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Parallelpiped

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004470/00001

Material Information

Title: Parallelpiped Sounds Serious
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Wheat, Thomas
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Sonic
Sound
Sculpture
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: There is no denying we live in a visually dominant culture; and for most of us we see no reason it shouldn't be so. What can be gained, beyond mere enrichment of our visual world, from our window into the sonic? Sound offers a different experience generating a point of perspective that implicitly questions assumptions of a world modeled by visual perception. Furthermore, by examining both experiences for their points of contrast, a dialog can be struck fostering a critical awareness of perceptual limitations inherent in each. PARALLELEPIPED: SOUNDS SERIOUS presents an encounter inviting each participant a window through which to investigate ones own experience and understand each mode of perception and the conversation evident, but often ignored. The sonic installation consists of ten sculptures all which take the form of large white boxes. Each box contains within it the staging for unique sonic events activated and manipulated by investigating participants.
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas Wheat
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Herzog, Richard

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 W55
System ID: NCFE004470:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004470/00001

Material Information

Title: Parallelpiped Sounds Serious
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Wheat, Thomas
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Sonic
Sound
Sculpture
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: There is no denying we live in a visually dominant culture; and for most of us we see no reason it shouldn't be so. What can be gained, beyond mere enrichment of our visual world, from our window into the sonic? Sound offers a different experience generating a point of perspective that implicitly questions assumptions of a world modeled by visual perception. Furthermore, by examining both experiences for their points of contrast, a dialog can be struck fostering a critical awareness of perceptual limitations inherent in each. PARALLELEPIPED: SOUNDS SERIOUS presents an encounter inviting each participant a window through which to investigate ones own experience and understand each mode of perception and the conversation evident, but often ignored. The sonic installation consists of ten sculptures all which take the form of large white boxes. Each box contains within it the staging for unique sonic events activated and manipulated by investigating participants.
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas Wheat
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Herzog, Richard

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 W55
System ID: NCFE004470:00001


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1 P A R A L L E L E P I P E D : S O U N D S S E R I O U S B Y T H O M A S W H E A T A T he s i s S u b m i t t e d t o t he D i v i s i o n of H u m a n i t i e s N e w C o l l e g e of F l or i d a i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of t h e r e qu i r e m e n t s f or t he d e g r e e B a c h e l o r of A r t s U n de r t he s p o n s o r s h i p o f R i c k H e r z o g S a r a s o t a F l or i d a D e c e m b e r 2010

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2 P A R A L L E L E P I P E D : S O U N D S S E R I O U S T h om a s W h e a t N e w C o l l e g e of F l or i d a 2010 A b s t r a c t T he r e i s no de n yi n g w e l i v e i n a v i s ua l l y do m i n a n t c u l t ur e ; a nd f or m o s t o f u s w e s e e no r e a s on i t s hou l dn t b e s o. W h a t c a n b e g a i n e d, b e y o nd m e r e e nr i c h m e n t o f our v i s u a l w o r l d, f r o m our w i ndo w i n t o t he s on i c ? S o und o f f e r s a d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e g e n e r a t i n g a p oi n t o f p e r s p e c t i v e t ha t i m pl i c i t l y qu e s t i on s a s s u m p t i on s of a w o r l d m o d e l e d b y v i s ua l p e r c e p t i on. F ur t he r m or e b y e x a m i n i n g b o t h e x pe r i e n c e s f or t he i r p oi n t s o f c on t r a s t a d i a l o g c a n b e s t r uc k f o s t e r i n g a c r i t i c a l a w a r e n e s s of p e r c e p t ua l l i m i t a t i on s i nh e r e n t i n e a c h. P A R A L L E L E P I P E D : S O U N D S S E R I O U S p r e s e n t s a n e n c oun t e r i nv i t i n g e a c h p a r t i c i pa n t a w i ndo w t h r o u g h w h i c h t o i nv e s t i g a t e on e s o w n e x pe r i e n c e a nd und e r s t a n d e a c h m od e of p e r c e p t i o n a nd t he c onv e r s a t i on e v i d e n t bu t of t e n i g n o r e d. T he s on i c i n s t a l l a t i on c on s i s t s of t e n s c u l p t u r e s a l l w h i c h t a k e t he f or m of l a r g e w h i t e bo x e s E a c h b o x c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t t he s t a g i n g f or un i qu e s on i c e v e n t s a c t i v a t e d a nd m a n i p ul a t e d b y i nv e s t i g a t i n g pa r t i c i pa n t s R i c k H e r z o g D i v i s i on of H u m a n i t i e s

