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Stigma Against People with Depression, It's Effect on Test Performance, and Role Models' Influence on This Effect

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004533/00001

Material Information

Title: Stigma Against People with Depression, It's Effect on Test Performance, and Role Models' Influence on This Effect
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Ariano, Katya
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2012
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Depression
Stigma
Role Models
Stereotype Threat
Test Performance
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Researchers have described the phenomenon of stereotype threat as the feeling that one will be judged according to a stereotype or do something to confirm that stereotype. The current study looks at how role models may be able to negate stereotype threat for people with depression in test-taking situations. There was a final sample of 41 participants, each of whom was assigned to one of four conditions (Role Model/Stereotype Threat, No Role Model/Stereotype Threat, Role Model/No Stereotype Threat, or No Role Model/No Stereotype Threat). The participants took a survey (according to which condition they were randomly assigned) containing three passages (one of which included a role model description for people with depression), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), a Verbal Reasoning GRE Practice Test, and some demographic questions. Results showed no significant three-way interaction between role model, stereotype threat, and depression, arguing against the initial hypothesis. Interestingly, however, the presence of stereotype threat actually increased GRE scores in people who either considered themselves depressed or scored depressed on the BDI relative to those who are not depressed. Also, those who read about the role model had better GRE scores when there was no stereotype threat, and if they had not read the role model passage, participants did better on the test when there was a stereotype threat present. This may have occurred due to determination to prove the stereotype wrong on the part of the participant. Likewise, the role model may not have had the anticipated effect because it may have actually removed any pressure the stereotype presented.
Statement of Responsibility: by Katya Ariano
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2012
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Graham, Steven

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2012 A6
System ID: NCFE004533:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004533/00001

Material Information

Title: Stigma Against People with Depression, It's Effect on Test Performance, and Role Models' Influence on This Effect
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Ariano, Katya
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2012
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Depression
Stigma
Role Models
Stereotype Threat
Test Performance
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Researchers have described the phenomenon of stereotype threat as the feeling that one will be judged according to a stereotype or do something to confirm that stereotype. The current study looks at how role models may be able to negate stereotype threat for people with depression in test-taking situations. There was a final sample of 41 participants, each of whom was assigned to one of four conditions (Role Model/Stereotype Threat, No Role Model/Stereotype Threat, Role Model/No Stereotype Threat, or No Role Model/No Stereotype Threat). The participants took a survey (according to which condition they were randomly assigned) containing three passages (one of which included a role model description for people with depression), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), a Verbal Reasoning GRE Practice Test, and some demographic questions. Results showed no significant three-way interaction between role model, stereotype threat, and depression, arguing against the initial hypothesis. Interestingly, however, the presence of stereotype threat actually increased GRE scores in people who either considered themselves depressed or scored depressed on the BDI relative to those who are not depressed. Also, those who read about the role model had better GRE scores when there was no stereotype threat, and if they had not read the role model passage, participants did better on the test when there was a stereotype threat present. This may have occurred due to determination to prove the stereotype wrong on the part of the participant. Likewise, the role model may not have had the anticipated effect because it may have actually removed any pressure the stereotype presented.
Statement of Responsibility: by Katya Ariano
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2012
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Graham, Steven

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2012 A6
System ID: NCFE004533:00001


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STIGMA AGAINST PEOPLE WITH DEPRESSION, ITS EFFECT O N TEST PERFORMANCE, AND ROLE MODELS’ INFLUENCE ON THIS EFF ECT BY KATYA ARIANO A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Social Sciences New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Steven Graham Sarasota, Florida May, 2012

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Table of Contents Abstract iii Introduction and The Current Study 1 Stigma 2 Stigma Against People With Depression 10 Stereotype Threats 13 Role Models and Their Effect on Stereotype Threat 18 The Current Study 21 Method 22 Participants 22 Measures 22 Procedure 24 Results 26 Discussion 29 References 34 Figures 38 Appendix A 41 Appendix B 53 Appendix C 56 Appendix D 57 Appendix E 58

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STIGMA AGAINST PEOPLE WITH DEPRESSION, ITS EFFECT O N TEST PERFORMANCE, AND ROLE MODELS’ INFLUENCE ON THIS EFF ECT Katya Ariano New College of Florida, 2012 ABSTRACT Researchers have described the phenomenon of stereo type threat as the feeling that one will be judged according to a stereotype or do some thing to confirm that stereotype. The current study looks at how role models may be able to negate stereotype threat for people with depression in test-taking situations. There wa s a final sample of 41 participants, each of whom was assigned to one of four conditions (Rol e Model/Stereotype Threat, No Role Model/Stereotype Threat, Role Model/No Stereotype T hreat, or No Role Model/No Stereotype Threat). The participants took a survey (according to which condition they were randomly assigned) containing three passages ( one of which included a role model description for people with depression), the Beck D epression Inventory (BDI), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), a Ve rbal Reasoning GRE Practice Test, and some demographic questions. Results showe d no significant three-way interaction between role model, stereotype threat, and depression, arguing against the initial hypothesis. Interestingly, however, the pre sence of stereotype threat actually increased GRE scores in people who either considere d themselves depressed or scored depressed on the BDI relative to those who are not depressed. Also, those who read about the role model had better GRE scores when there was no stereotype threat, and if they had not read the role model passage, participants d id better on the test when there was a

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stereotype threat present. This may have occurred d ue to determination to prove the stereotype wrong on the part of the participant. Li kewise, the role model may not have had the anticipated effect because it may have actu ally removed any pressure the stereotype presented. ________________________________ Steven Graham Division of Social Sciences

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1 Stigma Against People With Depression, Its Effect O n Test Performance, And Role Models’ Influence On This Effect Stigma is a part of everyday life. It affects all kinds of groups in which people find themselves, whether based on their race, gende r, economic status, or mental health. These stigmas have an ill effect on people’s lives, causing low self-esteem and negative life-satisfaction. Some specific stereotypes about stigmatized groups can include how women are believed to be worse at math than men or how people with schizophrenia are inherently dangerous. These stereotypes can lead to a problem known as stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is when an individual exp eriences anxiety at the thought of confirming a negative stereotype about their group (Rivardo, Rhodes, Camaione, & Legg, 2011). They are afraid that they will prove any ste reotypes about their group as accurate. Though these stereotypes are not necessarily true, believing in them can have negative effects on an individual. Therefore, it is importan t to understand how to eliminate or reduce the effect of these stereotypes. Luckily, some ways to reduce the negative effects of stereotype threat have been found. One way is by keeping the public informed ab out how many of the stereotypes held against different groups are inaccurate. Anoth er thing that has been found is that role models are able to negate stereotype threat (McInty re, Paulson, Taylor, Morin, & Lord, 2011). By allowing individuals experiencing stereot ype threat to look up to someone in the same situation as themselves, they realize that the stereotype is not actually true and that if someone from their group was able to make i t through, so could they. As the role model solution has not been extensively studied, es pecially in dealing with mental health stigmas, it is therefore important to explore it in greater detail. The first step is to explain how stigma negatively affects others with mental di sorders.

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2 Stigma A link has been found between belonging to a deval ued social group and lower emotional well-being (Katz, Joiner, Jr., & Kwon, 20 02). For this study, there were 151 Caucasian people who participated. It was narrowed down to looking at one type of group in order to rule out the effect of belonging to other groups, with this study focusing on gender groups. Participants simply completed som e measures, which included the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Ste er, 1988, as cited in Katz et al., 2002), the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, 1967, a s cited in Katz et al., 2002), the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (measured the value on e placed on their social groups) (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992, as cited in Katz et al., 2002), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (measured global self-esteem) (Rosenberg, 196 5, as cited in Katz et al., 2002), and the Revised Unmitigated Communion Scale (Fritz & He lgeson, 1998, as cited in Katz et al., 2002). The results showed that membership in a devalued social group (being a female in comparison to a male) was connected with lower self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. Also, perceiving stigma from others due to group membership was related to an increase in depression and socialization as being p art of a devalued group was found to lead to anxious and depressive attitudes and behavi ors. This study shows that simply being in a more devalued group can lead to some neg ative effects on a person’s overall well-being. People suffering from mental illnesses can also be considered to belong to a devalued group. It has been found that stigma again st people with mental illnesses negatively affects their life satisfaction and is r elated to depressive/anxiety symptoms as well (Markowitz, 1998). In a study using 610 partic ipants, 520 of whom were from a

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3 consumer-run self-help group and 90 from an outpati ent setting, completed a survey and a follow-up survey 18 months later. The surveys con tained different scales and measurements such as the Colorado Symptom Index (Sh ern, Wilson, & Coen, 1994, as cited in Markowitz, 1998), Link’s (1987) Devaluatio n-Discrimination Beliefs Scale (which measured anticipated stigma) (as cited in Ma rkowitz, 1998), and the Mental Health Confidence Scale (which measured self-effica cy) (Carpinello, Knight, & Markowitz, 1994, as cited in Markowitz, 1998). Ther e were also some questions asked to measure stigma experiences, interpersonal life sati sfaction, economic life satisfaction, and some demographic variables. The results showed that anticipated stigma is related to self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depressive-anxi ety symptoms. In fact, reported discriminatory experiences was marginally associate d with self-esteem; though these experiences were also found to have adverse correla tions with all the outcomes considered in this study, they did not approach sig nificance. Also, there was a weaker relationship between stigma and psychotic symptoms than there was between stigma and depression/anxiety symptoms. This suggests that sym ptoms are not what lead to rejection, as some critics of the labeling theory h ave suggested, since the more severe symptoms (i.e., psychotic symptoms) would have elic ited more stigma if this was the case. People diagnosed with mental illnesses have even r evealed the negative effects they suffer from the feelings of stigma they percei ve from the general public (Dinos, Stevens, Serfaty, Weich, & King, 2004). Forty-six p eople with different psychiatric diagnoses were interviewed for this study. Two inte rviewers were trained for this study in order to satisfactorily conduct the interview. The interview consisted of asking about the

