in nihon buyo picks up, percentages don't look favorable for the art continuing for long. Increased focus and pressure has been put on children to enter more prestigious high schools, testing s o that they can go to more prestigious universities. This leaves less time in a child's life for extensive extracurricular a ctivities such as the traditional arts. A public school system based around testing has no place for more than a superficial inter est in the traditional arts. The question stands to be asked: is nihon buyo joining kabuki and no theater in the realm of the arts that are preserved but no longer fully appreciated? As I mentioned before, nihon buyo was created in an attempt to return women to the stage in Japan and keep creative dance alive. Though women hav e returned to the stage the ability to create new choreography has, in many ryuu been banned in an attempt to preserve the traditional pieces. Joy ce Rutherford Malm thus referr es to nihon buyo as a "living museum piece" (1977: 12). Looking at the same is sue, Leonard C. Pronko describes nihon buyo as having been "mummified" (1985: 111). In a sense, I believe

PAGE 85

! +! that both are true. Though some new development in choreography conti nues in the subcategory of souseki buyo or "creative dance," the nihon buyo held in regard by most in Japan is the original kabuki dance of about 100 years ago. Thus, with the references and language of the older nihon buyo songs lost on the current Japa nese generation, can nihon buyo still exist in a dynamic form, or is it simply being kept alive by performance? The latter represents what has become of kabuki and no; though they are treasured in a historical and cultural context, they are no longer dyna mic in terms of composition and chor e ography. More research is needed on these newer forms of nihon buyo especially souseki buyo Though souseki buyo is considered to be a form of nihon buyo and is still featured in some ryuu such as the Hanayagi ryuu this debate may one day cause the forms to become severed as time passes and the importance of tradition is evaluated. In the meantime, while nihon buyo has significantly fallen in popularity, minnyo or folk dance, has risen in popularity, especially amo ng young children. While conducting my research, I was given a ticket to the minnyo festival at the Takaoka Culture Hall, an auditorium that also features performances in nihon buyo Unlike the nihon buyo performances I saw, which were sparsely atended a nd never ended with a full theater, the minnyo performance was filled with people for its duration of eight hours. Similarly to a nihon buyo performance, many of the audience members were connected with the minnyo community in some way, watching a frie n d or loved one practice. Yet, since minnyo dances are often done in groups, this brought in more audience members. Also, because the minnyo songs are local, there was a sort of Takaokan pride throughout the performance, promoted by the his torical

PAGE 86

! +$ explanati ons provided between dances. Minnyo also appeared to be less serious in performance style than nihon buyo making it more accessible to people of all ages. Had I the time and opportunity, I would have observed and interviewed the minnyo community in Taka oka as well. I feel that finding what makes minnyo popular can show where nihon buyo loses the people's interests. I find it interesting that, though the songs and dances in minnyo sometimes date back even farther than those of nihon buyo the audience s till feels enough of a connection. Is this the pr oduct of local pride, or is it because the references made are closer to daily life than old stories? Further research may tell. I wonder how the group dynamic affects the relationship of minnyo dancers w ith their sensei At the end of my interview with Kaoru Fujima, I asked her about reciprocity. I remembered that in my ethnography class, I was always told to make sure that something was done in return for going out of one's way to participate in my r esearch. For everyone in this research, I had offered a local brand of chocolate from Jacksonville, FL, my hometown. Though I had offered Fujima sensei the same, I felt that we should discuss something further, since without her help, this entire project would not have been possible. After a brief Japanese lesson about the proper term for "reciprocity," she replied, "I want you to return to Japan and to become a nihon buyo sensei That is my hope." I was deeply honored by this suggestion, though after my research, I now understand the urgency of this matter. Without new sensei to pass nihon buyo on to another generation, as time passes, and sensei pass as well, it will become more and more difficult to take a name and enter a ryuu Therefore, just as in the situation with biological families transmitting genes, if no one passes along this

PAGE 87

! +% knowledge, the ryuu like legal family names, will begin to die out in the rural areas of Japan. Th erefore, it is my hope that one day people such as Kie Hanakawa an d Asato Fujima will reconsider their decision to not become sensei so that this practice may still exist. On the same note, I hope that as people's abilities to participate in nihon buyo change, the iemoto system on which nihon buyo runs can change as we ll to adapt to new demands of society.

PAGE 88

! +& APPENDIX I: INTERVIEWS The following interviews were conducted during July of 2011, following weeks of observation, in Takaoka, Toyama, Japan. These interviews were conducted in Japanese, specifica lly in the Toyama dialect. Since I learned to speak Japanese while living in Toyama prefecture, I also use elements of the Toyama dialect in my speech and had no issue understanding them for that reason. After consideration, I have decided not to reflect this difference from standard Japanese too much in these transcriptions, but certain things should be noted that apply to both the dialect and the translation from Japanese to English in general. First of all, in my experience with Japanese conversation it is common for all speakers to vocally acknowledge the speaker's statement. This may be done with phrases such as mm or sou, sou, sou ." The former does not require translation, and as the term sou translates to "right," I have transferred these confirmative phrases to the English translation. Another phrase used for this is Sou desu ne ," and Sou desu ka ?" which are really just confirmations, but can be interpreted to mean "That's right," "Is that so?" and "I see." Since I spent much of the in terview using these responses, I varied their translations to match the situation. If a phrase in Japanese was important, but did not have an English equivalent, I borrowed it and supplemented it with a footnote. If the phrase was not important, I omitte d it. If something was said that I did not fully understand, if it wasn't crucial to the focus of this thesis, I omitted it as well. It should also be noted that it is impolite to use the phrase "you" when speaking t o a superior in Japanese but, because using the person's name when addressing that person in English has a condescending tone (for instance, "Does Ms. Obata have a stage name?" verses "Do you have a stage name, Ms. Obata?"), I have changed my wording in translation. Finally, I would like to m ention that Japanese sentence structure follows the "subject direct object verb" formula, which made some of the translations a little rougher than I would have liked in situations when those I interviewed didn't finish their thoughts before changing s entences. I apologize for the confusion. I would also like to note that my usage of primarily first names in the interview format should not be confused with intimacy with those I interviewed. Rather, I use first names to avoid confusion coming from the use of stage names. Since everyone I interviewed with a stage name would be either a Fujima or a Hanakawa, it would be too confusing to use surnames. Whenever someone I interviewed is a sensei I have added the appropriate suffix, as I have done in my ma in text. I have chosen to use stage names over legal names because the context in which I spoke to those I interviewed was within the realm of nihon buyo a context during which stage names are used over legal names anyway. For the two ladies I interview ed who did not have stage names, I have used their given name s from their legal names to keep consistent with the other interviewees. All of those I interviewed gave me permission to use both their legal names and their stage names.

PAGE 89

! +' Interview # 1 Kiku Hanakawa (Kumiko Shibata) July 8, 2011 As this interview was the first in this project, there are a few clumsy mistakes and differences in terminology, particularly my use of "student" rather than "apprentice." This interview was held in Hanakawa sensei 's house, in a tatami room in the front of the house on a sunny, Friday afternoon. Only Hanakawa sensei and I were present, with the camcorder placed in the corner of the room. Unfortunately, due to the placing of the camcorder combined with the whirr of the air conditioning, while I could clearly hear and understand Hanakawa sensei that day, in transcribing this interview nearly a year later, some of her statements aren't so clear from the recording itself. In hindsight, I should have focused more on ca pturing audio than video, which would have provided a clearer recording. In the meantime, if a statement wasn't clear, I have omitted it to avoid misunderstanding. Dominique: Um, once again, thank you for doing this interview for me. Hanakawa sensei : Yes Dominique: If there's a question t that you don't want to answer, um, please say "pass." Hanakawa sensei : Oh, yes. Dominique: We can, um, st stop at any time. Hanakawa sensei : Yes, yes. I understand. Dominique: Yes, excuse me. Um, so then, first of all, um, what is your real name ? Hanakawa sensei : I am Kumiko Shibata. Yes. Dominique: So, um, your dance na Hanakawa sensei : name is, eh, in the Hanakawa ryuu as a shihan I'm Kiku Hanakawa. Dominique: Yes. Ah, so, um, is it okay for me to use your real name? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Yes. Dominique: Yeah, I already asked you that. So, um, when did you, um, first begin to teach nihon buyo ? Hanakawa sensei : Well, as for teaching, hmmin the very beginning, I was taught Nanako ." That was 23 year s ago, because I learned Nanako when I was three years old. Dominique: 23 years ago Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: Ah, I see. Hanakawa sensei : And as for apprentices, the first time I taught apprentices was ten years ago. Dominique: Ah, really? Hanak awa sensei : Yes. Dominique: So, um, when did you st st start to study nihon buyo ? Hanakawa sensei : I first began dancing on the June of my sixth year. (Or rather, when she was six years old.)

PAGE 90

! +( Dominique: Oh really? Oh yeah, that's right! That tradition. Um, so then, um, of course, this is, yeah, um, I was g g going to ask why you chose the Hanakawa ryuu but, of course, your mother is a[ sensei of the Hanakawa ryuu .] Hanakawa sensei : Right, right, right. That's ri ght. Yeah. Dominique: She was the one who probably chose it. Hanakawa sensei : Right. My mother's a Hanakwa. Dominique: Right. Excuse me. Hanakawa sensei : But, you know Dominique: Yeah? Hanaka wa sensei : Originally, the iemoto above me, the Hanakawa iemoto was, originally part of the Nishikawa r yuu Dominique: Oh really? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Because he was a Nishikawa, it seems like he has, how can I say, remnants from the Nishikawa [style]. Yeah. He came from the Nishikawa [style], um, because it is a very old ryuu from long ago, from long ago, [and] the Hanakwa ryuu um, and took charge of that [the Nishikawa] ryuuha As a kabuki actor he was the soke but his first performance started the Hanakwa [style] again, and restored it. 38 Dominique: Ah, really? Hanakawa sensei : Therefore, originally, the Hanakawa my mother was once called Kiyo Nishikawa. Dominique: Ah. Hanakawa sensei : Because the iemoto was so talented, she changed her name to K iyo Hanakawa. Dominique: Ah! I see! Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: I see now. Hanakawa sensei : Yes. (She laughs.) Dominique: So, um, within the Hanakwa ryuu um, is there anything distinct? I mean, is there anything that only the Hanakwa Hanakaw a sensei : Characteristics? Dominique: Yes. Hanakawa sensei : You want to know the characteristics? If there are Hanakawa ryuu [specific] characteristics, nowadays one would say that they would only be [noticed] in the choreography. It [the choreography] h as steadily become very gentle and quiet. Dominique: That's true Hanakawa sensei : Yeah. Dominique: So, um, yeah, of course, um you have a profession [other than nihon buyo ], right? Hanakawa sensei : Ah, in addition to dance, yes. I work in exports from Japan. Yes. Dominique: I see. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 38 Soke ( ) translates to the "family originator," which means, in this case, the founder of the restored Hanakawa ryuu

PAGE 91

! +) Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: So, um, have you ever studied a type of dance that, uh, wasn't nihon buyo ? Hanakawa sensei : I've never studied dance any other form of dance. Yes. (She laughs.) Dominique: Oh really? Yes, yes. Um, so, of course, you've, um, never studied with another ryuu right? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. I haven't. Yes. Dominique: Ah. So, currently, um, how many students do you have? Hanakawa sensei : Currently, umof the students who study with my mother, eh there are five, and with those, recently, not including the practice that you went to [at the high school], there are five students [who study with me]. Dominique: So, are t hey all children? Hanakawa sensei : There are also adults. Dominique: Oh really? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: How many adults are there? Hanakawa sensei : There are two adults. Dominique: Oh really? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: Mm. So, umhow long d oes a typical [dance] practice last? Hanakawa sensei : Do you mean the time? Dominique: Yes. Hanakawa sensei : Because they are children, it is difficult to have a long practice. The time for a children's lesson is thirty minutes. Dominique: Ah, is that so? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Ah, but, once more, when there is, say, a performance, as the occasion to perform on stage comes closer, they [the dance practices] become a bit longer, you know. Ah, but a prodigy would have the dance in his or her control within thirty minutes of dance practice. Dominique: Ah, um, ah, so, um, that's right, um, do the students, uh, perform often? Um, how often normally Hanakawa sensei : Once a year. All members may not perform, but, we still hold a performance once a year. Domini que: Ah. I see. Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: Soah, that's right, um, normally, um, I spoke with you a little about this before, but, umabout how long does a student normally study nihon buyo ? Hanakawa sensei : Ah, yes. They start, more or less, well in their first year of elementary school and by their third year of middle school they normally discontinue their study. Of course there are those who continue, but those who discontinue, as we've already discussed, who sadly become too busy with school, are more common. Dominique: Ah, I see. Hanakawa sensei : Yes.

PAGE 92

! +* Dominique: Ah, so, among your students, um, do you havesomeone who, um, has taken a name? (I mean a natori but at this time, I didn't realize that there was a word for this.) Hanakawa sensei : There is a natori Yes. I have natori Dominique: How many are there? Hanakawa sensei : Currently between those are those who are taking a break [from their studies, as well as those I currently instructthere are five people. Dominique: Oh really? Hanak awa sensei : Because I still have those who quit. (She laughs.) Among those who took a name, there are those who do it in order to get married, those who can no longer do it Dominique: Oh really? Hanakawa sensei : As far as those who have returned after m arriageI don't have any yet (She laughs again.) Dominique: (I laugh.) Is that so? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: Mmafter thatsoi if a student wanted to, uh, t take a name, how would they go about doing it? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. In our style, that person would speak once to his or her sensei and then that sensei would find a name that suits that person with the help of that person. (At this point, I attempted to ask Hanakawa sensei that one question I was never able to successfully ask in any int erview. As my attempt failed, I don't think I should include our exchange here, as it is mostly confusion, and no information was really gained from it. I would discuss the question itself, but I thin it is more the fault of my Japanese level of proficie ncy that cost me this question rather than actual significance.) Dominique: So, um, my next question was going to be, "Do you still contact your sensei ?" But, of course, you still contact your sensei right ? (I joke with Hanakawa sensei about this becau se Hanakawa sensei 's sensei is her mother.) Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: So, um Hanakawa sensei : Maybe my mother's coaching and my coaching is, well, because my mother's teaching is part of my experience [in teaching], I teach alongside her. Because my mother is coaching as an osensei there are some similarities between our styles, I think. Dominique: Ah. I see, I see. Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: So, how is it to, um, study nihon buyo with your parent? Hanakawa sensei : Do you mean studying with my mother? Dominique: Yes, that's right. Hanakawa sensei : Ah Dominique: Because my your mother is a nihon buyo sensei I wondered

PAGE 93

! ++ Hanakawa sensei : She's strict. Dominique: Oh really Hanakawa sensei : She would always use a very strict tone with me. Do minique: Is that so Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: So, if she wasn't your, um, parent Hanakawa sensei: She behaves a little differently to me than she does with normal apprentices. Dominique: So is that more relaxed? Er, um, does the fact that she's, uh, your parent make her more stri Hanakawa sensei : She's strict. Dominique: Oh really? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. She throws strict language at me. Dominique: Oh really? (I laugh.) Hanakawa sensei : (She laughs.) Dominique: Of course, that makes sense Sou m, we'll change the subject a bit. Lately, do you think that nihon buyo has, um, ch ch changed? Hanakawa sensei : Changed? Yes, changed. Aherthe classics are the essential in nihon buyo you could say. I don't think that the number of people learning is bad. That is, those who learn the classics. Um, of course a lot of people go back and forth between dance styles like shin buyo for instance, things like that? 39 Dominique: Ah, that's true. Um, so, umthat's right, um, so, those This question might also be a little strange, but how, um, do you feel, uh, about the modernization of nihon buyo ? Hanakawa sensei : Modernization, right? That is, not something something that dance will return tothe way dance is.is taught? I think that this is more [a discussion] about the way dance is taught. Dominique: Ah Hanakawa sensei : Mm, mm. The way that dance is changing is that the tradition is changing, in the, um, people who are learning dance That is to say, there are many people whose impression of danc e ( nihon buyo ) is that it is difficult to learn. Those who don't, that is to saythose students who I taught in a relaxed fashion, mm, there was nothing difficult for them. Because their impression wasn't that nihon buyo has a rigid instruction, I do not think they can return to learning how to learn [in a strict environment], because of how they learned their technique. Once upon a time, the old [image of a] sensei would say things like "If you don't do this, you cannot do this." I don't teach like the m. That is, in our current time, better done with a decent explanation of technique. If you say "It's like this. Nihon buyo is like this. You have to do it this way!" then people will think, "Ah, this is a pain. This is so rigid." If you teach people like this in a way that is easy to understand, and explain things, I wonder, does it not become a little modernized? It broadens the entrance for the amount of people who wish to learn nihon buyo This doesn't narrow it. (As she says this, she !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 39 For an explanation on shin buyo and other non classical styles of Japanese dance, please see the conclusion.