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3 C on te n ts Part I: Sc ulpting a So nic Contex t.... 1 I n t r od u c t i on ... 1 E ar l y B e gi n n i n gs ... 5 N oi s e an d O t h e r R u m b l i n gs ... 6 Joh n C age ... 1 1 F l u xu s an d M i n i m al i s m ... 15 W o r l d as S ou n d ... 18 S p ac e of S ou n d ... 20 Part II: I nstallati on: Theory a nd Exp erien ce... 24 A r t i s t i c C on c e p t s ... 25 T h e I n s t al l at i on ... 27 S ou n d a D i f f e r e n t W a y of C r e a t i n g?... 31

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4 P ar t I : S c u l p t i n g a S o n i c C o n t e x t I n t r od u c t i on T he w hol e not i on of s ou nd a r t m a y be i n a s e ns e f or e i gn t o s om e ; i s n't t ha t w ha t m us i c i s a nyw a ys ? W h a t doe s 's ound a r t ha v e t o of f e r t h a t 'm us i c doe s n t ? A r t t ha t i s now be t t e r unde r s t ood by t hi s t e r m ha s of t e n be e n t e r m e d 'ki ne t i c a r t '. T hi s f ol l ow s f r om a vi s ua l pe r s pe c t i ve s ou nds a r e t he a t t r i but e s of o bj e c t s a c t i ons T he di f f e r e nc e r e s t s i n t he f oc us O n t he on e ha n d, t he m ot i ons of obj e c t s t a ke pr e c e de nt ; on t he ot he r t he obj e c t s pl a y a s e c onda r y s uppor t i ng, or c ont r a s t i ng r ol e i n w hi c h t he s ound s a r e r e ga r d e d w i t h t he s a m e va l i di t y a s a c a r v e d bl oc k of s t on e T hi s i s c e r t a i nl y t r ue f or t hi s s oni c i ns t a l l a t i on w he r e t he s o unds obj e c t s a nd a c t i on s a r e a l l i nt e r de pe nd e nt a nd e qua l l y s ubs t a nt i a l T he de ve l opm e nt of s oun d a r t be ga n i n e a r n e s t pr i m a r i l y w i t h J ohn C a ge 's e f f or t t o c ha l l e nge not i ons of r e l e va nt s ound a nd t he c om pos e r 's i nvol ve m e nt i n pr e s c r i bi ng s oni c e xpe r i e n c e s A s m u s i c a l pr a c t i c e s be ga n t o s pl i nt e r t hr ough t he e a r l y t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y s ound a r t w a s br ought t o l i f e by l i ne s of t hought t ha t r e j e c t e d t he s t a nda r d s ound c om pos i t i ona l pr a c t i c e t h r ough 'gr i d ba s e d' not a t i o n w hi c h f oc us e d a r ound m a ni pul a t i ng a c e r t a i n s e t of pa r a m e t e r s T r e vor W i s h a r t r e f e r s t o t hi s a s l a t t i c e or i e nt e d s ounds or