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4 participant’s mental health history, diagnosis, tre atment, and their social lives. The participants were also asked to describe how their mental illness affected their personal and work lives. The interviews lasted 45 minutes an d were tape recorded. Most of the interviewees talked a lot about stigma, with 41 out of 46 participants expressing having felt stigma against them. Two distinct sub-categori es were found for the types of stigmas presented: subjective and overt. For the subjective category, 28 participants talked about the consequences they experience from subjective fe elings of stigma. People who were diagnosed with depression, anxiety, and/or personal ity disorders reported more consequences for feelings of stigma than people wit h other diagnoses (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, eating d isorders). Participants reported feeling stigma due to their diagnosis (19 participants) and worried about whether or not to disclose their mental illness to others (41 partici pants). For the overt category, 30 participants talked about the consequences they exp erienced after facing overt stigma. Participants talked about the harassment they exper ienced due to stigma (29 participants), being patronized (10 participants), and reported ex periencing discrimination in academic, treatment, and work settings (14 participants). Par ticipants suffering from depression and/or anxiety reported less concern over the media ’s representations of mental illness and more fear for overt discrimination, likely due to depressive thoughts and negative anticipations for the future. Simply by taking the medication they need to reliev e any mental issues they may have, people may experience negative effects from p ublic stigma. In fact, a study was done in which it was found that many adolescents ex perience stigma from taking psychiatric medication (Kranke, Floersch, Townsend, & Munson, 2010). This study

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5 contained 40 participants, 24 females and 16 males, who were interviewed using a semistructured interview instrument called the Teen Sub jective Experience of Medication Interview (Jenkins, 1997; Jenkins et al., 2005, as cited in Kranke et al., 2010). Participants also gave their demographic and treatm ent history and took the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (Kaufman et al., 1997, as cited in Kranke et al., 2010), a research diagnostic instrum ent. It was found that feeling shame was linked to negative familial perceptions when st ereotypes were being reinforced. It was also found that mental illness and psychiatric medication were associated with secrecy, shame, and social withdrawal. There are also problems that occur through self st igma (Moses, 2009). This is when people truly believe the stereotypes that are held against their group and associate them with themselves. This can occur through self-l abeling (e.g., referring to their problems in psychiatric terms, letting their illnes s define who they are). It was found that adolescents who self-label have higher levels of de pression and self-stigma. In this study, 54 adolescent participants were interviewed. The in terview contained psychological wellbeing measures, which included the Rosenberg Self-E steem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965, as cited in Moses, 2009), the Pearlin Mastery Scale (P earlin, Menaghan, & Lieberman, 1981, as cited in Moses, 2009), the CES-D (scale me asuring depression) (Radloff, 1977, as cited in Moses, 2009), and 5 adapted items from the Self-Stigma Scale (Austin, MacLeod, & Dunn, 2004, as cited in Moses, 2009). Cl inical/Illness measures were also used, which included the Child and Adolescent Funct ional Assessment Scale (Hodges, 1994, as cited in Moses, 2009) and questions on wha t disorder they had (by looking at agency records), if they had comorbidity (had more than one diagnosis), and their age

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6 when they received their first mental health treatm ent, whether it was medication or counseling. The interview also contained questions pertaining to public-stigma, selflabeling, and demographic information. The majority of the participants (42.6%) were not sure whether to consider their problems attributabl e to a mental illness or something more controllable. About a third of the participants (37 .0%) in this study did not self-label and did not consider themselves to have a mental disord er, they considered their behaviors normal and part of who they are as a person. The re st of the participants (20.3%) selflabeled and expressed the most assurance that they had a mental disorder that accounted for the problems they experienced. It was found tha t those who did not self-label experienced lower levels of self-stigma and depress ion. Furthermore, those who did not self-label or were unsure about labeling had fewer experiences with rejection in comparison to those who did self-label. It has, unfortunately, also been found that people prefer to remain more socially distant from someone with a mental illness in compa rison to someone with a physical illness (Socall & Holtgraves, 1992). In this study, a survey was mailed to 600 people in Delaware County, Indiana, using the most recent tel ephone directory and 206 people returned completed questionnaires. Half of the ques tionnaires sent out asked for an adult male to respond and the other half asked for an adu lt female to respond. Each questionnaire contained a case vignette along with some questions on the target described. The vignettes differed by whether they s uffered from a mental or physical disorder and the severity of that disorder. For the mental illness vignettes, three types of mental illnesses that ranged in severity were used: generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, and chronic schizophrenia. The physical illness vignettes were

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7 created to match up nearly identically to the behav ioral disturbances portrayed in the mental illness vignettes. To match with the behavio rs of generalized anxiety disorder, a food allergy reaction was used. Matching with the m ajor depressive episode was a drug reaction to anti-hypertensive medication. Chronic s chizophrenia was then matched with a person with a brain tumor. Therefore, the vignettes were identical except for whether they were labeled as a mental or physical problem and ho w it was treated. After reading the vignette they received, participants completed ques tions on social distance (how willing they were to interact with the target) and their be liefs about the target. These included four questions regarding the target’s predictabilit y and four about the target’s illness outcome. It was found that people rejected those wi th mental illnesses more than those with physical illnesses and rejected the target mor e when their level of severity increased, regardless of whether they were mentally or physica lly ill. Participants also rated the targets with mental illness as less predictable and having a less favorable outcome than the targets with a physical illness. Participants a lso felt that the target was less predictable and had a less favorable outcome as the severity of the illness increased, regardless of whether the target suffered from a mental or physic al illness. It was also found that if the target was seen as more unpredictable and having a less favorable outcome, participants rejected the target more. So, it is clear that even if the symptoms are the same, simply being labeled as having a mental illness creates a stigma towards the person and a desire to keep social distance from them. Another study focused on the public’s desire for so cial distance from people labeled as mentally ill. It was found that stereoty pical beliefs and attribution to individual factors were related to wanting more social distanc e from the mental ill (van’t Veer,

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8 Kraan, Drosseart, Modde, 2006). Questionnaires were mailed to 1500 randomly selected addresses from the Dutch national telephone book an d to 1060 people living less than 1 km from a mental institution, for a total of 2560 a ddresses. Eight hundred and twelve people returned completed questionnaires, 445 from random Dutch addresses and 367 from people living close to a mental institution. T he questionnaire included an attitudinal social distance scale, questions on their belief ab out certain stereotypes held against the mentally ill, questions on what they believed attri buted to the cause of mental illness (looking specifically at externally and personally attributed causes), and some demographic questions. It was found that people ove rall were willing to interact with mentally ill patients, though less so at a more int imate level. Though the majority of the participants did not endorse the stereotype that me ntal illness was linked with criminal activity, most participants believed mentally ill p eople were aggressive and untrustworthy. The people who believed in the stere otypes dealing with deviant and threatening behavior held more negative attitudes t owards people with mental illness, but if they believed the mentally ill patient was intel ligent, their attitudes were more positive. It was also found that seeing genetic or structural (i.e., externally attributed) causes in general as a possible cause for mental illness was associated with more willingness to be close to those with mental illnesses. However, when it was believed that mental illness was caused by individual factors such as drug use, the desire for social distance increased. Thus, though those who did not believe i n the negative stereotypes held against the mentally ill wanted less social distanc e from them, those that did believe in them desired more social distance from those affect ed.

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9 It has also been found that even when people have k nowledge about mental illness and make more appropriate attributions, the y still believe that people with mental illnesses are dangerous and desire social distance from them (Link, Phelan, Bresnahan, Stueve, & Pescosolido, 1999). For this study, 1444 participants completed the MacArthur Mental Health Module of the 1996 General Social Sur vey. Participants read a vignette about a person with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, drug dependence (cocaine), alcohol dependence, or simply a troubled person who was not modeled after a true mental disorder. The sex, education level, and ethnicity of the character described in the vignette varied randomly. After reading the vig nettes, participants answered questions about how they would label the problem, potential c auses for the situation, willingness to interact with the character, and whether they belie ved the character was violent or not. Participants were most likely to label the characte rs with schizophrenia as having a mental illness (88%), followed by major depressive disorder (69%), alcohol dependence (49%), cocaine dependence (44%), and the person who was just troubled (22%). Participants believed that stressful situations wer e the most common cause of the characters’ problems; more than 90% of participants stated this for each disorder except for cocaine dependence. Chemical imbalance in the b rain was the second most common reason for the schizophrenic and major depressive c haracters. Participants also felt that the characters with coc aine dependence were the most dangerous, followed by the characters with alcohol dependence, schizophrenia, major depression, and the troubled character. As for pref erred social distance from the character, participants desired more social distanc e from the characters with cocaine dependence, followed by alcohol dependence, schizop hrenia, major depression, and the

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10 troubled character. Participants on average though showed a general unwillingness to interact with characters that had a mental disorder The difference between the participants’ unwillingness to interact with a trou bled person (29%) and their unwillingness to interact with a person with major depression (47%) was quite large, and this is comparing the two lowest scores. Schizophre nia was next after major depression (63%), followed by alcohol dependence (70%) and coc aine dependence (90%). People who believed that a character was violent desired m ore social distance from that person as well. Stigma Against People With Depression As the previous studies have shown, stigma is assoc iated with many negative outcomes. The studies described previously discusse d the stigmas held towards people with different mental illnesses, including depressi on. However, the next set of studies described focused solely on the stigmatization towa rds people who are depressed, the focus of this paper. It has been found that there are many varying attit udes held towards people with depression and not many of them are positive (Aroma a, Tolvanen, Tuulari, & Wahlbeck, 2011). In this study, ten thousand people were mail ed questionnaires in western Finland. There was a response rate of 51.6%, 60% females and 43% males. The questionnaire included Pearlin’s Wense of Mastery Scale (Pearlin & Schooler, 1978, as cited in Aromaa et al., 2011) for indicating positive mental health and coping ab ility, and the OSLO-3 (Brevik & Dalgard, 1996, as cited in Aromaa et al., 2011) for the amount of social support, using only three of its items. They also measured exposure to mental disorders using three instruments: The Composite In ternational Diagnostic Interview

