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ECO3 Can a Tri-force of Sustainability Reforms $ave the Four Winds Cafe

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Material Information

Title:
ECO3 Can a Tri-force of Sustainability Reforms $ave the Four Winds Cafe
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Birney, Johannah
Publisher:
New College of Florida
Place of Publication:
Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date:
2012
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Bachelor's ( B.A.)
Degree Grantor:
New College of Florida
Degree Divisions:
Social Sciences
Degree Disciplines:
Environmental Studies
Committee Members:
Brain, David

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sustainable Restaurants
Reform
Ecological Community
Genre:
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the survival of the global ecological community and reforms must be implemented to reduce the global carbon footprint to sustain all forms of life. This is an enormous task; however, it must be done. Restaurants, as the largest commercial energy consumer, are a hotspot for sustainability reforms on a local, national, and global level. The Green Restaurant Association (GRA) is at the forefront of the restaurant reform movement, providing quantitative analysis criteria to certify sustainable restaurants. Not only does their method reduce carbon emissions, but it also saves money, while taking advantage of a strong niche market. Inspired by the GRA, this thesis uses a multidimensional method, which I have coined as ECO3, to assess the sustainability potential of the Four Winds Caf� at New College of Florida. Part I is assesses the caf�'s ecological performance using the GRA criteria. Part II assesses the finances of operation and the reforms that created a profitable production. Part III assesses the ecological community's perspective of the caf� by analyzing the results of a survey conducted on the student body. The results of this thesis strongly suggest that the ECO3 method is saving the Four Winds Caf� from chronic debt and unsatisfactory service, while molding a sustainability hotspot. Finally, a strategic plan, inspired by the work of Gary Alan Fine, outlines the coming staff paradigm shift and future menu improvements. More so, the results of this thesis suggest that college restaurants across the nation can foster the next generation of environmentalist restaurateurs using the Green Fee movement as a tool for sustainability reforms.
Thesis:
Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2012
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local:
Faculty Sponsor: Brain, David
Statement of Responsibility:
by Johannah Birney

Record Information

Source Institution:
New College of Florida
Holding Location:
New College of Florida
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
local - S.T. 2012 B6
System ID:
NCFE004548:00001

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
ECO3 Can a Tri-force of Sustainability Reforms $ave the Four Winds Cafe
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Birney, Johannah
Publisher:
New College of Florida
Place of Publication:
Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date:
2012
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Bachelor's ( B.A.)
Degree Grantor:
New College of Florida
Degree Divisions:
Social Sciences
Degree Disciplines:
Environmental Studies
Committee Members:
Brain, David

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sustainable Restaurants
Reform
Ecological Community
Genre:
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the survival of the global ecological community and reforms must be implemented to reduce the global carbon footprint to sustain all forms of life. This is an enormous task; however, it must be done. Restaurants, as the largest commercial energy consumer, are a hotspot for sustainability reforms on a local, national, and global level. The Green Restaurant Association (GRA) is at the forefront of the restaurant reform movement, providing quantitative analysis criteria to certify sustainable restaurants. Not only does their method reduce carbon emissions, but it also saves money, while taking advantage of a strong niche market. Inspired by the GRA, this thesis uses a multidimensional method, which I have coined as ECO3, to assess the sustainability potential of the Four Winds Caf� at New College of Florida. Part I is assesses the caf�'s ecological performance using the GRA criteria. Part II assesses the finances of operation and the reforms that created a profitable production. Part III assesses the ecological community's perspective of the caf� by analyzing the results of a survey conducted on the student body. The results of this thesis strongly suggest that the ECO3 method is saving the Four Winds Caf� from chronic debt and unsatisfactory service, while molding a sustainability hotspot. Finally, a strategic plan, inspired by the work of Gary Alan Fine, outlines the coming staff paradigm shift and future menu improvements. More so, the results of this thesis suggest that college restaurants across the nation can foster the next generation of environmentalist restaurateurs using the Green Fee movement as a tool for sustainability reforms.
Thesis:
Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2012
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local:
Faculty Sponsor: Brain, David
Statement of Responsibility:
by Johannah Birney

Record Information

Source Institution:
New College of Florida
Holding Location:
New College of Florida
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
local - S.T. 2012 B6
System ID:
NCFE004548:00001


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Birney 1 ECO 3 Can a Tri force of Sustainability Reforms $ave the Four Winds Caf? By : Johannah Birney A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Social Sciences New College of Florida In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Ar ts Under the sponsorship of Professor David Brain Sarasota, Florida February, 2012

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Birney 2 Table of Contents Acknowledgments Abstract Chapter 1: Defining the Jargon (Theoretical/Conceptual Framework) Sustainability The Technology of Revolution Restaurants: Food Factories Recent Restaurant Reforms Chapter 2: The Green Restaurant Movement Pillars and Purpo se o Water Efficiency o Waste Reduction and Recycling o Sustainable Furnishings and Building Materials o Sustainable Food o Energy o Disposables o Chemical and Pollution Reduction Chapter 3 The Four Winds Caf (A Case Study) Ecological Footprint: Kit chen Infrastructure Management: Food Factory Production Evaluation o Green Restaurant Evaluation o Green Fee Potential Economical Footprint: The Path Towards Profit o Historical Debt Overview o Menu Reform o Staff Paradigm Shift Ecological Community Perspective Wha t Factors Motivate the New College Students to eat at the Four Winds Cafe? o Method o Survey Results and discussion Final Diagnosis Bibliography

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Birney 3 Acknowledgments I would like to th ank New College for letting me explore my capabilities in an ecological community that is as warm as it is beautiful. To the Four Winds Caf, I thank you for providing me the opportunity to discover the true power of food and restaurants. I would like to thank Professor Brain for teaching me, over four years, how to think critically and how to build my academic experience without compromising my personal development. I thank Heidi Harley for being a wise and kind professor, providing guidance for an emer ging group of academics. I thank Erin Dean for teaching the classes that made me think the most. I thank Jono Miller for being the first Environmental Studies student at New College, paving the way for generations of conscious students who just want to ch ange the world. To Helen, I thank you for helping me understand that yoga is a metaphor for life and for leading me to discover the 1 024 petal lotus on the top of my head I thank the Lost Boys, most especially Pan, for teaching me the true value of frien dship. I will always be Wendy. I thank my roommates for making stress a non issue and time a joke by providing a constant source of hugs and laughs. I thank Elliot t Countess for supporting me during my most challenging moments and lifting me up to achiev e a higher level of anahata awareness. To my mother Roxanne and my father Kevin, I thank you for giving me life, fostering my development with unconditional love and for inspiring me to work hard for what I believe in. To my brother, you are a pilgrim an d we are always walking El Camino. Never Stop. Above all, I tickle the Kosmic Pussy, believing that my faith is constant and trusting that the force of life is sweet and full of opportunity.

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Birney 4 Pure Imagination Come with me and you'll be In a wor ld of pure imagination Take a look and you'll see Into your imagination We'll begin with a spin Trav'ling in the world of my creation What we'll see will defy Explanation If you want to view paradise Simply look around and view it Anything you want to, d o it Want to change the world, there's nothing to it There is no life I know To compare with pure imagination Living there, you'll be free If you truly wish to be Willy Wonka

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Birney 5 Abstract Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the survival of th e global ecological community and reforms must be implemented to reduce the global carbon footprint to sustain all forms of life. This is an enormous task; however, it must be done. Restaurants, as the largest commercial energy consumer, are a hotspot for sustainability reforms on a local, national, and global level. The Green Restaurant Association (GRA) is at the forefront of the restaurant reform movement, providing quantitative analysis criteria to certify sustainable restaurants. Not only does their method reduce carbon emissions, but it also saves money, while taking advantage of a strong niche market. Inspired by the GRA, this thesis uses a multidimensional method, which I have coined as ECO 3 to assess the sustainability potential of the Four Win performance using the GRA criteria. Part II assesses the finances of operation and the reforms that created a profitable production. Part III assesses the ecological perspective of the caf by analyzing the results of a survey conducted on the student body. The results of this thesis strongly suggest that th e ECO 3 method is saving the Four Winds Caf from chronic debt and unsatisfactory service, while molding a sustai nability hotspot. Finally, a strategic plan, inspired by the work of Gary Alan Fine, outlines the coming staff paradigm shift and future menu improvements. More so, the results of this thesis suggest that college restaurants across the nation can foster t he next generation of environmentalist restaurateurs using the Green Fee movement as a tool for sustainability reforms. Key words : Sustainability, Restaurants reforms, the Four Winds Caf

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Birney 6 Chapter 1: Introducing the Jargon and Paving the Path is to preserve what the past has had to say for itself, to say for ourselves John Ruskin In the eighteenth century John Ruskin was a leading social philosopher and a vision ary of sustainability theory, focusing on the connections between nature, society and art. The previous quotation is a taste of his theory and a timeless representation of the keystone philosophy of Environmental Studies, which is one of Throughout history, many academi c concentrations have held the responsibility to discover areas of opportunity for the enhancement and progress of Homo sapiens The decades to follow will undoubtedly be the era marked by the discoveries of Environmental Studies due to a building consens us that the current state of the global ecological community is threatening the atmospheric balance; popularly referred to as climate change As an academic field, Environmental Studies is focused on defining the relationship between time and nature, const antly comparing the state of the current environment to previous levels, while predicting the future conditions that are currently being created. Instead of fostering an isolated practice of academic analysis, Environmental Studi es is a shape shifter of so rts, encouraging and inspiring scholars to morph into and out of various academic concentration s thereby creating a comprehensive and multidimensional understanding of their research. As Environmental Studies departments start to develop and grow, through out universities and colleges around the world, more research and fresh ideas are starting to flood the current understanding of how the world works. At New College of Florida, the Environmental Studies department is

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Birney 7 training the next generation of envir onmentally oriented honor scholars who are determined to join the global environmental justice movement to discover what reforms must be created to heal and sustain the global ecological community. Sustainability The concept of sustainability is a chall enge to define across every discipline especially in Environmental Studies According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, sustain means to supply with sustenance and support, while sustainability is defined as a method of harvesting or using a resourc e so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged. Unfortunately, these definitions hardly scratch the surface of its meaning or the magnitude of sustainability. The concept of sustainability, like the concept of tradition, is constantly being redefined with each generation and is completely contextual on the community level (location and scale); consequently, it is more of a force than a term that can be defined. As a force, only to survive, but also to thrive. It is a constant reminder that our production and consumption will revolutionize to meet the demands of the living populations. Furthermore, it is a challenge to the current generation to realize the future while pre serving the past. To understand sustainability, it is imperative to understand how the Homo sapien population expanded to seven billion members. The Technology of Revolution As a species, our ability to think critically and use our imagination has produ ced another force that is constantly morphing with every generation, technology. According to the Merriam a capability given by the practical application of knowledge, which implies that every

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Birney 8 use of problem s olving, organizing and engineering alike, is a form of technology. From the Industrial Revolution to the Social Networking Revolution, Homo sapiens have invented technological wonders that have drastically impacted the world in an inconceivable manner, e nabling the population to grow exponentially. In the modern era technology is developing g lobal bridges that exist only on the Internet, knocking down socially constructed wall s tha t separate the citizens of the world, thereby redefining community and rei magining the world. These two revolutions, while they changed the world forever, would not have been possible without the mother of all revolutions: the Agricultural Revolution. The evolution of man is a complex and debated story, however, there is a gen eral understanding that species evolve with their food source. In another sense, you are what you eat. Since the advent of agriculture, humans have drastically controlled their food source through the use of farming technology The progress we have made is remarkable; however, there is a serious price to pay for our success. The foundation of the food technology saga is driven by the need to feed a growing population. Growing more food results in growing more people, or rather, growing more people dema nds that we grow more food. Unfortunately increased food production inevitably and chronically leads to increased demand and population growth, continuously providing fuel for the perpetual agricultural revolution. Many great thinkers have concentrated their critical minds on this topic; yet, few articulate the agricultural revolution as gracefully as Daniel Quinn (1992) in Ishmael : Your agricultural revolution is not an event like the Troj an War, isolated in the distant past and without relevance to yo ur lives today.

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Birney 9 The work begun by those neolithic farmers in the Near East has been carried forward from one generation to the next without a single break, right into the present moment. It's the foundation of your vast civilization today in exactly the sa me way that it was the foundation of the very firs t farming village. (P. 155) Restaurants Food Factories If food is the foundation of our civilization constantly revolutionizing each generation then restaurants are one of the most prominent and socially assessable symposiums of food technology influencing an ever changing pattern of societal food consumption From a linguistics perspective, the word restaurant is derived from the Latin word meaning to restore. According to Kiefer (2002), preceding maisons de sant Restaurants were original ly created to supply malnourished caloric depression; therefore, restaurants were one of the first medical institutions, prescribing food instead of prescriptions. It could be argued that the existence of the restaurant has partially enabled the population explosion of the past two centuries. Seeing that Climate Change is most directly linked to population growth, restaurants must take responsibility for their role in histor y by creating a more efficient system that truly does restore the ecological community as a whole. In 1770 with the first appearance of printed menus, the modern dining experience was born. Since then, the dining experience has relatively remained the

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Birney 10 sam e for the patron; however, the production in the kitchen is vastly different due to technological advances in cookery equipment and global food trade. As a consequence, an overwhelming majority of restaurants have lost the true meaning of their name, creat ing more environmental and social problems than they solve. Fortunately, this method is unsustainable, meanin g that it is unable to continue. This implies that change is inevitable and that restaurants must once again be revolutionized to fit the demands of the current ecological community. The changes have already started to sprout and academics are taking notice. Due to their role in the food web, restaurants are subjected to the interest of Environmental Scholars who are preserving lessons learned, whil e building the future. As academic attention is focused on understanding restaurants, it is becoming clear that they have boundless potential to foster the next insurgence of public environmentalism. While this sentiment sounds exciting during the year 2 012, the groundwork for this thesis was started in 1990 by a man with a vision: Michael Oshman Executive director of the Green Restaurant Association (GRA). Recent Restaurant Reforms As institutions grown, they must be pruned and shaped towards a stronge r and more sustainable path. Restaurants, as social institutions, need to be molded into more efficient food factories in order to heal and then maintain a healthy ecosystem. The GRA has been at the frontlines of the current restaurant revolution providi ng restaurateurs across the United States with invaluable sustainability consultations and credible third party certifications. The GRA focuses on supporting and promoting restaurants that are consciously and successfully lowering their carbon footprint w hile increasing their standard of excellence. Additionally, the GRA provides

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Birney 11 environmentally conscious dinners with an informative national directory of seven certificatio n standards: energy efficiency, water efficiency, recycling and composting, pollution and chemical reduction, green building and construction, sustainable food and disposables. While there are other third party certifiers of sustainable restaurants, the GRA is the most respected and most expansive sustainable restaurant certifier in the United States. In Florida alone there are thirty four certified GRA certified restaurants, two of which are located in Saras ota: Sweet Tomatoes on Tamiami T rail and T re viso at the Ringling Museum on Bay Shore Road While third party certifications are important for communicating a level of sustainability to the community, restaurants should engage in sustainable management of resources regardless of certification, in or der to save money and save carbon in the same shot. In particular restaurants that are experiencing economic difficulty should reevaluate their practices and look for ecological adjustments that also lead to econom ic stability. Currently, r estaurants p resent an opportunity to redefine the meaning of sustainability, fusing economic prosperit y with ecological consciousness. More so, restaurants have the ability to influence their patrons, providing an extremely easy opportunity for the average citizen to lower their carbon footprint, change the world, and walk away with a satisfied appetite for life. While this sounds simple at first glance, it is extremely challenging; however, anything worth doing is worth doing right. Chapter 2 provides a vital, but s omewhat tedious, set of criteria used to evaluate the sustainability of a restaurant. Chapter 3 departs from the tedious nature of sustainability standards, presenting is an exciting

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Birney 12 participant observation account and evaluation on the Four Winds Caf. The chapter presents a three fold path towards profit and environmentally conscious production that is focused on answering one question: Can a Tri force of Sustainability Reforms $ave the Four Winds Caf ? The results are illuminating and the implications of this research present a new way of viewing college restaurants as the birthplace of the next generation of environmentalist restaurateurs.