PAGE 94

! +, opens he r hands, which were in a very narrow stance, to her shoulder width.) It broadens it, makes it easier to enter, and making it easier to learn by providing explanations is very important, I think. Dominique: MmI see. Hanakawa sensei : That's what I think. Yes. Dominique: So, um, we're changing this up a little bit, but, umin nihon buyo do you have a favorite dance? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. I like all of it. Dominique: Ah, really? (I laugh.) Hanakawa sensei : Ah, but I like, trying it out? But still, the hi story, and still, the feeling of a dance I don't like or hate it. Dominique: Ah, really? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Yes. Dominique: I see. So, um, how did you, uh, become a master? (Here I use the word shishou ," which in retrospect, should have been sen sei .") Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Ah, I began when I was six years old, yeah, my mother said that at any time I could take a name. I never said I wanted to become a natori but rather, I was ordered to take a name. Dominique: Ohis that so? Hanakawa sensei : T hat's how it was. (She laughs.) Dominique: (I laugh.) I see. Sothis may be difficult, butbetween a master (shishou) and a normal teacher (I used sensei here.) what, do you think, is different? Hanakawa sensei : The difference between master and sens ei ? Dominique: Yes. That. Hanakawa sensei : Then, I have to ask you in reverse, when you think of a master, what kind of teacher do you think of? Dominique: That's trueum, the concept of which I am thinking is, um, in Japan there is still such a concept, but, um, once upon a time, culturally there was this sort of thing, but, there isn't really today, but that sort of dance teacher and a nihon buyo sensei of course, there are differences (I am fumbling here, but I am trying to say the difference between a true traditional style master, and a modern style dance teacher.) Hanakawa sensei : Dance? As in dance that isn't nihon buyo ? Dominique: Right, right, right. Hanakawa sensei : A dance teacher? Dominique: Right, right. Um, as in, a nihon buyo sensei is st ill a teacher, but, um, contrary to that, a dance teacher, um, a teacher of a dance that isn't nihon buyo isn't a master. Therefore, what do you think is different? Um, not just in terms of language Hanakawa sensei : What I think of when I think of a se nsei and, as you say, a master is, of course, something whole, something like a career, and even in nihon buyo it isn't just dance, because there is also nagauta 40 do you understand? Such as the shamisen !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 40 This is a style of classic Japanese song.

PAGE 95

! ,! that is, a suzumi that is, a taiko 41 That is to say, those who train in these arts, you would call "master." I wonder, is this the difference you're looking for? Of course, the most important aspect is that this is a career, right? I don't think you would call a young sensei "master." Dominique: Ah. Is that right? Hanakawa sensei : Mm. Mm. One you call "master" has a career with merit, I guess. Dominique: Ah, really? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: I see. So.ah! Hanakawa sensei do you have children? Hanakawa sensei : I h ave children. Dominique: Ah.um, how many children do you have? Hanakawa sensei : Two. A boy and a girl. Dominique: Yes. Then, do your children dance? Hanakawa sensei : My daughter dances. Dominique: Yes. Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: Ehhow old is she? Hanakawa sensei : 26. Dominique: Oh really? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: Then, does she still dance? Hanakawa sensei : Um, lately we aren't practicing, but if she wants a practice, we meet and do a practice. (She laughs.) Dominique: (I laugh with her.) Is that so? Hanakawa sensei : Yeah. Dominique: So Hanakawa sensei : Yes? Dominique: Has she taken a name? Hanakawa sensei : No she has not. Dominique: Oh really? Hanakawa sensei : Yes, yes. Dominique: Um, does she, uh, p plan to become a natori ? Hanakawa sensei : Uhshe doesn't have any such plans. Dominique: Is that right? Hanakawa sensei : Yes. Dominique: Soso, do you practice any othertraditional arts? Other than nihon buyo For instance, calligraphy, flower arran gement, tea ceremony Hanakawa sensei : Um, currently I do calligraphy. Um, I did it also when I was a child. I studied shamisen and nagauta briefly when I was a student. And, because my grandmother taught me kouta I also trained a little in that. But, the only thing I've continued to this day is nihon buyo (She laughs.) !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 41 These are various classical Japanese instruments.

PAGE 96

! ,$ Dominique: Ah. Yes, yes, yes, yes. The next question is, why did you decide to study nihon buyo Hanakawa sensei : This is really because I like it. Right? Yes. Dominique: I see. So then, um, is there anything, uh, about nihon buyo or, uh, about the sensei /student relationship, that you would like to, uh, say? Hanakawa sensei : About nihon buyo ? As long as I can, I would like to continue nihon buyo Dominique: I see. Well then, o nce again, thank you very much! Hanakawa sensei : Yes. (We laugh.) Interview # 2 Kantoe Fujima II (Yukiko Hirashita) and Asato Fujima (Atsuko Shotani) July 14, 2011 This interview was much more complex than the first, mostly because of the number of people involved. The interview occurred later in the evening, after Asato Fujima's dance practice, in the home and studio of Kantoe Fujima II. The mood is somewhat formal, but still very friendly. Kaoru Fujima, my own sensei who stayed through this inte rview for her own dance practice that followed, escorted me there. We sat around a little table in the studio portion of the house, with Kantoe sensei and Asato sitting across from myself while Kaoru sensei took video next to me. Before and throughout th is evening, I had made several social mistakes, such as forgetting to bring Kantoe sensei a gift in exchange for her interview and allowing my viewing of the lesson, making Kaoru sensei a little uncertain about how this interview might progress. This show ed in some of her comments. Though I didn't think of it at the time recording, there are times in the interview at which Kaoru sensei commented or made noise as she would in conversation without taking into account her interference with the recording itse lf. Therefore, if something was unclear, I have omitted it in order to avoid misunderstanding. Asato Fujima is a natori who is about to take the examination to become a shihan Because both Kantoe Fujima II and Kaoru Fujima are sensei I use their first names before the sensei suffix for clarification Dominique: Um, once again I would like to, uh, thank you for doing this interview for me. Er, whenever you like, we can, uh, stop the interview, so if you, um, would not like to answer a question, p lease say "pass." (Everybody laughs.) Dominique: It's not that bad, butmaybe I shouldn't have said anything. Kantoe sense i: Yes. Yes, yes. Dominique: Then, the first question is, well, umyes, then What is your real name? Asato: My real name is, um, Astuko Shotani. Dominique: So thenum, excuse me, butyour real name is

PAGE 97

! ,% Kantoe sensei : Me? Dominique: Yes. Kantoe sensei : Mine is a little difficult. Hirashita. Yukiko Hirashita. Yukiko. Dominique: Okay, um, excuse me (I grab my notebook from my bag.) Um, it's bad of me to ask, but Kantoe sensei : I'm writing it down. Dominique: So, what is your dance name? Asato: Ah, er, it's Asato. Kaoru sensei : Hm? Your dance name. Dominique: Your dance name. Kaoru sensei : The name of the song. Asato: Er, to day, Seki ni Koban and Nanatsu ni Narau Ko ," and also Yari Yakko ." Kaoru sensei : Yeah. atsu ni Narau Ko ", yes, Yari Yakko ." Yes. Dominique: Mm. (There was a little misunderstanding, since I used the phras e "dance name" rather than "stage name," they thought I wanted to know the names of the dances she performed as well.) Asato: Yes. Dominique: From thereof course. Is it okay if I use your real names? When I write this, I mean. Asato: Ah, it's fine. Domi nique: Uh sensei is it okay? Kantoe sensei : Yes, please. Dominique: Excuse me. Um, so thenuhMs. Kantoe Fujima er, Kantoe Fujima sensei you're really the second Kantoe Fujima, right? Kantoe sensei: Yes. Dominique: Um, could you, um, explainwill you explain that a little to us? Kantoe sensei : Ah, my mother was Kantoe Fujima, and then she passed away. Because I was her daughter, after that, I became Kantoe Fujima. Therefore, I am Kantoe Fujima II. Dominique: I understand. So then, is that practice, um, typical because your mother was a sensei ? Kantoe sensei : It's become natural. But it's a little bit of a rarity. Dominique: Ahh. Kantoe sensei : When it happened it was a little scary, but little by little I began to l ike it, and of course, because I had taken the role, I thought I should try [to assume the role], and then I [tried] with [that] purpose. (She hands me the paper on which she wrote.) Here's my real name and my dance name. Dominique: Ah, thank you very mu ch. Kantoe sensei : Yes. Dominique: Thenso, um, your mother, Kantoe Fujima, what kind of person was she? Kantoe sensei : She wasan amazing performer. She was a person of the arts. Dominique: Ahhis that right? So, um, how was it, um, having your mother a s a sensei ?

PAGE 98

! ,& Kantoe sensei : Erhaving my mother as a sensei ? Kaoru sensei : Mm. Kantoe sensei : Um Dominique: Er Kantoe sensei : Watching my mother? Dominique: Yes. Kantoe sensei : Watching my mother? Dominique: Yes. Kantoe sensei : Well, she was very traditio nal, very [traditional] in regards to the arts She was strict Really, she would, have practices all day, for two days. She was reallya hard working person. Dominique: Oh really? Kantoe sensei : Mm. I am a lazy person. (She laughs.) Kaoru sensei : (S he laughs.) Dominique: Yes? Kantoe sensei : I might skip [on some things.] (Everybody laughs with her, so I am unable to here the small comment she makes after this statement.) Dominique: Is that true? (Everybody laughs.) Dominique: So thenumyes, I under stand (I turn some pages in my notebook.) Soum, okay, so from here we'll be switching to more easy questions. Um, when did you start your, uh, study of nihon buyo ? Kantoe sensei : Ah, Asato. Asato: Yes. ErI didn't start when I was little Dominique: Mm. Asato: After I began working, um, I first came [here] to learn [ nihon buyo ], butit's been about ten years [since]. (She laughs.) Dominique: Ah. Kaoru sensei : Mm. Dominique: Is that right? Asato: When I was a college student, my mother took me to a se nsei and we had dance practice, and from that point, during summer vacation, I studied it. When I returned, I thought that I might want to continue [studying nihon buyo ], and so when I returned to Toyama, I returned [to nihon buyo ] and began practicing on ce a week. Yes. Kantoe sensei : I Dominique: Ah. So then, um, when did you take a name? Asato: When I took my namehm[it's been] four years? Kantoe sense i: Four years. Asato: Four years? Kantoe sensei : It's been about four years. Asato: About four years ago. Kaoru sensei: Yeah, about that, right? Asato: I received my name. Dominique: Is that so? So then, Kantoe Fujima sensei when did you, um

PAGE 99

! ,' Kantoe sensei : Me? When I was four years old. (She holds up four fingers and smiles.) Dominique: Ah, really? So then, when when did you take your name? Kantoe sensei : Mmer, when I became a natori [it was] ten? Just a minute. I just want to check something for a minute. (She stands.) Please wait a little, okay? It's been almost 40 years since I became a shi han and it was five years after and, ah! 44 years. It was 44 years ago. 44 years, I believe. Because I'm 64, it's been 44 years I think. I was20? Dominique: Ahh Kantoe sensei : Eh?! That's true, isn't it! I've been a shihan for 40 years, right?! D ominique: Hm? Kantoe sensei : Right? Dominique: Is that so? Kaoru sensei : You became a shihan yeah, it's been 40 years! Kantoe sensei : It has! It hasn't changed. Kaoru sensei: This year it's been 44 years. Kantoe sensei : It's been 45 years, right. And bef ore, I became a natori 44 years. Kaoru sensei : Mm. Kantoe sensei : Therefore, I Dominique: So, then, uh, when did you start teaching nihon buyo ? Kantoe sensei : Erfor a short time, I married, I went to Hirosh ima, and lived there for about ten years, and then I returned here, tried teaching small children, thereforehow long has it been? Asato: About20 years? Kantoe sensei : About 3037 or 38 years? Dominique: Ah, is that so? AhI see. Sowhy did you choose er, enter the Fujima ryuu ? I mean, of course (Kaoru sensei Asato and I laugh.) Asato: Why (She looks at Kantoe sensei .) Kaoru sensei : Why Kantoe sensei : That is (Everybody laughs.) That is to saybecause of my lineage, I guess. Kaoru sensei : Beca use of her lineage. (She laughs.) Kantoe sensei : Um, you see, there wasn't When I came to learn [ nihon buyo ], I didn't think, "What ryuu should I join?" Mm. There are many there are 200 different ones to chose from, that many ryuuha and, that is to say, within that, there are those with much older history, such as the Fujima ryuu the Nishikawa ryuu the Hanayagi ryuu This is true, but I didn't think "Oh, I'll try this ryuu ;" it was because my sensei was a Fujima. It's common for people to do tha t. Dominique: That's true, isn't it? Kantoe sensei : "Oh I have to go into the Nishikawa ryuu !" It's not like that. It's more like, the sensei nearby is a Hanayagi sensei so whatever ryuu he or she is, [I'll enter]. Kaoru sensei : Mm, mm. Kantoe sensei : I t's sort of fate, I think.