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11 Short Form (measured the prevalence of depressive s ymptoms in the last 12 months) (Kessler, Andrews, Mroczek, Ustun, & Wittchen, 1998 as cited in Aromaa et al., 2011), the General Health Questionnaire (measured psycholo gical distress) (Goldberg & Hillier, 1979, as cited in Aromaa et al., 2011), and the par ticipants were asked if they knew anyone suffering from mental health problems. There were also three dependent variables in the questionnaire. The first included five state ments, taken from a principal components analysis, that measured the view that pe ople with depression were responsible for their illness and recovery (i.e., t hat it is a matter of will). The second involved a series of four fictional situations abou t a person with a mental illness; participants expressed whether they would be willin g to interact with the person mentioned in the situation. The third dependent var iable included the “Depression is a matter of will” scale (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001, a s cited in Aromaa et al., 2011) and six stereotypical statements, three of which measured p erceived stigma and three of which measured personal stigma/stereotype agreement. The results showed that though the majority (86%) o f participants believed that depression was a real disorder, 41% of the particip ants believed that a mental illness was a sign of sensitivity and weakness and 58% believed that those with depression should just pull themselves together. Additionally, many o f the participants believed that social discrimination against those with mental illness is high, though they also believed that people with a mental illness are unpredictable. It was also found that nearly all the participants reported a willingness to visit someon e they knew in a psychiatric hospital and accept a work colleague with a mental illness, yet only 31% were willing to marry

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12 someone with a mental illness and even less would b e willing to trust someone with a mental illness to take care of a child. There are also more negative attitudes held towards depression in comparison to physical illnesses on both implicit and explicit me asures (Monteith & Pettit, 2011). There were 162 participants, 124 females and 38 males, re cruited for this study in which they completed some implicit and explicit measures onlin e. The Implicit Associations Tasks (IATs) measured automatic attitudes towards depress ion and physical illness along with stereotypes of those conditions, including stabilit y, controllability, and etiology (causation). This is done by measuring the speed at which the participants respond to different stimuli and attributes. Faster reaction t imes indicate stronger automatic associations. The explicit measures used a Semantic Differential Scale that measured the same attitudes and stereotypes as the IATs by using the same words that were used in the IATs. The participants also answered some demograph ic information at the end. Only 135 participants ended up being included in the ana lyses due to response times that were either too slow or too fast (indicating carelessnes s). Implicit and explicit views both were associated with considering depression to be more r elated to psychological causes than physical illness. Both were also associated with ha ving more negative attitudes towards depression than physical illness, though both of th ese views were more pronounced with the implicit measure. Additionally, only implicit m easures showed the tendency to see depression as more temporary when compared to a phy sical illness and only explicit measures showed people seeing depression as more co ntrollable than physical illness.

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13 Stereotype Threats These studies indicate that stigma against people w ith depression exists and is a cause for concern. What is even more concerning is that stigma can lead to problems with stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is, again, the feeling that one will be judged according to a stereotype or that one may do something to con firm the stereotype. Stereotype threat is another example of how stigma against other grou ps can negatively affect the individuals that make up that group. In fact, sever al studies have been done that show how stereotype threat can negatively affect test pe rformance. Four studies showed that when negative stereotypes were activated in U.S. southerners, they did worse on tests (Clark, Eno, & Guadagno, 2011). Participants from all four studies were considered southerners, havin g been born and living the majority of their lives in the southern states. Study 1 had 47 participants, 41 females and 6 males, who were randomly assigned to either the control or stereotype activation condition. Those in the stereotype activation condition were t old before taking a test with GRE-like questions that this was a diagnostic test and that people from the northern United States tended to do better than the people from the south. Participants in the control condition were just told that the researchers were trying to assess the psychological factors present in taking this test, essentially that the test was non-diagnostic. After the test, participants answered questions related to where they were born and have lived for most of their lives. It was found that those in the stereotype activatio n condition did significantly worse ( M = 7.20, SD = 2.93) on the test than those in the control cond ition ( M = 9.36, SD = 4.06). The second study was similar to Study 1, although the researchers used a more subtle approach to activating the southern stereoty pe. Participants in the stereotype

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14 activation condition were instead told that people from the northern and southern states performed differently on this test, but they were n ot told specifically who did better. Also, there were diagnostic and non-diagnostic cond itions added to this study. Of 114 students, 68 females and 46 males, half were told t hat the test was diagnostic of their intellectual abilities and the other half were told it was not diagnostic. As was found in the first study, those who were in the stereotype a ctivation condition did significantly worse than those in the control condition, though n o difference was found between the two diagnostic conditions. Study 3 was conducted to see if something originat ing from everyday life was enough to influence test performance. This was done by incorporating a folder with a picture of the Confederate flag on it into the expe riment. Seventy-five students, 45 females and 30 males, were placed into two conditio ns in this study, the Confederate flag exposure condition and the control condition. For t his study, those in the Confederate flag condition would be seated at their desks where a wh ite folder with a picture of the Confederate flag would be placed. Those in the cont rol condition just had a plain white folder on their desk. The experimenter, in both con ditions, then claimed that someone must have left it and placed it faced upright on a desk in the corner for the rest of the experiment. The participants would then take the sa me test as those taken in the first two studies, but all participants were told that it was non-diagnostic and there was no verbal stereotype activation either. The results showed th at those who were in the Confederate flag exposure condition ( M = 8.27, SD = 4.18) did significantly worse on the test than those in the control condition ( M = 10.31, SD = 4.38).

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15 The fourth study had half of the 78 participants, 64 females and 14 males, answer questions that would activate negative southern ste reotypes and measure how much the participant identified as a southerner before takin g the test. The rest of the participants served in the control group and did not receive any questions before taking the test. The results confirmed what was found in the previous st udies; those in the control condition ( Madjusted = 9.06, SE = 0.39) answered more questions correctly than tho se in the southern identity condition ( Madjusted = 7.75, SE = 0.40). Also those who identified more as southerners did more poorly on the test than those who did not. Another study dealing with stereotype threat and i ts effects on test performance show that women attempt fewer test problems than me n when faced with a stereotype threat about gender (Rivardo et al., 2011). One pos sible explanation for this effect is that stress brought on by stereotype threat contributes to increases in hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) activity which can bring about memory impairment. Thus, this study took a saliva sample from each participant in order to m easure their cortisol levels, which is a good indicator of stress levels. Before this, the 1 48 participants, 69 females and 79 males, were assigned to one of three conditions: the probl em-solving condition, the stereotype threat condition, and the stereotype threat with in struction condition. After giving a saliva sample, participants filled out a demographic quest ionnaire and then listened to instructions that differed according to their condi tion. The participants in the problemsolving condition were told that this test was bein g administered in order to measure general problem solving ability. Those in the stere otype threat condition were told that men generally did better on this test than women. P articipants in the stereotype threat condition with instruction were also told that this test they were about to take showed

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16 some gender differences in performance, but were al so informed about stereotype threat and how best to combat it. After this, all particip ants took the test, which contained questions from the GRE. After the test, participant s answered a few basic questions on their views of gender stereotypes regarding math, t heir level of anxiousness, and their score on the SAT quantitative section. Another sali va sample was collected after this was done. Results from this study show that women attem pted more problems in the problemsolving condition than in the stereotype threat and stereotype threat with instruction conditions. Also, in the stereotype threat with ins truction condition, women attempted fewer problems than men. In the case of mental illnesses, three studies reve aled that stigmas against those with mental illness can negatively affect their tes t performance (Quinn, Kahng, & Crocker, 2004). The first study had students take p retest questionnaires in order to determine who had a treatment history for mental il lness and who did not. Out of these students, 32 students with a mental illness treatme nt history and 31 students who did not were selected to participate in the study. The part icipants chosen then completed two measurements of psychological well-being, the Rosen berg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965, as cited in Quinn et al., 2004) a nd the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1965, as cited in Qui nn et al., 2004), and then answered demographic questions. Those who were in the reveal condition were asked about their mental illness history using the same questions as the pretest and were then told that the test was diagnostic of their abilities. Those in th e no-reveal condition were not asked about their mental illness history and were told th at they were taking the test in order to test its reliability. The test taken was a modified GRE Analytic Test. After taking the test,

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17 all participants then retook the same measures for psychological well-being as they did prior to the test. Although the author did not repo rt the means, they did report that those with a mental illness history did significantly wor se when they had to reveal their history prior to taking the test than those who did not. The second study was done in order to rule out alt ernative explanations that could explain the results found in Study 1. The only diff erence was that only those with a history of depression were included in this study. The participants in this study included 24 students with a treatment history for depression and 24 students with none. The procedure for Study 2 was the same as Study 1 excep t that all participants took two tests, one that was described as diagnostic and one that w as non-diagnostic. The results showed that the participants who had to reveal their histo ry of depression prior to the test did significantly worse than those who did not on the d iagnostic test. The third study also tried to refute any alternati ve explanations for Studies 1 and 2, such as the possibility that a hidden stigma bei ng revealed is causing the results found in the previous studies and not identity threat. In this study, a comparison group was created with people diagnosed with an eating disord er in order to compare their results with participants who simply have a history of ment al illness. Twenty-nine students had a history of mental illness, 16 had been diagnosed wi th an eating disorder, and 32 did not have a history of either. The procedure for this st udy was a bit different than the other two; participants completed questionnaires on their personal and academic background in the beginning along with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965, as cited in Quinn et al., 2004). Then, for the participants in the reveal condition, they were asked an additional six questions about their mental illness history, eating disorder history, and if