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Birney 13 Chapter 2: The Green Restaurant Movement have a ridiculous beginning. Great works Albert Camus, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957 Generally restaurants are unsustainable in two aspects. Firstly, restaur ants have an unprecedented economic failure rate; according to Roger Fields (2007) in Restaurant Success by the Numbers 90% of restaurants fail to sustain a profitable business. Secondly, restaurants have an unprecedented level of unsustainable energy co nsumption. According to Hu et al (2010) commercial buil Luckily these two aspects can be addressed using a comprehensive sustainability reform that is a fundamental union of the three R s: reduce, reuse, and recycle. The remainder of this chapter outlines the

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Birney 14 certification criteria and the values associated with each of the pillars promoted by the Green Restaurant Association (GRA), and the fiscal profits associated with upgrading old kitch en equipment. There are nine tables in this section with different colored fonts. If the font color is blue, then the Four Winds Caf (FWC) has met the criterion. If the font color is red, the FWC should address the criterion during future sustainability initiative. Green Restaurant Association Sustainability Star Criteria 2 Stars 3 Stars 4 Stars Water Efficiency 10 points 10 points 10 points Waste Reduction & Recycling 10 points 10 points 10 points Sustainable Furnishings and Bldg Materials 0 0 0 Sustainable Food 10 points 10 points 10 points Energy 10 points 10 points 10 points Disposables 10 points 10 points 10 points Chemical & Pollution Reduction 10 points 10 points 10 points Points that can be received from any category 40 points 115 poin ts 240 points REQUIRED MINIMUM 100 Points 175 Points 300 Point Table 1: Official certification standards for GRA star ratings. Pillars Who should we call? Restaurant 911 S ince its creation in 1990 The Green Restaurant Association has been molding the s ustainable restaurant movement by providing third party certification credibility to restaurants based on seven pillars of environmentally conscious practices in the foo d service industry. The GRA is the most respected and popular third party restau rant certifier in the United States and has been mentioned by the

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Birney 15 Wall Street Journal, Time Magazine, CNN, the Washington Post, The New York Times and National Public Radio. The mission of the GRA is to help restaurants realize that environmentally sustain able practices can and do translate into fiscal gain while supporting both the health of the ecological community and the value of social interactions The following section provides a breakdown of each of the pillars in Table 1, which is then used in C hapter 3 to evaluate the sustainability of the Four Winds Caf. Water Efficiency According to Brooks (2009), a restaurant in the United States uses anywhere between 300,000 2,000,00 0 gallons of water per year Thi s is a shocking amount of water; however Michael Oshman, the executive di rector of the Green Restaurant A ssociation argues that the average restaurant could conserve 100,000 gallons of water per year with minimal effort by contributing small amounts of capit al investments. Brooks provides a co st benefit analysis of the potential ways to reduce water use. On one end of the spectrum a restaurateur can let guests request a glass of water, which requires employee education instead of capital investment, saving thousands of gallons a year. On the other end of the spectrum a restaurateur can replace an old ice machine with a more efficient air cooled alternative. ut the average water cooled ice maker spits an e xtra 16 5 gallons down the drain (16). Replacing an old ice machine can save a restaurant 328,0 00 gallons of water in one year; however, it requires a substantial capital investment. Consequently, as restaurant transition into more efficient food factories, it is economically priceless to

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Birney 16 educate the employees before investing large amounts of capital. Small shifts in employee responsibility, concerning the efficiency of restaurant resources, have the potential to save large amounts of money while tailoring the dining experience towards sustainable practices. three criteria, ranging from water use for landscaping to compostable toilets. In order to be a green certified restaurant, a minimum of ten p oints must be awarded. The following table is the list of criteria and points available for having successfully implementing water efficiency regulations inside and surrounding the establishment. Criteria POINTS WE1. LANDSCAPING Low water landscaping c overs 50% of site area 3 Water catchment and reuse (i.e. rain barrel) 4.25 WE2. KITCHEN Flow rate of non fill prep sinks 1.5 Flow rate of non fill prep sinks 1.0 gallons per minute 2.25 Low flow pre rinse spray valves, flow rate 1.28 gpm 5.75 Ultra low flow pre rinse spray valves, flow rate 1 gpm 6.5 EnergySt ar qualified dishwasher 3 Boilerless / connectionless steamer 3 Energy Star qualified steamer 4.25 Energy Star / CEE Tier 1 ice machine 3 CEE Tier 2 ice machine 4.25 On demand sink disposal 1 WE3. RESTROOMS Dual flush handle toilet = 1.6 gpf / 1.0 gpf 1 High efficiency toilets = 1.28 gpf 2 Ultra high efficiency toilets = 1.0 gpf 3 Composting toilet 4.25 High efficiency urinal = 1/8 gpf 3 Waterless urinals 4.25 Automatic faucets (no handles, water is on for a pre set period of time) 0.75 Touch less sensor faucet 1.5 Solar or water powered touchless sensor faucets 3

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Birney 17 1 WE4. OTHER Flow rate of all handwashing sinks (Kitchen & Restroom) 1.5 gallons per minute 1.5 Flow rate of all handwashing sinks (Kitchen & Restroom) 1.0 gallons per minute 2.25 Flow rate of all handwashing sinks (Kitchen & Restroom) 0.5 gallons per minute 3 Linen service is a member of Laundry ESP 3 Energy Star qualified washing machine (in house) 3.25 CEE Tier 2 qualified washing m achine 3.75 CEE Tier 3 qualified washing machine 4.5 Serve water upon request and provide educational commentary (i.e. signage, note on menu) to inform customers. 3 Greywater reuse for irrigation 4.25 Greywater reuse for plumbing 7.25 On site wastewat er treatment and reuse as potable water 25 Table 2: Water efficiency criteria and point system used by the GRA for the certification process. Waste Reduction and Recycling According to the Green Restaurant Association, an average restaurant can prod uce 150,000 pounds of garbage each year In order to receive certification from the GRA, a restaurant is required to have waste management programs for plastics, glass, aluminum, cardboard, paper, grease and pre consumer kitchen waste in the form of compos ting. There are forty three criteria in the section, representing six areas of opportunity that restaurants can have the power to control the efficiency of resources. Criteria POINTS W1. RECYCLING & COMPOSTING All Items in This Box are Required for Certification If an item is not available for divert that material. See above for a list of cities where commercial composting is available. Plastics, glass, and aluminum 10

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Birney 18 Cardboard 8 Paper 2 Grease to biodiesel or energy 2.5 Composting pre consumer (kitchen waste) 17.5 Composting post consumer (food and packaging) 7.5 W2. CONSTRUCTION RECYCLING New construction 2.5 Renovation 1.2 5 W3. HAZARDOUS WASTE Fluorescent lamps 0.5 Batteries 0.5 Paints and chemicals 0.5 Electronics 0.5 W4. WASTE REDUCTION OFFICE Reuse or recycle ink cartridges 0.25 Staple free stapler 0.25 Junk mail reduction 0 .25 Double sided printer 1 Online, paperless fax 1 Paperless billing for all vendors 3 Paperless payroll for all employees 3 Paperless submission GR4.0 Assessment materials electronically via email or online file sharing 3 Paperless submission of G R4.0 Assessment materials CD or memory stick 2 W5. WASTE REDUCTION DISPOSABLE PRODUCTS Bulk Packaging (i.e no individual packets) Condiments for in house use 1 Coffee station items 1 At least 2 vendors make deliveries with return able packaging at least twice per month 1 More than 2 vendors make deliveries with returnable packaging at least twice per month 2.25 Reusable coffee filter 1 Reusable coasters 1 No bottled water served on site 3.5 No paper towels in restrooms 2 100% reusable tableware used for staff meals 3.5 Reusable mug program: Signage + Monetary incentive to encourage customers to re 2.25

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Birney 19 Reusable bag program: Signage + Monetary incentive to enco urage customers to re 2.25 Reusable container program: Signage + Monetary incentive to encourage customers to re ) 2.25 For Cafeteria Style Restaurants Only Reusable trays 1 No trays 3 For Fine Dining Restaurants Only No table covering for tables in a fine dining restaurant 4.5 Reusable sustainable linens (organic cotton, hemp, etc.) 3.5 Reusable conventional linens 2.25 Recycled kraft paper table covering 1 W6. WASTE REDUCTION FOOD Weekly (at least) donations to food bank or material exchange 5 NOTE: For those restaurants that donate left over food on a regular basis and compost post cons umer waste, the total points possible is 7.5. Offer smaller portions, at least 25% smaller, for 50% of entrees at a reduced price 2.25 Table 3: Waste reduction and recycling criteria and point system used by the GRA for the certification process. Sust ainable Furnishing and Building Materials This aspect of restaurant sustainabili ty is more difficult to achieve; consequently, the GRA does not require any points for this pillar. Fortunately, t he LEED Foundation is starting to develop a certification mod el dedicated to certifying restaurant construction in particular. LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) was created by the U.S. Green Building Council to verify that a building project is designed and constructed using methods that save ene rgy, increase water efficiency, and reduce carbon emissions while fostering stewardship of Elisa Elan (2010) compares the green building opportunities for small restaurants and large restaurant chains alike. She reference s Pizza Fusion out of Fort Lauderdale, which has earned a LEED certifi cation for

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Birney 20 successfully reducing of their energy and water consumption by 20% In addition, Elan points out that Darden Restaurants, the largest full service causal dining company in th e world, is starting to consider LEED certification across more than 1,800 restaurant locations in North America. The tone of the article suggests that restaurants, both big and small, should consider preemptively applying for LEED certification before it is mandated by national legislation. Unfortunately, LEED certification is much more expensive than GRA certification, which creates an advantage for large corporate restaurants that can afford the price of LEED certification. There are twenty one criteri a used to evaluate the level of sustainability associated with the furnishings and construction methods of the space. SFBM1. FURNISHINGS The GRA will evaluate the following items: Chairs Tables Booths Wall coverings and p anels Window treatments Carpet Countertops Cabinetry Other (door mats, office furniture) SFBM2. BUILDING MATERIALS The GRA will evaluate the following items: Flooring Ceiling panels Bathroom partitions Lumber and plywood (does not apply to flooring, cabinetry, etc. Insulation Roofing Drywall Steel framing Concrete Storefront (awning, signage, etc) Doors and frames Table 4: Sust ainable furnishing and building material criteria and point system used by the GRA for the certification process.

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Birney 21 Sustainable Food Sustainable f ood is just as complicated as sustainable restaurants in its own regard. The standards that define sustainable food are centered on the locality and process of productions, which include who, how and what was used to create and transport the food. Elisa Elan (2009) argues that restaurants are desire for foods that are good for t 18). This statement clearly reflects the current p opularity of organic food and lo cal agriculture in the market. Restaurants that offer environmentally conscious food set themselves apart from the processed world of corn and truly do command a great deal of the current restaurant market. Montana Grill is mentioned in the article for offering a more expensive menu that prides itself on the seasonality and locality of their food. Thi s $100 million company is especially known for offering grass fed bison burgers instead of the generic corn fed CAFO patty. Sustainable restaurants on the local level could and should create strong bonds with the local agricultural industry to provide the public with an alternative to the global and socially opaque food super highway. The GRA has a very weighted certification system associated with the sale of animal products, both meat and dairy. Vegan restaurants receive 45 points, while vegetarian rest aurants receive 30 points. Additionally, the criteria reflect the value of organic food and beverages along with the locality of the food. The high scoring in this section is appropriately distributed because food is the most important visible aspect of a

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Birney 22 complete list of criteria: Criteria POINTS SF1. ORGANIC FOOD & BEVERAGE AND SUSTAINABLE SEAFOOD Food & beverage items that are Certified Organic, seafood listed on Blue from MSC Certified fisheries 40 SF2. MEAT & DAIRY Vegetarian Feed or Grass Fed Only Must be Food Alliance Certified Grass fed, American Grass fed Tier 1, or USDA Process Verified and USDA Grass fed 5 No Hormones or Antibiotics Must be Certified Humane, American Humane Certified, Animal Welfare Approved, or meet USDA Labeling Requirements 5 Cage Free (Eggs) / Free Ra nge (Cows, Pigs, etc.) Must be Certified Humane, American Humane Certified, Animal Welfare Approved, or meet USDA Labeling Requirements 5 NOTE: Each product can only be credited in either SF1 or SF2. SF3. MEAT SF3. MEAT FREE Vegetarian: No animal fles h, no consumption of animals, no chicken, pork, beef, game, fish. (Dairy, eggs, honey allowed) 30 Vegan: No animal products (No dairy, eggs, honey or any animal bi products) 45 30% of main dishes are vegetarian 5 NOTE: Beverages will not be considered i n this section. SF4. LOCAL FOOD Regional: 300 mile radius around restaurant 20 Local: 100 mile radius around restaurant 40 NOTE: This section pertains only to whole, non processed foods (i.e. produce, meat). Table 5: Sustainable food criteria and poin t system used by the GRA for the certification process. Energy Efficiency As previously mentioned, restaurants are the most energy intensive commercial industry in the United States, which presents a rich opportunity to conserve energy and save money. Elissa Elan (2009)

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Birney 23 Jr.: Green Movements Still Growing Despite Rece concerning the niche market of green restaurants In the article, Elan focused once ill, which is promoted as an eco friendly all American diner with 55 locations McKerrow Jr. is the president and chief e and is also responsible for the creation of LongHorn Steakhouse, which was swallowed up by Darden Rest aurants. In his most recent restaurant business focus, McKerrow has created the poster child image of an environmental conscious chain restaurateur that is constantly trying to improve the sustainability of his business. He recently implement ed new energy efficient light bulbs at every Ted location which saved $300,000 and conserved 3 million kilowat ts of energy in the first 20 months. If every restaurant in the United States were mandated to use energy efficient light bulbs the impact would be substa ntial. The impact of adopting energy efficient light bulbs would pale in comparison to widespread replacement of old restaurant equipment with energy efficient models. This would of course require a greater upfront investment ; however, old equipment is the major energy waster in the restaurant industry. According to a report published the Energy Star in conjunction with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, full service restaurant generally require 22 forms of kitchen equipment that are likely to wast e energy and money. A complete list is provided in Table 6. Energy efficient toasters, compared to standard toasters, provide the largest margin of energy savings by percentage at 87%. While energy efficient demand control exhaust hoods, compared to standa rd exhaust hoods,

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Birney 24 provide the largest margin of dollar savings at $2,500. The following table is a comprehensive list comparing technological performance in the kitchen. Table 6 Full Service Restaurants Standard vs. Energy Efficient Product Saving Esti mate Standard Equipment Use Energy Efficient Equipment and Use Savings Energy Savings Technology ($/yr) ($/yr) ($/year) (%) Solid Reach In Refrigerators 210 97 113 54 Under counter Refrigerator 146 124 22 15 Lighting Incadescent 26 7 20 75 Lighting Fluorescent 34 25 9 26 Solid Reach in Freezer 432 281 151 35 Walk in Freezer/ Cooler 112 39 80 67 Hot Food Holding Cabinet 767 438 329 43 Fryer 1,169 806 364 31 Steamer 2,700 508 2,191 73 Under counter Freezer 228 196 32 14 Glass Rea ch in Refrigerator 325 163 162 50 Convection Oven 1,051 731 320 30 Prep Table 406 182 223 55 Toaster 964 128 836 87 Broiler 4,549 2,882 657 19 Hot Water Heater 11,354 10,358 996 15 Combination oven 4,163 2,596 1,567 39 Pre rinse sprayer 1,973 1,052 921 47 Ware washer 7,657 6,432 1,226 34 Ice machine 3,650 2,940 710 20 Demand Control Exhaust Hood 7,500 5,000 2,500 33 Griddle 1,117 1,056 61 5 Table 6: Energy Star Equipment Comparisons.

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Birney 25 Due to the magnitude of energy waste in restaurants, the GRA devotes the most attention in the certification process to energy efficiency criteria. There are ninety three criteria in this section, which are arranged into nine sections. Not only are restaurants awarded points for having energy efficient equipment, but they are also awarded for using sustainable forms of energy. If a restaurant runs completely by on site renewable energy it is awarded 333.5 points, which would give the restaurant a four star certification. Many academics and citizens alike believe that the national government has failed to properly invest in renewa ble energy alternatives to oil and coal; however, some restaurants have started to pick up the slack. In Milford Prewitt analyzes the potential for the resta urant industry to invest in renewable power. While he presents many examples of large restaurant companies investing in renewable energy, the article continually refers a Brooklyn pizza parlor efforts to inspire sustainable change. onmenta lly oriented pizza parlor that was created and has been operated in accordance with dedicated sustainable practic es invested in wind energy and a river run hydropower program in upstate Ne w York. surrounding wind energy and hydropower energy, renewable energy signifies that the restaurant industry could be the spearhead in an energy paradigm shift.

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Birney 26 Criteria POINTS EE1. HEATING, COOLING, VENTILATION Programmable thermostat 3 Energy Star furnace 3.75 Energy Star HVAC heating element 4.25 CEE Tier 1 HVAC heating element 4.75 CEE Tier 2 HVAC heating element 5.25 Energy Star exhaust fan 3.75 No air c onditioner 10.5 Energy Star air conditioner room 3.25 Energy Star air conditioner central 4.75 Energy Star HVAC cooling element 3.25 CEE Tier 1 HVAC cooling element 4.5 CEE Tier 2 HVAC cooling element 5.25 Energy Star ceiling fan 3.75 Ene rgy Star qualified windows 3.75 Stacked parking (underground or multilevel garage) 3.75 Open grid pavement system for parking lot area 3.75 EnergyStar compliant, high reflectance roofing material on roof surface (minemisssivity of 0.9) 3.75 Window film that blocks solar heat 3.75 Shading of nonroof impervious surfaces 3.75 Light colored / reflective materials on nonroof impervious surfaces 3.75 Heat recovery system HVAC 3.75 Energy management system HVAC 3 Fresh air heat exchanger HVAC 3.75 Barri er between outside air and entrance (air curtain, double doors, outdoor structure, indoor curtain) 1 The following five items apply to StartUp or Renovation Clients only: Insulation meet recommended R 3.75 Insul ation exceed recommended R 5.25 Duct sealing 3.75 Radiant barrier insulation 3.75 Weatherstripping 3.75 EE2. WATER HEATING Insulation tanks and pipes 7.5 Energy management system 3 Heat recovery system 9 Tankless units 8.25 High efficiency water heater = 90+% thermal efficiency 9.75 Low flow pre rinse spray valves, flow rate 1.28 gpm 6 Ultra low flow pre rinse spray valves, flow rate 1 gpm 6.75 Flow rate of handwashing sinks (Kitchen & Restroom) 1.5gallons per minute 1

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Birney 27 Flow rate of handwashing sinks (Kitchen & Restroom) 1.0 gallons per minute 2 Flow rate of handwas hing sinks (Kitchen & Restroom) per minute 3 Flow rate of non fill prep sinks 1.5 gallons per minute 1 Flow rate of non fill prep sinks 1.0 gallons per minute 2 EnergyStar qualified dishwasher 7.5 Energy Star qualified washing machine 2.5 CEE Tier 2 qualified washing machine 2.75 CEE Tier 3 qualified washing machine 3 EE3. MISC. High efficiency hand dryer that uses < 1500W and has a drying time < 15 seconds 7.5 Energy Star qualified television 3 Equipment timers 3 EE4. LIGHTING T8 lamps meet CEE High Performance T8 Specifications 3.75 T5 and high efficiency T8 (meet CEE Reduced Wattage Spec) lamps 4.25 High efficiency halogens lumens per watt greater than 20 5.25 7.5 Energy Star compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) 8.5 LED lamps 18 Occu pancy sensors restrooms 2.25 Occupancy sensors storage closets 2.25 Occupancy sensors walk in, merchandiser, vending machine 2.25 Occupancy sensors office 2.25 Photocell / daylight sensors dining room 2.25 Photocell / daylight sensors kitc hen and office space 2.25 Lighting timers 2.25 EE5. KITCHEN EQUIPMENT COOKING Fully insulated food warmer 2.25 Energy Star qualified holding cabinet 7.5 CEE Tier 2 holding cabinet 11.25 Boilerless / connectionless steamer 8 Energy Star qu alified steamer 11.25 Energy Star qualified fryer 11.25 Energy Star qualified convection oven 11.25 Infrared charbroiler 2.25 Energy Star qualified griddle 7.5 Hood with variable volume control 3.5 Wall mounted exhaust canopy Engineered proximity hoo d 2.5 3.5 The following three pieces of equipment must qualify for a utility rebate as determined by the Food Service Technology Center (FSTC) Rebate qualified combination oven 11.25