PAGE 100

! ,( Dominique: Ahh. Kaoru sensei : Therefore, you [for instance], Dominique, you studied in the Fujima ryuu because I was [a member of] the Fujima ryuu Mm. Dominique: Mm. Kaoru sensei : I could have been, oh, a Nishikawa, right? Domi nique: True, true. Kaoru sensei : Mm. Therefore, it's not as though you choose to become a Fujima specifically. Dominique: Ah. Kaoru sensei : Ah. Kantoe sensei : More or less all of the ryuu are the same, within today's dance. They all have, for instance, t he dance Fuji Musum e." They all have the classics, but you know, more or less, the Hanayagi ryuu the Nishikawa ryuu they all have Fuji Musume ," and they all work like this, holding the branch of wisteria. (She mimes holding a branch of wisteria and c ocks her head to one side, mimicking a phrase from the Fuji Musume dance.) Like that, they're all the same. More or less. Dominique: Ah. Kantoe sensei : Even if the little things are different, they're all classical dance, and the same in that regard, r ight? Therefore, people don't decide they want to study in the Nishikawa ryuu and refuse to enter any other ryuu Rather the sensei they're fated to end up with, if it's a Fujima sensei for instance, or a Nishikawa sensei they just go with that ryuu That pattern is common. Dominique: Ah. Kantoe sensei : Mm, mm. Dominique: So, um, are there any points of dance that can only be found in the Fujima ryuu ? Kantoe sensei : Only in the Fujima ryuu ? Dominique: Only in the Fujima ryuu .ah! Um, characteristics? Those kinds of things, do you have them? Um Kaoru sensei : Hm? Dominique: Erhow can II have "characteristics" written here, but (Actually, what I didn't know was that I had the wrong word. What I had written was more along the lines of "clear points ," and I had made a mistake in my translation.) Kaoru sensei : What is that? Kantoe sensei : Eh? Dominique: Right, rightmaybe not. Er Kantoe sensei : Only in the Fujima ryuu ? Dominique: In the Fujima ryuu ...for instance, places where it might differ form t he Hanakawa ryuu or Kantoe sensei : Characteristics? Kaoru sensei : Characteristics! Dominique: Characteristics? Kaoru sensei : Characteristics. Ah Kantoe sensei : Characteristics, characteristics.mm

PAGE 101

! ,) Asato: That? Kaoru sensei : Mm Kantoe sensei : That isthe characteristics arenot especially Kaoru sensei : But, you know, this might mean things privately within a ryuu Kantoe sensei : This is difficult (She mumbles something not heard clearly by the camera.) Kaoru sensei : Mm But this is far from it, really. Kantoe sensei : The Fujima ryuu isnot reallysteadily There isn't very much creative dance, you see. Kaoru sensei : We don't have it. Kantoe sensei : Right, right. That sort of thing. There's no one working on something like creative dance. (By creative dance, they mean something original as opposed to traditional.) Kaoru sensei : Mm Kantoe sensei : Of course, the one on the top, the iemoto he's gone into kabuki right? Kabuki Dominique: Right, right, right. Kantoe sensei : So, because he's learning those dances, he's not reallyhow can I say this He's not really trying to make flashy, new, dances. Mm. Dominique: Ah. Asato: (She nods.) Kaoru sensei : Mm. Kantoe sensei : That's different from most ryuu The mo stfor instance, the Hanayagi r yuu they make various creative dances, butmm. Dominique: Ah Kantoe sensei : Mm. Dominique: Is that right? Kantoe sensei : We've always done the classics, classical dance. This is rigid. This has been decided. Mm, mm, mm. Dominique: Is that so? Ah.so, then, do you have another job besides being a sensei ? Kaoru sensei : Mm. Asato: Me? Yes. Um, er, my job is er I have a job listening to stories at an institutionat an institution for the elderly. It's a job collecting s tories (The term she used meant "collection of stories," but it also appears to mean "consultant" when combined with another word, though she didn't use that other word. This is somewhat relevant, but the truth is that the question wasn't originally aim ed at Asato, but Kantoe sensei as Asato is not yet a sensei and therefore wouldn't have a job as a sensei or really in the nihon buyo world at all.) Dominique: So, then, Kantoe Fujima sensei Kantoe sensei : I only teach dance. Dominique: Ah. Is that so? Yes. I understand. Ah, so have you every studied a style of dance other than nihon buyo ? Asato: Well, I onceit was for a very short time, but Dominique: Mm.

PAGE 102

! ,* Asato: I studied ballroom dance. (She laughs.) Kaoru sensei : Mm. Dominique: Ah. (I laugh to o.) Is that so? Kantoe sensei : I have not. Dominique: MmI see. Mm Kantoe sensei : But I love it. Dance, I mean. Dominique: Oh really? (Everybody laughs but Kantoe sensei .) Kantoe sensei : Umhow do I say this? In the era of festival songs, when peopl e would do exercises that were like dances, it was strictand rigid, to do those dance exercises, but little by little I would see them loosen up on the surface. Dominique: Ah. Kantoe sensei : And I like that sort of thing. I would also like to try ball et, such as over there. (She gestures to her window, at the ballet studio next door.) But, mm (She nods her head.) Kaoru sense i: Mm. Dominique: That's true, isn't it? Kaoru sensei : Um, Asato, she has has a hobby of jazz piano. Mm. Kantoe sensei : She's good. Kaoru sensei : She is. Mm. Asato: Well, not rea Dominique: Oh really? Asato: (She laughs.) Yes. Kaoru sensei : Yeah, of course, you know, she likes things that are musical. Mm. Dominique: Oh yeah? Asato: Right now, I'm l learning [musical things], yeah (She laughs.) Kaoru sensei : Yeah Dominique: That's good, though, right? Kantoe sensei : Mm. Dominique: SoMs. Kantoe Fujima Kantoe Fujima sensei um, right now how many students do you have? Kantoe sensei : Now? Now I havemaybe 15 or 16 people, m ore or less? You mean how many people I'm teaching, right? Dominique: Yeah. Yes, yes. Sohow many are children? Kantoe sensei : There are no children. Dominique: Oh, there aren't any? Kantoe sensei : Yeah. Dominique: So, then, adults are... Kantoe sense i : Therefore, the biggest issue with any sensei anywhere is participation. Children have become more scarce. That and those in their advanced age, the elderly, have become more common. Therefore, however we can help young people get into nihon buyo howe ver we can hand down this tradition to them, that iswe want everyone to participate. Dominique: Mm.

PAGE 103

! ,+ Kaoru sesnsei : But I told you that, right, Dominique? There aren't as many young people, right? I told you that, right? Yeah Dominique: Right, right, r ight, right Kantoe sensei : I am, myself, finished. Dominique: Yeah Soabout how long does a normal dance practice last? Kantoe sensei : We've more or less decided on the timeI'm talking a lot, maybe? (She looks to Asato.) I'm talking a lot, but Asat o: (She laughs.) Kantoe sensei : In normal cases, it's thirty minutes. Maybe forty minutes? That's pretty much what you'd want, right? It's tiring, isn't it? Dominique: Ah Kantoe sensei : You've seen it. Dominique: Right, right, right. Kaoru sensei : Mm. Dominique: That's true, isn't it? So then, um, erdo your apprentices often perform? Kantoe sensei : Performances, well The sensei how can I put this? Kaoru sensei : Mm. Kantoe sensei : There are many possible events. Dominique: Mm. Kantoe sensei : When we have them. Dominiqeu: Mm. Kantoe sensei : Mm, we may have them, but as far as whether or not [the apprentices] will dance [in them] that is, because young people are scarce, to be able to see this event (She laughs.) Dominique: Oh, that's right. Kantoe s ensei: Right? Maybe people in their seventies and they don't really attend Dominique: Mm. Kantoe sensei : It's really restricted. This is my one difficulty. Yeah Dominique: Is that so? So, um, about how long, uh, does a typical student, um, study niho n buyo ? For instance, uh, how many years? Kantoe sensei : A fairly long time, right? (She looks to Asato.) Asato: (She nods.) Mm. Kantoe sensei : Everyone studies for a long time. They learn for a fairly long time. Dominique: Ah Kantoe sensei : That is t o say, this is different than ballet. Even 70 and 80 year olds can do this in kimono, right? Dominique: Mm. Kantoe sensei : Therefore, if you try it when you're a small child, continue it forever, and later decide that they want their kids to do it too, yo u can do that in nihon buyo Even if you get older. Dominique: That's true, isn't it? Kantoe sensei : This is a little different from Western dance. Dominique: Mm, mm, that's true, isn't it? Kaoru sensei : If you were to do ballet at 80

PAGE 104

! ,, Dominique: Right, r ight, right (Everybody laughs loudly.) Kaoru sensei : That would be tough, right? Kantoe sensei : If you were to try ballet at 70 Even if you're older, even at my age, you can still do nihon buyo Kaoru sensei : Mm Dominique: Mm... That's true, isn't it ? Kaoru sensei: Mm Dominique: Soumer Among your apprentices, about how many have taken a name? Kantoe sensei : There are those still dancing, and there are also those who married and went to Tokyo, and from there this is difficult, right? Dominique: Ah I see. Kantoe sensei : Those who have a name, but married and left for instance, they can never come back. Therefore, those who continue to come [after receiving a name] make me very happy. Those who come back Mm Dominique: Ah I see. Kantoe sensei : Therefore, once a person packs up and moves to Tokyo, they're finished. Very much so. After they've done that Dominique: AhI see. (Here I ask a question that I've never been able to properly ask. Because I've never been able to phrase it properly, mostly due to my own issues with finding the proper word for "reputation" in Japanese, I have decided to omit it here, since I was unable to properly ask the question. I have done the same for the other interviews in which the question was featured.) Dom inique: Then, from here, uh, I will ask more questions about nihon buyo itself. Do you think that nihon buyo has changed recently? Kantoe sensei : Ahhumtrue, thathow to put it, I wonder? Dance? When I dance, there are various ways to do it, right? To dance? Nihon buyo is dance, right? Kayo buyo do you understand kayo buyo ? Dominique: Kayo buyo Kantoe sensei : Ka yo buyo Dominique: I've heard of it, but Kantoe sensei : Yes. Singers Kaoru sensei : Um, Dominique, in English, look, I've told you about the classics and the ballads, right? (She is referring to the styles of music danced to in nihon buyo .) Dominique: Yeah. Kaoru sensei: This is another like that. Dominique: Ah Kaoru sensei : This is not the classics. Yeah. Like enka Mm Kantoe sensei : For instance, enka Do you know (She says something here, but unfortunately, my camera didn't pick it up since Kaoru sensei was agreeing with her too loudly.) A dance with many interruptions. And that, th at isn't

PAGE 105

! $-! the same, but still, though that is not the [style of] dance that I learned, that enka that kayo buyo as you say, thatis not the in the same group [as this], of course. Dominique: Mm Kantoe sensei : Mm Dominique: In modernizing nihon buyo Kao ru sensei : Modernizing? Dominique: How do you feel about modernizing nihon buyo ? Kantoe sensei : Ah! Kaoru sensei : Modernizing Kantoe sensei : There is modernization. For instance, in Tokyo, the ryuu there, for instance, the Nishikawa ryuu the Hanayagi ry uu those ryuu in all of those, the young people in them have writtenthey've created a soudan buyo 42 They've created this. And the aspiring sensei of Tokyo choreograph these [dances] freely, gather everyone, all of the men, together and collaborate. T his is what dance has gradually become. This isn't the case in rural areas, though. Kaoru sensei : In Tokyo, there are many more young men learning nihon buyo [than there are here]. Therefore, among the ryuuha everyone can kind of "mix." Then they can c reate new collaborations. Dominique: Ah Kanteo sensei : We have this. Kaoru sensei : That is modernization. Mm Kantoe sensei : modernization. Mm Dominique: MmI see. Kaoru sensei : There's no such thing in a rural area, though. Kantoe sensei : No, there isn't. (Kaoru sensei and I laugh.) Kantoe sensei : And the music Very famous sensei compose the music. Famous sensei choreograph, writemany, many people work together and they all practice together. This is a common occurrence in Tokyo. Th is doesn't really happen here. Dominique: AhI see. So, do you have a favorite dance in nihon buyo ? Asato: (She laughs as everybody looks at her.) Kaoru sensei : Mm, up to the ones you're currently practicing. Asato: My favorite dance Kaoru sensei : Maybe a song you have [fond] memories of? Asato: This is really hardthen, Yashiki Musume ." Kaoru sensei : Yashiki Musume ." That is, she was Kantoe sensei : Four times she did this Kaoru sensei : Performance. Perfor mance. (Kaoru sensei is saying this in English.) She did this. Kantoe sensei : Performance. (Kantoe sensei is saying this in Japanese.) She danced this in a performance. Kaoru s ensei : Yashiki Musume ." Asato: Yashiki Musume ." Ah, yes. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 42 Soudan means a collection of stories.

PAGE 106

! $-$ D ominique: Is that so? So then, how about you, Kantoe Fujima sensei ? Kantoe sensei : MineI rather like the kinds of dances that have a story. Like kabuki buyo With monsters and spirits. At first she's a princess, but then you find you she's a lion, lik e that. Those I like the best. Dominique: Ah Kantoe sensei : The dances of transformation. Kaoru sensei : Change. Kantoe sensei : Change. Dominique: So then, how did you become a master? Kaoru sensei: Howhow Kantoe sensei : By that, do you meana sensei ? D ominique: Yes. Yes. Kantoe sensei : WellI was in a position to. It was fate. I mean, because of my mother, I slid into this role rather smoothly. Kaoru sensei : As things progressed. Kantoe sensei : At first, I wasn't very goodgoodwell, by good, I mean, at telling what I wanted to do. Kaoru sensei : What she wanted to do Kantoe sensei : And then, I was on the route of assuming this position, so I became this, but gradually, months and years passed, and good things came, then I realized that I had to do th is. Therefore, I had to take my mother's name and her memory. Dominique: Ah I see. So, what do you think is the difference between a master and a teacher? (For this question, I use the word shishou for master and sensei for teacher.) Kantoe sensei : I think that masters, as you call them, are really scarce. Dominique: Ah, really? Kantoe sensei : People who really succeeded in the way, once upon a timeyou would call them "masters." Dominique: Ah Kantoe sensei : I would not yet be called a master. Th is is how I feel. Kaoru sensei : (She laughs.) Dominique: Ah Kantoe sensei : Those whom you really called "master" long ago, they were really performers. Of course, they really worked hard, studied, well, one would sayhow can I say thismmum The y were real performers of the way. They were real masters. Now, it would be outrageous to call people like me We're sensei We hold classes. That's how I feel. Dominique: Is that so? Kaoru sensei : Mm (At this point, I attempted another question that was u nsuccessful. I received an answer, but it didn't really lead anywhere, so I've decided to omit it.) Dominique: So, then, have you studied any other traditional arts? For instance, tea ceremony, or calligraphy

PAGE 107

! $-% Kaoru sensei : Ah Dominique: Umlike flower arrangement Kantoe sensei : With traditional arts, whenever I've had the chance, I study them. For instance, the shamisen I've tried that, but Kaoru sensei : Mm, mm. Kantoe sensei : But it's never lead me anywhere. Kaoru sensei : Mm Dominique: Ah Is t hat so? Kantoe sensei : Of course, I want to try tea ceremony I want to try it all, but it really doesn't go anywhere, just like with everyone else. Dominique: That's true, isn't it? Kaoru sensei : Mm Dominique: I see. So, then, um, is there anything els e you'd like to say about nihon buyo or the relationship between sensei and student? Kantoe sensei : Yeah ( She looks to Asato.) Asato: (She looks back to Kantoe sensei slowly.) Kaoru sensei : Between a sensei and a studentwhen the student wants to become a natori when the student wants to become a natori that persmission Kantoe sensei : But she's asking about that relationship of mutual trust, right? Are you asking how the relationship between sensei and student manifests? Dominique: Right. (I wasn't, b ut I hadn't thought to ask that question directly.) Kantoe sensei : Thereforeof course, you want the student to become skilled at dancing, but, of course, how can I put this? But I we are all.we are like a family. Therefore, long ago, we would have r eally cared about etiquette in performanceetiquette? For instance, "This is how you greet someone," things like that. Butnow, we don't really do that, right? (She looks at Kaoru sensei .) Children who study with us properly learn to greet, but it's di fficult Dominique: That's true I guess so, right? Kantoe sensei : Therefore now, how can I put thisit's good if we can have a fun dance practice, right? I think we want to do that. Yeah, yeah. Dominique: Ah Kantoe sensei : Of course, we want you to pe rform as best as you can, but from there, we want this, nihon buyo to have a fun atmosphere. Dominique: I see Kantoe sensei : Specifically, keep in mind that Kaoru sensei and I are going to be different. Kaoru sensei has both shihan level and child appre ntices. And in dance, because I, myself, like dance, no matter how hard it may be, because I still like it, I want this to be fun. Kaoru is a sensei and yet a student, who still wants to study. But, for this person, (She gestures to Asato.) this is a h obby. There are various types of apprentices, and therefore, various patterns. It was once such that, one song must have been performed exactly the same exactly the same, by everyone. Everyone. But now, it's become such that, with different purposes, with elderly people trying to dance, those who are such that they like to dance, but cannot sit seiza yet still like to

PAGE 108

! $-& dance, so for that person, I will do a practice that suits their needs. 43 Of course for a sensei I will give a sensei 's practice. If this is just a hobby, then I will make this practice fun. Dominique: Mm. Kantoe sensei : Mm. If people really don't like to practice, that's not very interesting, is it? Dominique: That's true, isn't it? Kantoe sensei : Therefore, a fun practice that nih on buyo is fun that is what I want to give my students. (At this point, she begins to repeat herself, so I have omitted that dialogue to avoid redundancy.) Kantoe sensei : It used to be that everyone had the same style of teaching. But that era has passe d away, I think. Dominique: Then, I would like to thank you once more for participating in my research. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 43 To sit seiza is to sit on your feet, with your knees bent. It is difficult to do for long periods of time for people of all ages, unless the p erson is properly trained to do so.