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18 they had ever had a migraine. Those who were diagno sed with an eating disorder did not receive questions relating to mental illness. Inste ad, they were replaced with questions regarding diabetes. This was done because some peop le with eating disorders also had a history of mental illness since the two often co-oc cur with each other. Those in the no reveal condition did not get any additional questio ns. After this was completed, participants completed the same test that was used in the previous studies and were told it was a diagnostic test. It was found that those who had to reveal their history of mental illness prior to the test did worse than those who did not have to. Those with an eating disorder did not show any difference between condit ions. Role Models and Their Effect on Stereotype Threat With all of these problems in dealing with stigma a nd stereotype threats, it is hoped that there would be a way to suppress or, at the very least, reduce the negative effects they have on people. Luckily, it has been f ound that deserving role models can help combat stereotype threats (McIntyre et al., 20 11). When it is believed that the role model deserved their success, hearing about them ca n help reduce the effects of stereotype threat, whereas this is not the case for role models who are believed to not deserve the success they have been bestowed. Two e xperiments were conducted to examine this claim. The first experiment deceived 1 20 women participants into believing that they would be involved in two different experi ments for two different researchers. They were told that the first study would be on the implicit understanding of foreign languages and that the second study would help with creating new questions for the GRE, which the participants were told is something that men tend to perform better on than women. The first “study” contained the role model m anipulation. Participants were given

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19 a packet with four different passages written in di fferent foreign languages with English translations. The first three passages were irrelev ant to the study and were only added to make the “study” more convincing. The last passage contained a description of a fictitious successful woman who was responsible for creating several inventions dealing with home heating that was environmentally friendly The participants in the deserving role model condition received the passage saying th at the role model had achieved her success through hard work and her own abilities. Th ose in the undeserving role model condition had instead received the passage saying t hat the role model had filed the inventions under her own name under her husband’s r equest, who was the true inventor, on his death bed. Participants in the threat/no rol e model condition, though, did not read about any role models but still heard about the ste reotype about men doing better on the GRE than women at the beginning of the study. Those in the no threat/no role model condition, however, did not hear the stereotype or read anything about a role model. All participants then took the test that would supposed ly help in developing new questions for the GRE. Afterwards, the participants who had b een in the two role model present conditions answered some questions based on their r ole model passage in order to assess how the participants felt about her and how much sh e deserved the success she had. Results showed that the only conditions in which th e participants did better than those in the threat/no role model condition were the deservi ng role model and no threat/no role model conditions. The second experiment examined how role models who achieve success through internal means and/or consistent (stable) causes ar e considered more deserving of their success than those who achieve success through exte rnal means and/or inconsistent

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20 (unstable) causes. This study was carried out simil arly to the first experiment in which the participants, 188 women, were deceived into thi nking that this study was actually two different studies. In the first part of the study, participants were told that they would be reading and critiquing different biographical sketc hes and then would take a math test later that, again, men were said to do better on th an women. The participants were then given three biographical sketches each pertaining t o female role models. The condition to which participants were assigned determined which s et of biographical sketches they received: internal-stable condition, internal-unsta ble condition, external-stable condition, and external-unstable condition. There were two con trol groups as well, the threat/no role model condition in which participants read about co rporations’, instead of women’s, successes, and the no threat/no role model conditio n, which was the only condition that did not hear the stereotype in the beginning or hav e any reading material. After the participants in the role model present conditions f inished reading, they answered questions pertaining to the role model’s success an d what it was due to. Afterwards, participants in all conditions took a mathematical test. Then all participants answered a self-report measure on extra-test thinking (modeled after Petty, Wells, & Brock, 1976, as cited in McIntyre et al., 2011). Participants in th e role model present conditions then answered factual questions about the role models th ey read. This was done to make sure the participants read each passage thoroughly, whic h they all did. This study also revealed that only participants in the internal-sta ble and no threat/no role model conditions did better on the test in comparison to those in the threat/no role model condition.

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21 The Current Study As the previously mentioned studies have shown, p eople who label others as mentally ill are more likely to assign them with ne gative characteristics, such as dangerousness (Phelan & Basow, 2007). There are als o people who believe that depressed people are the cause of their symptoms an d that they are weak and sensitive (Aromaa et al., 2011). With these stereotypes held against them, people with depression experience shame, withdraw socially, and feel the n eed to keep their mental illness a secret (Kranke et al., 2010). Stigma against people with mental illnesses negatively affects their life satisfaction and is related to d epressive/anxiety symptoms (Markowitz, 1998). Those who self-label have higher levels of d epression and self-stigma ratings (Moses, 2009). Studies of effects of stereotypes show that when a stereotype threat is activated, people perform worse on tests. This is true for any potentially stigmatized group, such as southerners (Clark et al., 2011), women (Rivardo et al., 2011; McIntyre et al., 2011), and people with mental illnesses (Quinn et al., 2004). However, there are ways to help reduce the effects of stereotype threats. Role models (McI ntyre et al., 2011), for instance, can help improve test performance and combat stigma, al though this effect has not been tested on people with mental illnesses. Therefore, this study was created to see if providing positive role models for people with depr ession have the effect of negating stereotype threat in test taking situations. In order to test this, participants in this study w ere separated into one of four conditions: Role Model/Stereotype Threat condition, No Role Model/Stereotype Threat condition, Role Model/No Stereotype Threat conditio n, or No Role Model/No Stereotype

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22 Threat condition. The participants completed one of eight surveys, depending on condition. This survey included three passages, Bec k’s Depression Inventory (Beck & Lester, 1973) and a Positive and Negative Affect Sc hedule measure (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), a GRE Practice Test (Stewart, 2008 ), and demographic questions. It was hypothesized that by reading a passage pertaining t o a role model for people with depression, participants who were depressed would d o just as well on the GRE portion of the test whether stereotype threat was induced or n ot. This would then provide support for the previously mentioned studies and further be nefit research in how to reduce stereotype threat for people with mental illnesses. Method Participants A total of 42 undergraduate participants from a sm all southwestern Florida liberal arts college participated in this study. One partic ipant’s data were removed from analyses since that participant was not successfully deceive d, resulting in a total of 41 participants: 29 females, 11 males, and one person who identified as androgynous. Participants were recruited through an email to the school’s forum an d student listserv. Measures Beck Depression Inventory The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck & Lester, 1973) is a 21-item self-report measure for depression. For each item, participants were asked to indicate which of four statements bes t described how they had felt in the past two weeks. The measure uses a four-point scal e from zero to three with the lowest possible score being zero and the highest 63. The h igher the number, the more depressed

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23 the individual is. Participants with a score of 17 or higher were considered depressed. See Appendix A for the BDI. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule A shortened version of The Positive and NennrWatson et al., 1988) was used to measure positive and negative affect. This is a 20-item que stionnaire in which participants use a five-point Likert scale to indicate the extent to w hich they felt that each word listed in the measure applied to how they had felt in the past we ek. See Appendix A for the PANAS. GRE Test Participants completed a revised nine question GR E Practice Test on Verbal Reasoning taken from Peterson’s Master the G RE 2009 (Stewart, 2008). See Appendix A for GRE questions. Passages Three passages in foreign languages and their Eng lish translation were used. The first two passages were foils for the key third passage which contained a description of a role model for the appropriate con ditions. The first passage was a French translation (Melville, 2011a) of an excerpt from th e book Moby Dick (Melville, 2011b). The second passage was an excerpt taken from Sherlo ck Holmes (Doyle, 1999), translated into German (Doyle, 2011). These two pas sages were translated by using the Amazon website to find the foreign language version of the book and its English counterpart. The no role model passage was an excer pt taken from the character description of Jay Gatsby from The Great Gatsby on the SparkNotes website (which provides study guides online for several books in m any subjects) (SparkNotes, 2003), and the role model passage was created for the purposes of this study. Both the role model and no role model passages were translated into Spa nish and then back-translated by two native Spanish speakers. The gender pronouns in eac h of the Spanish passages were

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24 changed according to the gender of the person for w hom the survey was intended. A slight change in wording occurred in the no role mo del passage when changing the gender from male to female so that the passage woul d continue to make sense. See Appendices A, B, and C for passages. Procedure Participants were emailed and asked if they would l ike to participate in a psychological thesis study (See Appendix D for full text of recruitment email). If interested, they were asked to choose a time they w ould be available during the scheduled time slots. After providing a time, they were email ed a location depending on the day they choose. Once they arrived individually for the ir appointment, they were first given a consent form to read, stating that they would be do ing an experiment that looked at the relation between mood and linguistic processing. De ception was used since being aware of this study’s focus would likely influence the re sults. After reading the consent form and orally consenting to participate in the study ( see Appendix E for the consent form), participants each received a packet according to th e gender the researcher believed them to be. Condition (Role Model/Stereotype Threat, No Role Model/Stereotype Threat, Role Model/No Stereotype Threat, or No Role Model/No Ste reotype Threat) was pseudorandomly assigned such that there were roughly an e qual number of participants in each condition. Participants in the Role Model/Stereotyp e Threat condition read a passage about a role model for people with depression and r ead a stereotype threat about people with depression before taking a GRE test. Those in the No Role Model/Stereotype Threat condition read a stereotype threat about people wit h depression before taking a GRE test but did not read a passage about a role model befor ehand. Those in the Role Model/No