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Birney 28 Rebate qualified conveyor oven 11.25 Rebate qualified rack oven 11.25 NOTE: Any items not listed here will be addressed by GRA Consultants on a case by case basis. EE6. KITCHEN EQUIPMENT REFRIGERATION Energy Star qualified solid door reach in refrigerator 6 Energy Star qualified glass door reach in refrig erator 6 Energy Star qualified solid door reach in freezer 6 Energy Star qualified glass door reach in freezer 6 Energy Star / CEE Tier 1 qualified ice machine 7.5 CEE Tier 2 qualified ice machine 11.25 Walk In refrigerator with an electronically comm utated motor (ECM) 4.5 Walk In refrigerator with strip curtains 2.25 Merchandiser with T8 lights and night curtain 2.25 NOTE: Any items not listed here will be addressed by GRA Consultants on a case by case basis. EE7. ANNUAL MAINTENANCE Refrigeration (including new gaskets), HVAC, cooking equipment 4.5 EE8. OFFICE EQUIPMENT Energy Star qualified cordless phone 0.75 Energy Star qualified computer 0.75 Energy Star qualified monitors 0.75 Energy Star qualified printer 0.75 S mart Strip power strip 0.75 Energy Star qualified copier, fax, scanner & printer 1.5 EE9. RENEWABLE ENERGY For section EE9, points awarded are based on the percentage energy that is offset. On site renewable energy (solar panels, wind turbine, geothermal, solar water heater, solar exhaust) 333.5 Green e certified renewable energy credits (RECs) 20 Table 7: Energy efficiency criteria and point s ystem used by the GRA for the certification process. Disposables As previously mentioned, restaurants annually produce thousands of pounds of waste. Materials that are intended for one time use, such as to go cups and cutlery, can be extremely wasteful. The amount of disposables use is directly associated with the typology of restaurants (fine dining casual caf, fast food, ext.). Consequently,

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Birney 29 the GRA creates specific point criteria for the casual restaurant, fast food and cafeterias because they are the most likely to use disposables for the dining experience. Additionally, the quality of take out disposables is evaluated based on the materials used to create the product and the manner of disposal. The criteria strongly suggest that restaurants sho uld offer reusable utensils, dishes and glasses for dine in customers. Criteria Points D1. NO DISPOSABLES Reusable napkins 6.5 Reusable hand towels in restrooms 6.5 F ast Casual and Fast Food restaurants only Reusable utensils for dine in customers 6.5 Reusable dishes for dine in customers 6.5 Reusable glasses / mugs for dine in customers 6.5 For Cafeterias that do not offer disposable food service items Reusable utensils for dine in customers 3 Reusable dishes for dine in cus tomers 3 Reusable glasses / mugs for dine in customers 3 For Cafeterias that offer disposables for to go items only Reusable utensils for dine in customers 2 Reusable dishes for dine in customers 2 Reusable glasses / mugs for dine in customers 2 D2 FOOD SERVICE DISPOSABLES The GRA will evaluate the following items: Take out containers Cold cups Hot cups Plates Bowls Cutlery & straws Plastic bags Cup carriers Trash liners Pizza circles Food trays

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Birney 30 Pizza boxes Cup sleeves Paper bags D3. OTHER RECYCLED PAPER ITEMS The GRA will evaluate the following items: Napkins Paper towels Bath tissue Facial tissue Seat covers Tray liners Placemats Office paper Menu paper Paper for marketing and educational materials (business cards, letterhead, envelopes, brochures, tent cards, post cards) Guest checks & receipts Table 8 : Disposables criteria and point system used by the GRA for the certification process. Chemical and Pollution Prevention The process of getting to and from a restaurant, as an employee and a diner, raises questions concerning smog associated with petroleum transportation and the carbon emissions associated with global climate change due to atmospheric degradation. Additionally, restaurants are associated with storm water management and the use of toxic chemicals. Consequently, the GRA has create d eight sections of criteria used in the certification process for the final pillar in their monumental restaurant reform process. Criteria POINTS CPR1. TRANSPORTATION Building located 1/2 mile from subway, light rail 0.5 Building located 1/4 mile fro m bus line 0.5 Provide secure bicycle storage with shower facilities 0.5

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Birney 31 Provide preferred parking for customers and employees with alternative fuel vehicles or hybrid vehicles 0.5 Preferred parking for employee carpools 0.5 No idling policy Signs p osted where delivery trucks and take out customers would park 0.5 Offer 50% or more subsidy to each employee for public transportation 0.5 Alternative fuel refueling station for 3% of total vehicle parking capacity (such as an electric charging station) 5 CPR2. SITE SELECTION Brownfield redevelopment 25 CPR3. STORMWATER MANAGEMENT Mitigate % of annual stormwater that falls on the site, using bioretention cells, permeable pavement, rain barrels, etc. 7.75 CPR4. TRANSPORTATION, PETROLEUM R EDUCTION Alt Fuel Vehicles (hybrid, biodiesel, electric) 7 Waste Vegetable Oil fueled vehicles 10.5 Deliveries made by foot or bicycle 13 Electric powered lawn mower 2 Manual mower 2.5 CPR5. CHEMICAL REDUCTION No HCFC based refrigerants 3 Unbleache d parchment paper 1.25 Unbleached deli sheets 1.25 Unbleached pastry bags 1.25 Low VOC flooring 2.5 Low VOC wallcovering 2.5 Low VOC paints and coatings meet GreenSeal standards GS11 or GS43 2 Zero VOC paints 2.5 Natural paints 3 Adhesives and seal ants with VOC emissions < S. Coast Air Quality Mgmt District Rule 1168 2.5 Adhesives and sealants with NO VOC emissions 3 Carpet and carpet cushion meets CRI Green Label requirements 2.5 Composite panels and agrifiber products contain no added urea form aldehyde resins 2.5 Mercury content of linear fluorescent bulbs < 80 picograms per lumen hour 1.25 Mercury content of compact fluorescent bulbs < 80 picograms per lumen hour 1.25 Sustainable Clothing organic, hemp, recycled

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Birney 32 materials Chef coats 3 Staff uniforms 3 Merchandise 3 Sustainable Dcor Local flowers and plants (within 100 miles of the restaurant) 1.5 Organic flowers and plants 2.5 Non toxic candle alternative (such as LED, beeswax, soy) 2.5 Sustaina ble napkins (organic, hemp, recycled materials) 3 Sustainable table linens (organic, hemp, recycled materials) 3 Ethanol based warming gel that contains no methanol 2.5 Soy or other vegetable based inks paper printing 1.25 Soy or other vegetab le based inks clothing 1.25 CPR6. PEST MANAGEMENT Green Shield certified pest control company 8.25 Green Pro or EcoWise certified pest control company 7.75 CPR7. LIGHT POLLUTION All outdoor lights > 50W must be covered fixtures so light is not directly emitted into the night sky 0.75 Directional lighting in parking areas 0.75 CPR8. CHEMICALS Solid block warewashing products (Surface area less than 282 in 2 ; Dilutes to less than 1 oz / 5 gallons) 3 General cleaning products meet GreenSeal 's standards, GS 37 5.25 General cleaning products meet GRA's Standards (see Endorsement Standards ) 7.75 Hand soap meets GreenSeal's standards, GS 41 1 Hand soap meets GRA's standard 1.5 M anual dish soap meets EPA's DfE standards 1 Manual dish soap meets GRA's standards 1.5 Table 9: Chemical and pollution prevention criteria and point system used by the GRA for the certification process. What Motivates the Change? With a growing consumer demand, the restaurant industry is realizing there is a new niche market to address.

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Birney 33 restaurants to enact environmental sustainability practices: save costs, reduce waste data concerning why restaurants decide t o become green. The study evaluated the five most popular motivations for adopting more environmentally sound practices: finding that 66% of restaurants are motivated by the consumers perception of brand identity, 63% were motivated by an ethical obligati on to the planet, 63% were motivated to become industry leaders, 50% were motivated to reduce their carbon footprint and 47% were motivated by cost reduction. The GRA and the Four Winds Caf With a comprehensive and quantitative evaluation system, the GRA provides restaurateurs with the necessary knowledge to assess their establishments. As an Environmental Studies thesis student and an employee of the Four Winds Caf, I was presented with the unique research opportunity to use the GRA criteria and a l ifetime force of sustainability desire to understand consumer perception of the Four Winds Caf, an ethical obligati on to the planet, a desire to become industry leaders in the world of academia, to reduce the carbon footprint of New College of Florida, and to reduce caf expenses in order to make a profit. The following chapter provides a break down of the method and the results of a revolutionary fiscal semester at the Four Winds Caf and a plan for improved performance for the future.

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Birney 34 Chapter 3 The Four Winds Caf: A Case Study Caf Mondain s have the highest status of convenience restaurants and they are characterized by many factors. Firstly, the menu of such a restaurant can be considered a hybrid that combines many types of cuisine and food types. Secondly, the clientele generally live i n the same neighborhood as the caf, which encourages walk ins, eliminating the idea of reservations. While the ambiance of a Caf Mondain is generally stylish and comfortable, the quality of service is ambiguous and the staff is not expected to look form al (sounds like the four winds). Finally, this subcategory is most notable for the existence of constant variation in staff and ingredients; therefore, the clients do not have high expectations for their dining experience but enjoy eating at the Caf non the less because of third place comfort standards. Part One: Ecological Footprint: Kitchen Infrastructure Management: Food Factory Production Evaluation It is difficult to define the term sustainability, but it is even harder to evaluate. Thankfully, the Green Restaurant Association has created a quantitative guide to evaluate how sustainable a restaurant is. The purpose of this section is not to get the Four Winds Caf (FWC) certified by the GRA, rather it is intended to analyze and suggest areas of opportunity concerning the ecological footprint of the caf. The following section of this chapter utilizes the criteria presented in the previous chapter, specifically applied to the FWC. After each section is scored and the final tally is collected, t his section concludes with suggestions for improvement and an official Green Fee Proposal asking for capital investments to lower the carbon footprint of the Four Winds Caf and New College as a whole. Water Efficiency The Green Restaurant Association a wards points for water efficiency in four categories: landscaping, kitchen, restrooms and other. The Four Winds Caf has both

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Birney 35 a low water landscaping that covers 50% of the site area (3 points) and a rain barrel catchment system that is used to water the landscaping (4.25 points); additionally, the Four Winds Caf has a non fill prep sink with a low flow rate (1.5 points) and EPA certified high efficiency toilets (2 points). In total, the caf receives a total of 10.75 points, just barely above the minimu m points required. Furthermore, the Four Winds Caf has an Energy Star certified dish sanitizer that is not on the official list of criteria; however, during a legitimate certification, this would most likely be counted in the point system. Future impr ovements should start by converting bathroom hand washing sinks to low flow standards, which requires a very small capital investment. Additionally, the caf would benefit from purchasing a low flow pre rinse spray valve for approximately $50, which would earn the caf an additional 5.75 points. Finally, drinking water for FWC patrons is available upon request; however, there is no educational commentary about conserving drinking water in restaurants. If the caf fulfilled this aspect, it would earn an a dditional 3 points. If the improvements from this paragraph were successfully implemented in the future, it would earn the caf an additional 12.75 points. Waste Reduction and Recycling The caf kitchen has a c omplete recycling program for glass, plasti c, steel, aluminum, and cardboard which is required by the GRA standards (20 points); u nfortunately, the dining room of the caf does not have a recycling bin for students to utilize. Additionally, there is an ever expanding compost for kitchen productio n that is located behind the shed of the caf which is worth 17.5 points. The Compost

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Birney 36 and Recycling TA, employed by the student government (New College Student Alliance) and Council of Green Affairs, is responsible for the mainten ance of the system. T he re is a current Green Fee proposal being organized to create a more efficient waste management program, which would also include the waste management of the Four Winds Caf. As a vegetarian restaurant, the caf produces a 5 gallon bucket of compostable mat ter a day. The compost that is produced is largely composed of banana peels, eggshells tomatoes, coffee gro unds and expired menu items, which creates a rich and balanced blend that is excellent for fertilization. The compost is then transferred to our c ampus gardens to support local orga nic food production. T he Council of Green Affairs recently created a new position entitled the Gardening Coordinator who is responsible for organizing the leaders of every gardening initiative on campus and maintaining a comprehensive Gardening Great Book that records the efforts and o utcomes of each harvest. T he Compost and Recycling TA and the Gardening Coordinator are responsible for maintaining and spreading the compost created by th e Four Winds Caf. If positions s uch as these worked together at the local government label, cities would seriousl y reduce solid waste production while supporting local agricultural production. Additionally, the FWC receives 3 points for waste reduction in the office for having a paper less payroll for all employees. In the final section, Waste Reduction of Disposable Products, the FWC receives 1 point for using bulk packaging for in house condiment, 1 point for bulk coffee station items, 3.5 points for not serving bottled

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Birney 37 water and 2.2 5 points for having a reusable mug program that offers a monetary incentive for customers to bring their own mugs. In total, the Four Winds earns 48.25 points for their waste management practices, which is a substantial foundation; however, it is imperati ve that improvements are made for waste management (recycling and composting) for the dining room. Future improvements for this section include developing programs for: post consumer recycling (7.5 points), reuse or recycling ink cartridges (0.25 points ), junk mail reduction (0.25 points), paperless bulling for all vendors (3 points), reusable bag program (2.25 points), and a reusable container program (2.25 points). These six criteria would earn the Four Winds Caf an additional 15.5 points. Sustaina ble Furnishings and Building Material In 1996, seven New College students were responsible for starting the Four Winds Caf as a coffeehouse for their Independent Study Project. They received CITF grant of around $250,000 to renovate the condemned elephan t barn into a functioning restaurant. Due to the fact the GRA does not require any points for this section, this thesis will not attempt to allocate points for the sustainable furnishing and building materials; however, it should be noted that the restaur ant is located in a salvaged, historic building. Sustainable Food There are four categories in the certification process for food in restaurant: organic food and beverages, sustainable meat and dairy, meat free menus, and local food. The first section ha s a total of 40 points, which is awarded for a totally organic menu; consequently, the Four Winds scores between 25 30 point for having a

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Birney 38 majority of our food and beverages certified organic. Since the caf is strictly vegetarian, it is awarded the full 3 0 points for being meat free. Finally, a substantial amount of our fresh vegetables are purchased from local and organic farms, and our bread is purchased from a local bakery; therefore, the caf earns around 20 points for offering food that was produced in a 100 mile radius around the restaurant. The quality of our food provides our greatest number of points, totaling between 75 and 80 points. As always, there is room for improvement. Firstly, the FWC can increase purchases from local farms and increase p urchases of certified organic ingredients. This should be a constant improvement, until 100% of ingredients are local and organic, which should take years to accomplish. Additionally, the caf should look into ordering dairy that is certified to have no hormones or antibiotics and eggs that were humanely raised by cage free chickens. The former two improvements would earn the Four Winds Cage an additional 10 points. Energy The Four Winds Caf does not earn the minimum points necessary for certification, earning only 7.75 points in total for having a programmable thermostat (3 points), shading on nonroof impervious surfaces (3.75), and for the porch barrier by the north door (1 point). With such a low score, it is evident that the Four Winds Caf needs to improve on energy efficiency. The FWC should consider investing in one or all of the following criteria: a low flow pre rinse spay valve (6 points), a low flow rate for all hand washing sinks (3 points), conventional compact fluorescent lamps (7.5 points ), occupancy sensors for the restrooms and office (4.5 points), and Energy Star qualified convection oven (11.25 points). These future improvements

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Birney 39 would earn the FWC an additional 22.25 points, which would be a significant improvement from the current en ergy efficiency score. Additionally, further down the line, the FWC should consider investing in on site renewable energy, which provides up to 333.5 points. As previously mentioned, the comparison between standard equipment energy consumption and ener gy efficient equipment consumption creates a clear outline of improvement opportunities. Since the Four Winds Caf is a vegetarian restaurant, the kitchen equipment necessary for production is not as extensive as an omnivore restaurant; hence, Table 10 is an edited version of Table 6, excluding technology that is not used in the Four Winds Caf. There are ten different equipment versions in Table 10 that vary in both energy savings and fiscal savings. The greatest opportunity for savings and energy reduc tion is providing energy efficient toasters. The toaster at the Four Winds is used constantly from 9:00 AM to closing everyday. According to Energy Star, the Four Winds could save $836 annually with the installation of an energy efficient toaster. In th e first quarter of the 2011 Fall total expenses. Assuming that this expense is constant for every quarter, the caf spends $7,000 annually on electricity; therefore, if a n energy efficient toaster were to be installed, the caf would save 12% of the electric bill. Table 10 Four Winds Caf Standard vs. Energy Efficient Product Saving Estimate Standard Equipment Use Energy Efficient Equipment and Use Savings Energy S avings Technology ($/yr) ($/yr) ($/year) (%) Solid Reach In Refrigerators 210 97 113 54 Under counter 146 124 22 15