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5 a l s o t he P i t c h/ D ur a t i on pa r a di gm 1 w he r e c om po s i t i on c e nt e r e d on a r e l a t i ve l y r i gi dl y s pa c e d s c a l e of pi t c h e s i n c om bi na t i on w i t h s ym m e t r i c a l di vi s i ons of dur a t i on. S t a nda r d m us i c a l not a t i on r e nde r s t hi s gr i d vi s ua l l y i n i t s u s e of ve r t i c a l i t y a c r os s l i n e s a nd s pa c e s t o r e pr e s e nt pi t c h, a nd t he hor i z ont a l di m e ns i on t o r e pr e s e nt e ve n s e gm e nt s of dur a t i on t hr ough t i m e W i t h s ound a r t 's ge ne s i s a r t i s t s be ga n t o f i nd t ha t a l l s ounds s of t a nd l oud, i nt e nde d a nd uni nt e nt i ona l ha d s om e t hi ng t o o f f e r a nd que s t i ons t o i m pl y M uc h e a r l y w or k de a l t w i t h a r e a w a k e ni n g of t he a bi l i t y t o l i s t e n t o a l l s ounds : s om e t i m e s t hr ough c om pos i t i ons f or m e d w i t h r e c or d e d a nd r e or d e r e d s ounds or t hr ough pe r f o r m a nc e s i nvol vi ng s ounds de t e r m i ne d by c ha n c e e v e nt s I n t he s e c ha n c e c om pos i t i o ns f i r s t de ve l ope d by J ohn C a ge t he w or k w a s c ons t i t ut e d, not by a pr e s e t s e r i e s of s ounds but r a t he r a n oppor t uni t y t o r e di r e c t a t t e nt i on t o s ound s pr ovi de d by t he l oc a l or nonl oc a l e nvi r onm e nt T hi s m a y be unde r s t ood by a c om m on e xa m pl e w he r e i n pe r f or m e r s t ur ne d t he knobs on a c ol l e c t i on of r a di os w hi c h w oul d e m i t s ounds unde t e r m i ne d by C a ge hi m s e l f but r a t he r s pe c i f i c t o t he br oa dc a s t s pa s s e d by t he r oa m i ng di a l s a t t ha t ve r y m om e nt I n hi s book I n t he B l i nk o f A n E a r S e t h K i m C ohe n unde r s t a nds t he de v e l opm e nt of 's ound a r t t hr ough a di c hot o m y r e l e va nt t o m y s oni c i ns t a l l a t i on. H e r e c o gni z e s t ha t F r om one di r e c t i on, e xp e r i m e nt a l m us i c f r om t h e 1950s onw a r d, pu r s ue d a n a ge nd a t ha t i nc r e a s i ngl y r e c a s t not j u s t t he o r g a ni z a t i ona l l ogi c of m us i c but a l s o t he ve r y va l ue s a nd a s s um pt i ons by w hi c h t ha t l ogi c w a s j us t i f i e d. 2 M uc h of t hi s w a s i ni t i a t e d by J ohn C a ge 's r e l e nt l e s s qu e s t t o e xt e nd t he de f i ni t i on of m us i c t o i nf i ni t y B e gi n ni ng i n t he m i d 1 W i s h a r t S o n i c A r t 1 1 2 K i m C o h e n N o n c o c h l e a r s o n i c a r t 1 6 8