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25 Stereotype Threat read a passage about a role model for people with depression but did not read a stereotype threat before taking the GRE test. Participants in the No Role Model/No Stereotype Threat simply read a passage no t pertaining to a role model for people with depression and did not read about a ste reotype threat before taking the GRE test. The participants were first presented with 3 passag es in a foreign language (French, German, and then Spanish), each of which h ad an English translation beside it. Participants were instructed to read both translati ons of the passage and that it was acceptable if they did not know the foreign languag e used. The last passage, in Spanish, was the one that contained the description of a rol e model for people with depression for those in the Role Model conditions. The other passa ges were used to make the deception in this study plausible. After each passage, the pa rticipants answered questions based on the passage they read. Questions included “which wo rds from the English passage do you believe correspond to the following words?” along w ith factual questions about the passage in order to ensure the participants read ea ch passage thoroughly. The participants then completed the BDI and the PANAS. This complete d the first part of the study. Afterwards, participants were given the GRE test an d were told that this was a timed test and to read the instructions first and t hen let the experimenter know when they were ready to begin. In the stereotype threat condi tions, the stereotype threat was placed after the instructions to ensure that the participa nts would read it. The participants who were in the Stereotype Threat condition read “It sh ould be noted that people who are depressed tend to do worse on this test” and then w ent on to take the shortened 9 question Verbal Reasoning GRE Practice Test (with 9 minutes maximum time). Those who were

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26 in the No Stereotype Threat conditions just took th e test without reading a stereotype threat beforehand. All participants were given a f our-minute warning before their time was up. After the GRE test, the participants were g iven a sheet of paper with the final questions on it. They first answered demographic qu estions, including gender, age, and ethnicity. The gender the researcher believed the p erson to be was checked with the gender the participant reported to ensure accuracy. Participants then indicated whether they considered themselves to be depressed or not, and answered a few questions gauging whether they suspected they had been deceived durin g the experiment or if they knew what the true purpose of the study was. Participant s were then given a debriefing form (see Appendix E for debriefing form), made aware of the deception, and told the true purpose of this study. Participants were also infor med during the debriefing that the stereotype threat was untrue and were told about th e Counseling and Wellness Center available on campus for people dealing with depress ion or who were in need of counseling in general. They were also asked to refr ain from telling others about the deception used in this study. They were then each g iven a $5 Starbuck’s Giftcard as compensation and thanked for their participation. Results Descriptive Statistics Nine participants scored depressed on the BDI, obt aining a score of 17 or higher, and seven participants revealed that they believed they were depressed. Four people who scored depressed, and of those three who believed t hey were depressed, were in the No Role Model/No Stereotype Threat condition. The Role Model/No Stereotype Threat condition contained a total of two people who score d depressed and believed they were

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27 depressed. There was one person who scored depresse d and believed they were depressed in the No Role Model/Stereotype Threat condition. O ne person believed he/she was depressed and two people scored depressed in the Ro le Model/Stereotype Threat condition. Mean GRE scores in the current sample were 4.44, wi th a range from one to seven. Mean BDI scores in the current sample were 1 1.27, with a range from zero to 37. BDI scores were not significantly different dependi ng on the room in which data were collected, t (38) = .300, p = .766. GRE scores also were not significantly dif ferent depending on the room, t (38) = .352, p = .727. There was a statistically significant difference in GRE scores before and after spring br eak, t (39) = 2.191, p = .034. Mean GRE scores before spring break were 4.69 and mean G RE scores after spring break were 3.56. No statistically significant difference in BD I scores was found before or after spring break, t (39) = -.257, p = .798. Mean BDI scores before spring break were 1 1.06 and after spring break mean BDI scores were 12.00. GRE Scores by Condition and Perceived Depression In order to determine whether GRE scores could be predicted from perceived depression and condition, a 2x2x2 ANOVA was conduct ed. No statistically significant interaction was found between the presence or absen ce of a role model, stereotype threat condition, and perceived depression, F (1, 40) = .067, p = .798, 2 = .002. This argues against the hypothesis that role models will help n egate stereotype threat for people who believe they are depressed in a test-taking situati on. There was a marginally significant main effect on GRE scores of whether or not people thought they were depressed, F (1, 40) = 3.591, p = .067, 2 = .098. People who thought they were depressed sco red a mean

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28 of 5.583 and those who did not think they were depr essed scored a mean of 4.450 on the GRE test. There was also a statistically significan t two-way interaction between stereotype threat and self-perceptions of being dep ressed, F (1, 40) = 9.268, p = .005, 2 = .219. Under conditions of stereotype threat, people who thought they were depressed did better on the GRE test than those who did not think they were depressed. Those who thought they were depressed scored a mean of 7.000 and those who did not consider themselves depressed scored a mean of 4.045 on the GRE test. In the no stereotype threat conditions, those who thought they were depressed h ad a mean score of 4.167 and those who did not think they were depressed had a mean sc ore of 4.854 on the GRE test. Under the conditions of no stereotype threat, people who thought of themselves as depressed did worse on the GRE test than those who did not see th emselves as depressed (see Figure 1). GRE Scores by Condition and Actual Depression In order to determine whether GRE scores could be predicted from actual depression and condition, a 2x2x2 ANOVA was conduct ed. No statistically significant interaction was found between the presence or absen ce of a role model, stereotype threat condition, and scoring depressed on the BDI, F (1, 40) = .911, p = .347, 2 = .027. This argues against the hypothesis that role models will help negate stereotype threat for people who score depressed on the BDI in a test tak ing situation. There was a marginally significant two-way interaction between stereotype threat and depression scores on the BDI, F (1, 40) = 3.943, p = .055, 2 = .107. Under conditions of stereotype threat, peo ple who were depressed according to BDI scores did bett er on the GRE test. Those who were depressed scored a mean of 6.000 and those who were not depressed scored a mean of 4.108 on the GRE test. In the no stereotype conditi ons, people who were depressed

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29 scored a mean of 4.375 and those who were not depre ssed scored a mean of 4.810. With no stereotype threat, people who were depressed did worse on the GRE test (see Figure 2). Interaction between Stereotype Threat and Role Mode ls In order to determine whether GRE scores could be p redicted from stereotype threat and role models, a 2x2x2 ANOVA was conducted There was also a marginally significant two-way interaction found between stere otype threat and the presence of a role model, F (1, 40) = 3.310, p = .078, 2 = .091. In the role model conditions, those who read the stereotype threat scored a mean of 4.563 a nd those who were not in the stereotype threat condition scored a mean of 5.167 on the GRE test. Reading about the role model for people with depression increased GRE scores when there was no stereotype threat. Under the no role model conditio ns, those in the stereotype threat condition scored a mean of 5.545 and those in the n o stereotype threat condition scored a mean of 4.018 on the GRE test. With no role model, those who read the stereotype threat did better on the GRE test than those who did not ( see Figure 3). Discussion The current study did not attain the results that were hypothesized. In fact, the results displayed the opposite of what was predicte d. It was hypothesized that when a stereotype threat was present, role models would he lp negate its effect and people who were depressed would do better on the GRE test. Ins tead, there was no significant interaction found between depression, role models, and stereotype threat. What was found instead was that people who either perceived themselves as depressed or scored depressed on the BDI actually did better on the tes t when they were presented with the

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30 stereotype threat. Also, when participants were in the no role model condition they did better on the test when they were presented with th e stereotype threat, and when they read about a role model, they did better when they did n ot read the stereotype threat. Previous studies had shown that stereotype threat should have negatively affected test performance. This was demonstrated in several groups including southerners (Clark et al., 2011), women (Rivardo et al., 2011; McIntyr e et al., 2011), and people with mental illnesses, including people suffering specifically from depression (Quinn et al., 2004). Yet this did not occur in the present study. This c ould be due to the specific characteristics of the population from which the sa mple was drawn. These students are typically considered more determined than the gener al population and this could have affected the results. By reading the stereotype, th e people who scored depressed or considered themselves depressed may have simply tri ed harder in order to prove the stereotype wrong. It has also been commented that t his school may be more accepting of people with mental illnesses than the average popul ation. This in turn may have allowed the depressed students here to realize that their d epression does not define them as a person, which could have negated the effects of the stereotype threat on its own. The data also indicated that role models in this s tudy did the opposite of what they were expected to do; that is, help negate stereotyp e threat. A study conducted by McIntyre et al. (2011) showed that this is what sho uld have happened. Those in the no role model conditions should have done worse when p resented with a stereotype threat. Instead, the results from this study found that tho se in the no role model conditions actually did better when they were presented with t he stereotype threat. Participants also did better on the test when they were in the role m odel condition with no stereotype

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31 threat. This may have occurred because the descript ion of the role model could have removed the pressure from the stereotype threat. Th erefore, after reading about the role model, the participants may not have felt the need to combat the stereotype threat now that they knew that the stereotype did not matter a s much. Because the role model was able to achieve so much, the stereotype must either not be true or not be very problematic, so participants may not have tried as hard on the test in comparison to if they had not read about the role model. These results should be reviewed with caution give n the small number of depressed/perceived depressed people in each condit ion. The number of people scoring depressed and perceiving that they were depressed w as low in the current sample. Because there were four conditions, the total numbe r of participants in each condition was lacking. This could have influenced the results considering that it may simply be a coincidence that the two people who were depressed/ considered themselves depressed in the Role Model/No Stereotype Threat condition score d a five on the GRE test. Also, there was only one person who was depressed/considered th emselves depressed in the No Role Model/Stereotype Threat condition and he/she got a seven on the GRE test. These facts may have skewed the results, explaining why it was found that those with a stereotype threat did better than those with no stereotype thr eat. This should be taken into consideration when analyzing the results found in t his study. Implications Someone may take these results to mean that tellin g someone who is depressed that they will do poorly on a test will actually re sult in them doing well. This, however, is not a recommended course of action. First, this typ e of response is considered unethical

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32 and can do more damage than good in the long run. S econdly, the sample used in this study was not representative of the general populat ion. The students who partook in this study are believed to be more determined than the a verage population, possibly skewing the results found. So what may have worked for this study may not achieve the same results when applied to a more representative sampl e. Future Directions In the future, it is recommended that participants be taken from a more general population and not just at one school. Also, a larg er sample size would be beneficial, especially in terms of the amount of depressed peop le recruited. This study had only a small handful of people who considered themselves d epressed or scored depressed on the BDI and this could have affected the results. Ratin g the role model passage in terms of how much people who are depressed consider it to be a good role model description may be beneficial as well. Perhaps the participants in this study did not look up to the person described and did not see them as a role model, whi ch therefore affected the results. Getting people’s impressions about mental illness m ay also help in future studies so that it can be assessed how much the participant would a dhere to the stereotype threat. It may be possible that those with more positive views on mental illness may not be affected by the stereotype threat. Conclusions It was predicted that role models would help dimin ish the negative effects of stereotype threat and allow people who were depress ed to do well on a GRE test. Instead, it was found that stereotype threat helped increase GRE test scores in people who were depressed. In fact, people did better on the test w hen there was no role model to counter

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33 the effects of stereotype threat. It is believed th at this may be due to problems in representative sampling. Future research can help c larify how stereotype threat affects people with depression and if role models can help.