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Birney 40 Refrigerator Lighting Incadescent 26 7 20 75 Lighting Fluorescent 34 25 9 26 Solid Reach in Freezer 432 281 151 35 Gl ass Reach in Refrigerator 325 163 162 50 Convection Oven 1,051 731 320 30 Prep Table 406 182 223 55 Toaster 964 128 836 87 Ice machine 3,650 2,940 710 20 Disposables There are two categories used to disp osables: the absence of disposables and the quality of disposables. As a fast casual restaurant, the Four Winds Caf receives 6.5 points for having reusable utensils for dine in customers, 6.5 points for reusable dishes for dine in customers, and 6.5 poi nts for reusable glasses and mugs for dine in customers; this totals to 19.5 points awarded in this section. As a caf, the Four Winds sells a great deal of coffee, both in house and to go; accordingly the caf purchases our disposables from ECO Products which provides the most sustainable form of to go cups for purchase. Specifically the caf purchases World Art TM Hot Cups which are fully compostable and made from renewable materials. Additionally, the cups are BPI certified, which supports the cred ibili ty of their production. Also a new design feature has an interactive tag that can be

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Birney 41 scanned by a smart phone, leading to more information about environmental consciousness and ECO Products. While this is an excellent aspect of Green Restaurant Prac tices, the Four Winds needs to work harder to educate the patrons that their to go cups are indeed compostable. Chemical and Pollution Prevention According to the Green Restaurant Association, there are eight categories needed to evaluate the level of ch emical and pollution prevention associated with restaurant production and the act of dining out: transportation, site selection, stormwater management, petroleum reduction, chemical reduction, pest management, light pollution, and chemicals. In the first section, the caf earns 0.5 points for being located mile from a bus line (SCAT, and 0.5 points for subsidizing 100% of the public transportation cost of using the bus line. In the third section, the caf earns 7.75 points for using rain barrels to mitig ate storm water management. Finally, the caf earns 13 points for not using cars for deliveries. Summarily, the Four Winds Caf is awarded 20.75 points for chemical and pollution prevention. In conjunction with New Cycle New College (the future bike sha ring program paid for with Green Fee money), the Four Winds Caf should enhance the biking facilities for both employee and patron services. Future improvements for this area are easily attainable. A great first step would be file a work request with Phys ical Plant, asking for the relocation of extra bike racks to the patio at the Four Winds Caf. If these bike racks were painted the same color as the new bikes, there would prospe ctive student tours. Since every tour that occurs on this campus passes by the

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Birney 42 admission rates. Furthermore, building an inexpensive outdoor shower facility for would also earn the caf more points in the section, while providing commuter students that bike to campus, a refreshing break from the Florida heat. How does the F our Winds Score? Points Water Efficiency 10.75 points Waste Reduction & Recycling 48.25 points Sustainable Furnishings and Bldg Materials 0 Sustainable Food 75 points Energy 7.75 points Disposables 19.5 points Chemical & Pollution Reduction 20.75 points Total 182 points Table 11: Hypothetical points awarded to the Four Winds Ca f based off the criteria of the Green Restaurant Association. What is needed to improve the score? According to the criteria set by the Green Restaurant Association, the Four Winds Caf earns 182 p oints for sustainable practices, which is a substantial three star certification score; however, the caf is currently unable to be certified because the energy score of 7.75 does not satisfy the 10 point minimum Luckily this is an easy fix. The strongest areas of sustainable practices are found in both the food offered a t the caf and waste reduction/ recycling. On the other hand the weakest areas of sustainable practices are found in both water efficiency and energy consumption;

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Birney 43 accordingly the Four Winds should concentrate their ecological attention on th ese to aspects of the operation. While the caf scored 182 points, there is still substantial and necessary room for improvement. The suggested areas of improvement for each section total 96 points of future improvements, which would place the FWC withi n reaching distance of a Four Star certification. If the Four Winds Caf were a Four Star Green Restaurant, New College of Florida would be the first college in the United States to have such a sustainable restaurant, which would bring some much needed at tention and acclaim to our school. Green Fee Potential In order to earn more points in these two areas, it is advantageous for the Four Winds Caf to submit a request for Green Fee funding for capital investment that will lower the carbon footprint of the school as a whole, while still supporting the development of green restaurant practices at the caf. If the following Green Fee proposal is allocated and used properly, the Four Winds Caf will be the birthplace of a college restaurant sustainability mov ement. Such an accomplishment would create a model for colleges across the nation to follow that would illuminate how college restaurants can inspire sustainable change. At PowerShift 2011, the largest grass roots training conference of student environmen Green Fees at the college level. Hundreds of student leaders, who were active in campus sustainability initiatives attended this session to gather information and return back to thei r campuses with a plan of action. In the spring of 2011, New College of Florida successfully created a Green Fee; consequently, we were ahead of the game. Using national gatherings, such as PowerShift 2013 in Washington D.C., to share the

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Birney 44 progress made us ing the Green Fee for sustainable improvements at the Four Winds Caf, would inspire more colleges to explore the potential of restaurants as sustainability hotspots. Green Fee Allocation Form Title of Project : ECO 3 Requester(s): Johannah Birney Year: T hesis Student AOC : Environmental Studies Phone : 561.301.7019 Email : Johannah.Birney@ncf.edu Box #:121 Other relevant project contacts: Dinah Juergens (727.239.5796) Amount Requested: $100 for a Low Flow pre rinse spray valve $1,000 Equipment replacement fund that will cover the difference between standard kitchen equipment and energy efficient equipment. For instance, the FWC needs a new oven. If we purchased a more expensive energy efficient model, t hen the Green Fee would cover the difference. Briefly describe your project (500 words or less) The FWC needs too improve their Energy Score, according to the Green Restaurant Association standards. By purchasing a Low Flow pre rinse spray valve, the ca f would reach the minimum points necessary for this section, resulting in a hypothetical Three Star certification. Additionally, replacing old equipment with energy efficient models will add to the score and our ranking. How does your project contribu te to sustainability on campus? Restaurants are the most intensive commercial energy consumer in Florida. By investing in the Four Winds Caf, this project will reduce the energy consumption, water consumption and waste production of our food service pr ogram. Additionally, by investing in the Four Winds Caf, the Green Fee would support a growing local food movement that is transitioning Sarasota. This is extremely important to address not only to reduce our carbon footprint, but also to reimage the qual ity of food at New College. Recently the Princeton Review rated New College of Florida #2 for worst campus food. At a time when our school needs to make our mark on the map, it is imperative that we do not discourage potential applicants who rule out New years. If the Four Winds is successful in the ECO 3 reforms, then our Caf will be a sustainabili ty.

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Birney 45 Have you sought out any sources of alternative funding? If so, which? The Four Winds Caf Provide details for project expenditures (an itemized budget of project costs): $100 for a Low Flow pre rinse spray valve $1,000 Equipment replacement fund t hat will cover the difference between standard kitchen equipment and energy efficient equipment. For instance, the FWC needs a new oven. If we purchased a more expensive energy efficient model, then the Green Fee would cover the difference. Give a brief timeline of your project: This project has been in the works for some time now. The analysis has take one year and if everything goes as planned, I will continue to work at the Four Winds Caf as the manager in the Fall of 2012. Any capital investments that are made, will be installations; however, training of the staff and maintaining a higher level of sustainable excellence will take constant and dedicated managerial skills. Will your project require ongoing maintenance or additional funding in the future? If so, describe the maintenance and/or funding required (student maintenance or otherwise) and for how long. This should be the first of many Green Fee allocation forms dedicated to enhancing the sustainability of the FWC. ccess to be evaluated, especially in terms of sustainability? The electricity bill, after installation of energy efficient equipment, can be compared to past electricity bills. If there is a decrease, then the project is successful. Who will be involve d with the implementation of this project (students, contractors, staff)? Have these relationships been established? The staff of the Four Winds Caf will be responsible for implementation. What are the necessary steps for approval of this project? The m anager of the Four Winds Caf must approve the project. If this project will be a physical addition to campus, where will it be located and has it been discussed with the landscape committee? The physical additions will be inside the Four Winds Caf. P lease provide an annotated bibliography with sources that support your proposal (max 3 pages). Refer to page 114

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Birney 46 Part Two: Economic Footprint: A Path Towards Profits Historical debt overview While understanding the ecological footprint of the Four Winds Caf, it is also imperative to analyze the economic footprint of the caf because in the end, restaurants are a business and in order to survive they must make money. For the purpose of this section, the budgets for the past three years will be criti qued; although, it may be beneficial in the future to collect the budgeting information since 1996 when the caf was originally created. In the 2009 2010 school year, the Four Winds Caf had a grand total expense of $79,299.68 and a grand total revenue of $68, 960.72, leaving a $10,388.96 deficit in the operation. The following school year (2010 2011), the Four Winds Caf had a grand total expense of $76,654.26 and a grand total revenue of $71,176.01, leaving a $5,478.25 deficit for the year. This margin of failure is much better compared to the previous year, but still leaves a great area for improvement. In the first semester of the 2011 2012 school year, the Four Winds Caf had a grand total expense of $51,410.88 and a grand total revenue of $66,860.17 creating a positive balance of $15,469.29. The jump in revenue can most closely be linked to the new Meal Plan option that was implemented at the Four Winds Caf; however, it is too early to conclude that the profits for the entire year will produce suc h positive results. Table 12 is a detailed budget list that includes detailed organization of where the Four Winds Caf spends money and the revenue that flows back. Additionally, Table 13 is a detailed budget list of the first quarter of the 2011 Fall Se mester, which calculates a grand total expense of $32,006 and a grand total revenue of $23,562, leaving a deficit for the first quarter. When analyzing the budget for the first quarter of the 2011 Fall

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Birney 47 semester to the total budget of the semester, it is e vident that a great deal of improvement occurred. The compared improvements are strongly linked to the menu overhaul that was accomplished in November, which is further explained in the following section. Another factor that increased profits for this pa st semester was the new meal plan contract, which resulted in students being able to use their ham cards to pay for their food with a 75% up charges for Sodexo royalties. This is comparable to the previous system that allowed students to transfer meal pla n money to the Four Winds Caf at a two to one ration ($2 meal plan money = $1 FWC money). Budget Line Exp 09/10 Est 10/11 Exp 10/11 Est 11/12 Exp Fall 11 OPS Manager 20,117.50 18,720.00 13,945.75 12,000.00 6,838.06 OPS Staff 31,060.63 32,000.00 37 ,661.39 34,000.00 14,096.73 OPS Fringe/Manager 1,459.43 1,500.00 203.46 300.00 OPS Fringe/Staff 50.00 0.00 Total OPS 52,637.56 52,270.00 51,810.60 46,300.00 20,934.79 Expense Credit Card Charges 676.33 Equipm ent 5,025.47 1,000.00 76.82 2,000.00 2,701.33 Furniture 126.35 Maintenance 575.00 Fire Alarm 400.00 200.00 135.00 200.00 Fire Insurance 108.00 205.00 112.00 205.00 218.14 Major Repairs 125.00 Pest Control 428.00 417. 00 428.00 417.00 421.00 Repairs/Maint 21.28 1,849.74 Repairs/Beanz Man 131.05 150.00 Repairs/Java Tech 674.00 500.00 500.00 Repairs/Raynor 1,742.00 1,000.00 1,087.50 0.00 Repairs/Sarasota Office: 2 82.50 Advertising 44.87 Cash Register Computer/Software 450.00 450.00 450.00 900.00 450.00 Copying 700.00 156.95 Equipment Fingerprinting 648.75 500.00 259.50 300.00 302.75 Magazines 69. 95 50.00 50.00 45.00 Manager Test 200.61 192.01 200.00 Permit 110.00 200.00 110.00 100.00 270.00 Shipping/Freight Supplies 841.18 500.00 566.88 500.00

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Birney 48 Telephone 316.00 200.00 302.00 400.00 245.00 Sales/Over /Under 25.44 117.02 107.73 Supplies/Food: 55.47 436.15 other 17,388.00 8,000.00 Home Depot 67.25 Hungry Howie's Joffrey's(Lara's) 109.24 840.00 272.20 Lattitude 363.90 Java Tech 890.90 304 .00 Morty's 2,229.46 2,622.59 871.86 Nash/Donuts Publix 1,547.26 316.02 171.65 Reimb. supp 663.49 861.18 706.01 Sam's 2,934.04 534.55 Sodexo Royalty 10,000.00 9,846.71 Sodexo Food 1,910.66 8,000.00 8 ,280.61 Sutters 3,657.87 2,671.34 1,608.84 Sweetwater 1,530.00 2,418.75 1,132.25 Target 134.09 160.71 Thai Spice 40.00 VistaServ 79.98 Wong Kai Worden Farms 310.00 878.93 48.00 Prior Year Ex pense Total Expense 23,612.12 22,610.00 20,504.66 32,622.00 30,476.09 OCO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Total OPS+Expense+OCO 76,249.68 74,880.00 72,315.26 78,922.00 51,410.88 Admin. Overhead (6%) 3,050.00 4,535.00 4,339.00 5,200.00 Grand Total Expense 79,299.68 79,415.00 76,654.26 84,122.00 51,410.88 Revenue Meal Plan 39,000.00 22,786.94 Catering 3,959.24 4,000.00 4,224.82 4,000.00 708.30 Sales Caf 36,459.37 53,000.00 38,668.66 17,000.00 11,284.95 Misc. Sales 0.00 0.00 108.07 0.00 Total Sales 40,418.61 57,000.00 43,001.55 60,000.00 34,780.19 Investment Income 542.11 1,000.00 174.46 0.00 99.98 Transfers A&S 16,000.00 16,000.00 16,000.00 12,000.00 12,000.00 Transfers from Food Serv. 12,000. 00 12,000.00 12,000.00 12,000.00 20,000.00 Grand Total Revenue 68,960.72 86,000.00 71,176.01 84,000.00 66,880.17 Balance 5,478.25 15,469.29 Table 12: The Budget of Operation for the Four Winds Caf in the 2009 2010 school year, the 2010 2011 school year and the Fall Semester of the 2011 2012 school year. The columns in blue are the estimated budgets and the black columns are the actual figures from the year. This information is submitted by the Manager of the caf and collected by D awn Shongood.

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Birney 49 Table 13: Economic breakdown for the first quarter of fall semester. Created by Tristen Zucker.

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Birney 50 Graph 1: Four Winds Caf budget comparison from 2007 2011. Graph 1 is a strong visualization of the progress made this past semester. In order to compare the Grand Total Revenue (GTR) of these five fiscal years, the A&S subsidy was taken out of the GTR, which shows that this past semester was the only time in the past five years that the Four Winds Caf made more money than they spent. Additionally, it amount sales from this past semester are almost as much as entire previous years, which indicates that the recent reforms are causing positive growth. The employees of the Four Winds Caf should be proud of this progress and motivated to continue this path. The final budget from this entire year will be the final indication of the progress made; hopefully, the caf will continue to increase profits.

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Birney 51 A world changing menu Some time between the birth of the car and the birth of the suburb s, local farms were all but extinct compared to the previous magnitude before the era of industrialized agriculture. Fortunately, as time progresses it seems that local farms are back on the rise and more important than ever. Take for instance Geraldsons a nd s of Sarasota for the Saturday morning farmers market downtown on Main Street and Lemon street both of which are located in residential communities. Like most other businesses th at rely on the sun, farming is extremely risky, especially for small time enterprises that are not cutting corners To increase likelihood of survival, it is logical for farms to reduce as much risk as they can by creating meaningful relationships with lo cal restaurants that are themselves reducing risk by reforming the production practices. Together, local farms and local restaurants, are positively affecting their ecological communities by providing opportunities for the diner to get acquainted with the taste of real food thereby strengthening their connection to nature. The fastest and most effective way to change a restaurant is to change the menu. The new menu at the Four Winds is directly inspired by the sentiment of the former paragraph and the av ailability of seasonal and organic produce created within a ten mile radius of the caf. With a new food philosophy, a few of the old items had to be left behind. The caf collectively decided that guacamole would never be ordered again. This was a big vic tory for the credibility of our menu because the guacamole, that was vital for so many old menu items, had too many ingredients to say in three breaths (including beloved xanthum gum) and arrived in frozen blocks

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Birney 52 packaged in plastic, taped in boxes. The g uacamole, which was purchased through Sudexo, was one of the most expensive ingredients on the budget, but it did not produce a correlated profit, adding to the chronic debt. Additionally, the staff decided to stop ordering such a large variety of syrups, reducing the syrup options to five instead of 20 syrup options. Finally, the caf stopped ordering tortilla chips, which was a very wise decision. The chips were constantly stale and often received complaints. With a new found direction, the Four Winds Caf changed forever. The first vision of the seasonal menu was debuted on Monday, November 7 th with the following options: Week 1: Menu Cajun Style Red Beans and Rice Farm Fresh Salad with roasted eggplant Hummus Platter Creamy Coconut Spinach Soup Panan g Curry Oven Roasted Sweet Potato Fries Fresh Cabbage Slaw Wraps Caprese Pesto Wraps The overall response to the menu change was strongly supported by students many of which expressed to the s taff that their dining experience was much more satisfying. The new menu items require a shorter preparation time and the Grab and Go truly reduces the wait time during the lu nch rushes. With the menu change in place the staff was pleased to hear that our economic performance was improving as well. During the week leading up to November 7 th the Four Winds made the following daily sales: Monday 10/31 $425, Tuesday 11/1 $415, Wednesday 11/2 $505, Thursday 11/3 $476, Friday 11/5 $411. Comparatively the first two days of the new menu produced sales that were i ncredibly higher: Mon 11/7 $667 (57%

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Birney 53 increase over Mon 10/31) and Tues 11/8 $616 (48% increase over Tues 11/1). Automatically it was clear that the changes were well received by the public, including the purple paint job. In addition to the menu items, the Four Winds Caf has improved drastically by providing freshly baked desserts such and carrot cupcakes with cream cheese frosting and vegan cinnamon buns. however, many items fluctuated in co rrelation with the local harvest. Specifically, the availability of cheap and local eggplant (a box for $10) inspired the following menu. Week Two: Menu Baingan Bharta Lentil Soup Hummus Plater Red Beans and Rice Prik Khin Curry Sweet Potato Fries Kalmat a Olive Bread with pesto Caprese Grab and Go Wraps was more limited then the previous two weeks because classes ended on Wednesday for the Thanksgiving break. Consequently, the menu was inspired by the continued harvest of cheap egg plant and spring rolls. The ability customers about vegetable seasonality, thereby turning the dining experience into a learning experience. Week Three: Menu Baingan Bhar ta Ginger Carrot Soup Hummus Platter Chilean Bread with Pesto Oven Roasted Sweet Potato Fries Noodle Bowl

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Birney 54 Springs Rolls Grab and Go Th e menu for the fourth week was sensually complex and produced some of the most aesthetically pleasing food presentations to date at the Four Winds Caf. Specifically, the influx of local b e ets and green beans inspired a colorful menu, while maintaining the overall infrastructure of the new menu orientation. Week 4: Menu Baingan Bharta Beet Quinoa salad with dill, spinach a nd feta Tangy Black Beans and Rice Oven roasted lemon garlic sweet potato fries with dill mustard sauce Masaman Curry with tofu, green beans, potatoes and basmati rice Garbanzo soup with sundried tomatoes Hummus Platter Caprese Wrap with Olive Walnut Pest o Grab and Go There is still room for menu improvement. Firstly, there is not a consistent salad option on the menu, which could be fulfilled by the installment of a house Caesar Salad. In general this salad is cost efficient to produce and the quality of taste menu cost 99 cents to make (including prep time) and they are sold for five dollars, producing one the highest profit margins on the menu. This item should be a weekly staple for the new menu. Finally, the menu should offer smaller portion options for select menu items such as a cup of soup along with a bowl of soup and a small portion of sweet potato fries along with the regular portion. This type of portion p ractice is rewarded 2.25 points by the GRA in final area of waste reduction practices in Table 3.