PAGE 109

! $-' Interview # 3 Kaoru Fujima (Akiho Aikawa) July 16, 2011 This interview took place following the dance practice of two chil dren given by Fujima sensei at the ballet studio on the 6 th floor of the Daiwa Department Store. This sort of feature in the design of otherwise unrelated, but tall buildings is common in Japan, and it is there and at two other "newspaper companies" that Fujima sensei teaches, as well as her own private studio on the second floor of the Buddhist shop her mother owns and lives in. The interview took place in the tatami style living room on the first floor of that Buddhist shop, in the back where her mother lives. Only Fujima sensei and I were present. The interview itself was much longer than expected, and sometimes branched off into both relevant tangents and those that are not so relevant. This might have been because Fujima sensei is my sensei in niho n buyo and therefore, not only is she teaching me about the sensei /student relationship, but also about nihon buyo and Japanese culture in general. This might also be a side effect from Fujima sensei having already been present for one of my interviews, and therefore having more time to think about the questions I would ask. Dominique: Okay, to begin, um, this is an easy question, but Fujima sensei : Yes. Dominique: Um, when oh! Once again, I'd like to thank you for doing this interview for me. Fujima s ensei : Yes. Dominique: Um, you can stop this interview at any time. Fujima sensei : Yeah. Yeah. I understand. Dominique: If you would rather not answer a question, please say "pass." Fujima sensei : Yeah. I understand. Dominique: Now, when did you, um, begin studying nihon buyo ? Fujima sensei : Hmmwhen I was a child, yeah, umhow old was I? When I was seven years old. Dominique: When you were seven year s old? Fujima sensei : Yeah. Dominique: So why did you learn nihon buyo ? Fujima sensei : Um, It wasn't that I wanted to learn nihon buyo My grandmother, she's since passed away, mm, decided "Since a sensei lives near by, um, why don't we let her go and lea rn?" So, um, she took me for my first lesson, and I felt that, "Wow!" (She touches her heart) Dominique: Ah. Fujima sensei : Yeah, so, um, since I enjoyed it so much, I began to attend dance practice regularly. That was very important to me, even though I was only seven years old. Mm, by the time I was ten years old, with my own intention, um, mm, I began to attend and wanted to learn, you see? Mm. But, how can I say this The sensei I began with was self contradicting. She was kind, mm, however, stil l (She makes a

PAGE 110

! $-( fluttering motion with her right hand uncertainly.) If one is only kind during practice, then the apprentice cannot become skilled, you know. Mm. As I thought, she was kind but she had to say very strict things. Dominique: Ah. Fujima se nsei : Mm. If merely kind words are used, always calling the apprentice "skillful," the apprentice cannot [actually] become skilled. Mm. So, one must correct those things that need to be corrected, right? Um, if stronger performance is desired and one d oesn't say what he or she is thinking If one doesn't say what he or she is thinking, the apprentice won't understand, right? Mm, even if it's often said, the apprentice may not understand. Therefore, um, often, uh, a few times, right? I'd go to dance practice and I wouldn't bend my knees or, (She points her right index finger towards the ceiling at an angle as she speaks.) I wouldn't angle my neck just so, during these occurrences, and (With a motion, she pulls the index finger down to the fan in he r obi on her left side, removing it as she speaks. 44 She taps the fan against her palm twice gently with the fan. She holds up her left arm and slaps the fan over her wrist abruptly with the other hand) She would often hit. (She hits her knee, the other hand held parallel and striking her other knee gently.) "Your knees!" (She hits the fan against the knees again. She holds the fan up to her neck, lining it diagonally with the slope of the neck's right side with her other hand still on her knee.) "Yo ur neck!" She would often call out. It fairly hurt. (She holds out her left arm and taps inside of her elbow with the fan lightly again.) When it struck me, it hurt a fair bit. Dominique: I think I understand a little. (I laugh nervously.) Fujima sens ei : (She laughs.) It fairly hurt. (She pats the inside of her elbow again.) Mm. Because of that, mm (She moves the fan into her left hand, pats the inside of her right hand.) So, when this happened to me (She moves her hand and fan up to her heart holding the fan on either end with both hands.) of course it hurt, and I was sad. Dominique: Mm. Fujima sensei : So when I came back from dance practice? I would just be coming home, and on the way, because I was a child, I would cry. (She holds her e mpty, curved hands up below her eyes, miming crying.) But when I would get home, because I would still be crying when I returned, I was told, "If it makes you cry that much, stop taking lessons." Dominique: Oh. Fujima sensei : Mm. My parents, mm, my paren ts reasoned that, look, "If it makes her cry, forget it. She doesn't have to go." But, even with that, I continued, I wanted to do it. Mm, therefore, I absolutely did not cry in the house. Mm. Even though I was a child. Mm. So, well if I wanted to c ry, I would go outside, cry, and return with an energetic "I'm home!" Dominique: Re really? Mm. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 44 An obi is the sash worn at the waist when wearing kimono

PAGE 111

! $-) Fujima sensei : Mm. So I didn't want to stop. Either way the sensei would come. Bashin Bashin !" 45 (She hits her arm with the fan as she says each "bashin! ") Even though she was so strict with me, I did not want to stop. Mm. Therefore to this day I'm still doing this. Dominique: Right. That's true, isn't it? (I laugh.) Fujima sensei : Mm. Dominique: So, did you always have the same sensei ? Um Fujima se nsei : Mm, eh, in the beginning, um, she's a Wakanami [ ryuu ] sensei now, um, but originally she was a Fujima sensei Originally, she was a Fujima sensei when I was seven years old Hmaround how old was I, I wonder? Er When I went to college, during th at time I kind of took a break. Therefore, from when I was seven years old, er, until I was 18 years old, um, I learned from, um, the same sensei but, mm, when I stopped while I went to college, from then on, because I was fairly quick, um, I graduated f rom college and, um, kind of immediately married. Mm, from there, I had a child, mm, that child was, mm, um, three four years old, I guess? Up to that point, there was much that I had missed, I was a blank slate. The years I was blank, ohabout ten year s maybe? Mm. From there, um, once more, I, um, began dancing a little comfortably and, just as I thought, because I was doing it myself, I remembered. Um, I felt that I really wanted to do this I had a name, but at that time the sensei I had learned f rom was no longer dancing [with the Fujima ryuu ]. Mm, what I mean is, um, various things happened and sensei though she was originally a Fujima, um, she switched. Though once she had been in a classical ryuu um, that was no longer the case. Now, she w as doing shin buyo I told you about that yesterday, right? Ka buyo shin buyo enka that sort of thing. In the Wakanami ryuu there are so many songs, and so, unfortunately, she changed ryuu 46 Dominique: Ah... Fujima sensei : Mm. She ch changed, sadly. Dominique: Is that right? Fujima sensei : Mm. From there, of course, I wanted to work in the Fujima ryuu so I went to the sensei I have now and asked her to take me. Dominique: Ah... I see. Fujima sensei : Mm. That's what happened. Dominique: So her ryu u changed. Fujima sensei : Mm. Her ryuu changed. She changed from "Fujima" to "Wakanami," that sensei did. Mm. Dominique: Can you do that? Fujima sensei : Mm. Dominique: Ah, is that right? Fujima sensei : I think, at the time, she would have made a donatio n to the iemoto to receive a Fujima name, right? And she no longer wishes to stay there, right? So she !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 45 This appears to have been intended as onomatopoeia describing the sound of the fan when it struck. 46 For more information on ka buyo and shin buyo and their d ifference from the classics, please see the literature review and the conclusion.

PAGE 112

! $-* goes to the iemoto once and says "I return this. I am no longer a Fujima." and from there, um, because she's no longer part of that ryuu she now prac tices as a Wakanami because her Fujima name is off limits. Dominique: I see, I see. Fujima sensei : To [the] Fujima [ ryuu ] you say, "I'm sorry, I won't use this name anymore," to not use the name. Once this is removed, you can partake in the Wakayami ryuu Yeah. So then, at that time, I, er, went to the original Kantoe sensei that is, her mother the original Kantoe sensei mm, and with her expertisemm. Mm Well, (She takes a long pause, looks at her hand holding the fan and taps it lightly on the t able in front of her.) Well, here we are, I guess. Dominique: Mm. Fujima sensei : Like that, I guess. Ah, mm. And from about this point I would learn from Kantoe sensei and then for about ten years with Kantoe sensei II of today Dominique: Ah Fujima s ensei : Mm I guess? Like that. Mm. Dominique: I I see. Fujima sensei : Mm. Mm. Dominique: Yeahthen, uh, be before, um, when we were with Kantoe sensei uh, Asato Fujima sensei : Mm. Ms. Asato, mm. Dominique: Um, after her practice, when you danced with, um, Kantoe sensei what was that? Fujima sensei : The song? Dominique: Song? Mm Fujima sensei : The so the music that Kantoe sensei II was dancing to? Dominique: Um Fujima sensei : The dan something about the dance? What do you want to know? Dominique: Ah, something a little different from that. Uh, how Was that your dance practice? Fujima sensei : Yes, yes, yes, yes, yes! My dance practice! Yes, yes, yes! It was my dance practice! Dominique: Ah! Is that right? Fujima sensei : Yes, yes, yes, yes. D ominique: Then, um, even after becoming a sensei how...you still have dance practices? Fujima sensei : Yes, yes, yes, yes. There are still so many songs I haven't learned. Dominique: Ah! Fujima sensei : You see, within the style there are a considerable am ount of songs. I don't think anyone could learn them all. The number is unattainably large. Dominique: Ah... Fujima sensei : Mm. Therefore, on your own though you do have the songs you like, um, your favorites those kind of songs? Of course, you have the songs that you like and those you don't care for so much, mm, of course because you have songs you don't care for so much, regardless you may accidentally choose the type of song you like, but...but really you can't just not try the types of songs you hate. Mm But

PAGE 113

! $-+ eventually when you look at the determination of other people, you think "I want to try that." or "I like this song." Mm. Afterwards, you watch, you listen, and then? You like the song, mm. Various meanings will, of course, because you know that no matter what, songs you like will come, no matter what, you will have situations like that. Mm. Dominique: Mm. I see. Fujima sensei : So, of course, those songs you feel bitter about? Mm, no matter what, you'll have them, and from there, in b etween, and from there, children's songs, and from there, mm, adult maiden songs. From there, you'll also have elderly style songs as well, so it takes a lot of determination to become like this: (She sinks her head into her chest a bit while clutching her fan close to her shoulders, like a cane.) Or like this: (Her head sinks lower and her face focuses up a bit and her face becomes grumpy and wrinkled.) and you have an elderly lady! And of course you also have men's dances. And those? Because there 's an amazing number of those, even if you were taught every day you couldn't learn them all. That many. Mm. Therefore, even when you become a shihan there are still a lot of new things to learn. Dominique: Ah Fujima sensei : Mm. Dominique: Therefore, um, in one week in one week, sensei um how many times do you practice? Fujima sensei : Ah, normally, yes, normally everyone practices once a week. Dominique: Once a week. Fujima sensei : Once a week. But when a performance draws near, after you'v e gone to practice a little and feel that you may not be able to do it yourself, you practice twice a week. Dominique: Ah I see. Fujima sensei : Um, in normal circumstances everyone more or less does one a week, one time a week. Mm. More or less. Domini que: Yes. Fujima sensei : Mm. Dominique: Therefore, mm, uh (I flip through my notebook.) a littleah! Um, is it okay if I use your real name? Fujima sensei : It's fine! It's okay because you asked. Dominique: I didn't ask earlier. Therefore (I continue to flip through my notebook.) therefore, when did you become a sensei ? Fujima sensei : Hmm (She mumbles under her breath.) Um twothreeseven years Hmm, because I received my shihan rank from Kantoe sensei I received it right after she beca me my sensei Dominique: Mm. Fujima sensei : About eight years about eight years ago? Maybe? Dominique: About eight years ago?

PAGE 114

! $-, Fujima sensei : Mm for eight years (She mumbles something too softly to be heard by my camera.) Eightah! A little earlier, a little earlier than that. Eh it happened right after I became a shihan Dominique: Mm. Fujima sensei : Therefore, nine years ten years? Nine or ten years ago. Mm, about that, when was it, I wonder? Mm. I believe it was bout six years before I taug ht you? Dominique: Right, right, right, right. Fujima sensei : Mm, therefore, yeah, therefore, it must have been eight yearseight yearsah, I don't know, was it nine years ago? Mm. Dominique: Ah... Fujima sensei : Mm. Dominique: Is that right? Fujima sense i : Mm. Dominique: (I flip pages in my notebook.) Therefore, yeah, of course, um, I already know this, but, um, do you have another job? Fujima sensei : Mm, I have one. Yeah. Um, no matter how well you do nihon buyo eh, because it's really a historical a rt, because it's very precious, you'd think that everyone would want to study it, but the idea of nihon buyo in these modern times, well, Japanese things, well, have a "high threshold." A "high threshold" meanit's hard to learn, when people train, they w atch, they take part, and they don't base their [opinions] only on this, but, um, once upon a time, a really long time ago it was something that only a rich, actual daughter of a high class family could learn. Mm. Now, um, it's something that a normal el ementary schools student could learn. Yeah. Mm, and, of course, once they think of that, when they think of n ihon buyo as something only for rich daughters of high class families to learn, when they think like that, everyone, you see (She makes a circle with her hands.) If that happens, that thought of learning nihon buyo considerably declines. Mm. Therefore, as [people who do nihon buyo ] become scarce become scarce, of course, you can't just teach nihon buyo with so few students, yeah, mm, no matte r how you try, you need to get a normal job. Yeah. Dominique: So, um, but a normal, um, of course, a normal elementary school student learning this but they don't learn nihon buyo But, um, it's really not just that, right? Um, that image Fujima se nsei : Right, right, right, right. Everyone knows that that's just an image, but because you have that image, [it affects the situation] considerably, yeah, right, right, right. Dominique: (I pause and fllip through my notebook.) Therefore, now, um, now among your apprentices, um, how many apprentices do you have? Fujima sensei : (She gestures gently to her chest.) Me? Dominique: Yes. Fujima sensei : Um I have six adult apprentices and eight child apprentices. Dominique: Ah... Fujima sensei : Mm. Dominique: Therefore, um, among your apprentices, names um, are there na na natori ?