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6 60's w i t hi n t he ga l l e r y a not he r f or c e c ons pi r e d w i t h t he w or l d of s ound. C ohe n not e s t ha t f r om a n ot he r di r e c t i on p r a c t i t i one r s i n t he ga l l e r y a r t s i nve s t e d t he m s e l ve s i n s t r a t e gi e s r e l a t e d t o a nd i n m a ny c a s e s de r i ve d f r om s oni c a n d m us i c a l m e t hodol ogi e s T he de m a t e r i a l i z a t i on of t he a r t obj e c t s ought a s t a t us a l r e a dy a c hi e ve d by t he e p he m e r a l i t y of s ound. T he e m pha s i s on pe r f or m a nc e s hi f t e d t he ga l l e r y e xpe r i e nc e f r om one of e xhi bi t i on t o one of e nc o unt e r 3 W hi l e t he c a t e go r i e s of e xpe r i m e nt a l m us i c a nd s oni c a r t t e nd t o bl ur a r ou nd t he e dge s m y w or k i s de f i ni t e l y not l i ke l y t o e a r n m e t he t i t l e of c om pos e r a s u nde r s t ood by m os t pe opl e R a t he r i t 's a n e nc ount e r w i t h bot h obj e c t a nd e v e nt a nd t he c ondi t i ons of one 's ow n pe r c e pt i on f i l t e r e d t hr ough di f f e r e nt s e ns e s T hough l i s t e ni ng t o t he s ounds a s i nt e r e s t i ng i n a nd of t he m s e l ve s i s a c om pone nt o f t he w or k, t hi s i s not t he i r pr i m a r y pur pos e i n c ont r a s t t o J o hn C a ge 's de s i r e t o l e t s ounds be t he m s e l ve s or P i e r r e S ha f f e r 's t h e or i e s of a c ou s m a t i c l i s t e ni ng. R a t he r m y hope i s f or t hi s i ns t a l l a t i on t o f unc t i on a s a poi nt of de p a r t ur e i n c ons i de r i ng s om e of t he phi l os ophi c a l i m pl i c a t i ons of i nt e r pr e t i ng a w or l d h e a r d vs a w or l d s e e n. D e s pi t e how of t e n he a r i ng a nd s e e i ng a r e c om pa r e d ( e s pe c i a l l y f r o m t he s c i e nt i f i c w a v e m ode l vi e w ) w i t h t he c l e a r a dva nt a ge gi ve n t o t he e xpe r i e n c e o f s e e i ng, I w oul d l i ke t o o f f e r a di f f e r e nt t a k e N a m e l y t ha t t he e xpe r i e n c e of h e a r i ng, h e l d i n 'oppos i t i on' t o s e e i n g, i s r e a l l y qui t e di f f e r e nt a nd o f f e r s s om e i m por t a nt i ns i ght s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s bot h phi l os ophi c a l a s w e l l a s pr a c t i c a l i n f i ndi ng our pl a c e i n t hi s w or l d. B y c r e a t i ng a di s j unc t i on be t w e e n t he vi s ua l a nd a udi t or y e xpe r i e n c e of t a n gi bl e obj e c t s t he s e a udi bl e s c u l pt ur e s s e e k t o pr ovoke c ons i de r a t i on of how a w o r l d 'vi e w ', 3 K i m C o h e n N o n c o c h l e a r s o n i c a r t 1 6 8