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Birney 55 While the menu for the customers needs to be enhanced, the employee menu also needs to be reformed. The current practice at the FWC is that every employee gets one free meal when they work a shift, which is a major reason why the staff likes to work at the FWC. Unfortunately, the amount and type of food used to meet this protocol is not consistent between the employees, which leads to monetary loss and dep letion of menu items. To save money and to promote consistency, the caf should have an approved employee meal that each employee eats instead of creating a meal of his or her choice. While this seems like a constraining reform, it is necessary and is pr acticed by restaurants across the country. Having a weekly employee meal option is a necessary reform for the survival of the Four Winds Caf. Staff paradigm shift With menu reform, comes staff reform. If the Four Winds Caf is going to survive it mus t also adjust the current system of employment. For years the caf has been known for poor service that is both untimely and incorrect on a regular basis. Negative consistency is a serious problem, which has led to decreased consumer interest, annual debt and a general lack of credibility. Fortunately, there is an academic outlet for this predicament, which is to understand the sociological division of labor that is associated with a functioning kitchen; consequently, the following paragraphs delve deep in to the work of Gary Alan Fine and his perspective of ho w a restaurant staff operates, looking for areas of staffing opportunities. Gary Alan Fine (1996) approaches the concept of restaurant sociology from an interdisciplinary background that emphasizes a balanced mixture of classical social theory with a focus in anthropological ethnographic study. For the purpose of my

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Birney 56 thesis the most valuable concept is his description of the division of labor within the microclimate of a restaurant. Understanding the organization of a kitchen, the heart of food production in a restaurant, is vital to understand how to implement sustainable measures. According to the Green Restaurant Association, the final aspect of restaurant sustainability is employee awareness and ed ucation of sustainable practices. U nderstanding the intricacies of specific kitchen employee responsibilities illuminates where there is room for sustainability opportunities to be fostered. Throughout his explanation there is a very strong sense of orga nizational theory based off small group dynamics that surround the authority of the Chef. The Chef is at the center of the division of labor and is the actor responsible for orchestrating the chaos of the kitchen, which includes a long list of requirements Firstly, the Chef should have a complete knowledge of every aspect of food preparation required for the restaurants menu; furthermore, he/she should be able to fill in for any members who are unable to come to work. If the baker is sick, the chef becom es the baker. If the fry cook is sick, the chef becomes the fry cook. Secondly, the Chef is responsible for managing the business aspects of the kitchen, specifically he/she must keep track of the inventory and future food orders; the Chef must be able t o predict and respond to consumer demand. Finally, a Chef is responsible for providing the core source of creativity in a restaurant, which can result in the development of an inflated ego. If a restaurant were attempting to improve the sustainability of the business, the Chef would be responsible for redesigning the menu, training the rest of the kitchen, ordering from credible wholesalers, while sustaining an appealing level of creative energy. It is no surprise that many

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Birney 57 sustainable restaurants are bui lt on the intentions of environmentally conscious Chefs. Finally, Fine points out that a good Chef should rarely be involved in physically cooking orders, which is the job of the next division of labor. Unfortunately, there is not a Chef position at th e Fo ur Winds Caf, leaving the food preparation staff without a leader. While there are a few staff members who are capable of preparing every item on the menu, having a comprehensive knowledge of how the caf is run, there is not a coordinator or figure that is expected to act as the kitchen facilitator; consequently, disorder is more common than not and many protocol questions go unanswered, leaving the staff incapable of maintaining consistent service. Additionally, the business aspect of a Che bility is taken on b y the Four Winds manager and assistant manager, which often times in the past has resulted in running out of vital food items, leaving the menu incomplete and inconsistent. If the Four Winds Caf is ever going to legitimize itself as a valuable description of a Chef. To call oneself a Chef it is mandatory that you have a culinary degree; therefore, the position at the Four Winds is more of a food facto r facilitator (FoFaFa ). In any given restaurant there is a definite hierarchy of cooks based on two major criteria. Firstly, seniority or the duration of employment is the most important factor in defining the cook hierarchy because the social relationship s that are built in a restaurant are based on trust and reliability, which takes time to build. Secondly, skill is the next factor in the organization of the cook hierarchy. Unlike the Chef who oversees the whole operation, cooks are divided by form. De pending on the

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Birney 58 restaurant there will be a fry cook, a grill cook and a broiler cook. Cooks therefore are directly connected to one of the most energy intense aspect of the restaurant industry. In a sustainable initiative cooks would be responsible for eva luating the efficiency of their appliances. is idea that cooks are organized by form does not apply very well to a vegetarian caf. Currently, cooks at the Four Winds Caf fall into two categories: as sists that prepare orders and prep that cook specials before and during business hours. While these two groups of cooks work at the same restaurant there is too often a lack of communication concerning what the finished product should look like, how it sh ould be served and at what price. Additionally, the variety between the seniority and the skill of the cooks creates a noticeable break in consistency. This inconsistency is not only due to lack of organization and training but also due to the natural tu rn over associated with a four year college institution. Consequently, if the caf is serious about reforming their practices it is imperative that the manager and chef work together to organize, train and maintain the work ethic of the cooks. According to Fine, the third step in the division of kitchen labor is the pantry staff. The tasks of a pantry worker involve prepping the food before it is cooked. Pantry workers are usually women who have little formal training from culinary school. The work they focus on requires a very low level of skill and often becomes painfully mundane, such as cleaning hundreds of onions. Furthermore, this position has more reasonable hours that happen before the restaurant is open for business. In the Green Restaurant As sociation standards, composting of food waste is

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Birney 59 be responsible for proper food waste management. For instance, clea ning hundreds of onions produces several pounds of compostable material that should not end up in a landfill. While there is not an official pantry staff at the Four Winds Caf, the prep cooks are responsible for the labor associated with this position; consequently, the role of food waste management thro ugh composting is extremely applicable to the case study. While there is a functioning compost system in place at the caf, using it is not mandatory by the prep cooks, all to often leading to improper disposal of valuable resources. This flaw is most di rectly correlated to a lack of education or training and a lack of clear protocol on food production methods. If the Four Winds is serious about ecological reforms that demand labor reforms, the staff must be trained, creating a positive norm of conscious kitchen waste management. The final division of labor is segmented between dishwashers and potmen. The difference between the two is minimal and clearly defined in their titles. Dishwashers are responsible for cleaning all of the dishes from the din in g room, while the potmen are responsibl e for cleaning all of the dishes (pots) from the kitchen. These two positions make up the lowest layer in the division of labor; however, they are the backbone of the entire kitchen and without them the operation wou ld fail. Fine discusses the stereotypes associated with these two jobs, which are often legitimate. If this branch of kitchen labor was trained and expected to reduce their water use, the restaurant would save money and valuable resources.

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Birney 60 Again, this po sition does not officially exist at the Four Winds Caf, which agenda item at the majority of staff meetings, which the staff are paid to attend. Due to the lack of orga nization in the kitchen, dishes are regularly left for th e next shift to which is a major wrench in productivity and efficiency. Moreover, the dish problem at the Four Winds Caf has created a division between hard working staff members w ho constantly have to pick up the slack of other employee s and the disinterested workers important in a food factory not only for overall productivity and production but also for staff mora l; consequently, the Four Winds Caf should look into reorganizing the structure of the staff to include a dish washing position. Seeing that the amount of dishes needed to run the Four Winds Caf is relatively low, this position could also be a designate cleanliness and sanitation. Kitchens are hot, cramped, busy places to work day in and night out, which creates a strong comradeship characterized by a heavy use of humor, horse play and inside jokes. refe rs to both the temperature in the room and the constant hazing between staff members. Figuratively speaking the kitchen is also a sustainability hot spot, presenting ample areas of opportunity to reduce, reuse and recycle natural resources. If a restaurant is attempting to develop a more sustainable business plan, the kitchen is the frontline for change.

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Birney 61 Restaurant snowflake man agement: A hypothetical staff for f all 2012 United States in particular it i s i mportant to value paid labor, requiring a strong work ethic and organized leadership. It seems that many of the staff members at the Four Win ds Caf need formal training and a firm guiding hand to lead them towards a better understanding of what is expected and why it is necessary. If current staff members are unwilling to comply with this vital aspect of the restaurant industry, they will unfo rtunately not be offered a job in Fall of 2012. I have designed a hypothetical staff model that should produce higher profits with lower, more concentrated inputs. The r estaurant snowflake model designed for the Four Winds Caf is visually represented i n Figure 1. Instead of having the manager at the top of a typical hierarchical structure, the manager is represented by the blue lines, connecting the staff together through organized facilitation, Through the snowflake design, the manager is not so much o f an authority figure as much as a coordinator who has a transparent knowledge of the process of production. T he FoFaFa (honorary chef) is at the center of production, constantly influencing the culinary production and growth of the kitchen staff These t wo positions work very closely together to run the restaurant, meeting in the mornings to plan and update each other on the progress and goals for the day and week. Instead of assists and prep cooks, there will be a designate cook and pantry staff membe r everyday. Both staff types would receive the same training; however, cooks will start their shifts in correlation with expected rushes. The pantry staff member would be responsible for opening the caf, preparing the specials and Grab

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Birney 62 and Go for the day In addition to being trained in food preparation, the pantry staff will be trained baristas so that only one person is working in the mornings, when the lunch rush. Addit ional, the baristas will come on prior to the lunch rush along with a lunch rush cashier. Once the rush subsides, th e cashier would become the dish washer the cashier for th and the cook and barista work together until the night cook and night barista start their shift at 4:00. If the caf is not busy at night, the cook will be sent home and the barista would close. Adopting a snowflake management design requires a switch in perspective that views each staff member as a vital and able body. While the FoFaFa is at the center of production, this model has the ability to create a stronger sense of equalit y amongst the staff. A fundamental aspect of this design is that the individual staff members are trained to perform at a higher level of excellence, thereby motivating each other to succeed gracefully. If the design is executed well, each branch should carry the same amount of responsibility, while producing a coherent result: profits. Additionally, minimizing staff hours during slow flows and efficiently adding meaning ful and multidimensional switch hitters during rush hours will reduce the cost of em ployment while increasing the consistency of efficient production. Additionally, having the daily presence of a manager and FoFaFa will balance the performance of the individual days by offering a dependable fl ow of information and guidance.

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Birney 63 Figure 1: S nowflake management design.

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Birney 64 Part Three: Ec ological Community Perspective Wh at Factors Motivate Patrons to E at at F our W inds C afe ? In Eating Out Warde Alan and Martens (2000) make several contributions towards understanding restaurant sociology from the perspective of the diner. Their research was focused on identifying and classifying the factors that contribute to consumer choice in the restaurant industry; furthermore, they attempt to define the act of eating out. All of their arguments are supporte d by countless statistics collected from years of surveying British citizens about their eating out habits. This precedent was the academic inspiration for the survey conducted at New College that identified the major factors that motivate the students to eat at the Four Winds Caf. The following paragraphs offer a brief overview two key concepts: shared understanding of eating out and the attitudes associated with dining choices, along with critiques of their perspective that mold their theories to suit the Four Winds case study parameters. According to Warde et al. (2000), there are six pillars that construct a shared understanding of eating out (43) Firstly, the act of eating out is distinguished by a separation from the domestic setting. Secondly, ea ting out is an effort to avoid the work associated with preparing a meal. The third pillar concerns the fiscal transaction that occurs when a person makes a payment for prepared food. The existence of payment leads into the fourth pillar, which associates eating out with commercial enterprise. Their research also indicated that the fifth pillar of shared understanding was the novelty associated with eating a meal at a restaurant. The final pillar is somewhat obvious but does make a clear distinction, whi ch is that eating out requires

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Birney 65 the consumption of a meal instead of a snack. Warde and Martens chose these six pillars based on opinion of eating out. The construction of these pillars was influential in crafting the tone of this survey for two opposite reasons: what the research provides for a certain understanding of restaurants and how it needs to be updated for an understanding of restaurants as food factories. Firstly, it has been known for a long time that the FWC has a tendency to foster exclusive and unwelcoming behavior from both the patrons that frequent the caf and the staff members. Exclusive tendencies are especially bad for business wh tradictory conception of eating out at the local college caf. Some FWC patrons only purchase Grab and Go while some patrons order five items throughout the day. Some patrons stop by before and after their classes, while others only come in during the m ornings to get coffee. Finally, while a strong group of customers seem to feel extremely comfort able at the caf, the majority of potential customers feel alienated or excluded by both the social atmosphere and the quality of service. Consequently, the qu estions for my survey eating out at the Four Winds. Sec ondly, their research does not take into account the true ecological value of dining out because their pillars do not pr operly address the mode of food preparation factors such as food production locality in correlation to consumption or food waste management. The absence of environmental terminology in their construction of the shared understanding of dining out is a cruc ial inspiration for my survey, which

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Birney 66 Fundamentally, this survey is designed to illuminate how to reconstruct the food culture at New College of Florida to promote environ mentally conscious dining habits. Dining out at the Four Winds Caf is participating in a social and physical food factory; consequently, the mode of production must be understood in order to fully construct an understanding of what it means to eat at a re staurant. I f analyzed properly this addition can help the Four Winds Caf better understand what reforms (social, ecological and economical) must be put in place in order to improve our service credibility, consumer satisfaction and profit margin coveri ng the ECO 3 management standard. After defining the act of eating out, Warde and Martens investigated the major attitudes that form opinions on eatin g out (54). T hey identified nine key factors that t a restaurant, which directly affect their decision making process when it comes to choosing an establishment to eat at. Table 1 4 categorization method. Their findings inspired the design of certain questions in my survey and provided a list of factors that are necessary to consider when analyzing the dining habits of New College students at restaurants.

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Birney 67 Table 14 : Attitudes towards eating out Factor 1: Interested in learning Diners who demonstrate a cur iosity about food are likely to eat out frequently and at a variety of establishments, constantly trying new cuisines as a leisure activity. Factor 2 : Domestic work is oppressive Diners who want to be separated from domestic responsibilities are likely to decide to eat out when they are tired, overwhelmed or too busy; consequently, this attitude is molded by necessity and not leisure. Factor 3: Home is best Warde and Martens identified a statistically significant portion of people who decide not to g o out to eat because they enjoy cooking for themselves. Factor 4 : Indulgent eater (consumer) An individuals consumption habits is a defining aspect of their eating out habits; therefore, if an individual spends a great deal of money shopping for materia l items, they are more likely to dine out more often than an individual who spends their money conservatively. Factor 5: Fun Enjoyment is a simple and important factor that identifies people who choose to eat out because it is a fun experience. Factor 6: I like what I know Diners who consistently eat out at a f ew reliable restaurants choose t o because they do not want to experience any surprises; consequently, it is unlikely that these patrons would choose to dine at a new restaurant unless they were guests. Factor 7: Social interaction Common of individuals who choose to eat out in order to meet new people and experience different social environments; contrastingly, there are individuals who choose not to eat out in order to avoid unwanted social interactions. Factor 8: Experienced consumer Characterized by a and quality of cuisine; consequently, diners that demonstrate factor eight are more likely to dine at high quality restaurants that are s ure to meet high expectations. Factor 9: Informality is desirable experience; consequently, these individuals are more likely to frequent cafes and ethnic restaurants than bistros. Table 1

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Birney 68 This research is importan t for understanding the average din s attitude towards eating out. H owever, the factors do not mention the most recent trend of sustainable resta urant dining Current research is discovering that restaurant patrons are developing a stronger demand for an elevated dining experience that is concerne d with issues of environmental consciousness and resource sust ainability. Consequently, the desi gn of my survey was also inspired by mor e recent According to Hu et al. (2010) operation is an import In the study, five hundred subjects were chosen at random in a shopping plaza in Taiwan and administered a survey questionnaire with five sections: knowledge of green restaurants, envir onmental concern, ecologically oriented behavior, intention to dine green and simple demographics. The research suggests that green restaurants have a strong competitive nature compar ed to traditional restaurants. H owever, in order to take advantage of t heir niche they have to educate their patrons about the differences between sustainable restaurant practices and wasteful restaurant practices. Additionally, it was discovered that restaurant consumers were willing to pay more for a meal at a certified gre en restaurant. While the results from this experiment may be specific to Taiwan, there are other findings that support the results. According to Hu et al., this project is significant for climate justice because, c ommerci sing 512000 Btu per sq foot annually, American restaurants collectively produce 30 billion pounds of carbon in the atmosphere (346) In a world were carbon is affecting our global climate, restaurants provide a grea t

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Birney 6 9 opportunity for citizens to personally reduce their carbon emissions by supporting green restaurants. Additionally, Schubert et al. (2010) conclud es that there is a potential niche market for green restaura nts in the current decade The experimental su rvey that bore this result was designed to address four research questions: RQ1: Do customers believe it areas do consumers perceive as the most important? RQ3: How mu ch more a re customers willing to pay? RQ4 : Can restaurants use green practices to attract customers away from where there were 2 1 000 restauran ts and 80,000 restaurant employees, serving 8 0,000 meals a day (291) All four research questions strongly suggest that people are willing to pay for the true value of participants thought that dining green was a good practice to work on (292) If this trend is appa rent throughout the United States, then restaurants could be the next sector to spearhead a sustainable movement According to the 2007 US census there were 566,020 food service businesses in operation, comprised of 217,282 full service restaurants and 26 6,534 limited service restaurants (288) These establishments produce millions of meals and billions of pounds of carbon in the atmosphere. Schubert et al. makes a conservative estimate of the previously mentioned study that concludes the average America n citizen eats out 80 times a year; however, many researchers believe that the figure is closer to 200 times a year. With theses figures, it is clear that the restaurant industry in the United States a large collection that is frequented very often by the average citizen.