PAGE 115

! $$! Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) I still don't have any natori Dominique: You don't have any there aren't any natori ? Fujima sensei : There aren't any natori yet. (She smiles, but she looks down at her knees.) Do minique: Is that right? Fujima sensei : There aren't any nator i yet. (She smiles, but the tone of her voice sounds disappointed.) Mm. Dominique: Is that right. Yes So, a normal practice, um, how much time, ho w, um, does it take? Fujima sensei : Mm. Um, for children, that's right, when they are alone they take about 20 minutes, because there's only one child. Yeah, because the children [you watched practice] earlier practiced as a pair, we practiced for about 40 minutes, yeah. Normally for children [practicing] alone is sufficient. Mm, so, because of that, when practicing the children learn, yeah, and if they learn, eh, 30 minutes or about 40 minutes for one child, about 30 40 minutes, like that. Mm. Um, of course, for little children, we can't [practice] for that amount of time. Mm. Dominique: Mm. That's true. So, how about adults? Fujima sensei : Adu mm, with adults with adults, 30 minutes. Mm. Dominique: So Fujima sensei : But, now, um, what you saw today, up in Daiwa in the North Japan newspaper company, from there, close to the park, Toyama newspaper company. Those studying [ nihon buyo ] at the Toyama newspaper company (She makes a circular motion with her hands, bringing them together and pus hing them slightly to her left.) because they meet as a club, their practices last an hour. Yeah. Dominique: So, it's not normally one on one Fujima sensei : Not exactly. In that sort of place, they have a culture club. Yeah. Generally (She g estures to her chest.) There's about six. (She points to six imaginary people, one at a time, with the ridge of her upright left hand.) Yeah. Dominique: Is that so? So that, um, are they close? Er, what I'm trying to ask is "Are you close with your a pprentices?" but Fujima sensei : No, mm, well, of course Dominique: I mean, there are six of them Fujima sensei : To say I am close with them, um, how can I put this, if I were to treat them like guests, of course, how can I put this, because it wouldn't do for me to show restraint to adults, of course, we couldn't do this if we couldn't have the sort of relationship that allows us to speak as friends, right? Mm. Therefore, also if I think they want to become good at dance, I would expect the apprentices to give it their all, that feeling would be mutual, and, mutually if nothing was said (She lifts the fan in her right hand.) "This should not be like this." ( She gestures with the fan.) "Like this." (She gestures with the fan slightly altered.) Say what needs to be said, mention when something should be raised, of course, we, often to you, because we really want to become good, "This," (She holds up her left hand closed.) "This should be properly raised." (She lifts her left hand into a more proper position.) like that, right? That is, yes, if I think that they don't care how they dance, I wouldn't correct them so much,

PAGE 116

! $$$ right? Mm. Ordinarily, um, it would not take a lot of time, and at 20 minutes, I would declare, "Okay, we're finished." And t hen, of course, in all of that I would think, "I have taught them this, from there they can dance." Yeah. Mm, so then I would say, "You remember it. Dance." And then they would have to learn it. Mm. Of course, um, how can I say this I wonder, always w hen we have a performance, for example, er, once a week would become [practice] twice a week, and in three months of freely practicing they would remember the entire dance for one song. From there, on about that situation for about the same period of time I would correct their dance. If I didn't do this, they wouldn't become good. Yeah, now the children that practiced in Daiwa today are not really remember remembering not really remembering yet, they seem like they don't remember it a little bit. They seem like they haven't memorized it yet. And from that point, on that occasion, I spend time correcting them. Mm. Um (She lifts her arm and grabs the under flap of her sleeve.) "This elbow is not right, you know." Or, properly (She gestures to her neck with the fan.) "You must properly return your neck to this position." (She holds the fan parallel to her knees and the table at an angle, holding her arm with the other hand.) "You must properly fix your knees." Right? And then (She holds her left arm above her face and fixes it.) "This goes to here." Of course those are the determinations that are okay to correct. Mm. Therefore remembering remembering is not as important as doing it correctly. Mm. Making stiff feet pretty is more i mportant. Mm. Dominique: Is that right? Fujima sensei : Mm. Dominique: So, um, are you, um, close to your sensei ? Fujima sensei : Oh yes. Hm, that is, you see, mm, that's difficult the Japanese is difficult, but do you understand "trust"? Dominique: Tru st? Fujima sensei : A relationship of mutual trust. Dominique: Relationship of mutual trust Fujima sensei : Yes, it is a relationship of mutual trust. That is, you see, how should I say this, hm How should I talk about trust I wonder? Mm. I think an ap prentice is cute. And that apprentice respects me. A relationship like that? Of course, if you don't have a good human relationship, mm, wouldn't that be bad? A relationship of mutual trust does not continue. Dominique: Ah... Fujima sensei : Mm. (At th is point, I look up shinrai ," or "trust" in my dictionary. The little dialogue from this event will be omitted.) Fujima sensei : I think that that is the kind of relationship they have, the apprentice and the sensei I think it is a relationship of mutu al trust. Mm. Dominique: Mm. I see. So, um, do your apprentices often have performances? Fujima sensei : Mm, they don't have performances often, yeah, not often, butlike I mentioned before, they spend three months on one song, that takes three months [i n

PAGE 117

! $$% order to correct it], right? Therefore the process takes six months. So to learn one song, it would take half a year, right? Dominique: Yes. Fujima s ensei : And so in one year, that would be two songs? Mm. They would be doing well [to be able to do tw o songs in one year.] And if its a long song, it would take more than three months to remember it properly. Dominique: Really? Fujima sensei : Mm, so if it takes half a year to remember the dance, it would then take the same time, a half year [to perfect], because you have to perfect [the dance]. Therefore it takes a year to learn the dance. (Her speech trails off.) Right? Dominique: I suppose so. Fujima sensei : Therefore, you can't really perform, mm, often, because in order to perform, of course, you h ave to become good at the dance Dominique: Oh! That's true, isn't it? Fujima sensei : Mm, right! Therefore, of course, if you don't get to where you can dance with confidence, you cannot dance in a performance. Mm. Dominique: So, do do you not perform often? Fujima sensei : Mm, um, I don't really, mm, how can I put this, I don't really care if I perform. For example, I have one in this upcoming August on the 12 th at the New Otani [Hotel], um Do you understand "class reunion"? Dominique: "Class reunio n"? I've heard that word before, but Fujima sensei : It happens after people in the same school year say "Bye bye" to each other. Five, 50 years after Dominique: Mm. Fujima sensei : Mm. At one of those things, um, one from my high school class, at that, um, class reunion, there, I'll perform There, of course, I'll dance a little bit? Mm. So that sort of thing, I'm do be doing, but of course that isn't really a performance, but, um, everyone knew that I became a sensei so, um, they asked me to perf orm there. Mm. I have that sort of thing. Mm. Dominique: So, um, how can I say this, this may become a little difficult, um, normally, um, how long, how many years does one study nihon buyo ? Fujima sensei : Well, trying to determine a "normal" period, ho w For example, if it's a child, from a very young age, for instance, well, among my current students, the youngest came when she was three three years old. And so, right now she's turned five, but, when they're still in elementary school they're fine, but once they become middle school students, they start their after school clubs. And then, from there, they get to where they can no longer come to dance practice, right? From there, of course, it's not how long they've been studying, that period in be tween elementary school and middle school is [when they stop], yeah, and the period between middle school and high school for instance. Yeah. During that time? Unfortunately they tend to stop, yes. Dominique: Really. Fujima sensei : Mm. Of course this i s because they're busy with school and studying. Mm. This is a little too bad, right? Mm. Adults will try it and see, find within themselves that feeling that they want to continue doing this. Mm. No matter how

PAGE 118

! $$& many how many years, there is no situat ion where one wants to "finish," because they always want to learn and there are always new songs to learn. Yeah. Therefore, it's not a matter of how many years they study, yeah, they study nihon buyo always until they die. Dominique: Ah... Fujima sens ei : Mm. They don't just say, "this is it." Mm. They definitely don't just say. "I'm finished now." (At this point, I ask a question that no one I interviewed could really answer. I will omit this currently, since I feel that the reason fir this lies i n my Japanese ability to find the proper term for "reputation" rather than actual significance.) Dominique: Um, do you think that nihon buyo has changed recently? Fujima sensei : Mm. Of course, the way it's learned those who think they'll try and learn nihon buyo because nihon buyo is formal and strict, for those who do kaiyo buyo or that shin buyo everyone tends to think those styles are easier to learn. Mm, therefore, you see, those who think "I'll try," they don't always just try nihon buyo Those who go here and there Those kinds of people are common, mm, those are the most numerous. Mm. Dominique: Is that right? Fujima sensei : Mm but those, mm, those kinds of sensei exist but of course these, the classics, are the foundation, the basics. Domin ique: Mm. Fujima sensei : Mm, but, you know, this people who only know this such as my current sensei who was once a Fujima but is now a Wakanami ryuu [member], she always had a sense of these basics firmly in her body. However, from the beginning, t hose who only know this [as in things such as shin buyo ], mm, that is to say, they do not hold those basics in their bodies. Mm, but, something like, that is, how can I say it I wonder? How can I say, more so than study, the truth is the truth is, well they really want to have fun. Mm. Therefore, it's not that one wants to become skillful, with no basics, there can be no wanting to become skillful. Fun. They want to have fun (She gestures to the imaginary group on her left, representing those who want to have fun.) Dominique: Right, right. Fujima sense i: Mm, but, of course, if you learn the basics, little by little, um, you level up, if you think like this, of course, you come here, to the classics. Mm. (She gestures to the imaginary group on he r right, representing those who study the classics.) Dominique: I see. Fujima sensei : But, in current times, in learning, more of them come here [to shin buyo ]. (This explanation has been done with gestures to her right and left with open hands facing eac h other, fingers closed. The group on the left represents those who come in just for fun and the group on the right represents more serious students.) There are definitely more people here. Mm. What I mean is, because it is strict here [in nihon buyo ], people quit. Mm. No matter what. Mm.

PAGE 119

! $$' Dominique: So (I look in my notebook.) I see. So, um, this, um, how do you feel about modernize -modernizing nihon buyo with things like shin buyo ? Fujima sensei : Mm, that, um This modernizing of which we s peak, that is, how can I say, that what I'm currently talking about that shin buyo for instance? That's not really modernization, originally knowing these basics was formerly the job of the iemoto And then the iemoto that is to say, as yesterday Ka ntoe sensei mentioned that, um, because in Tokyo male apprentices are very common, those ryuu for example the Hanakawa ryuu or the Fujima ryuu for instance, they have collaborations, with kabuk i kabuki actors, for instance [because only men can particip ate in kabuki ]. For instance, they do things in, say, New York, mmthings like that. Um, because things like that were successfully done, of course, they wouldn't survive doing the basics, if they only did the basics. Therefore, the meaning in that is, if they were to return to the basics, those revisions, those changes, if they didn't, of course, mm, persevere, they would only be able to perform the classics. In that case, of course, they would lose interest. Mm, of course, because of that, mm, but be cause if we were to do that kind of thing, in this kind of rural area, it would, of course, cause the breakdown of nihon buyo yeah. Of course, in Tokyo these distinguished kabuki actors and those of about their level, of course, produce these [new dances ]. There is interest in this, as we say, new buyo is, of course, um, people think it is interesting. Mm. That is, of course, because people want to see something beyond the basics. Mm. Dominique: Soah! Um, so, the act of making a dance, um, a bit, um, of course, there was a question about that, butI'd like to return to the sensei /apprentice." When choosing which song to teach an apprentice, how do you choose which song? Fujima sensei : Mm, that's right! You see, of course, if the apprentice is a child, children, of course, have age appropriate songs. Of course this ranges from three year olds to ten year olds, and after that, when they've become about middle school age, songs without dancesthe kinds of dances they do are, of course, different. They are gentle, or easy, songs and, of course, because there are different kinds of songs, of course, from there, year to year, there are dances that meet everyone's needs. And from there, when the apprentice is an adult, um, of course, after that person 's tried [ nihon buyo ] a littlewell, there are people who, even having taught them a little even a tiny bit they can immediately dance, and people who even if you teach them for a long time, they still really can't dance Dominique: Mm. Fujima sensei : And from there, there are people who even after a little teaching, maybe having seen the dance only three times, who are able to master that dance. From there, you have those who, even after being shown the dance ten times, still go "Eh? Eh?" (She shrug s her shoulders and tilts her head as though confused as she says this, imitating someone who is having a difficult time understanding a dance.) Of course, because there are various types of people Dominique: Right. Fujima sensei : Mm, therefore, of cour se, taking into account the level of those people, you show them a song and ask, "How is this song?" This is because you feel that this song this song fits the level of the person you are asking. This, they decide for

PAGE 120

! $$( themselves you ask them, "Domini que, how do you like this song," like this. Yeah. That is to say, everyone has his or her own inspiration. Mm. But, you know, there are people who don't really know themselves, and for those people, it's better that you pick their songs. Dominique: Ah. .. Fujima sensei : Mm, but, you know, for those who haven't who haven't yet learned many songs, mm, because there are so many songs one has to learn, there might be a song that suits this person, this person could learn this song, but, look, they only kno w two songs, so they can't choose this, right? Dominique: Mm. Fujima sensei : Right. Yeah. That is to say what I mean is, wait until this person's repertoire has many more songs. Mm. From there, give that person the song that you thought suited them. Yeah. Dominique: So, do you have a favorite song? Fujima sensei : Mine is, er, Ryuusei ." Dominique: Ryuusei. Fujima sensei : Ryuusei is something I performed when you were away, um, I showed it to you, right? On the videoum Dominique: Right, ri ght! Fujima sensei : Mm. That that is my favorite. The one where I wore the masks? Right, right, right, right, right. Dominique: I enjoyed that very much. (I laugh.) Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Mm. I believe, that's the one I like the most Domi nique: Mm. I see. Er, so, um, I'm sorry but I have to askin dance, between a master ( shishou ) and a sensei um, what do you think is different? Fujima sensei : Mm, um, mm, yesterday Kantoe sensei told you this, but, mm, but, you know, um, how can I s ay this? Se how I would describe this, I have strong feelings about this, and having strong feelings about this, a master, as you say, is, of course, something only found in traditional Japanese culture. This is, for example, a piano teacher, or a swim ming teacher Ah, you wouldn't call those people masters, right? Dominique: Right. Fujima sensei : Yeah. But I think, you know, of course, that in nihon buyo for instance, or tea ceremony, umcalligraphy, those, of course, those sensei precisely, might b e called masters. Dominique: Yeah. Fujima sensei : Yeah. To phrase it further, it is a little different to say that the word sensei describes these people accurately. Mm. My own, um, use of the term "master," the qualifications of a "master" in my eyes areof course, how can I put this? It means that I really hold this person in high esteem, I guess. To be called a master is, mm, yeahto be called a sensei means, look, "someone who was born before," right? (She is referring to the kanji of the word sensei. ") Dominique: Yeah. Fujima sensei : You write the word sensei with the kanji "born" and "before," right? Dominique: Right, right, right, right.

PAGE 121

! $$) Fujima sensei : Mm. Ordinarily, usually it's not just that they were born before, of course, how can I s ay this, it's that you can give this person your reverence. That this mm this person is, in a way in what way, really, in a way, you really want to learn from them! I think it's like that. Yeah. A person like that. Yeah. Ordinarily it's not jus t that the person had been born before you, mm. Dominique: Right. Fujima sensei : What I mean by that is, mm, of course, within Japanese traditional arts, I told you not to call me sensei ," but to call me "master," right? Because, of course, though that i sn't the phrasing commonly used, I thought it was important that you knew of it. Mm. Normally everyone only uses sensei but, of course, within the world of dance, to say "master" echoes in a kind way, right? Yeah. But still, if I didn't ask you to ca ll me that, um, that phrase brought us closer. Currently no one uses the phrase "master." Yeah, so, mm, the level of this may be difficult, but, I like the sound of this, the phrase "master" has a gentle sound? I like this. I think the word would have been left behind. Mm. Like that? Mm. Dominique: That's true, isn't it? Yes. So, between the term "student" and "apprentice," what do you think is different? Fujima sensei : Ah, of course, hmm that is the same as the same as what I said about the terms sensei and "master." Dominique: Really? Fujima sensei : Yeah. Between "student" and "apprentice," ah, a student is really someone who learns who learns from a sensei (In this case sensei means teacher.) Dominique: Really. Fujima sensei : Those who learn from masters are apprentices. Dominique: Yes. 47 Fujima sensei : Mm. (She laughs.) Therefore, how can I put this, I wonder, er, maybe like thisbetween a sensei and a student, Dominique: Yes. Fujima sensei : A student learns practical things from a teacher. Dominique: Mm. Fujima sensei : In that process the student learns in order to master something, something specific. It's that sort of relationship. But between a master and apprentice, the mentoring portion of instruction, mm, in that instructi on, yeah, it isn't just technique, yeah, in that sort of instruction, you learn, for instance, that you don't wear shoes in the performance area, or how to properly greet someonethose kinds, those kinds of things --that isn't just dance, right? Etiquet te such as this? Yeah. A master teaches all this, the behavior etiquette or the etiquette in bowing, if you teach all of these, whenever I think of nihon buyo yeah, for instance"Take this." (She holds up her fan.) "Do this like this." (She gestures with her fan.) It's not only that. Mm. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 47 The meaning behind this conversation is more significant in Japanese, as the word sensei means both teacher in a classroom, and master of an art, as I discussed in the fi rst chapter. It is important to mention here, however, that the term shishou implies significantly more mastery than sensei when used in the sense of traditional arts.