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34 References Aromaa, E., Tolvanen, A., Tuulari, J., & Wahlbeck, K. (2011). Predictors of stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders in a general population in Finland. Nordic Journal Of Psychiatry 65 (2), 125-132. doi:10.3109/08039488.2010.510206 Beck, A. T., & Lester, D. (1973). Components of dep ression in attempted suicides. Journal Of Psychology: Interdisciplinary And Applie d 85 (2), 257-260. Clark, J. K., Eno, C. A., & Guadagno, R. E. (2011). Southern discomfort: The effects of stereotype threat on the intellectual performance o f US southerners. Self And Identity 10 (2), 248-262. doi:10.1080/15298861003771080 Dinos, S., Stevens, S., Serfaty, M., Weich, S., & K ing, M. (2004). Stigma: The feelings and experiences of 46 people with mental illness: Q ualitative study. British Journal Of Psychiatry 184 (2), 176-181. doi:10.1192/bjp.184.2.176 Doyle, A. C. (1999). The Adventures of Sherlock Hol mes [Kindle Edition]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/The-Adventures-SherlockHolmesebook/dp/B000JQU1VS/ref=sr_1_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1335905266&sr=1-1#reader_B000JQU1V S Doyle, A. C. (2011). Die Abenteuer von Sherlock Hol mes (German Edition) [Kindle Edition]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Aben teuer-Sherlock-HolmesEdition-ebook/dp/B005OD6DPE/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid= 1335905223&sr= 1-1#reader_B005OD6DPE

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35 Katz, J., Joiner, T. r., & Kwon, P. (2002). Members hip in a devalued social group and emotional well-being: Developing a model of persona l self-esteem, collective self-esteem, and group socialization. Sex Roles 47 (9-10), 419-431. doi:10.1023/A:1021644225878 Kranke, D., Floersch, J., Townsend, L., & Munson, M (2010). Stigma experience among adolescents taking psychiatric medication. Children And Youth Services Review 32 (4), 496-505. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.11.002 Link, B. G., Phelan, J. C., Bresnahan, M., Stueve, A., & Pescosolido, B. A. (1999). Public conceptions of mental illness: Labels, cause s, dangerousness, and social distance. American Journal Of Public Health 89 (9), 1328-1333. doi:10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1328 Markowitz, F. E. (1998). The effects of stigma on t he psychological well-being and life satisfaction of persons with mental illness. Journal Of Health And Social Behavior 39 (4), 335-347. doi:10.2307/2676342 Mclntyre, R. B., Paulson, R. M., Taylor, C. A., Mor in, A. L., & Lord, C. G. (2011). Effects of role model deservingness on overcoming p erformance deficits induced by stereotype threat. European Journal Of Social Psychology 41 (3), 301-311. doi:10.1002/ejsp.774 Melville, H. (2011a). Moby Dick (French Edition) [K indle Edition]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Moby-Dick-French-Edition-ebook/dp/B005Q47VPC/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid= 1335904790&sr=1 -1#reader_B005Q47VPC

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36 Melville, H. (2011b). Moby Dick: or, the White Whal e [Kindle Edition]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Moby-Dick-White-Whale-ebook/dp/B004TRXX7C/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=13359048 66&sr=81#reader_B004TRXX7C Monteith, L. L., & Pettit, J. W. (2011). Implicit a nd explicit stigmatizing attitudes and stereotypes about depression. Journal Of Social And Clinical Psychology 30 (5), 484-505. doi:10.1521/jscp.2011.30.5.484 Moses, T. (2009). Self-labeling and its effects amo ng adolescents diagnosed with mental disorders. Social Science & Medicine 68 (3), 570-578. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.11.003 Quinn, D. M., Kahng, S., & Crocker, J. (2004). Disc reditable: Stigma effects of revealing a mental illness history on test performance. Personality And Social Psychology Bulletin 30 (7), 803-815. doi:10.1177/0146167204264088 Rivardo, M. G., Rhodes, M. E., Camaione, T. C., & L egg, J. M. (2011). Stereotype threat leads to reduction in number of math problems in wo men attempt. North American Journal Of Psychology 13 (1), 5-16. Socall, D. W., & Holtgraves, T. (1992). Attitudes t oward the mentally ill: The effects of label and beliefs. The Sociological Quarterly 33 (3), 435-445. doi:10.1111/j.15338525.1992.tb00383.x SparkNotes (2003). The Great Gatsby (SparkNotes Lit erature Guide Series). Spark Publishing.

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37 Stewart, M. A. (2008). Peterson’s Master the GRE 20 09. Lawrenceville, NJ: Peterson’s, a Nelnet company. van 't Veer, J. B., Kraan, H. F., Drosseart, S. C., & Modde, J. M. (2006). Determinants that shape public attitudes towards the mentally il l: A Dutch public study. Social Psychiatry And Psychiatric Epidemiology 41 (4), 310-317. doi:10.1007/s00127005-0015-1 Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). De velopment and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology 54 (6), 1063-1070. doi:10.1037/00223514.54.6.1063

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38 Figure 1. GRE Scores by Condition and Perceived Depression. 7 4.045 4.167 4.854 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Perceived DepressedPerceived Not-DepressedGRE Scores Stereotype Threat No Stereotype Threat

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39 Figure 2. GRE Scores by Condition and Actual Depression. 6 4.108 4.375 4.81 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DepressedNot DepressedGRE Scores Stereotype Threat No Stereotype Threat

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40 Figure 3. Interaction between Stereotype Threat and Role Mode ls. 4.563 5.545 5.167 4.018 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Role ModelNo Role ModelGRE Scores Stereotype Threat No Stereotype Threat

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44 Appendix A Survey intended for male participants for those in the Role Model/Stereotype Threat condition. Read the following passages. You do not need to kno w French in order to answer the questions about the passages. French English Voyez votre cit sure l’le de Manhattan, ceinture de quais comme les rcifs de corail entourent les les des mers du sud, et que le commerce bat de toutes parts de son ressac. droite et gauche ses rues mnent la mer. La Batterie forme l’extrme pointe de la ville basse, dont le noble mle est balay par les vagues et les vents frais encore loigns de la terre quelques heures auparavant. Voyez, se runir l, la foule des badauds de la mer There now is your insular city of the Manhattoes, belted round by wharves as Indian isles by coral reefs—commerce surrounds it with her surf. Right and left, the streets take you waterward. Its extreme downtown is the battery, where that noble mole is washed by waves, and cooled by breezes, which a few hours previous were out of sight of land. Look at the crowds of water-gazers there. Please answer the following questions. Again, you d o not need to know French to answer. Which words from the English passage do you believe correspond to the following words? Please answer to the best of your ability. 1. Manhattan ____________________ 2. Rcifs de corail ____________________ 3. Batterie ____________________ Please answer the following questions about the pas sages. 1. What city does the passage describe? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 2. Does this city sound like it is land-locked or clos e to the ocean? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 3. What are you told to look at by the end of the pass age? ___________________________________________________ _____________________

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45 Read the following passages. You do not need to kno w German in order to answer the questions about the passages. German English Sein Benehmen war nicht berschwenglich. Das gab es bei ihm selten; aber ich glaube, er war froh, mich zu sehen. Er sprach kaum ein Wort, wies mir aber mit freundlichem Blick einen Sessel, warf mir seine Zigarrenkiste zu und deutete auf seinen Alkoholvorrat und einen Syphon in der Ecke. Er stand vorm Feuer und musterte mich in seiner prfenden Art. His manner was not effusive. It seldom was; but he was glad, I think, to see me. With hardly a word spoken, but with a kindly eye, he waved me to an armchair, threw across his case of cigars, and indicated a spirit case and a gasogene in the corner. Then he stood before the fire and looked me over in his singular introspective fashion. Please answer the following questions. Again, you d o not need to know German to answer. Which words from the English passage do you believe correspond to the following words? Please answer to the best of your ability. 4. Wort ____________________ 5. Sessel ____________________ 6. Feuer ____________________ Please answer the following questions about the pas sages. 4. Where was the narrator asked to sit? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 5. What was given to the narrator in this passage? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 6. What did the man the narrator visited do at the end of the passage? ___________________________________________________ _____________________