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Birney 70 While the previous findings suggest that there is a green restaurant niche market it is impossible to capitalize on this opportunity without assessing and improving the environmental consciousness of a restaurant consumer base. Conseque ntly, some of the questions on the survey administered to the NCF student body were designed to asse ss the student s perception and understanding of envir onmental consciousness as both general consumer s and college student diner s Method Participants : Ov er four days of promoting the survey, a total of 256 New College students started the survey, 249 consented to be part of published research and 212 completed the survey. Of the surveyed population, 23.8% (50) of the participants identified as m ale, 58. 8% (123) identi fied as f emale, 11.0% (23) identified as u nicorn, 1.4% (3) identified as t rans, 5.2% (11) identified as other, and 46 participants skipped the question. Materials : The survey was created using Survey Monkey and it was administered through the New College Students List and the (Forum). Procedure: This study was conducted using a short survey concerning general student restaurant dining habits and specifically focusing on what factors shape their decision to dine at the Four Winds Caf. Th ere are seven categories in the survey: 1) frequency of dining out, 2) dietary identification, 3) environmental consciousness, 4) consumption, 6) Opinion of the Four Winds Caf 7) demographics. Each participant logged onto their email accounts @ncf.edu and opened my email requesting their participation in my study. Then they clicked on the attached hyper link to

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Birney 71 www.surveymonkey.com at which point they answered 23 questions. The results were then collected and analyzed by the survey monkey program. Results While 89.4% (220) of participants eat out on a regular basis (more than once a week, once a week, and once a month), only 55.1% (128) eat at the Four Winds Caf on a reg ular basis. This indicates that the Four Winds Caf does not satisfy 34.4% of participants that can be considered frequent diners. This is a substantial loss of potential customers, which needs to be analyzed to clarify which factors need to be addressed in order to increase customer frequency and satisfaction. Graph 2: Results from survey question 2.

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Birney 72 Graph 3: Results from survey question 3. In order to accomplish this analysis the responses it is necessary to compare two questions: (1) What facto rs influence your purchasing power at a restaurant? (2) What aspects are the three most important factors in your decision to dine at the Four Winds? The results from the latter question concluded that 45.4% (98) of participants believe their purchasing po wer at a restaurant is influenced by the existence of environmentally friendly practices, 56% (121) are influenced by their dietary needs, 60.2% (130) are influenced by the desire to try new dishes, 64.4% (139) are influenced by the level of dining conveni ence, and 96.3% (208) believe price influences their purchasing power at a restaurant. Comparatively, the results from question 15 concluded that 29.9% (59) of participants believe price is an important factor in their decision to dine at the Four Winds C af, followed by 30.5% (60) believe time is a factor, 44.7% (88) believe social interactions are a factor, 54.8% (108) believe the coffee shop atmosphere is a factor,

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Birney 73 64.5% (127) believe the quality of food is a factor and 72.6% (143) of people believe the location of the restaurant is a factors. Graph 4: Results from survey question 8. Graph 5: Results from survey question 15.

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Birney 74 The second purpose of this survey was to discover how New College students perceive ecological consciousness during their di ning experience. Graph 6 indicates that an overwhelming majority of New College students consider themselves to be environmentally conscious and concerned with environmental sustainability; however, a smaller majority of students use their purchasing powe r to support sustainable businesses. In restaurants, an overwhelmingly large majority of student thought that energy conservation, waste reduction, water conservation, sustainable food, and renewable power were either important or very important sustainab le restaurant practices. Only a small majority of students rated these practices as either not important or irrelevant. For a visual representation refer to Graph 7. This data supports the idea that the student body believes restaurant sustainability is either important or very important, which indicates that the student body would support use of the Green Fee to increase the sustainability of the Four Winds Caf. Graph 6: Results from survey question number 6.

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Birney 75 Graph 7: Results from survey question number 10. Figure 2: Wordle of responses to question 7: How do you define sustainability? The full results are in the Appendix.

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Birney 76 Once again, an overwhelming majority of students responded positively to survey question 11, ind icating that 76.3% (164) of student surveyed prefer to eat local food (Graph 8). This figure should encourage the Four Winds Caf not only to continue, but also to increase the purchase of local produce. Additionally, an increase in local food selection will also require an increase of advertisement, concerning how much we get and where it comes from. This survey indicates that students prefer local food; however, they cannot prefer local food from the FWC unless they know it exists. Educating the stude nt body on the true quality of the Four Winds menu should produce higher profits and increased patronage. This sentiment is also indicated through the student response to survey question 12, showing that 71.2% (153) of students are willing to pay more for a meal that was created according to sustainable guidelines (Graph 9). Graph 8: Results from survey question 11.

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Birney 77 Graph 9: Results from survey question 12. Additionally, the data suggest that nearly one third of student will dine more often at the F WC if there are more Grab and Go options. Graph 10 is the visual representation of survey question 17, showing 27.1% (55) of student would dine at the FWC more often if there were more Grab and Go, 52.2% (106) of student may dine more often, leaving 20.7% (42) of students who would not dine more often. This presents a clear demand for more time conscious dining options; consequently, this should be taken into consideration. Proper advertisement to the student body, concerning increased production of Grab and Go, will be vital to increase patronage of the caf. Since the new menu has consistently been offering more Grab and Go (caprese and cabbage wraps), it is not far fetched that the increase in semester profits is positively correlated to Grab and Go.

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Birney 78 Graph 10: Results from survey question 17. The purpose of this survey was to identify which factors motivate a New College students surveyed eat out on a regular basis (mo re than once a week or once a week), only 36.2% of students eat at the Four Winds Caf on a regular basis. Consequently, 32.9% of regular diners are not patrons of the caf in addition to the 63.9% of student surveyed that hardly ever, sometimes, or never eat at the Four Winds Caf. To understand why so many students do not choose to be patrons of the FWC, look no further than the responses to survey question number 18, which illuminate a few negative trends in the student perceptions of the caf. Students complained about the quality of food in 69 responses, the time of order completion in 50 responses, the quality of staff in 41 responses, and the price in 22 responses. Other complaints mentioned a snobby social atmosphere, lack of consistency, lack of var iety, poor hours of operation, and omnivore

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Birney 79 exclusion. After analyzing this data, it is more evident than ever that the reforms mentioned in the Part II of Chapter 3 are more important than ever if the Four Winds Caf is going to improve customer satisfac tion and patron attendance. Figure 3: Wordle created from the responses to question 18: What aspect of the Four Winds needs to be improved? A complete list of the responses can be found in the appendix. A fundamental conclusion of this survey is that the staff needs to be completely evaluated and employees that do not fit the grade must be fired. The new staff for the Fall of 2012 must receive intensive training prior to the opening, which would require a week training program the last week of summer With trained staff, the quality and consistency of service will improve in both taste and time. The complaints that were gathered from the responses to question 18 are all linked to training, with the exception of

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Birney 80 complaints that stem from the desire fo r a menu with meat options. If the staff paradigm shift is executed with conscious intention, surveys in the future will not have an overwhelming negative tone. opinion, bec ause the participants were not chosen by a random sample; consequently, it is not statistically sound to conduct correlation or causation tests to prove statistical significance. Regardless, the results are still valuable to understand what motivates New C ollege students to dine at the Four Winds. The complete collection of survey results is located in the Appendix.

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Birney 81 Final Diagnosis Will the Four Winds Caf survive or should we pull the plug? Sustainability reforms are saving the Fou r Winds Caf (FWC) from chronic debt and unsatisfactory service; however, the progress needs to accelerate. The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the ecological footprint, economic footprint and the factors that motivate the ecological community to di ne at the Four Winds Caf. Together, this tri force of analysis has illuminated areas of opportunity that need concentrated effort in order to reduce waste, strengthen efficiency and increase satisfaction. With the seven pillars of the Green Restaurant Association and Green Fee potential, the caf has a promising future as an ecologically sustainable restaurant so long as smart investments are paired with employee training and educational advertisements are successfully conducted. With the purchase of a low flow pre rinse spray valve, the Four Winds Caf could have a respectable and hypothetical 3 Star certification from the Green Restaurant Association. Furthermore, in one years time the caf will be in reaching distance of a 4 star certification, whic h means the Four Winds Caf could be the first 4 star college restaurant in the United States. In other words, the Four Winds Caf has the potential to revolutionize itself as a beacon of sustainability and the leader of a smarter college restaurant stand ard. The second finding of this thesis suggests that the grand total expenses are less that the grand total sales; therefore, the Four Winds Caf is moving closer to being economically sustainable. Increased profits are most clearly linked to the existen ce of the November menu reform, along with the new credit card machine, and the new meal plan contract. With an understanding of the economic history of the FWC, it is fundamentally

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Birney 82 clear that staff quality should replace staff quantity, reducing employme nt costs. Finally, a key element to creating a stronger staff is to hire a Food Factory Facilitator (FoFaFa) that will be the center of creative design and information in kitchen operations. While drastic improvements have been made to the menu this past semester, it is vital to track the sale of each menu item to understand what the students prefer to order, thereby providing information that will support consistency in food preparation from week to week. Furthermore, Grab and Go options should continue to grow, providing fast and nutritious food for patrons who have money to spend but no time to spare. Beyond ecological footprints and economic analysis, the Four Winds Caf needs an attitude adjustment that is focused on inclusive acceptance of the co mmunity as a whole, healing socially exclusive tendencies, promoting the caf as a welcoming third place where every New College student is welcome. In order to accomplish these task two vital actions must take place. A charismatic and skilled manager mu st be hired to lead the staff and the caf as a whole towards a higher level of excellence and an official caf calendar should be created and displayed. This would be the responsibility of the new manager and it would include language tables, study sessi ons, guest speakers, musical performances, regular yoga classes, and enlightenment parlours (dinners that are accompanied with intentional discussions on important issues, philosophy and theory). Any student would be able to hold an event at the Four Wind s Caf during or after hours, if they submit a request to the manager. By creating this calendar, the student body will be encouraged to attend and create community events that use the FWC as an interactive third place that is proudly owned, operated, and enjoyed by the students.

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Birney 83 New College has experienced some growing pains in this past year concerning diversity and acceptance throughout the student body, presenting an opportunity for a classic throw back. As previously stated, the word restaurant mea time the Four Winds Caf accepts the duty and honor of its purpose, which is to restore and unite the ecological community, promoting the true nature of sustainability. If I am hired as the manager, the previously mentioned refor ms will successfully be implemented in order to accomplish this goal. College Restaurants Design Consultant New College of Florida is the Honors College of Florida and it is time we broadcast our progressive academic concentrations in order to publicly accept the role of being honors students. A constant dedication towards a higher standard of excellence is the fundamental essence of being an honors scholar, which is communicated well in the Latin phrase Nulli Secundous meaning Second to None. With a narrative evaluation system based on independent research, the students at New College are not compared to each other, thereby granting the freedom to the students to develop an individual and motivated work ethic of their own. For four years my academic career has led me to discover that my lifetime of restaurant experience paired with my training as a self proclaimed Environmental Sociologist is perfectly suited for a self made professional career as a Restaurant Design Consultant focusing on my ECO 3 man agement method (ecological, economical, ecological community perspective). Consequently and hypothetically, I imagine the next step after managing the Four Winds Caf is to create a business model based on my method that would focus on reforming college a nd university restaurant practices. Furthermore, I believe there is a serious market and need

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Birney 84 for this service because will facilitate both individual college restaurant reforms while connecting the individual colleges at the state, regional, and national level. If restaurants are going to be credible arrows, spearheading the sustainability movement, then it is wise that young academic minds from colleges across the country have an outlet to gather and share information, concerning both methods and result s associated with sustainable restaurant reforms. Global Implications College graduates are a dime a dozen, but college graduates with certified green restaurant management skills are a much more valuable intellectual commodity in a world that is despe rate to lower an overshadowing global carbon footprint. With each graduating class comes a smarter and more equipped wave of restaurateurs who will inevitably pursue their dreams of owning restaurants. Currently, 90% of restaurateur dreamers fail to maint ain their goals for a natural lifetime; however, there are a handful of food philosophers whose achievements live on forever. Take for instance, Dick and Mac B Que in 1940 at one location in San Bernar foodservice powerhouse with 33,000 restaurants located in 119 countries, serving more that 64 million customers everyday. In just over sixty years, the initial effort of two men evolved into one mark on the global ecological community. Now imagine the role of restaurants in 62 years. If there were 33,000 ECO 3 certified restaurants serving more than 64 million people a day in 11 9 nations, the world would be a better place.

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Birney 85 The Weapons of the Next Revolution.

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Birney 86 Appendix

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Birney 94 (N= 191) Responses to Question 4: What is your favorite thing to order? The cheapest items Fuckin' burritos Those are the shit. black bean quesadilla or the bagel pizza Chai tea and whatever food of the day looks most delicious Bee's Knees Curry (of any kind) or a vegan baked good. Everything is delicious! egg & cheese on bagel with dill is special, but most any of the greenly dishes will do too I guess the shakes or something? Also, nachos. Poop quesadilla Ciabatta bread with kalamata pesto and coffee The curries have been very good lately. During the last few years it was mainly pizza, quesadillas, coffee, smoothies and bagels. Freakin Sweet I only get smoothies from the 4 windz vegan baked goods Vegetable wraps something italian, i like chicken. nothing heavy i like healthy Russian princess Grasshopper/Bagel with Guacamole Bagel with veggie cream cheese Smoothies nova burrito Coffee or smoothies. A smoothie It was the peach melba.... Soup bagel with egg and cream cheese changes all the time It was the frickin sweet until that disappeared. From the Four Winds? When they had that Rus sian Princess on a plain bagel. bees knees pizza bagel w/ cucumbers, spinach, and cheese on a poppy seed bagel. and all the smoothies with peaches when they still had those. The Bees Knees whimsy croissant with eggs and cheese

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Birney 95 Pizza bagels or carrot cupcakes whatever is good bagel The berry smoothie (At four winds?) Just coffee. pad thai Coffee Rice and Beans Pizza bagels I haven't ordered anything more than once because I've loved everything I've tried and want to try it all. Thai Iced Tea! <3 Vegetable Kofta (from Indian restaurants). vern's egg n cheese, or maybe beeskneez (eese) smoothies Russian Princess Hummus Nova Burrito Nachos and smoothies Soups bagel, hummus, guac and veggies Pizza bagel russian princesses Usually just bagels. vern's egg and cheese with all the veggies and a smoothie, usually an irish republican. If you were asking what I eat when I order out, its usually a publix chicken tender sub Tangy Black Beans and Rice the Irish Republican smoothie i never go I like sandwiches (ham/turkey/cuban) or burgers when I am at off campus restaurants, I do not usually eat at the Four Winds. I like the vegan baked goods. burrito platter anything vegan I liked the Russian Princess, but now it is harder to get. I also love the Irish Republican. bee's knees black coffee chai tea latte

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Birney 96 baingan bharta or another special. even before the new menu, i only ate specials! soup At the Four Winds, usually just a smoothie (specifically the "Irish Republican!"). I normally like the specials. Or bagels! The Bee's Knees To order where? I would say curry of any kind, but particularly massaman black coffee (dark roast) and bees nees loaded burrito w/extra veg and extra guac. sweet potato fries hummus and pita Bees Knees Smoothie Iced coffee Pizza Bagel. the olive bread was great, and my usual is egg/cheese/veggies on a pumpernickel bagel friggin sweet Hamburger salads and sandwiches coffee bagel w cream cheese & veggies thai iced tea I do not eat at the Four Win ds. Thai Tea Anything with curry Smoothies sweet potato fries and coffee drinks. i also really loved the spring rolls that Four Winds once had, but i have not seen them since i last ordered them. pizza bagel! At four winds? A bagel or a hummus platte r or one of the specials At the four winds? i like the vegan baked goods. A smoothie a smoothie, everything else is in my opinion horrid, especially the red beans and rice... it is an insult to cajun food to call it that. Pita Pizza w/ mozzarella chees e! Curry iced chai, smoothies quinoa salad or anything with pesto on it! They change weekly... I used to really love the Russian Princess &the Freakin' Sweet. I don't know what I like anymore since the menu has changed. bagel with hummus and tomato