PAGE 122

! $$* One could say that one can do all of that when they first start studying nihon buyo Mm. But now I think that has meaning when I do it. Of course, this is the kind of relationship I think master and apprentice h ave. Mm. Therefore, with a teacher and a student, it becomes like, "Okay, now our time is up. This is all we do today." "Yes, this is what I came for. Yes. Goodbye." And that's it. Mm. It's that kind of relationship. Yeah. Dominique: So, naturall y, it's different, isn't it? Um, the relationship between teacher and student and master and Fujima sensei : Master and student. Yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, right, right, right. That's right. That's right. Dominique: That's why I'm studying the differ ence between these relationship s. Fujima sensei : Right, right, right, right, right. That concept. Yes, yes, yes, yes. Therefore, maybe, maybe that part is the most precious? Dominique: Right. Mm. Fujima sensei : Mm, further, now in dance, mm, things suc h as, for instance, changing into one's kimono walking on tatami things like greeting someone in the entrance of a building, mm, things like that, mmmm, there are many different types of things, right? Mm. Dance is just one of the things taught. Mm. Dominique: Mm, I see. Soso, um, have you, um, studied any traditional arts besides, um, nihon buyo ? For instance calligraphy or tea ceremony? Or have you only studied nihon buyo ? Fujima sensei : Now now I'm only studying nihon buyo But, when I was little, I studied calligraphy, and from there, um, before I married, of course, I studied tea ceremony and flower arrangement equallymm. How long was that? About two years I wonder? Mm. In finding a person? Mm. It really was only the basics. Yeah, I did these about every day. Mm. That was, you know, the Japanese bride training. Bride training. Um, it comes before a wedding, yeah. Dominique: Ah, I've heard of this. Fujima sensei : Yeah, bride training. Yeah. Mm, therefore, when finding a person well, dance is a little different, but, tea ceremony, for instance, or flower arrangement, mm, those sorts of things are, of course, not things people would talk about now. They wouldn't say it now, no one would mention it now, but these were things tha t had to be studied, oh! And also cooking These are, of course, the things you would study for about two or three years before marrying properly learn them; get a feeling for them to the point of your own tolerance level. That sort of thing. Mm and af ter, of course, in doing it, it was better to do it cleanly. And then, with dance, I mentioned this already, because one had the desire to try, this comes about a little differently, of course. If you wanted to become able to put on a kimono yourself, um whatever follows suit it was decided that the fact that you are learning is definitely better than not learning. Mm. That sort of thing. Mm. Dominique: Is that so? Soexcuse me, I'm asking so many questions, but, ahso, um, if you try nihon buyo a nd continue to study it, um, then stopwhen you return to nihon buyo do you, um, return to the same sensei ? Fujima sensei : Yes, yes, yes. You really want to return. You really want to return to the same sensei Yeah. You want to return to that relatio nship of mutual trust [that we

PAGE 123

! $$+ discussed] earlier. Because you don't know what kind of sensei your new sensei will be, mm, the truth is, the sensei from before, the same sensei is better to study with. Mm. Dominique: That's true, isn't it? Soso, um, h ave you had that happen to you yet? Um, as in, an apprentice who stopped studying with you came back? Fujima sensei : Um, that hasn't happened to me yet. That hasn't happened to me yet, right? Mm. But, Kantoe sensei has, of course, er, had someone who h ad studied as a child re return after graduating from college, I believe. Mm. Dominique: I see. So, so, um, of course you have children, right? Fujima sensei : Yeah. Yeah. Dominique: Umhow can I put this, um, there are two daughters Fujima sensei : Yea h. Currently, right? Recently, right? Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Dominique: So, um, Yuuki, um, your daughter, um, did she dance? Fujima sensei : Right, right, right, right, right. Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah. Dominique: So is she still dancing? Fujima sensei : No, s he isn't. She isn't. Mm. ( She laughs.) Dominique: That's too bad. So, um, there's one more Fujima sensei : Ah, Mayuu? Right now, you see, Mayuu is in Kyushu. Dominique: That's right, isn't it? Fujima sensei : Mm. Therefore, she never dances anymore. Yeah. Dominique: So then, did Mayuu ever study dance? Fujima sensei : Mayuu never did. She is my child, but Mayuu absolutely never had any interest in it. Dominique: Is that so? Fujima sensei : Absolutely no interest in it. But Yuuki had a little interest. Ah, but you see, if I had taught her, she might have a little interest alone, but now because she's working, um, she doesn't have a lot of time, so it's not possible, but, um, of course, she's my child, she has a little interest, but unless she has time, mm. Dominique: Mm, so about how long did Yuuki study nihon buyo ? Fujima sensei : Ah, it wasn't that long. Mmit wasn't five or six years? Dominique: Oh really? Fujima sense i: Mm. Dominique: I see. Er, then, with yourself as master, how was it to teach he r? Fujima sensei : Er, the truth is that, if I really want my own children to become skilled [in nihon buyo ], I would not teach them myself. Dominique: Oh Fujima sensei : I would ask a sensei from another place. That's the truth. If I didn't, of course, there would be dependence on the kindness between parent and child. 48 Dominique: Ah, that's true, isn't it. Fujima sensei : There would be favoritism and fighting. Yeah. But, you know, if I really wanted my own child to become skilled, I would pass her of f to another sensei Mm. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 48 In Japanese, Fujima sensei referred to amae which is the dependent relationship between a parent, particularly the mother and her child based around kindness.

PAGE 124

! $$, Dominique: So then Yuuki was with another sensei ? Fujima sensei : No, Yuuki was taught by me and then her lessons abruptly stopped. But if she had wanted to continue, if she wants to continue, I would ask another sensei if she c ould teach her, but so far she has not. Dominique: Ah, is that so? I see. Soso, um, this may be a little late, but what kind of person was your sensei ? Fujima sensei : My current sensei you see, mm, what kind of person, what kind of personwhat kind of personum, you met Kantoe sensei yesterday, but Dominique: Mm. Fujima sensei : Her mother? Dominique: Yeah. Fujima sensei : It was amazing, she was really skilled at dance, you know? And she, she was really endeared by everyone for how good she was at danc e. And because I knew her, I know that even more so than the current Kantoe sensei the original Kantoe sensei was better at dance. Yeahno matter what, yeah, no matter what, like her daughter, um, yeah, however, mmhowever, of course, because she was th e current Kantoe sensei 's parent, the current Kantoe sensei was taught many thingsright? Yeah. So many different kinds of things, because she was so skilled, there were many things that were kind of like hints. Of course, because I was taught by her, t here was an amazing amount of meaning in them, and I could study all kinds of things. Yeah. Yeah. Um, but look, there were, you see, problems in her old age, and that she had to pass could not be helped. No. Well, she was the most like a real master, you see, um The original Kantoe sensei was, of course, the most skillful, however, of coursebecause of that, look, my strong feelings about this now, you would sayI am teaching this culture in Toyama newspaper company and in the North Japan newspaper c ompany, in the two newspaper companies, right? If there was not that sort of culture, it would be just one on one [during a lesson], right? Mm, but you know, even with that sort of meaning, how can I say this? It would be a little morelike that image t hat only rich daughters from wealthy families can learn this, right? But that's not true. Mm. How can I say this, it's a little more relaxed? Comfortable? To be able to learn is, of course, something that's come with present times, right? Because tha t kind of culture is from these kinds of times, because these times are more relaxed, now no matter what happens, no matter how I've thought of it, of course, I only want to dance to those classics form long ago. That is to say, I only want to dance the c lassics, but, of course, I can't just do that, I also have to instruct this culture's essence. Yeah. I have no choice but to learn. Mm. Mm. Therefore, mm, even with that meaning, of course, um, you could say it's a new feeling? Of course, no matter w hat, um, things like that will come out, mm. She personally liked the basics, but she also put the new essence, um, in her dance. That's the kind of sensei she was. Yeah. Dominique: Is that right? So, um ah! So, um, are you, uh, close with your Fuj ima siblings? Fujima sensei : Right. Dominique: Um, because the lessons are one on one, are you close to your siblings?

PAGE 125

! $%! Fujima sensei : A dance practice is one on one, but even if dance practice is one on one, in the time before or after practice, we may tal k with each other, um, we drink tea together, yeah, and then, for instance, we all help each other during a performance, yeah. Yeah. Right, right, right, right. Like that. Um, because we're siblings in dance. Yeah. We're close, you know. Yeah. Domin ique: Oh really? Then, um, do you act kind of like real siblings? Fujima sensei : Mm, right, right, right, right. We act like real siblings. Right, right, right, right. Therefore, look, yesterday Kantoe sensei said "She's already like my daughter," righ t? Dominique: Right. Fujima sensei : Yeah, therefore, I think of Asato like my little sister. Mm. Dominique: I see. Fujima sensei : Yeah. Like that. Yeah. Dominique: So, um, this is a question of names, um, what is your real name? Fujima sensei : Akiho. Do minique: Akiho Aikawa and, um, your Fujima ryuu name is Kaoru Fujima. When do you use "Kaoru Fujima" and when do you, um, use "Akiho Aikawa?" Fujima sensei : Well, of course, during dance, without exception I use my Fujima name, yeah, and every other time, I use my Aikawa name, you see. Yeah. Therefore, eh, the name is only for dance, you see. Yeah. Yeah. Kaoru Fujima is my stage name. Stage name. Dominique: Stage name. Fujima sensei : Right. Stage name. Dominique: Yes. Fujima sensei : Yeah. Therefor e, within that art, that is the name which refers to me while I'm dancing. Dominique: Right. Fujima sensei : Therefore, as a dance thing in the reverse situation, if its not a dance situation, I wouldn't use my Fujima name. Dominique: Ah... Fujima sensei : Yeah. Beyond that, really, in everyday life, I am alsonow, I am a dance master, and a certified professional as well. Dominique: Right. Fujima sensei : But my hobby, my hobby isI like ballroom dancing. It interests me. Dominique: Yeah? Fujima sensei : T hen, when I do ballroom dancing, I use the name "Aikawa." Yeah. Right? Dominique: Ah! Right. That's right, isn't it? I didn't ask you this, um, do you do any kinds of dance outside of nihon buyo ? Fujima sensei : (She nods.) I'm still doing other kinds of dance. Yeah, right now I'm interested in kyomi dance right now. Dominique: Kyomi dance? Fujima s ensei : Yeah, therefore, in kyomi dance, look, you compete in matches. Um, you start at "F," and from "F" you go up to "E," then to "D," then to "C." Domi nique: Right.

PAGE 126

! $%$ Fujima sensei : You always go by these ranks, but, yeah, I joined this year. From this February, I started kyomi dance. Now I'm a C rank. Dominique: Ah Fujima sensei : Yeah. Dominique: Is that so? Fujima sensei : Mm, and there are no ranks li ke this in normal dance, right? Dominique: That's true, isn't it? Fujima sensei : Mm, because there are no ranks, that is to say, there is a little bit of a ranking system, and when you gain a little rank, you become very happy. Dominique: Ah Fujima sensei : Yeah. Dominique: I see. Fujima sensei : But there really aren't these sort of ranks in dance, right? Dominique: That's true. Fujima sensei : There are performances, but at performances, there isn't such a tense feeling. Yeah. But in dance, you see, of co urse there is a tense feeling. Often often you have this, but that is because there will be evaluation and tense remarks, right? Therefore, this is a circumstance where you, yourself, try harder, and, of course, when you try harder, you see, umyou gai n more confidence. Therefore, I think it would be a little bit of a good thing if dance ( nihon buyo ) had this sort of system. Yeah. Dominique: That's true. Fujima sensei : If this, you see, um, had gradual ranks, if you went to this point (She holds her right hand, palm down, in front of her chest.) and then went to this point (She moves her hand a little higher.) that is a natori, and then a shihan You become this, but it's not very much, right? There's not a large span of ranks. Mm. Dominique : That's true, isn't it? Fujima sensei : Therefore, if we, for instance had someone like a beginning student progress little by little to a second year, challenged his or her self in this way, to pass this wouldand then later, even though he or she wasn't able to pass, just by following, he or she would try to pass! That's what I'm thinking of. Of course, if we had that, of course, I wonder if that would give more feeling to dancing? I think it would, but you knowyeah. I wouldn't make it free. But, yo u know, with this meaning, of course, when performing, even if it were a little performance, it would also be a little accomplishment. Yeah. But, um, it would be nice to have many ranks, butmm, but that would be considerably a little more difficult, I w onder? Yeah. Dominique: Do you think so? Fujima sensei : Then is such a chance a good thing? Dominique: It seems so. Fujima sensei : Mm. Right, right, right, right. (From here, Fujima sensei speaks more on the possibility of a ranking system in nihon buy o, but, as it is more or less repetitive of the paragraph above, I have chosen to omit it to avoid redundancy.)

PAGE 127

! $%% Dominique: Well, this interview has become long. Please excuse me for its length. Fujima sensei : Eh, it's okay. Dominique: Thank you very mu ch for speaking with me. Fujima sensei : Ah, yes, yes.

PAGE 128

! $%& Interview # 4 Ikiko Takeda and Chizuru Orisaka July 23, 2011 This interview followed the dance practice of Ikiko Takeda, and Chizuru Orisaka, two deshi of Kaor u Fujima. They are two of what is sometimes a group of six women who meet in the tatami room of the Toyama newspaper company, a multipurpose building, every Saturday night to study nihon buyo Though this is the first time I've ever attended one of their practices in full, I had already met Ikiko Takeda six years ago, when Fujima sensei decided to hold one of my dress rehearsals in this same room, before this group's Saturday night class. Though these students have been studying with Fujima sensei for so me time, they are casual students, and so there was a relaxed mood throughout this interview. While I prefer a relaxed interview to an overly formal one, however, because everyone laughed quite a bit, some answers were not recorded clearly by my camera. It should also be noted that during the interview, my camera was held by Fujima sensei who, as was the case in the interview with Kantoe sensei and Asato Fujima, there are times that she was a little loud in her participation in the conversation. This mad e Ikiko and Chizuru a little difficult to hear at times. If something was unclear, I have omitted it to avoid misunderstanding. Dominique: Once again, I would like to thank you for doing this interview for me. Ikiko: You're welcome. (She bows in my dire ction.) (Both of them laugh.) Dominique: I can stop this research at any time, so if you don't want to, um, answer a question, please say "pass," okay? Chizuru: (She laughs.) Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Dominique: It's not really that bad, I just, um, h ave to say that. Chizuru: I understand. Yes. Dominique: So, then, first of all What are your names? Chizuru: Go for it. (She gestures to Ikiko.) Fujima sensei : Mm. Ikiko: I am Ikiko Takeda. Chizuru: I am Chizuru Orisaka. Dominique: Yes. Chizuru: She g ot it, right? Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Ikiko: Would it be better to ask in English? D ominique: That's not necessary. Chizuru: (She laughs.) Dominique: Soah, that's right, isn't it? Um, so...you haven't taken names in nihon buyo right? Ikiko: Mm. We haven't taken a name yet.