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7 m ode l e d a r ound s oni c e x pe r i e nc e m i ght va r y f r om t ha t s ha pe d by our pr e do m i na nt m ode vi s ua l i t y M o r e s pe c i f i c a l l y I f e e l t ha t our c u r r e nt vi s ua l w or l d, dom i na t e d by ge om e t r i c gr i ds a nd a l i ne a r a nd gr i dde d pr i nt s t r uc t ur e h a s l e a d t o a gr ow i ng di s j unc t i on be t w e e n a udi t or y a nd vi s ua l e xpe r i e nc e w i t h a c ons e que nt di s t a nc i ng be t w e e n t he t w o. C onf l a t i ng t hi s di s j unc t i on i n f or m a l l y r e duc e d s c ul pt ur e s I s e e k t o m a ke a ppa r e nt a f e w i m por t a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he e xpe r i e nc e of vi s ua l a nd a udi t or y phe nom e na T he r e a r e t hr e e i m por t a nt poi nt s of di s pa r i t y I pe r us e i n t he s e w or ks F i r s t t ha t i n t i m e ( t ha t i s m om e nt t o m om e nt e xpe r i e nc e ) h e a r i ng i s pr i m a r i l y a n e x pe r i e nc e of e v e nt s S ound i s t he r e c or d of s om e s pe c i f i c a c t i on o r i nt e r a c t i on. I n t hi s w a y he a r i ng a l w a ys c onve ys a w or l d i n c ons t a nt m ot i on a nd c ha nge A s w e w i l l s e e J ohn C a ge i n a s e ns e 'di s c ov e r e d' t he a bs e nc e o f t r ue s i l e n c e ; t he e a r c a n onl y he a r a c t i on ne ve r i na c t i on. 4 T hi s s t a nds s om e w ha t i n oppos i t i on t o s e e i ng w hi c h, t hough o f c our s e c onve yi ng a c t i on a nd i nt e r a c t i on, doe s s o by pr e s e nt i ng s t a t i c a nd s e l f c ont a i ne d obj e c t s t h a t c a n a ppe a r s i l e nt / s t i l l a t t he m a c r o l e ve l T hi s di f f e r e nc e i s e x a gge r a t e d i n m ode r n c i t i e s w he r e t he vi s ua l l a nds c a pe i s dom i na t e d by m onum e nt a l s t a t i c a nd a ngul a r unc ha ng i ng f or m s or t hr ough i nf or m a t i on pr e s e nt e d e nc od e d i n t e xt on a pa ge N ot onl y do t he s e c onve y a s t a bl e 'c onc e r t w or l d, t he y a l s o s ugge s t s pa c e a nd i nf or m a t i on' e xi s t i ng a s a n i m a gi na r y gr i d t he w or l d a dhe r e s t o S e c ondl y s oni c e xpe r i e nc e pl a c e s t he s ubj e c t a t t he c e nt e r of e xpe r i e n c e w h e r e s ounds a r e r e c e i ve d s i m ul t a ne o us l y f r om a l l di r e c t i ons S t a r i ng a t a s c ul pt ur e one m i s s e s t he pe opl e pa s s i ng on a l l s i de s w hi l e t he e a r s ( i f a l l ow e d a br o a d e nough f oc us ) h e a r bot h t he s ounds e s c a pi ng t he w or k a s w e l l a s t he b r e a t h, w or ds a nd f oot s t e ps pr oduc e d by s u r r oundi ngs i n a l l di r e c t i o ns T hi s i m m e r s i on i n one 's 4 C a g e S i l e n c e ( I N S E R T P G # )

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8 e nvi r onm e nt i s l a c ki ng t o a gr e a t e r de g r e e i n vi s ua l e xpe r i e nc e w he r e t he vi e w e r m us t 'l ook out on t he w or l d f r om s e l f t o obj e c t s T hi r dl y he a r i ng i s l e s s r e s t r i c t e d by phys i c a l bounda r i e s t r a v e l i ng e a s i l y t hough w a l l s a nd a r ou nd bl i nd c or ne r s ; i t c onne c t s one t o a n a c t i ve w or l d be yond t h e l i m i t s of vi s ua l l i ne a r i t y S i t t i ng i n a r oom t he w o r l d s e e n e xt e nds no f a r t he r t ha n t h e bounda r i e s p r e s e nt e d b y t he w a l l s T h e w or l d he a r d, t hough, m a y e xt e nd be yond t o w hi s t l i ng w i nd, pu r r i ng a i r ha ndl e r s a nd s c r e e c hi ng t i r e s I n a t i m e w he n w e c l i ng t o t he s t a bi l i t y of a c l e a r l y de l i ne a t e d w or l d a nd ye t f e e l di s c onne c t e d f r om our e n vi r onm e nt vi s ua l e xpe r i e nc e of t e n r e i nf or c e s t he n ot i on t ha t w hi l e s i t t i ng i ns i de t he s e f our w a l l s t hi n gs s houl dn't e ve r c h a nge t ha t t he w or l d c a n be i nt e r pr e t e d by gr i ds a nd e nt i t i e s ; t ha t w e c a n s t a n d i n i s ol a t i on t o t he w or l d. A udi t or y e xpe r i e n c e on t he ot he r ha nd, o f f e r s a w o r l d of c onne c t i on, i nt e r a c t i on, a n d c ons t a nt f l ux. P e r ha ps a t t i m e s t e r r i f yi ng i n i t s i nt r us i ve a nd i ns i s t e nt i m pos i t i on on our pe r s ona l i ndi vi dua l i t y i t m a y pr o vi de a n e xpe r i e nc e or 'm ode l of t he w or l d t ha t be t t e r r e f l e c t s t he i nt e r c onne c t i vi t y a nd c on s t a nt m ut a bi l i t y of a c ha n gi ng w or l d w hi c h w e m u s t ne c e s s a r i l y s t r uggl e a ga i ns t I f not hi ng m or e i t pr ovi de s a po i nt of c ont r a s t t o vi s ua l e xpe r i e nc e t ha t c a n c h a l l e nge a s s um pt i o ns he l d unt hi nki ngl y f r om a vi s ua l pe r s pe c t i ve A udi t or y e xpe r i e n c e c a n be vi e w e d a s i nt r i ns i c a l l y c r i t i qui ng a s s um pt i ons ge ne r a t e d a nd s us t a i ne d f r om a vi s ua l pe r s p e c t i ve E ar l y B e gi n n i n gs I n t r yi ng t o unde r s t a nd w ha t w e m e a n by 's ound a r t a nd t he w a ys t hi s pr oj e c t i nt e r s e c t s de ve l opm e nt s of t he pa s t c e nt ur y i t w i l l be us e f ul t o c ons i de r a va r i e t y of c om pos e r s / a r t i s t s t ha t ha ve c ont r i but e d t o bot h e x pe r i m e nt a l m us i c a nd s o ni c or i e nt e d