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46 Read the following passages. You do not need to kno w Spanish in order to answer the questions about the passages. Spanish English A los diecisis aos fue diagnosticado con depresin. Durante la mayor parte de sus estudios de secundaria batall con la depresin que lo agobiaba, pero eventualmente encontr satisfaccin trabajando con animales. Durante el tiempo que cursaba estudios universitarios, aprendi a trabajar y cuidar animales a travs de trabajo voluntario en la comunidad. Usando sus experiencias en el cuidado de animales y sus batallas por la depresin, comenz una empresa que colocaba animales rescatados con personas sufriendo de depresin. Hoy da su organizacin sin fines de lucro ha crecido hasta ser una entidad nacional de la cual l es el jefe ejecutivo. At the age of sixteen, he was diagnosed with depression. He struggled throughout most of his high school career with his depression, but eventually found his niche in working with animals. Throughout his college career he developed skills in caring for animals by volunteering in the community. He used his experience with caring for animals and his battle with depression to start an organization that places rescued animals with people fighting depression. His organization has now grown into a national nonprofit organization that he heads as the Chief Executive Officer. Please answer the following questions. Again, you d o not need to know Spanish to answer. Which words from the English passage do you believe correspond to the following words? Please answer to the best of your ability. 7. Diecisis ____________________ 8. Depresin ____________________ 9. Organizacin ____________________ Please answer the following questions about the pas sages. 7. What was he diagnosed with while in high school? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 8. What does his organization specialize in? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 9. What is his job by the end? ___________________________________________________ _____________________

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47 Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). Please read carefully the following 21 groups of st atements and circle the one statement in each group that best describes the way that you hav e been feeling during the past two weeks, including today. If several statements in the group seem to apply eq ually well, choose the highest number for that group. 1. 0 I do not feel sad. 1 I feel sad. 2 I am sad all the time and I can't snap out of i t. 3 I am so sad and unhappy that I can't stand it. 2. 0 I am not particularly discouraged about the future. 1 I feel discouraged about the future. 2 I feel I have nothing to look forward to. 3 I feel the future is hopeless and that things c annot improve. 3. 0 I do not feel like a failure. 1 I feel I have failed more than the average pers on. 2 As I look back on my life, all I can see is a l ot of failures. 3 I feel I am a complete failure as a person. 4. 0 I get as much satisfaction out of things as I used to. 1 I don't enjoy things the way I used to. 2 I don't get real satisfaction out of anything a nymore. 3 I am dissatisfied or bored with everything. 5. 0 I don't feel particularly guilty. 1 I feel guilty a good part of the time. 2 I feel quite guilty most of the time. 3 I feel guilty all of the time. 6. 0 I don't feel I am being punished. 1 I feel I may be punished. 2 I expect to be punished. 3 I feel I am being punished. 7. 0 I don't feel disappointed in myself. 1 I am disappointed in myself. 2 I am disgusted with myself. 3 I hate myself.

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48 8. 0 I don't feel I am any worse than anybody el se. 1 I am critical of myself for my weaknesses or mi stakes. 2 I blame myself all the time for my faults. 3 I blame myself for everything bad that happens. 9. 0 I don't have any thoughts of killing myself 1 I have thoughts of killing myself, but I would not carry them out. 2 I would like to kill myself. 3 I would kill myself if I had the chance. 10. 0 I don't cry any more than usual. 1 I cry more now than I used to. 2 I cry all the time now. 3 I used to be able to cry, but now I can't cry e ven though I want to. 11. 0 I am no more irritated by things than I ev er was. 1 I am slightly more irritated now than usual. 2 I am quite annoyed or irritated a good deal of the time. 3 I feel irritated all the time. 12. 0 I have not lost interest in other people. 1 I am less interested in other people than I use d to be. 2 I have lost most of my interest in other people 3 I have lost all of my interest in other people. 13. 0 I make decisions about as well as I ever c ould. 1 I put off making decisions more than I used to. 2 I have greater difficulty in making decisions m ore than I used to. 3 I can't make decisions at all anymore. 14. 0 I don't feel that I look any worse than I used to. 1 I am worried that I am looking old or unattract ive. 2 I feel there are permanent changes in my appear ance that make me look unattractive. 3 I believe that I look ugly. 15. 0 I can work about as well as before. 1 It takes an extra effort to get started at doin g something. 2 I have to push myself very hard to do anything. 3 I can't do any work at all.

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49 16. 0 I can sleep as well as usual. 1 I don't sleep as well as I used to. 2 I wake up 1-2 hours earlier than usual and find it hard to get back to sleep. 3 I wake up several hours earlier than I used to and cannot get back to sleep. 17. 0 I don't get more tired than usual. 1 I get tired more easily than I used to. 2 I get tired from doing almost anything. 3 I am too tired to do anything. 18. 0 My appetite is no worse than usual. 1 My appetite is not as good as it used to be. 2 My appetite is much worse now. 3 I have no appetite at all anymore. 19. 0 I haven't lost much weight, if any, lately 1 I have lost more than five pounds. 2 I have lost more than ten pounds. 3 I have lost more than fifteen pounds. 20. 0 I am no more worried about my health than usual. 1 I am worried about physical problems like aches pains, upset stomach, or constipation. 2 I am very worried about physical problems and i t's hard to think of much else. 3 I am so worried about my physical problems that I cannot think of anything else. 21. 0 I have not noticed any recent change in my interest in sex. 1 I am less interested in sex than I used to be. 2 I have almost no interest in sex. 3 I have lost interest in sex completely.

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50 Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). This scale consists of a number of words that descr ibe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and then list the number f rom the scale below next to each word. Indicate to what extent you have felt this way over the past week. 1 Very Slightly or Not at All 2 A Little 3 Moderately 4 Quite a Bit 5 Extremely _________ 1. Interested _________ 11. Irritable _________ 2. Distressed _________ 12. Alert _________ 3. Excited _________ 13. Ashamed _________ 4. Upset _________ 14. Inspired _________ 5. Strong _________ 15. Nervous _________ 6. Guilty _________ 16. Determined _________ 7. Scared _________ 17. Attentive _________ 8. Hostile _________ 18. Jittery _________ 9. Enthusiastic _________ 19. Active _________ 10. Proud _________ 20. Afraid

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51 Please answer the following questions. You will hav e 9 minutes to answer the following 9 questions. I will give you a warning wh en you have 4 minutes left and let you know when to stop if you start to go over. It should be noted that people who are depressed tend to do worse on this test.

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52 Verbal Reasoning GRE Practice Test (9 Questions, 9 minutes) 1. Although many of the company’s board members were ______ about the impending deal, others were _______ the benefits it would bri ng to the company. a. euphoric…confident of b. chagrined…unsure about c. pleased…disturbed by d. angry…skeptical of e. optimistic…dubious about 2. BOAT : WAKE :: a. actor : performance b. scalpel : scar c. drill : hole d. gardener : cuttings e. airplane : tarmac 3. MULCHED : BURGEON :: a. stoked : smolder b. edited : compose c. calibrated : operate d. elevated : hover e. honed : hew 4. JOCULAR : SOLEMNITY :: a. razed : demolition b. pompous : spectacle c. latent : visibility d. vindictive : enmity e. lonely : insularity 5. DUPLICITY: a. honesty b. openness c. simplicity d. decency e. innocence 6. In classical literature, love was depicted not as a n ennobling passion but as an unfortunate _______ that disabled judgment, almost a kind of __ _____. a. malady…insanity b. condition…virtue c. emotion…crime d. sickness…retribution e. occurrence…insecurity

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53 Directions: Questions 7-9 are based on the followin g passage.

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54 7. The author mentions “ the current transition to a s ervice-based economy and deregulation in transportation” (lines 20-22) most likely to a. suggest that manufacturing jobs are disappearing b. underscore the isolation of people in rural communi ties c. emphasize the lack of job skills among rural reside nts d. contrast the old economy with the new economy e. provide support for a more flexible poverty standar d 8. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be the au thor’s vocation, based solely on the information in the passage? a. Public health official b. Social activist c. Economist d. Demographer e. Public policy analyst 9. The author seeks to draw which of the following dis tinctions between urban ghettos and impoverished rural communities? a. Job training programs are more accessible in urban ghettos than in rural communities. b. Funding agencies are more likely to recognize pover ty in an urban ghetto than in a rural community. c. Poverty is more common in rural communities than in urban ghettos. d. Impoverished individuals feel more isolated in urba n ghettos than in rural communities. e. Residents of urban ghettos typically have better jo bs than residents of rural communities.

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55 Please answer the following questions. 1. Age _________ 2. Gender ____________________ 3. Ethnicity/Race ______________________ 4. Do you consider yourself depressed? (Circle one) a. Yes b. No 5. Did you think I was disguising the true purpose of this study? (Circle one) a. Yes b. No If so, what did you think the true purpose of this study was? ___________________________________________________ _________

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53 Appendix B Spanish passages and questions for all other condit ions (they are the only ones that changed). Role Model passage intended for a female participan t. Read the following passages. You do not need to kno w Spanish in order to answer the questions about the passages. Spanish English A los diecisis aos fue diagnosticada con depresin. Durante la mayor parte de sus estudios de secundaria batall con la depresin que la agobiaba, pero eventualmente encontr satisfaccin trabajando con animales. Durante el tiempo que cursaba estudios universitarios, aprendi a trabajar y cuidar animales a travs de trabajo voluntario en la comunidad. Usando sus experiencias en el cuidado de animales y sus batallas por la depresin, comenz una empresa que colocaba animales rescatados con personas sufriendo de depresin. Hoy da su organizacin sin fines de lucro ha crecido hasta ser una entidad nacional de la cual ella es la jefa ejecutiva. At the age of sixteen, she was diagnosed with depression. She struggled throughout most of her high school career with her depression, but eventually found her niche in working with animals. Throughout her college career she developed skills in caring for animals by volunteering in the community. She used her experience with caring for animals and her battle with depression to start a start an organization that places rescued animals with people fighting depression. Her organization has now grown into a national nonprofit organization that she heads as the Chief Executive Officer. Please answer the following questions. Again, you d o not need to know Spanish to answer. Which words from the English passage do you believe correspond to the following words? Please answer to the best of your ability. 1. Diecisis ____________________ 2. Depresin ____________________ 3. Organizacin ____________________ Please answer the following questions about the pas sages. 1. What was she diagnosed with while in high school? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 2. What does her organization specialize in? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 3. What is her job by the end? ___________________________________________________ _____________________