PAGE 129

! $ %' Chizuru: (She nods.) Fujima sensei : Mm, mm. Dominique: Yesso This may be rude for me to ask, but, um, how old are you? Excuse me. Fujima sensei : Mm. Ikiko: (She explodes into laughter.) Fujima sensei : (She also laughs.) Chizu ru: (She hits Ikiko on the shoulder.) Do we look that old? (She laughs.) Ikiko: 39. Dominique: Ah. Chizuru: 56. Dominique: Yes. (Everyone laughs.) Ikiko: (She points to Chizuru.) It's like we're competing! Chizuru: That's a little weird [to say] Soon I'll be 57, but now I'm only 56. (Everyone laughs again.) Dominique: Soright. So, um, what are your professions? Ikiko: Um, I, myself, have a desk job. Yeah, that's right. Chizuru: I work at a store, a general store. Dominique: Ah... Is that so? Chiz uru: Yes. Dominique: Sothen, from here we'll be entering, um, more of a discussion about nihon buyo Chizuru: Yes. Dominique: So, when did you start your study of nihon buyo ? Ikiko: (She looks to Chizuru.) When was it? Well, because I was around 30 or 3 1 when I started It's already beeneight years? Fujima sensei : Eight years? It's been about seven or eight years, hasn't it? Ikiko: Mm Dominique: Is that right? Chizuru: As for meup to now, it's been about three years, hasn't it? Fujima sensei : Mm. Ch izuru: When I was a child, when I was small, I learned [ nihon buyo ] a little. Bam, bam, bam, I studied it [steadily] for a little [while]. Dominique: Yes. Chizuru: And then, wellmy child came Dominique: Yes. Chizuru: and time [with the child] became mo re important than my time Dominique: Yes. Chizuru: and about three years ago, I came to this sensei to learn nihon buyo [again]. Dominique: AhI see. So thenright, why did you want to study nihon buyo ? Ikiko: The most important [reason] was because I l ike it. (She laughs.) Dominique: Ah, that's true, isn't it?

PAGE 130

! $%( Ikiko: I like it andit's pretty, isn't it? Andits a little exercise for my brain. (She gestures to her temple with her right finger, poking it as she says this. She laughs loudly.) Dominique : (I laugh.) Ikiko: It's fun, you know. After thatyeshmm? It's [one of the] beautiful [things]of Japan? It's a beautiful thing of the Japanese. Dominique: Yes. Ikiko: I think so, yeah, nihon buyo is such, butjust these points alone, that's not enoug h to explain [it], I think. [It's] like kabuki Dominique: Right. Ikiko: It [kabuki] is pretty, isn't it? That's another reason, I wonder? Alsooh, because [I can wear] kimono right? (She laughs loudly.) Chizuru: (She laughs and puts her hands up to b rush across her face.) Fujima sensei : Um, her specialty, Dominique, um, this girl? She's a professional kitsuke 49 Dominique: Oh, really? Fujima sensei : Yeah, kitsuke Um, the kimono because she's a professional kitsuke she can help dress people in kimon o for, for instance, the coming of age ceremony, or other things like that. 50 Therefore, she has an interest in kimono You see? Dominique: Ah Ikiko: We can both [put on kimono ], right? Dominique: Yes. Sodo you feel the same about this? Chizuru: For me when I was a child, because I liked kimono I learned to wear them. Dominique: Yes. Chizuru: Therefore, [to me], someone who was able to wear kimono a daughter from a rich family who was able to wear kimono Look, if I studied nihon buyo I thought tha t I would become good at putting the kimono on neatly. Ikiko: You passed [that test]. (She laughs.) Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Ikiko: I can put on kimono right? (She laughs.) Dominique: Indeed. Chizuru: Therefore, mm, of courseof course, after reachi ng my age, even after [being someone who] exercises, this becomes more or less exercise. So I am able to exercise [with nihon buyo .] And after thatit's true, it keeps my mind sharp. Of course, you know if you learn something and use your head, and reme mber things Dominique: That's true, isn't it? Fujima sensei : Mm. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 49 A kitsuke is someone who helps dress someone in kimono on formal occasions. Since many young Japanese no longer wear kimono to formal occasions, they often rent a kimono an d may hire a kitsuke for help in dressing for these occasions. 50 In the January of the year that young Japanese men and women turn 20 years old, they attend a special coming of age ceremony in their area. For this ceremony, the women usually dress in fu risode meaning long sleeved kimono or hakama the pleated kimono skirts also worn by men.

PAGE 131

! $%) Chizuru: That sort of thing is, of course, why studying the traditional arts is good for you, I think. Dominique: Ah Chizuru: I also love nagauta and I seem to like the shamisen also. Domin ique: Ah, is that right? Chizuru: Yes. Dominique: Ah Ikiko: But, of course this one would! (She says as she gestures to Chizuru.) Dominique: Ah Ikiko: She sings while she dances, you know. (Everyone laughs.) Dominique: Oh, that's amazing. So then Ikik o: What is she thinking? (She whispers.) Dominique: Ah, that's rightdo you have a personal motivation for studying nihon buyo ? Ikiko: (She mumbles to herself.) Like taking a name (She speaks in a louder voice.) The truth is that I want to take a name but, if only I had moneyright? (She laughs.) Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Ikiko: That, and if only I had the time, you know? To start withhow can I say this? Fundamentalfundamentally? Dominique: Yes. Ikiko: I would like to move in a pretty fashion, I would like [my movements] to flourish, and so I'd like to learn to do so properly. Dominique: Ah... Fujima sensei : Mm. Chizuru: Well, at at this point, I've already told you, more or less. (Ikiku and I laugh.) Chizuru: Now I don't want to go as far as t o take a name, but of course, learning to dance is fun. Fujima sensei : Mm. Dominique: Ah, I see. Chizuru: It's fun. Dominique: Yes. Ikiku: There are definitely a lot of reasons, right? Fujima sensei : Mm. Ikiku: I believe it's fun to learn. Mm Dominique: Thenoh, that's right. Was there a particular reason you chose to study the Fujima ryuu ? Ikiku: Ah, that's right. Because this sensei was here! (She gestures to Fujima sensei with open, outstretched arms as she says this, and laughs.) Chizuru: Right. That's it. (She nods.) Dominique: I understand. So, um, right, umyou practice aboutonce a week, is it? Ikiku: (She nods.) More or less, yes. Chizuru: Once a week.

PAGE 132

! $%* Ikiku: Once a week. (She says this in English.) Right? (She says this in Japanese.) Dominique: Once a week? Chizuru: Once a week (She says this in English as she holds up her finger. I would like to point out that there wasn't an issue in comprehension on my part as much as I was clarifying what I had heard.) Dominique: Yeah, yeah. I understand. Yes, yes. So thene every week? Ikiku: We practice every week. Dominique: Ah, is that right? Yes, I understand. Then, how about performances? Ikiku: More or less, we have one a year. Fujima sensei : That's right. Without exception. Dominiqu e: Ah. Fujima sensei : And when you have an occasion, right? Ikiku: (She says something, but it's muffled by Fujima sensei 's voice. She laughs.) Fujima sensei : Mm. Mm. Ikiku: It's usually like that. Fujima sensei : If we have a place, usually. Mm Dominiq ue: Sodo you practice by yourselves? Not like an official practice, but reviewing. Ikiko: (She kinds of looks to her knees as she smiles.) Well Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Ikiko: I won't look at Kaoru sensei 's face! (She says this while laughing.) Ch izuru: When there's a performancebefore the performance. Ikiku: Yes. Chizuru: Before the performance, we practice. Dominique: Yes. Chizuru: Because we think we'll forget. Dominique: Yes. Chizuru: When we're alone Dominique: Yes. Chizuru: It's kind of mo ttled (She laughs.) Dominique: Is that right? Ikiko: The sensei doesn't have to be there. Everyone has sort of a makeshift practice. We've done it before. (She nods.) Dominique: Ah So, do you two normally have dance practice two at a time? Ikiko: We ll, here, it depends on the number of people, three people, however many we have at a time It's adjusted to the students. Fujima sensei : Yeah. Yeah. Here, it's not one on one. Mm, mm. Dominique: So, um, that's right... Are all the students close? I kiko: We're close. Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Ikiko: We're close. Chizuru: Well, for instance, we'll all go eat together, that sort of thing. Fujima sensei : Mm

PAGE 133

! $%+ Ikiku: Right, right, right, right. Like that. And even if they're not here, even with the p eople who have stopped coming, we might eat a meal together, or invite them to our performances, for instance. Dominique: Ah Is that so? Ikiku: It's like that, you know. Dominique: Ah, really? That's good, isn't it? Okay, well, from here on we'll enter into a discussion about sensei but since your sensei is taking the video right here Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Go ahead. Dominique: It's a little awkward Fujima sensei : Well, everyone Ikiko: Should we go somewhere else? Or not look at her? (She a sks this holding her hand to the side of her face.) Fujima sensei : Eh? No, that's fine. Dominique: No, we can still do this. (Everyone laughs.) Dominique: I wonder how this will be? It won't be anything bad, but this thesis is really about the relationsh ip of m mutual Ikiko: Mutual trust. 51 Dominique: between sensei and apprentice. Because I want to understand this relationship Ikiko: Mm Dominique: Therefore, I have to ask some questions about that. Ikiko: Mm Dominique: So, therefore, um, have you al ways studied with Fujima sensei ? That is to say, have you always studied with the same sensei ? Ikiko: (She nods.) Chizuru: Well, from this point in my life, right? Dominique: I understand. Sothe next question is, what kind of person is your sensei ? But you're still right in front of your sensei (Fujima sensei and Ikiko laugh.) Fujima sensei : She's like a demon, right? Chizuru: My sensei is, well, she's like my friend. Ikiko: She's a mentor. A mentor. But, we're comfortable [with each other]. Dominiqu e: Yes. Ikiko: Right. Chizuru: Because she's quick to tell us when we're wrongand she's nice enough to teach us. Dominique: Yes. Chizuru: Yes, but she's skilled in teaching, isn't she? (She looks to Ikiko.) !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 51 The reason she knows what I'm about to say is partially due to sentence structure in Japanese, which follows the "subject object verb" formula, but also because t here is a specific phrase for the "relationship of mutual trust" between sensei and disciple in Japanese, shinrai kankei ," written in Japanese as

PAGE 134

! $%, Dominique: Yes. Chizuru: She teaches children t oo. Ikiko: Yes, she loves children, and Chizuru: Yes. Ikiko: She has times where she is strict, and she has times when she's kind She's very skillful at doing this. Dominique: Yes. That's true, isn't it? Soah, yes, are you close with your sensei ? Iki ko: We're close. Chizuru: We're close. (Ikiko and Chizuru laugh.) Dominique: Yes. Sooh, right, do you sometimes talk with your sensei about subjects other than dance? Ikiko: Mm. We often do. Dominique: Oh really? Ikiko: (She laughs and nods.) Yes. Domi nique: I wondered about that. Ikiko: Things like, "I need a good boyfriend," or Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Dominique: Ah Ikiko: Various things. (She laughs.) Dominique: I see. Chizuru: Various things. Ikiko: Right? We do things like that. Yes. Domin ique: Oh really? Chizuru: And we invite her to come eat with us, right? (She says this to Ikiko.) Dominique: Ah Ikiko: We talk about our jobs Chizuru: Yes. Dominique: Is that so? Sooh, yes, from here this is more about what you think, butwhat do yo u think is the difference between a sensei and a master ( shishou )? Ikiko: Ah, that's deep. Chizuru: A sensei and a master Dominique: Yes. Ikiko: Master Chizuru: Master well, sensei ", in terms of language, is used every day, and has various meanings, ri ght? Dominique: Right. Chizuru: Well, "master" ( shishou ) is a sort of traditionalwell, it's a term of the traditional arts. For instance, technique, or craft, those kinds of things, it conveys those sorts of things. Ikiko: Its like a way of life. Domin ique: Yes, um

PAGE 135

! $&! Ikiko: A way of life. Umhow will you live? What path do you follow? Art art, like dance, that approach to technique? Dominique: Yes. Ikiko: Technique, for instance, and ideas. Instructing all of that ( She forms a circle with her outst retched hands, fingers closed, as she says this.) That, this, one would call a sensei ." But of coursea mastermaybe? Dominique: Ah Ikiko: Maybe? A sensei implies many pupils and that the sensei talks a lot to those pupils, right? Dominique: Yes. Tha t's true, isn't it? Ikiko: Maybethat's how the nuances are different I wonder? Dominique: Maybe? Ikiko: Mm Dominique: So, then, in the reverse, what, do you think, is the difference between a student and an apprentice? Ikiko: A student isI said it a lit tle just now. Look, in school, they're told and they listen, right? Dominique: Right. That's true, isn't it? Ikiko: In class, right? Dominique: Yes. Ikiko: But, an apprentice comes because of him or herself. Dominique: Ah That's true, isn't it? Ikiko: A student Dominique: Yes? Ikiko: Goes even if he or she hates it. (She bursts into laughter.) Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Ikiko: Right? Because they think they have to, right? Dominique: Right, right. Ikiko: An apprentice goes because he or she wants to. Dominique: AhI see. (Ikiko and Fujima sensei laugh.) Dominique: I see. Ikiko: That's the easy way to say it. Dominique: Right. That's true. Ikiko: The apprentice really wants to receive training, and the sensei is willing to teach. That sort of thi ng. Dominique: Ah. (At this point, Ikiko becomes a little repetitive, so I've omitted those lines to avoid redundancy.) Dominique: So, do you study anyum, arts besides nihon buyo ? Chizuru: I know you do, right? (She gestures to Ikiko.) Ikiko: I studyf lower arrangement. Arranging flowers. Dominique: Yes.

PAGE 136

! $&$ Ikiko: Arranging flowers. Dominique: Oh really? Ikiko: Well, lately. (She laughs.) Dominique: Oh really? Oh really? So, um, in that field, did you t take a name? Ikiko: No, not yet. I've only just entered. Dominique: I see. Ikiko: Not yet, not yet, not yet You know, it's really hard (She laughs.) Dominique: Ah, that's true. Soah, have you ever studied any dance besides nihon buyo ? Ikiko: (She gestures to Chizuru.) Chizuru: Well, that's going to be kind of hard to say. (She says this to Ikiko rather than myself.) Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Ikiko: (She laughs.) Well, do it with some restraint. Chizuru: Mmwell, the other kind of dance, as you saythathow should I say this? Fujima sensei : Well, shewhat is itis it related to no ? Chizuru: Right. That's right. Ikiko: Kabuki ? Chizuru: It's not kabuki Fujima sensei : It's not kabuki right? Chizuru: Dengaku iswell, it's older than no Fujima sensei : Yeah. Ikiko: Kyogen ? Kyogen ? Chizuru: Me dieval times, it was from medieval times Fujima sensei : It would be called no or kyogen ." Ikiko: You did that? Chizuru: I have it's like kagura. Fujima sensei : Mm. Chizuru: In medieval times, they had this art, but it has since perished. In traditi onal arts, as you say, there are various cultures which were recorded long ago and have since resurfaced. I danced in one of these types of traditional dance. Dominique: Ah Fujima sensei : Therefore, something that is older than nihon buyo with more hist ory. Dominique: Right, right. Fujima sensei : Much older. She's done some of that. Mm Much older. Ikiko: You still do it, right? Chizuru: I still do it. Dominique: Oh, really? Chizuru: Now, in the next prefecture over, Ishikawa prefecture, at Yamashiro hot springs, on the seventh of August, I'll be dancing. To traditional music. Fujima sensei : Mm. Dominique: Ah Yes. Ikiko: It's happening five times, right? Chizuru: Right. I'll be in all of them so my father will be able to come.

PAGE 137

! $&% Dominique: Is that r ight? Chizuru: A kyogen dancer one who's already passed away, this will be something that was made by him. Dominique: Ah... Chizuru: Mm. Dominique: So, do you do any other forms of dance? (I ask Ikiko.) Ikiko: No, I don't do anything. Dominique: Oh, rea lly? Well, then, um, is there anything you would like to add about nihon buyo or the sense i/apprentice relationship of mutual trust? Chizuru: About the relationship of mutual trust? I don't have anything to add. Dominique: Nothing? Chizuru: Nothing. Iki ko: Well, I'll continue forever, right? (Ikiko laughs.) Fujima sensei : (She laughs.) Ikiko: Up until I'm old, I'll keep going, I would like to keep coming. More oftenmore oftenit becomeshow to put itthe people cycle through? Nihon buyo isn't really popular. Dominique: Ah, that's true, isn't it? Ikiko: More and more people, mm, maybe if they knew about it, and would come to see it, it would be good. Right? Dominique: Yes. Ikiko: And to get that, I think it should become a little easier to understand I think that that would be good, maybe. (She laughs.) Dominique: Right. Ikiko: Mm Dominique: Well, thank you for doing this interview for me. Chizuru: (She laughs.) Ikiko: Thank you! (She bows.)