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9 ga l l e r y a r t s A s t he s e e n ds m e e t t he r e i s a t e nd e n c y f or s ound a r t i s t s t o a ppa r e nt l y f a l l on one of t w o s i de s t hough ne i t he r a r e m ut ua l l y e xc l us i ve ; t he di s t a nc e be t w e e n f or m s a gr a dua l c ont i nuum T he r e a r e t hos e w ho t e nd t o e xpa nd t he t e r m m us i c t o e nc om pa s s a ny a nd a l l s ounds s uc h a s E dga r d V a r e s e w ho r e de f i ne d m us i c a s 'o r ga ni z e d s ound,' s i de s t e ppi ng t he c onve nt i ona l di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n 'm us i c a nd 'noi s e ', 5 or M ur r a y S c ha f e r w ho l i ke d t o t hi nk of t he t he c os m os i t s e l f i s a va s t m us i c a l c om pos i t i on 6 O n t he ot he r ha nd, t he r e a r e pe opl e w or ki ng w i t h s ou nd w ho w oul dn't ne c e s s a r i l y c ons i de r t he m s e l ve s c om pos e r s i n t he t r a di t i ona l s e ns e of c r e a t i ng 'o r ga ni z e d s ound'. M a x N e uha us f or e x a m pl e c r e a t e d w or ks m or e f o c us e d a r ound e xa m i ni ng t he a c t a nd r ol e of l i s t e ni ng i n de f i ni ng our pe r c e pt ua l m ode l of t he w or l d. T i m e P i e c e B e a c on' ( 2006) i s a good e x a m pl e w he r e i n a s ound g r ow s s l ow l y i n a publ i c s pa c e u s ua l l y un not i c e d, unt i l i t s udde nl y s hut s o f f l e a vi ng a va c uum of s ound i n i t s w a ke W o r ks on t hi s e nd of t he s pe c t r um t e nd t o e xa m i ne que s t i ons s uc h a s : W he n do w e l i s t e n? W hy do w e l i s t e n? H ow do w e l i s t e n? A nd w ha t do e s s ound i m pl y or r e ve a l ? ( T hi s i ns t a l l a t i on i s pa r t i c ul a r l y c on c e r n e d w i t h t he l a t e r t w o que s t i ons .) M a ny s ound a r t i s t s s pa n t he e nt i r e s pe c t r um bot h c om pos i ng o r g a ni z e d s ound a nd q ue s t i oni ng w ha t l i s t e ni ng a nd he a r i ng ha ve t o o f f e r J ohn C a ge i s pe r ha ps m os t not a bl e f or t hi s br e a dt h of w o r k b ot h c om pos i ng a nd c onc e pt ua l i z i ng i de a s of s oni c e xpe r i e nc e W hi l e 's ound a r t be gi ns i n e a r ne s t w i t h C a ge t he s t i r r i ngs of w h a t w a s t o c om e c a n be f o und m uc h e a r l i e r a s t he t e ns i ons a nd di vi s i ons be t w e e n m us i c / l a ngua ge a nd noi s e w e r e c a l l e d i nt o que s t i on. E ar l y N oi s e an d ot h e r R u m b l i n gs 5 C o x / W a r n e r A u d i o C u l t u r e 1 7 6 I b i d 2 9