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54 No Role Model passage intended for a female partici pant. Read the following passages. You do not need to kno w Spanish in order to answer the questions about the passages. Spanish English Era una joven mujer, de unos treinta aos, su niez la pas en extrema pobreza en un rea rural de Dakota del Norte. A pasar de eso, haba logrado alcanzar inmensa riqueza. La rodeaba un lujo espectacular y la buscaban personas poderosas y hombres atractivos. Sin embargo, haba alcanzado su actual posicin participando en crimen organizado, incluyendo distribuyendo bebidas alcohlicas ilegales y haciendo negocios con acciones de bolsa robadas. Desde muy joven senta desprecio por la pobreza y anhelaba riqueza y sofisticacin. Despus de slo dos semanas en la universidad, dej los estudios porque no resista el trabajo de limpieza con que pagaba la matrcula. She was a young woman, around thirty years old, who rose from an impoverished childhood in rural North Dakota to become fabulously wealthy. She appears surrounded by spectacular luxury, courted by powerful people and attractive men. However, she achieved this lofty goal by participating in organized crime, including distributing illegal alcohol and trading in stolen securities. From her early youth, she despised poverty and longed for wealth and sophistication, dropping out of college after only two weeks because she could not bear the janitorial job with which she was paying her tuition. Please answer the following questions. Again, you d o not need to know Spanish to answer. Which words from the English passage do you believe correspond to the following words? Please answer to the best of your ability. 4. Dakota del Norte ____________________ 5. Treinta ____________________ 6. Alcohlicas ____________________ Please answer the following questions about the pas sages. 4. How old is she? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 5. Why did she drop out of college? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 6. How did she become wealthy? ___________________________________________________ _____________________

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55 No Role Model passage intended for a male participa nt. Read the following passages. You do not need to kno w Spanish in order to answer the questions about the passages. Spanish English Era un hombre joven, de unos treinta aos, su niez la pas en extrema pobreza en un rea rural de Dakota del Norte. A pasar de eso, haba logrado alcanzar inmensa riqueza. Lo rodeaba un lujo espectacular y lo buscaban hombres poderosos y mujeres bellas. Sin embargo, haba alcanzado su actual posicin participando en crimen organizado, incluyendo distribuyendo bebidas alcohlicas ilegales y haciendo negocios con acciones de bolsa robadas. Desde muy joven senta desprecio por la pobreza y anhelaba riqueza y sofisticacin. Despus de slo dos semanas en la universidad, dej los estudios porque no resista el trabajo de limpieza con que pagaba la matrcula. He was a young man, around thirty years old, who rose from an impoverished childhood in rural North Dakota to become fabulously wealthy. He appears surrounded by spectacular luxury, courted by powerful men and beautiful women. However, he achieved this lofty goal by participating in organized crime, including distributing illegal alcohol and trading in stolen securities. From his early youth, he despised poverty and longed for wealth and sophistication, dropping out of college after only two weeks because he could not bear the janitorial job with which he was paying his tuition. Please answer the following questions. Again, you d o not need to know Spanish to answer. Which words from the English passage do you believe correspond to the following words? Please answer to the best of your ability. 7. Dakota del Norte ____________________ 8. Treinta ____________________ 9. Alcohlicas ____________________ Please answer the following questions about the pas sages. 7. How old is he? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 8. Why did he drop out of college? ___________________________________________________ _____________________ 9. How did he become wealthy? ___________________________________________________ _____________________

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56 Appendix C Back-translations for the Spanish passages. Back-translation for the male No Role Model passage There was a young man, about thirty years old, who spent his childhood in extreme poverty in a rural North Dakota area. Despite these circumstance s he was able to achieve great wealth, surrounded by great luxury, sought out by powerful men and beautiful women. But he had achieved his wealth through organized crime, distri buting illegal alcoholic beverages and doing business through stolen shares of stock. From the s tart, he despised poverty and wished for wealth and sophistication. After only attending tw o weeks of university studies he gave up because he could not stand working as a janitor to pay for school costs. Back-translation for the male Role Model passage. At the age of sixteen he was diagnosed with depress ion. During high school years he battled against depression but eventually found satisfactio n working with animals. During his university years, he learned to work and take care of animals through voluntary community service. Using his experiences in the care of animals, and his bat tle with depression, he started a new company that placed rescued animals with families suffering from depression. Today his non-profit organization has grown to become a national entity, of which he is the chief executive officer.

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57 Appendix D Recruitment Email. Hello everyone! I am conducting a study looking at how mood affects linguistic processing for my thesis and am looking for participants. This is a survey based st udy and should take no more than 15-20 minutes of your time and your answers will remain c ompletely anonymous. By participating in my study, you will receive a $5 Starbucks Giftcard. Just let me know when you are available during the following time slots: Tuesdays 3-7pm Fridays 3-7pm Saturdays 1-4pm Sundays 1-4pm Thank you, Katya Ariano

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58 Appendix E New College of Florida Informed Consent For persons 18 years of age or older who take part in a research study The following information is being presented to hel p you decide whether or not you want to take part in research study. Please read this carefully If you do not understand anything, ask the person in charge of the study. Title of research study: Linguistic Processing and How Mood Can Affect It Person in charge of study: Katya Ariano The purpose of this research study is to examine ho w mood affects linguistic processing. Description You are invited to participate in a research study on the effects of mood on linguistic processing. You will be asked to read a few passage s and answer some questions on them, fill out a couple of mood measurements, and take a short 9-question Verbal Reasoning GRE Practice Test. Your participation will take approximately 15-20 mi nutes. Benefits of Being a Part of this Research Study You will be contributing to research in theoretical psychology. Risks of Being a Part of this Research Study This study is surveying mood, which may cause some level of emotional discomfort. Payment for Participation You will receive a $5 Starbucks Giftcard. Confidentiality of Your Records Your privacy is important. However, the results of this study may be published. Your individual privacy will be maintained in all published and wri tten data resulting from the study. Only authorized research personnel, employees of the Dep artment of Health and Human Services and the NCF Institutional Review Board may inspect the data from this research project. The data obtained from you will be combined with da ta from others in the publication. The published results will not include your name or any other information that would personally identify you in any way. Your survey will be assign ed a number and no one will know which number was assigned to you in order to guarantee an onymity. All data will be kept in a password protected computer. Volunteering to Be Part of this Research Study If you have read this form and have decided to part icipate in this project, please understand your participation is voluntary and you have the ri ght to withdraw your consent or discontinue participation at any time without penalty or loss o f benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. You have the right to refuse to answer particular q uestions.

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59 Questions and Contacts If you have any questions about this research stud y, contact Katya Ariano at katya.ariano@ncf.edu If you have questions about your rights as a perso n who is taking part in a research study, you may contact the Human Protections Administrator of New College of Florida at (941) 487-4649 or by email at irb@ncf.edu Consent to Take Part in This Research Study By consenting I agree that: I have fully read or have had read and explained t o me this informed consent form describing this research project. I have had the opportunity to question one of the persons in charge of this research and have received satisfactory answers. I understand that I am being asked to participate in research. I understand the risks and benefits, and I freely give my consent to participa te in the research project outlined in this form, under the conditions indicated in it. I have been given a copy of this informed consent form, which is mine to keep.

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60 New College of Florida Debriefing Form For persons 18 years of age or older who take part in a research study Title of research study: Stigma Against Depression, Its Effect On Test Per formance, And Role Models’ Influence On This Effect Person in charge of study: Katya Ariano The purpose of this research study is to determine if a role model can negate stereotype threat for people with depression. Description In order to test the effects of stereotype threat, deception was used in this study. This research study was really looking at the effects of stereotype thr eat against people with depression in test taking situations and if role models are able to negate the effects of stereotype threat, not the effects of mood on linguistic processing. Benefits of Being a Part of this Research Study You will have contributed to research in theoretica l psychology. Risks of Being a Part of this Research Study This study surveyed mood and depression, which may have caused some level of emotional discomfort. Payment for Participation You will receive a $5 Starbucks Giftcard. Confidentiality of Your Records Your privacy is important. However, the results of this study may be published. Your individual privacy will be maintained in all published and wri tten data resulting from the study. Only authorized research personnel, employees of the Dep artment of Health and Human Services and the NCF Institutional Review Board may inspect the data from this research project. The data obtained from you will be combined with da ta from others in the publication. The published results will not include your name or any other information that would personally identify you in any way. Your survey will be assign ed a number and no one will know which number was assigned to you in order to guarantee an onymity. All data will be kept in a password protected computer. Questions and Contacts If you have any questions about this research stud y, contact Katya Ariano at katya.ariano@ncf.edu If you have questions about your rights as a perso n who is taking part in a research study, you may contact the Human Protections Administrator of New College of Florida at (941) 487-4649 or by email at irb@ncf.edu

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61 If you answered yes to feeling depressed and feel y ou may be suffering from depression or would just like to talk to a counselor, please visi t our on campus Counseling and Wellness Center (information provided below). Counseling & Wellness Center 5805 Bay Shore Road New College of Florida CWC 120 Sarasota, FL 34243 Phone: (941) 487-4254 Fax (941) 487-4256 There are also national hotlines you can call if yo u feel you that are suffering from depression or may be suicidal. 1-800-SUICIDE (1-800-784-2433) 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255)


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