PAGE 138

! $&& Interview # 5 Kie Hanakawa (Eriko Yok ohori) July 27, 2011 It was fortunate for me that I was able to meet and interview Kie Hanakawa. Kie Hanakawa is a "sibling" in dance to Kiku Hanakawa. Though she has the rank of a shihan and is therefore qualified to become a sensei she has decided against it. Although I was never able to see her practice, and I was only able to speak with her this one time, she provided a view into the nihon buyo student who progresses as far as one can without taking a student, overcoming the fees and the temporal commitment of nearly 15 years, without deciding to use that rank to teach. She also provides an interesting parallel to Kiku Hanakawa, who is of a similar age and rank, yet has decided to become a sensei and is also the biological daughter of Hanakawa os ensei who teaches both Kie and Kiku Hanakawa. Kie Hanakawa, on the other hand, is Hanakawa osensei 's apprentice of 46 years, and so observing her relationship with Hanakawa osensei allowed me to compare a long term apprentice and a daughter who is also a long term apprentice of dance. This interview took place in the tatami room of Hanakawa sensei 's house intended for guests, the same room in which I interviewed Hanakawa sensei Hanakawa sensei was present, but silent for most of the interview. Unfortu nately, I conducted the interview while I had a fever, which affected my phrasing of the questions somewhat. Luckily, however, I still asked the questions I had intended to, and with the help of my camcorder, this was overcome. Dominique: Well, thank you for doing this interview for me. Kie: Yes. Dominique: You may stop this re research at any time. Um, if you do not wish to answer a question, please say "pass." Sothenwhat is your real name? Kie: It's Eriko Yokohori. Dominique: Yes. So, is it okay if I use your real name? Kie: It's fine, it's fine. Dominique: Yes. Soyou took a [dance] name, right? Kie: Yes. Dominique: SoHanakawa Um, what is your stage name? Kie: Ah, it's Kie Hanakawa. Dominique: Yes. When did you take your name? Kie: Ehbecause it was when I was 18 Dominique: Yes. Kie: Eh Well, I'm 51 now Dominique: Yes. Kie: It's been33 years? Dominique: Oh wow, really? Kie: Yes. Dominique: Sowhat is your profession? Kie: I'm in the restaurant business.

PAGE 139

! $&' Dominique: Yes. Kie: (She nods.) Dominique: When did you, uh, start studying nihon buyo ? Kie: Studying? Dominique: Yes. Kie: Ah, I was five years old. Dominique: At five years old? Really? Kie: (She nods.) Dominique: So, did you consistently study since then? Kie: (She nods.) Consistent ly. Dominique: Yes. Ah, I see. Eryes, so, why did you want to study nihon buyo ? Kie: UmI was too young to remember myself, but truthfully, it changed as I study it. My parentsat first, it was because of my parents, then I myself wanted to learn it. I would learn it from my sensei then I appeared to want to learn more, from there I wanted to try it. I don't remember it myself, butwell, I was too small. Dominique: Ah, I see. I see. Kie: Yes. Dominique: Is that so? Kie: But I definitely wanted to co ntinue it. Dominique: Yeah. Kie: Well, everyone, everyone else quit before me, but Dominique: Sodo you have your own motivations in studying nihon buyo ? Kie: Mm At first it was because it was fun, and I could wear pretty kimono but then, after thatwha t was it? I mean, I liked it. There wasn't a concrete reason. Dominique: Yeah. So so, then, would you like to become a s ensei ? Kie: Well, it isn't so much that I want to become a sensei I do it more because it's fun. Dominique: That's true, isn't it? I see. Ah, so you took a name, but are you a shihan ? Kie: Currently I am a shihan Dominique: Oh really? Kie: (She nods.) Yes. Dominique: I understand. So, then, um, was there, uh, a reason that you studied in the Hanakawa ryuu ? Kie: Mmnot so much a rea son It was more that the place where I learned was a Hanakawa studio. Hanakawa sensei : (At this point, she enters and sits down after giving us tea.) Dominique: That's true. Kie: People don't know enough to choose a ryuu before they begin studying nihon buyo Dominique: Mm. Kie: At first they wouldn't know anything about any of the r yuuha Dominique: That's true, isn't it? Mm. So, then, currently, um, do you often have dance practice? Kie: That's right. Well, when there's a performance, I practice ofte n.

PAGE 140

! $&( Dominique: Ahreally? So, um, currently Kie: Currently, it's a normal amount. Dominique: Yes. Kie: In a week Dominique: Once? Kie: Once a week. Right. Dominique: So, do you often perform? Kie: Ah, that's right. The last time I performed was last ye ar, butwell, with performances, it wasn't a typical performance, but a small one. Dominique: Ah, is that right? Umso, do you practice on your own informally? Kie: MmI don't practice standing up, but while sitting down, in my head, I practice. But th at's not reallyit's not the sensei 's practiceand it's not assigned. Hanakawa sensei : (She laughs.) Dominique: Ah, that's true isn't it? Kie: Yes. Dominique: Ahso When you do a formal dance practice, of course, it's one on one, right? Kie: We have pra ctices like that, and we also have practices where everyone practices together. Dominique: Ah, by everyone, do you mean Kie: Ah, togetherduring those times, it's a little different, but Dominique: Yes. Kie: Those who come to those practices, we talk a bout it If all goes well, one of us becomes number one, and everyone corrects his or her mistakes. We do this together, one at a time. Dominique: Mm. I see. Umthis is a little hard to phrase, butin nihon buyo when many people have the same sensei d o you have nihon buyo "siblings?" For instance, in the Fujima ryuu these people have the same sensei and they've taken names (I show Kie and Hanakawa sensei my family chart as I ask this.) Kie: Siblings, right? Dominique: Right, right. Do you have so mething like that? Kie: I still have some. Dominique: Soare you close? Kie: That's right. Everyone's close. Dominique: Oh really? Kie: Yes. Dominique: Yes. Umokay, from here, we'll enter into more of a discussion about sensei Soum, your sensei 's nam ethat is, your sensei is Hanakawa osensei right? Kie: Kiyo Hanakawa. Yes. Dominique: Okay, I understand. So, did you always study Kie: That's right. Dominique: So you studied with the same sensei the whole time. Yes. Um What kind of person is Hana kawa osesnsei ?

PAGE 141

! $&) Kie: Hmm (She giggles and looks to Hanakawa sensei .) What kind of person She's kind, but she's also strict. Dominique: Mm. Kie: Mmthere are times when she's easily moved to tears. Because I'm an apprentice who she watched grow up, yes Hanakawa sensei : (She laughs.) Dominique: (I laugh.) Hanakawa sensei : (She whispers to me.) Do you understand Dominique? Kie: Ah! Um Hanakawa sensei : That may be good to explain. (She says this to Kie.) It shows this relationship of mutual trust. Ki e: Well, it's not just a relationship between sensei and stu apprentice Dominique: Yeah. Kie: Human? It's like she's my parent. Dominique: Ah Kie: Heredity and all Dominique: Yes Kie: Right? Dominique: Really? Kie: Yes. Dominique: Mm Kie: MaybeI don't know how she feels on her end, but (She chuckles to herself as she says this.) Dominique: But that's the, uh, the th theme of this research. (Kie and Hanakawa sensei laugh.) Kie: Is that right? Dominique: That's right. That's right (I laugh.) I s that right? Do you have an explanation? Kie: Well, when I was a childas a childit wasn't really like that. I mean, because I have parents Dominique: Mm. Kie: But, as I became an adult, my sensei would bring me places, teach me the proper vocabulary she would save me when I needed help, that sort of thing Dominique: Mm. Is that right? Kie: Of course, with dance, but Dominique: Right, that's right, isn't it? Kie: But I don't think it's just a connection with dance. Dominique: Hmm I see. So, the n ext question was "Are you close with your sensei ," but Kie: Ah, we're close. Ah, maybe it would be easier to explain Because she's a sensei we're not friends. I don't know if it's official, but Dominique: What do you mean? Kie: What do I mean? We c an't really be called "close," right? Not as you phrased it. (My original phrasing turned out to mean something closer to "intimate" than "close," although both phrases are used to describe friends and non romantic

PAGE 142

! $&* relationships in my experience with the m.) How should I say it? It's a good relationship, okay? Dominique: Yes. Yes, yes. Kie: (She nods.) Dominique: I understand. Sodo you, um, talk with your sensei about, er, subjects other than dance? Kie: We talk. ( She nods.) Dominique: So, what is th e difference between a sensei and a master ( shishou )? What do you think? Kie: The difference between sensei and master? Dominique: Yes. Kie: A master is a teacher of art of the arts, so they will be strict, and will require you to straighten up when they see you. A sensei iswell, we're talking about the broad definition of sensei and I think most people would think thisin private, he or she is not a master, he or she is like an older person, like someone of a higher rank. Dominique: Yes. Kie: He or she will discuss things with you, and you might receive a phone call from him or her, but Dominique: Mm Kie: But I don't think of that like [in] dance. Maybe? Dominique: Yes. Kie: One person may say that you have a higher rank, and sometimes it's cute, but because you are ranked higher, but (She begins to laugh.) Hanakawa sensei : (She begins to laugh.) Kie: But it's really just confusing. Dominique: Is that right? Soreverse of that, um, what is the difference what do you think is the difference between a student and an apprentice? Kie: Well, an apprentice is similar to what I just said about a master. A student of art of the arts, so thereforeit's different than a student. An apprentice is one who learns the arts. A student iswell, I've never though t about what a student is, but it's not really the same attitude as an apprentice. Dominique: Mm. Kie: A student is In our world, we don't really often use "student," soI'm not really sure. Dominique: Well, for example, when learning to play piano, it's a teacher ( sensei ) and a student, right? Not a master ( shishou ), right? Kie: Well, you call them different things, but I'm not sure that they're not the same thing Well, in Japan piano isn't Japanese, right? Dominique: That's true. Kie: Therefore, sumo is a matter of apprentice and master, right? Dominique: Is that so? Kie: I haven't really thought about "apprentices" and "students," but Dominique: I see. Mm. Kie: I think it's just the way of phrasing it that's different. I haven't really thought of it, but

PAGE 143

! $&+ (At this point, she begins to repeat herself, while she figures this out aloud. I have omitted the rest in order to avoid redundancy.) Dominique: So, have you ever done a kind of, um, art besides dance? Kie: Before I tried the shamisen but Do minique: Oh really? Kie: (She nods.) Now, it's really more of nihon buyo that I like, I believe. Dominique: (I laugh.) Is that right? So, have you studied a style of dance other than nihon buyo ? Kie: I have not. Dominique: Oh really? Then, from here, d o you, uh, have anything to add about the relationship between sensei and apprentice or master and apprentice or nihon buyo ? Kie: Well, with my sensei and myself being where we are, with this current statein this current state It would be nice to stay i n this current condition forever. My wish is to see more naming [done]. That. ( She says, laughing, as she looks at Hanakawa sensei .) Ah, what I meant earlier was that to see my sensei full of energy and healthy and able to teach dance practice, yes. Do minique: Mm. Kie: After that, whatI wonder? I don't think there's anything elseno. But, if she weren't full of energy or healthy, since she's our sensei, and a master, we would receive her lesson, but, of course, wondering if she's healthy is a concern right? Dominique: Ah, that's true. Hanakawa sensei : Mm. Dominique: So, thank you for doing this interview for me. Kie: Ah, I'm sorry for going on. (She laughs.) Dominique: Not at all, not at all.

PAGE 144

! $&, APPENDIX II: MAP OF TAKAOKA Tak aoka in relation to the major cities of Tokyo, Kyoto, and Osaka.

PAGE 145

! $'! BIBLIOGRAPHY Asada, Masuno 1958 Dance of Japan : Asada. Ashihara, Eiry! 1964 The Japanese Dance : Japan Travel Bureau. Creighton, Millie 1998 "Weaving the Future from the Heart of Tradition: Learning in Leisure Activities." In Learning in Likely Places: Variation of Apprenticeship in Japan John Singleton, e d. Pp. 190 207. Cambridge University Press. DeCoker, Gary 1998 "Seven Characteristics of a Tradi tional Japanese Approach to Learning." In Learning in Likely Places: Variation of Apprenticeship in Japan John Singleton, ed. Pp. 68 84. Cambridge University Press. Gunji, Masakatsu 1970 Buyo: The Classical Dance Don Kenn y, trans. John Weatherhill Inc. of New York and Tokyo and Tankosha of Kyoto. Haase, Bill 1998 "Learning to be an Apprentice." In Learning in Likely Places: Variation of Apprenticeship in Japan John S ingleton, ed. Pp. 107 121. Cambridge University Press. Hahn, Tomie 2007 Sens ational Knowledge: Embodyi ng Culture Through Japanese Dance : Wesleyan University Press of Middletown, Connecticut. Hahn, Tomie 2001 2 "Singing a Dance: Navagating the Musical Soundscape in Nihon Buyo ." Asian Music Vol. 33 (1), pp 61 74. Hsu, Francis L. K. 1975 Iemoto: The Heart of Japan : Sche nkman Publishing Company of New York, London, Sydney, and Toronto. Huges, David W. 2008 Traditional Folk Song in Modern Japan : Global Oriental LTD. Kashino, Chikako

PAGE 146

! $'$ 1991 Continuity in Discontinuity" in Ni hon Buyo: Analysis of a Japanese Classical Dance PhD Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. Klens Bigman, Deborah 1999 Nihon Buyo Happyokai Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism Vol. 13 (2), pp 139 148. Klens, Deborah S. 1994 "Nihon Buyo in the Kabuki Training Program at Japan's National Theatre." Asian Theatre Journal Vol. 11 (2), pp 231 241. Malm, Joyce Rutherford 1977 "The Legacy to Nihon Buyo." Dace Research Journal Vol. 9 (2), pp 12 24. Messervy, Julie Moir 1980 "Learning in Japan: A Personal Account." JAE Vol 33 (3), pp 10 13. Ohtani, Kimiko 1991 "Japanese Approaches to the Study of Dance." Yearbook for Traditional Music Vol. 23, pp 23 32. Pronko, Leonard C. 1985 "Shin Buyo and Sosaku Buyo: Tradition and Change in Japanese Dance." Dance as Cultural Heritage Vol. 2, pp 111 121. Rimer, T. Thomas 1998 "The Search for Mastery Never Cease s: Zeami's Classic Treatises on Transmitting the Traditions of the N Theatre." In Learning in Likely Places: Vari ation of Apprenticeship in J apan John Singleton, ed. Pp. 35 44. Cambridge University Press. Sellers Young, Barbara 1992 "Kanriye Fujima's Adaptation of the Iemoto System." AsianTheatre Journal Vol. 9 (1), pp 71 84. Sellers Young, Barbara 1993 T eaching Personality With Gracef ulness: the Transmission of Japanese Cultural Values Through Japanese Dance Theatre : University Press of America, Inc. Singleton, John, ed.

PAGE 147

! $'% 1998 Learning in Likely Places: Varieties of Apprenticeship in Japan : Cambridge University Press. Singleton, John, ed. 1998 "Situated Learning in Japan Our Educational Analysis." In Learning in Likely Places: Variation of Appre nticeship in Japan Pp. 3 19. Cambridge University Press. Smith, Robert T. 1998 "Transmitting Trad ition by the Rules An Anthropological Interpretation of the Iemoto System." In Learning in Likely Places: Variation of Apprenticeship in Japan John Si ngleton, ed. Pp. 23 34. Cambridge University Press. Yamazaki, Kazuko 2001 Nihon Buyo: Classical Dance of Modern Japan PhD. Dissertation, Department of Philosophy, Indiana University.


ERROR LOADING HTML FROM SOURCE (http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu//design/skins/UFDC/html/footer_item.html)