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Birney 97 Toasted Everything Bagel with Guacamole and Tomatoes nachos and veggies with hummus, chai tea, and chocolate raspberry smoothie N/A -Bee's Knees don't have one. Bee's Knees In past years, bagel with veggie cream cheese and dilla beans Hummus plat ter! it was the burrito bowl, but then that disappeared :( Banana Soft Serve pesto and veggies on ciabatta if a special doesnt interest me Bagel espresso coffee and a bagel with cream cheese Bees Knees a special Pizza bagel Russian Princess Bee's knee's smoothie BEST thing on the menu! Vern's egg and cheese bee's knee's smoothie Tea White Pizza Croissant Guac and eggs on a bagel pizza or burritos The smoothies. Not sure, recently changed. I like vegan to go wraps and i liked the nova nut ter nanner!!!! its all shitty Nutter Nanner The Bee's Knees smoothie The hot dot Guacadilla Wrap Custom smoothie eggs and cream cheese on a toasted croissant. Soooo good. Bodacious Berry Smoothie! Coffee Depends on what is offered; I like to look at specials. the nachos

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Birney 98 Pizza bagel! Food the Bee's knees! Anything with guacamole. BRING BACK THE GUAC. :[ smoothies Bagel with Veggie Cream Cheese Th spring rolls Americano to go burritos Chai tea and cake They've changed the menu. I liked t he curry last time I came in. Before my favorite was probably the Hot Dot. Burrito Bowl I like the special flavors of hummus! And smoothies but that's much less often. large coffee, dark. It changes from day to day Curry and Jo's carrot cupcakes Ques edilla Thai Iced Coffee smoothies or coffee something that doesn't take 30 minutes aka NOTHING At the four winds, or out in general? It really depends on where I'm going. quesadilla Homemade Soup! grab and go wraps curry, coffee Bagel with random things i once had a cheesy bagel with hummus, that was good. Salad Bee's Knees smoothies At the Four Winds or at any restaurant? I don't understand the question. quesadilla Burrito! rice&beans and coffee coffee Any of the vegan specials Coffee bodacious berry i haven't been in a while, but: vern's egg n cheese (though it's not named that now i

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Birney 99 don't think?), things with avocado on/in them, burritos, smoothies (bodacious berry and bees knees, specifically), coffee drinx Aside from coffees... WO W wraps, with balsamic glaze sauce to dip in on the side. Or quesadillas. Or one of your quiches. Espresso, except it costs more at 4W than it does at freaking PANERA Burrito i liked the burrito bowl and bagels when i used to go! egg's vern & cheese !! !!!! Used to be the quesadillas, but they haven't had them the last few times I've been. The last time I ordered one (when they were still on the menu), I got a cold burrito. (N=150) Responses from survey question 7: How do you define sustainability? L asting Practices that ultimately contribute to a healthy world (or at least don't destroy the world more) that can keep being a livable place. Sustainability is ever changing and growing. It is a way of life, it is making every effort to support earth ra ther than destroy it in everything you do in the way that you live. Sustainability is beautiful. independent and self sufficient responsible orientation toward the future I don't. HIPPIE ISM The definition of sustainability varies greatly with context however, broadly defined I would say it means using resources in such a way that allows the environment to constantly renew itself and remain healthy. Decrease in non renewable resources required to reach an end. The ability for humans to exist in a wa y that won't fuck us over sometime in the future a behavior that promotes the continuation of that behavior Sustainability is a way of living, producing things and services, etc. which does not deplete resources in a way they cannot be replenished from, and does not destroy or pollute areas in amounts that are dangerous. The sustainable product is also one which workers are paid a living wage to create and who are treated like people. Being responsible. Acknowledging that being a human means taking and o ften causing damage, and that it is important to use as few resources as possible while creating things that will withstand as much use as possible a way of life that will be available for future generations; using resources in a way that they replenish t hemselves creating usable waste that ceases to be waste

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Birney 100 Capability to leave no trace/impact The capacity to endure anything that is taken out of the environment should be replaced. basically a zero sum, neutral environmental impact The idea that human ity can interact with the earth in a mutually beneficial manner. locally sourced, small carbon impact, not factory farming The ability to support oneself with one's own resources A necessary tactic to promote self growth and self renewal of various reso urces. A far sighted way to live, disallowing the ease and economy of the moment to fog the best decision for the both the present AND the future. something like a perpetual motion machine Helping the environment by using less wasteful products. respon sible use of resources, the idea that the land is borrowed from future generations the use of resources in such a way that only what is necessary is used and the resources are used in a way that they will be available for future generations as much as pos sible The ability for something or some place to continue to exist a sustainable source of energy is one that can continue to be used in the future, for example. able to be maintained over time able to maintain oneself I think that locally grown food produced by small farmers and grown with a minimum of pesticides and other chemicals is sustainable. The ability to make a positive/neutral impact on the environment through the use of a variety of initiatives consciously dedicated to preserving/recyclin g resources for future generations. The capacity to endure specifically involving the long term maintaining of well being environmentally, economically, and socially. Sustainability is using resources to meet the needs of the current generation, while al so preserving them to meet the needs of future generations Creating products and services that can be used more than once. The ability for something to exist for a long time without doing damage to the environment. The responsible management of resource s; practices that draw on resources that can be replenished. Models of living, labor, production, distribution, and consumption that are equitable for all present and future generations of human and natural life. Making smart decisions to ensure those th ings are around in the future. Sustainability is the use or creation of something without significantly depleting natural resources or reusing already used resources. making a conscious effort to reduce waste and consumption A closed system.

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Birney 101 Giving bac k to the land naturally rather than destroying soil and other ecosystems (and needing to replenish these things by adding chemicals). To be able to keep at a stable pace for years to come by being conscious about what you buy and how you reuse and recycl e things. utilizing resources to reduce/eliminate a greater footprint. close circuit. Keeping the world's resources at safe levels so that we may continue to exist on this planet. Independence from outside sources. In this context, using products that are composed of renewable sources, using renewable energy, etc. I don't agree with the term, but what it has become to mean is the ability to provide for current populations while also leaving the resources necessary for future generations. I believe that it has been over used to the point that it does not really have any factual or tangible meaning. much like the term green Consumption habits that are not ecologically harmful and can be supported in the long run I do not feel that I have the knowledge b ase to truly define sustainability. If pressed I would say that it is making sure you will have enough resources to survive into the future. We can use the same methods to create a good indefinitely. using work to provide food for ones self while practic ing environmentally sustainable farming practices Something that doesn't truly exist at this present time. A sustainable bussiness is one that doesn't use resources that can be "used up", and also makes a profit. Considering the supply of resources after an arbitrarily long chosen amount of time when making decisions. effective resource use with mindfulness for their preservation for future generations using renewable resources, using fewer resources, working with the earth rather than against it I thi nk more awareness needs to be brought publicly to sustainability and actions should be taken to make it a global effort. contributing to the long term maintenance of the world as we want it. food source that maintains itself and can be continually made/u sed. Using resources hat can be renewed within their useful lifespan while having the least impact on natural ecosystems as possible I understand that all vegetables need animals to grow, but i am certain that sustainable communities need to decrese the use of large scale agriculture (monocultures) and animal farming. I believe that a sustainable food system needs to have diverse food items. I think large scale organic farming is equally exploitative of the people who harvest the foods (especially for und ocumented farmworkers, poor people, and women) so mostly, they would not qualify as "sustainable," because oppressing people is never sustainable. An institution is environmentally sustainable if its continued existence is consistent

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Birney 102 with the continuous s ustained health of our planetary ecosystem. Local grown foods, recycling (personal) leaving resources for future generations Minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances, minimize dependence on imports, and minimize middle man costs by taking on their businesses internally. utilizing the resources of the earth in harmony with the natural cycles of nature, so that the give and take equals out and we don't destroy everything in the process of living. Sustainability means being healthy and keepi ng the world healthy through our choices Sustainability means being able to maintain something indefinitely. Often it refers to an economy and whether or not output can be indefinitely maintained within the context of its environment. I define sustainabi lity as the use of resources in a way that either prolongs or replaces resources for the future. co evolution A steady state system between economy, environment, and efficiency where a healthy environment bolsters the economy, where a healthy economy i n turn bolsters efficiency, and where efficiency is defined as using environmental resources wisely to bring it back full circle. something that is ecologically sound that will endure for a long time The ability of a practice to continue to exist as it d oes at this moment with minimal impact on the environment supporting it for an indefinite amount of time. I define sustainability as the ability of a resource to be used continually without causing major environmental damage. Using resources that can exi st for a long time and do not involve destroying the environment/other resources Maintaining our resources and finding more reasonable ways to use them. ability to keep life going and not cause degradation The conditions humans and all other species nee d to surive Sustainability maintains the relationship between humans and nature. harms the earth as little as possible in food terms, buying from local farms or within a 500 mile radius. Personally, I would say that to be sustainable, you should be usi ng things at a rate which would not deplete the Earth's natural capital if everybody today and in the future used resources in the same way and at the same rate as you do now. self creating, self maintaining, self yielding making choices that are conscio us of the future Ensuring a system has enough of a given good to replenish that good; not taking so much as to decimate supply. Practices that do not result in negative externality costs for uninvolved individuals, especially those of future generations, are sustainable. conserving an ecological balance; avoiding use of non renewable resources;

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Birney 103 utilizing renewable, reusable, efficient, and non harmful resources. Reduce, reuse, recycle Engaging in a system that follows a cyclic, renewable path rather th an a linear, non renewable path. Being able to leave the earth with as little impact as possible in order for future generations to experience the same opportunities afforded to us. a system whose waste and resources are balanced either by reuse or recyc ling. Sustainability is using resources that we have in an environmentally friendly manner so that such resources can continue to be produced and not depleted faster than they are used. I would also say that sustainability does not utilize quick fix solut ions, but rather is interrelated with different levels of control/support. It is a more holistic approach that includes the local community, the well being of the environment, and appreciated products. Using today's resources in a way that doesn't harm po ssibilities for future generations. an equilibrium between consumption of resources and production of resources. A business that is able to complete a cycle of manufacture to consumer purchase with as few extraneous consequences or costs as possible. Unn eccesary manufacture even of biodegradable or environmentallly friendly items is not sustainable, because the energy consumed in their manufacture was not requited by their later function. Making choices that will leave resources in tact for future genera tions and preserve the health and well being of myself, others around me, and people across the globe. not to little, not to much The ability to continue with a particular way of life long into the future without much if any concern about whether or not the planet's resources will be able to sustain it. A system of moderated consumption that does not result in environmental degradation Sustainability is responsible ecological practices that ensure/promote the continued existence of natural resources. I nteracting with resources in a way that respects and accounts for their finitude and responsibly reconciles the reality of limits and infinite wants in a way that provides for the future. the quality of not being harmful to the environment or depleting na tural resources, and thereby supporting long term ecological balance i define environmental sustainability as the ability to maintain the health of environmental/ecological systems. the longer they last and healthier the systems are, the more sustainable. The ability to keep our environment balanced. sustainability is living while being mindful that this is the only planet we have!! a ridiculous construction that hold that everyone should do things that may or may not help the enviornment, even if they cant afford to do so Sustainability is the use of products that can be replaced easily, such as those made

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Birney 104 from recycled goods. Practices that do not exhaust or exploit resources, but use them consciously for the greatest good. It's a way to use the res ources we have in an environmentally friendly way and to prevent the waste of materials we haven't yet used. able to be maintained at a certain rate or level Goods and services that are used in such a way that there is zero to minimal negative impact on the environment. Sustainability is meeting the needs of today while protecting the rights of future generations by being conscious of resource use. It is building a society and world that is resilient and self sufficient. I dont. What people who know mo re than I do define as sustainable -and basically, that it can exist in its own cycle with as little outside influence as possible. Using resources in a way that does not deplete them but keeps them available for use by following generations. using cons cious conservation to avoid the depletion of our precious resources Not being ephemeral; the capacity to endure A move towards a world where no one has to worry about whether their children will have a livable planet. Being conscious of environmental im pact and doing something to reduce it. Sustainability is creating less waste and using products that produce less waste and do less harm to the environment. For me it is buying local or organic foods when possible, trying to recycle, and not buy products (such as water bottles) that must be disposed of as often. Where a living cycle can support and renew itself. Creating and implementing practices that engender environmental responsibility and consciousness Moderating interaction with the natural world in such a way that it does not reduce the utility available to future generations. goal, changing, hope, dream Sustainability means that you are using your resources in such a way that you should be able to use them indefinitely, i.e. not depleting your stock as you go along. the ability of a thing to maintain homeostasis on a micro and macro scale creating minimal waste and working toward putting in as much if not more than you take out Keep going at a normal rate without using more resources. A stea dy state of production and consumption in which everything taken from the Earth is replenished in some way. The maintenance of well being. It can be environmental, social, or economic. does my car still turn on? Patterns of production and consumption th at do not deplete vital resources

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Birney 105 Being responsible about the resources we use in order to achieve the most out of them and maintaining our resources for the long term to ensure environmental, social, and economic well being. For me, sustainability is a goal that we have not seen yet. It is a way of life that guides us to interact with our environment, giving as much as we are taking. This is through both material and emotional means. So when I say I'm environmentall conscious and try and support sustaina ble businesses, I really mean that I'm working with what is available, without truly being satisfied by those options. A strategy of design with the intent of long term usage. being able to sustain themselves off of local products. awareness, balance, e ffort Engaging in practices that avoid depleting resources and actively attempting to avoid creating needless waste. using resources efficiently, leaving as small of a carbon footprint as possible minimizing resource use and consciously conserving in or der to limit environmental impact and preserve the availability of resources for the future. The ability to maintain a practice indefinitely without harming the environment or depleting finite resources sustainability is working towards taking what you n eed from this earth but also giving back what you can, trying to ensure that humans do not deplete all of the world's resources a way to live that allows for happiness within all creatures and entities Self propelled continuation in a closed system. A c onscious decision to help preserve or maintain the state of the environment The ability to maintain a symbiotic relationship with the materials we use, such that those resources are replenished as an effect of creative and conscientious consumption. Metho ds that promote re usability. goods and products harvested, grown, made in ways that are environmentally healthy and non damaging that lend to our planet and earth sustaining its life as a practice entailing responsible consumption such that will guara ntee a continuity of possibilities for responsible consumption A group of businesses is sustainable if its normal operations cannot possibly exhaust any natural resource in any finite time period. IE, every resource used by the business is renewable, and the rate of consumption is less than the rate of renewal. Response to Survey Question 18: What aspect of the Four Winds needs to be improved? A lot of the food ends up being weirdly bland and underseasoned. I've heard this complaint from a looooot of people. For example, all the curries end up tasting like

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Birney 106 nothing. all aspects price of food, speed of order delivery, attitude of employees Although buying from the Farmers Market is admirable, Four Winds should strive to be more self sustaining by using resources on campus. The cafe should get a growers license and work on localizing food production on campus. Amount of time it takes. Amount of time to get food and have all ingredients for purchases all the time. Better market ing. More unique twist on things. Something to give it a wow factor. business sustainability Cheaper, more consistency with entrees. I have often ordered the same entree, but it was prepared different ways, so I didn't like it as much as the firs t time. This is minor though, overall the Four Winds is great! cleanliness Cleanliness. Note the captial "C" cons istency with food items Continuation on improved serving time. Diversity of menu items/ changing menu rather than a static menu Efficiency and menu. Every time I've tried to eat at the four winds, I've gotten terrible service. The food takes forever, and is not worth what it costs. I'd rather walk to Subway than eat at the four winds. Admissions tours hype it up so much too, makes it disappointing. I also don't like the atmosphere. People inside act very cliquey, and it makes the entire experience awkward, as all of the "regulars" stare at you. EVERYTHING. the food is bad, service is bad, HOW DOES A CAFE NEV ER HAVE TAKE OUT BOWLS OR FORKS OR SPOONS OR GODDAMN ANYTHING. faster service First, I am a vehement omnivore, unconvinced of the merits of vegetarianism / veganism. Many micronutrients vital to human health and well being can only be found in an imal foods, e.g. Vitamin A, D, B12, some healthy cholesterol, and some very long chain superunsaturated fatty acids (epa, aa, and dha). For this reason, I would appreciate a few fish products on the menu. Most humans are extremely deficient in omega fatty acids and fish is the best source of those fatty acids. You can get small amounts of omegas from some green vegetables, but not nearly enough. You would have to eat enormous quantities of spinach to reap any measurable benefit. Also, fish oils are good for the heart, hair, skin, nails, etc. And, we live in Florida! There is plenty of local, delicious fish right here in our backyard. Second, there are too many grains and "white foods" on the menu. There should be more alkalizing foods, such as wheat grass, b arley grass, various types of algae, and larger quantities of water rich green vegetables (currently most greens are served on a sandwich, not as the feature of a dish). The grasses and algaes could be incorporated into smoothies. They are nutrient rich an d contain protein that many vegetarians and vegans would benefit from. I am a health nut, so perhaps my ideas

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Birney 107 are unrealistic for a small shop like the Four Winds... but, hey, you asked. Food being served in a timely manner. Food quality, service quality, or prices. I feel like the four winds cannot have high prices, mediocre food, and poor service, which they currently do. food quality, service, price (it shouldnt be so expensive for that quality of food with such an unbelievably long wait!) Food takes about 20 minutes to be delivered. How long it takes to make the food How long they take to make orders. I am currently studying abroad so I cannot say. I don't eat at Four Winds because I didn't care for their food opti ons, and the two times I did eat there, I didnt care for the food....maybe it has improved, but I dont go there often enough to know I don't eat at the four winds very often, because I'm never in the area. A majority of what I hear is that getting coffee or food takes way too long, so I think making more grab n go options would be a good idea. either that, or consistently good customer service when people want coffee and drinks. I don't eat there because of the markup on my Ham card. If it were co mparable to the ludicrous Ham prices, I would rather eat at Four Winds. I don't know what Grab and Go is. I hate sandwiches but I like salads, soups, and burritos/quesadillas. I hardly buy food unless there is avocado and the vegetables I want. I don't think this applies to all workers, but the organization of the actual orders and such and communication between workers should be better. I have maybe five percent of the time gotten my order right, and most of the time sit and eat what was given t o me, I don't really care. But occasionally I ask for the veggies to be added and such, and it takes time out of the next order. Each order having to be done twice is exhausting frustrating and could save a lot of time if modified. I feel like the quality of the food, and consistence in the dishes over time need improvement. For example, for a while there I felt like everyone made the same dish a different way. Also, they have been super slow in the past! I have never eaten at the Four Winds so I cannot answer of these questions. I have not been to the Four winds this year, but I remember that last year the wait time for food was atrocious. I hear it has gotten better though. i just wish it was open more often!!! I just wish it was open more. I know it's student run so I feel bad saying this, but the time it takes between ordering and receiving food/drinks. I love the idea of a seasonal menu but I miss a lot of the older staples. I'd maybe prefer a changing menu if it changed slightly more regularly. You could use the same ingredients, just trick me into thinking you aren't. I order foods and it never seems to come out the way I expected it to be. For example, I ordered white pizza. An hour and a half later, pita bread a nd raw