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10 O ne of t he f i r s t a ppe a r a n c e s or c a l l s f or t he i nc o r p or a t i on of noi s e i nt o t he r e a l m of de s i r a bl e s ound c a m e f r om L ui gi R us s ol o i n 'T he A r t of N oi s e s : F ut ur i s t M a ni f e s t o' ( 1913) i n w hi c h he s t a t e s : w i t h t he i nve nt i on of m a c hi ne s N oi s e w a s bor n. H e goe s on t o s a y t ha t w e m us t b r e a k out of t hi s l i m i t e d c i r c l e of s ounds ( of m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt s a t t he t i m e ) and c onque r t he i nf i ni t e v ar i e t y of noi s e s ounds H e c a l l s f or a f ut ur i s t or c he s t r a t h a t w i l l be r e a l i z e d m e c h a ni c a l l y a nd c o ns i s t of s i x f a m i l i e s of noi s e : 1. R oa r s T hund e r i ngs E xp l os i ons H i s s i ng r oa r s B a ngs B oom s 2. W hi s t l i ng, H i s s i ng, P uf f i ng 3. W hi s pe r s M ur m ur s M u m bl i ng, M ut t e r i ng, G u r gl i ng 4. S c r e e c hi ng, C r e a ki ng, R us t l i ng, H um m i ng, C r a c kl i ng, R ubbi ng 5. N oi s e s obt a i ne d by be a t i ng on m e t a l s w oods s ki ns s t one s pot t e r y e c t 6. V o i c e s of a ni m a l s a nd pe opl e s hout s S c r e a m s S hr i e ks W a i l s H oot s H ow l s D e a t h r a t t l e s S obs T hi s l i s t he f e e l s i nc l ude s t he m os t c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of t he f unda m e nt a l noi s e s T he ot h e r a r e onl y a s s oc i a t i ons a nd c om bi na t i ons of t he s e 7 T hi s i s one of t he f i r s t i ns t a nc e s of a t ur n t ow a r ds t he i nc l us i o n of s ounds t ha t di dn't f i t ne a t l y ont o t he pi t c h/ dur a t i on gr i d of t he pa s t T hough e ve n d e ve l opi ng a s e r i e s of i ns t r um e nt s c a l l e d I nt onar um or i ( noi s e i nt one r s ) i t s e e m s t he i r i nf l ue nc e w a s t o o pol i t i c a l l y di r e c t e d a nd l a c ke d f o r c e i n m us i c c om pos i t i ona l c i r c l e s t o ha ve m uc h di r e c t e f f e c t o n c om pos i t i ona l pr a c t i c e 8 W hi l e s upe r f i c i a l l y r e s e m bl i ng t he I nt onar um or i i n t he us e of boxe s t o hous e s oun ds of t e n c ons i de r e d noi s e m y w o r ks a r e n't m e a nt t o be pl a ye d a s i ns t r um e nt s or r e i nf or c e a n f ut ur i s t i ndus t r i a l i de a l of s ound. R a t he r t he f or m o f t he obj e c t s e e n, s t a bl e a nd s t a t i c s ugge s t i ng e l e m e nt a r y ge om e t r y a r c hi t e c t ur a l f o r m s a nd pr i nt e d pa ge s i s m e a nt t o be 7 R u s s o l o F u t u r i s t M a n i f e s t o 1 3 8 M o r g a n T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y 1 1 7