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Birney 108 vegetables were on my plate. What? I think four winds is pretty great! I don't know enough about the workings of the business to know what might need improvement. I think the four winds is doing a really great job of being what it needs to be/what the people want it to be. My biggest issue with eating at four winds is that I'm broke. I think the people who wor k there can be a little bit smug. I don't know... maybe not. Maybe not for the most part. Make sure stuff is warm? I like the new menu items though; it seems like they have a better supply of items. I would be more willing to use it if it accepted Ham dollars without such a steep surcharge. Also, I had an account there and some of the money in it disappeared before I had gotte n a chance to use it, making me somewhat reluctant to buy from the 4winds now. I'd like to see a couple more "template" opt ions so that other ingredients can be combined with them for a variety of dishes. See: bagels I'd like to see more utilizat ion of the New College campus for growing Four Winds food. I'm fairly content with my Four Winds experience. I'm not a good judge I love the four winds, but i do not make it down there often, mostly because i do not carry cash on me. I'm not sure how the Four Winds works precisely, but I think it'd be awesome to make Four Winds food from food that New College grows in a green house or whatever. But I'm sure that requires us getting more green houses that are larger, which of course means more money. If at all possible, prices. If you all can become financially sustainable, all good things will follow Independence It is a little too expensive for me to be able to eat there often It takes forever. The new menu is very limited. It takes too long. it would be nice if some fresh fruits were available for purchase. the new menu is amazing, however, the service still needs improving. It would be nice if the warmer meal items would be hotter (temperature wise, not spiciness although spicier items would be nice too.) It would help if they kept better stock of ingredients. It's really kind of pricey, and for significantly smaller servings than Ham. Sorry to beat a dead horse. Its size its slow service time, its price factor Just the organization, maybe? I've ordered a smoothie a few times and had them forget to make it and had to remind them. Keeping track of orders. Someone forgets my order almost every other time I go in there.

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Birney 109 lack of Sriracha Larger portions, faster smoothies. Larger portions. Maybe a rotation of the old menu "favorites ..." We miss them, even though I like the new menu Meal plan fee menu variety and cleanliness menu; it is confusi ng and sometimes i see people ordering things that i have no idea what they are. 4winds has a DIY attitude with menu, it seems, but sometimes i find that overwhelming. also, im confused about where the guacdilla wraps went. employees; i am friends with sev eral employees who complain about other employees. compost; i see food being thrown away all the time. the compost is at the back of the 4winds, but there should be a small compost container next to where customers put their dirty dishes so they arent comp elled to just toss food in the trash. freegan table possibility? not everyone finishes their food, and most people at new college dont seem to mind eating after each other. more open mics and other events; 4winds is a great community space and people love to go there. opening up 4winds to more activities could be beneficial. clientele diversity; sometimes i feel that i see the same people in 4winds all the time, and i wonder if people feel like 4winds is some kind of special social club. it can be difficult for new students to feel comfortable dining alone. not sure how to solve this. 4winds is generally already a very welcoming environment. money and time more protein more art and engagement with art students! more menu items, faster service More options More places to sit please! And I wish y'all didn't run out of certain fruits and such by the end of the w eek. more types of cream cheese! more variety of dishes, serving time Move it closer to the res. side of campus. multi taskability of employees N/A not enough protein Nothing it's awesome, and getting better all the time! Payment options. I would like to be able to use my meal plan money without markup. Perhaps instead of a line for al l customers, "dining in" patrons could be served by a waiter/ess and this could increase efficiency preoccupied employees/u nwelcoming social atmosphere --which often seems to quite negatively affect the amount of time it takes to get served Prepa ring food in a more timely manner

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Birney 110 price Price price, I mean not everyone is a member of the middle class Price, Slowness prices and time. That is the main reason why i don't go there, the prices are too high for me. also, i've heard so many horror stories about food taking an hour to come out. prices? public computer(s) freegan table (kitchen scra ps) allow smoking on the screened porch shade out front more swings Quality of the food. Quality/quantity of food! really disorganized management. also, when you make the iced drinks you need to make them so that the ice melts less. not a fan of the way iced drinks are made, no offense. and once when of your pita things made me sick because of the onions. service Service and price, the Four Winds is much too slow and much too expensive to be worth it to me. Also, no matter what others on campus say, Four Winds food does not taste much better than Ham food. Service and prices Service could often be quicker. Prices could be lower (more food for less money.) service speed Service time, price, consistency, portions (too small for the cost) Service, it's awful. Coming from the culinary industry, it shouldn't take as long as it does to get food. service. more dedicated workers who act like they are at work. Serving size bigger! I would like that. If it was faster i would go more too. it takes a while to get a to go wrap even if there's a line Serving time/remembering orders SEVENTY FIVE PERCENT UPCHARGE ON HAM MONEY!!!!!!!!! social atmosphere being open to anyone and everyone Some of t he staff treat it like it is not a real job. sometimes we spread ourselves too thin. at our size, we just cannot do it all. Speed and accuracy with orders Speed and availability speed at which food is prepared Speed of service, prices Speed of service/remembering orders Speed. Flavourfulness of all non smoothie foods. Range of gluten free foods. staff gotta work harder to keep clean, get things done fast, stay (somewhat) pleasant

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Birney 111 Suggestions: Give receipts upon request ("Would you like a receipt with that?") Makes it easier to keep track of spending... Run out of ingredients less often Offer options with meat (I'd go there a lot more often if this one was done) Takes forEVER to get food. Can't just drop by the 4winds for lunch, you have to have at least 2hours free, it seems The 4winds has really improved this year, both aesth etically, and with faster service/more exciting menu items. I never really minded how slow it was or its other problems, because I like the atmosphere. If there is still a leak in the sink of the back bathroom, that should be fixed. Maybe get those garden plots in shape and grow herbs? If you don't, maybe starting a compost and collaborating with garden tutorial would be cool. The hours. I think you could do a fair amount of business if you were open later so that people who missed ham dinner could eat there, instead of closing at around the same time Ham dinner ends. Personally I can't afford to eat there very frequently, and though the food is alright, I personally haven't found any particular dish there that makes me feel like coming back and spending the kind of money I'd have to spend to get that item again. Also don't leave the front door open when you're not open and then tell me "Uh, we're *closed*." and look at me like I'm stupid for walking in thinking you're open. This has happened twice. If your hours are posted somewhere on the front of the building, I've never noticed them. I know most of the staff are in general ve ry friendly people and good with customers, but these two instances were very off putting. Regarding question 19, I answered "no", because I assume 4W is already doing its best to be sustainable, and so it gets my support for that regardless. But most time s I choose not to eat there because of the above. The burrito mix is a notorious laxative, could be improved with a constip ation agent. the consistency of its food's quality The efficiency of getting the food to the person. The eggs are a serious problem. Don't microwave them till they're green.. or just don't serve them. The Four Winds is getting better. T he quality of the food is uneven and expensive for what it is. The new menu is intriguing and provides more diversity. The Four Winds is kind of known as being this really pretentious place for a very specific demographic of students. I love the food and the four winds' sustainability practices and I really want to support a better quality, more sustainable on campus dining op tion, but it feels very exclusive and sometimes I feel like I'm really not wanted, or that I am one of the 'lesser' people there because I'm not in a specific group of people on campus. The four winds serves great food and is in a beautiful space, and I'd like to go there more often, but I feel uncomfortable being there because I constantly feel like I'm being judged. It's really unsettling and kind of indicative of a lot of bigger problems that the New College community has. Just for some background, I don 't think I'm an atypical New College student, or that I am part of the changing demographics here. I support everything that the four winds does and I love all the quirky and crazy things that make new college great. I'm really active socially and love the unique and laissez faire social scene at new

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Birney 112 college. I want to be able to go to the four winds and not feel like I don't belong there, because I really think that I should. A lot of people I know have voiced similar problems with the four winds over the years. I know this isn't a really concrete problem and that there isn't really a quick fix to this sort of problem, and that is isn't even entirely the four winds' fault, but this is the one thing that most affects my decision to eat there. The Four Winds needs to get faster on their service. I only go to the Four Winds when I know I have a few hours to kill because it's gonna take that long to get my food. Also the Four Winds runs out of everything fairly quickly, being able to have stock and restock it quickly is important in running a successful restaurants. The only time I've gone this year I was sorely disappointed to find not only all my favorite smoothies gone but some of the other ones tasted rather odd and not very good. In general the qua lity of the food being served needs to be improved, maybe a general consistency in the offerings. Also it is too expensive for food that takes too long and is not always consistent in quality. the outrages line at lunch The patio. The prices of the food / drinks could be lowered. I understand that the Four Winds is a business and needs to make money, but I believe th at if the prices were a little lower, more people would come more often. (In fact, price is the one reason why I have only visited the Four Winds less than 5 times this semester -if they were just a little lower, I would go there more often.) the quality of the food. the consistency is spotty. also the cleanliness and the sustainability of the whole business The quality of the preparation of the food, as opposed to the ingredients themselves some employees prepare it very well and others do not. The service needs to be speedier. Also, they always get my smoothie order wrong if I ask for anything different from the o nes posted. The speed of the completion of the orders. The spicy pasta with chick peas should be made a regular menu item! the terrible service, the unwelcoming environment, the shitty food quality, its overpriced, there are too many people just standing around, theres too much emphasis on vegetarian and vegan options its "othering" to people who eat meat. the time it takes for food to be available and the atmosphere that some of the workers give off the time it takes to get food. The time that it takes for an order to be completed. I have waited for hours before for a smoothie that took five minutes to make. The time the food is served and the presentation of the food The timeliness of dine in service. The food is a wesome, the people are awesome, but sometimes an order gets lost in the mix or things just happen at a really slow rate, regardless of whether it is busy or not, and that's the only downside to it! The timing of service and letting customers know right away when ingredients for

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Birney 113 certain items have run out. I've had too many experiences where I sit and wait, and find out 10 minu tes later that the item I ordered not only wasn't already on its way to becoming a reality, but also that it can't be made because certain ingredients have run out. I've also just had my orders forgotten about too much; it makes me feel like the staff does n't care about me or their jobs. I know that's an overgeneralization, but the uncomfortable experiences I've had saying "hey dude, remember me? Can I have my smoothie?" have definitely feel less inclined to go back. The update was really pretty, but I miss the old menu. I liked the Irish Republican from last year. The whole fucking thing. It's terrible. the workers n eed to be trained in basic food service skills. or maybe instead of hiring people from the same friend group, actually hiring people with restaurant experience. They need meat. I am very serious and not screwing up data. They run out of a lot of food items and sometimes I've gotten a pizza bagel that was freezing cold. time Time Time (preparation takes a wh ile)/Price Time and accuracy of filling orders. Lower prices are preferred too. Time and price time it takes to s erve people time management Time required for receiving your meal. Sometimes, they can be very speedy, but other times, I have missed class for just a smoothie. Time to get food, quality of food, selection, service, attitude of staff Ti me to receive order. time. i almost never eat there because it takes so very long! although i haven't been this year, so i can't comment on timeliness recently. Time. I would visit the Four Winds more if it was faster Time. TIMETIMETIMETIMETIME folks be slow, yo. Variety and time it takes to make the food has gone down a little from last year (woot) but it is still sometimes on the verge of unreasonable like it used to be in past years. And I'm for environmentally friendly practices but if the prices keep going up I won't be able to keep justifying how much money I spend there and will have to reduce my frequency (btw, I pay in cash b/c I can't stand being sodomized by sudexo any longer). Wait time. Wait times. Waiter/Waitress training and the food orders system, to improve organization and efficiency of receiving and completing orders. Waiting time, student input into menu

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Birney 114 Waiting time.

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Birney 115 Bibliography Darden Restaurants Announces Commitment to Action at 2011 Clinton Global Initiative Annual Meeting. 2011. PR Newswire Association LLC. "Go with the flow."2011. Restaurant Business 110(8): 12. "SUSTAINABLE RESTAURANTS."2011. Caterer Hotelkeeper 201(4659): 13. "From the Farm To the Table."2009. Environmental Design & Construction 12(6): 50 50. "GREEN RESTAURANT GUIDE."2009. Bio cycle 50(8): 15 15. "Going for the Green."2008. Restaurant Hospitality 92(2): 32 32. Merriam 2005. 11th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster. Beatley, Timothy. 2000. Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Brooks, Steve. 2010. "Gett ing Your Green Card." Restaurant Business 109(1): 15 16. -----. 2009. "Cutting Your Water Bill." Restaurant Business 108(8): 15 16. Caira, Rosanna. 2008. "Planting the seed." Foodservice & Hospitality 41(1): 2 2. Cauley, Troy J. 1956. Agriculture in an in dustrial economy: the agrarian crisis. New York: Bookman Associates. Cockrall King, Jennifer. 2007. "Why don't we have gardens like this?" Maclean's

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Birney 116 120(34): 60 60. Conway, Gordon. 1998. The doubly green revolution : food for all in the twenty first century Ithaca, N.Y.; Comstock Pub: Associates. Elan, Elissa. 2011. "Green pastures." Nation's Restaurant News 45(2): 18. -----. 2010. "Cultivating a green image." Nation's Restaurant News 44(4): 15. -----. 2010. "LEED ing the way." Nation's Restaurant News 44 (6): 16. -----. 2010. "On site brands leverage social media, green policies." Nation's Restaurant News 44(13): 78 80. -----. 2009. "Guaranteed Green program grants credibility to eco friendly restaurants in the Windy City." Nation's Restaurant News 43(34 ): 28. -----. 2009. "Harness the power of sustainability." Nation's Restaurant News 43(3): 28. -----. 2009. "Restaurant Associates launches initiative to improve its environmental footprint." Nation's Restaurant News 43(26): 14 14. -----. 2009. "Ted's M cKerrow Jr.: Green movement still growing despite recession, myths about cost." Nation's Restaurant News 43(13): 18, 62. -----. 2008. "On site feeders institute eco friendly standards." Nation's Restaurant News 42(32): 32, 34. Elinder, Liselotte S. 2005. "Obesity, Hunger, And Agriculture: The Damaging Role Of Subsidies." BMJ: British Medical Journal 331(7528): 1333 1336.

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Birney 117 Fields, Roger, ed. 2007. Restaurant Success by the Numbers. 1st ed. New York: Ten Speed Press. Fine, Gary A. 1996. Kitchens : the culture of restaurant work. Berkeley: University of California Press. Finkelstein, Joanne. 1989. Dining out : a sociology of modern manners. New York: New York University Press. Harrington, R. 2001. "Environmental uncertainty within the hospitality industry: Explor ing the measure of dynamism and complexity between restaurant segments." Journal of Hospitality Tourism Research 25(4): 386. Hu, Hsin Hui, H. G. Parsa and John Self 2010. "The Dynamics of Green Restaurant Patronage." Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 51(3): 3 44. Killian, Kelly. 2008. "Michael Oshman." Restaurants Institutions 118(17): 24. Koont, Sinan 2008. "A Cuban Success Story: Urban Agriculture." The Review of Radical Political Economics 40(3): 285 291. Lamb, Gregory. 2009. "The need to feed hungry famili es cultivates new interest in gleaning." Christian Science Monitor : 7. Liddle, Alan. 1991. "Special Report: Survival Strategies: Foodservice And The Environment: Restaurants Rush To Add Ecology Friendly Policies." Nation's Restaurant News 25(20): 88. Mark, Jason. 2007. "Growing it alone." Earth Island Journal 22(1):32 36.

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Birney 118 Nicholas, Kiefer. 2002. "Economics and the Origin of the Reastaurant." Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly : 58 64. Pollan, Michael. 2006. The omnivore's dilemma : a n atural history of four meals. New York: Penguin Press. Porter, John. 2011. Making the Most of Disposables ." Caterer Hotelkeeper 201(4682): 40. Prewitt, Milford. 2007. "Alternative Power Heats Up." Nation's Restaurant News (September 16, 2010 pages). ( http://nrn.com/article/alternative power heats 0 ). Schaper, Donna. 2007. "Gleaning." The Progressive Christian : 20 2. Schubert, Franziska, Kandampully. 2010. "Exploring consumer perceptions of gre en restaurants in the US." Tourism and Hospitality Research 10(4): 286. Tanis, David. 2010. Heart of the Ar tichoke and Other Kitchen Journeys. New York: Artisan. Tanyeri, Dana. 2007. "Smart Growth." Restaurant Business 106(6): 38 40. Warde, Alan and Lydia Martens. 2000. Eating out : social differentiation, consumption, and pleasure. Cambridge England New York: Cambridge University Press. Wright, Wynne and Elizabeth Ransom. 2005. "Stratification on the Menu: Using Restaurant Menus to Examine Social Class." Te aching Sociology 33(3):pp. 310 316.

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Birney 119 Young, D. C. W. 2001. "Exploring sustainable futures through 'Design Orienting Scenarios' The case of shopping, cooking and eating." Journal of Sustainable Product Design 1(2):117.


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