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1 1 c ons i de r e d i n di a l og w i t h t he i nf i ni t e l y va r i e d s ou nd e ve nt s a ni m a t i ng t he e xpe r i e nc e T hough o f f t o a good s t a r t D ougl a s K a hn not e s t he i nf l ue nc e o f R us s ol o's noi s e e ve nt ua l l y w a n e d but w a s t he n r e vi ve d i n t he w a k e of m us i que c on c r e t e i n t he 1950s a nd ha s be c om e w i d e l y r e c og ni z e d a s a p r e c u r s or t o a r a nge of a r t i s t i c a c t i vi t i e s 9 T hough m us i que c onc r e t e s pe a r h e a d e d by P i e r r e S c ha e f f e r r e vi ve d a nd f o und i t 's l i ke ne s s i n F ut ur i s t e xpe r i m e nt a l t he r e i s s t e p t a ke n by E dga r d V a r e s e 's w o r k t ha t pr e f i gur e d t hi s r e s ur r e c t i on of R us s ol o's t he or i e s i nt o c om m on c om pos i t i on a l pr a c t i c e C om i ng t o t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i n 1915, V a r e s e c a l l e d f or a ne w ki nd of m us i c w hi c h he de s c r i be d a s t he m ove m e nt of s ound m a s s e s of s hi f t i ng pl a ne s [ ...] W h e n t he s e s ound m a s s e s c ol l i de t he phe no m e na of pe n e t r a t i o n or r e pul s i on w i l l s e e m t o oc c ur C e r t a i n t r a ns m ut a t i ons t a ki ng pl a c e on c e r t a i n pl a ne s w i l l s e e m t o be pr oj e c t e d ont o ot he r pl a ne s m ovi ng a t di f f e r e nt s pe e ds a nd a t di f f e r e nt a ngl e s 10 T houg h i n s om e w a ys t hi s c onc e pt i on of c om pos i t i on m a y s e e m t o m i r r or R u s s ol o's V a r e s e i s ke e n t o e m pl oy s ound i n c ons t r uc t i ng m ul t i di m e ns i ona l s ound i nt e r a c t i ons t ha t he vi e w s a s a r a di c a l de pa r t ur e f r om t r a di t i ona l w a ys of o r ga ni z i ng s oni c i nt e r a c t i ons T hi s i s one of t he e a r l i e s t oc c ur r e nc e s w h e r e t he l i s t e ne r i s be i n g a s k e d t o l i s t e n t o t he s ounds br i ngi ng i nt o c ons c i ous ne s s t he i r t r a n s m ut a t i ons w he n t he y pa s s ove r di f f e r e nt l a ye r s w he n t he y pe ne t r a t e c e r t a i n opa c i t i e s or a r e di l a t e d i n c e r t a i n r a r e f a c t i ons 11 H e r e s oun ds a r e c ons i de r e d out s i de t he i r f or m a l r e l a t i ons hi ps t o a h a r m oni c a nd r hyt hm i c gr i d w hi c h, up t i l l t hi s po i nt ha d l a r ge l y de t e r m i ne d t he 'qua l i t y' or de pt h of w ha t w a s c on s i de r e d a va l ua bl e s oni c e xp e r i e n c e E dga r d V a r e s e 's m us i c a l i de a l s r e f l e c t a uni que a s pe c t of s oni c e xpe r i e n c e A s on e s hi f t s a t t e nt i on f r om e ve nt t o e ve nt i n a ny s oni c c ont e xt t he s ounds 9 K a h n N o i s e W a t e r M e a t 5 7 1 0 V a r e s e L i b e r a t i o n o f S o u n d 1 7 1 1 I b i d 1 8

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12 a r e bl e nd e d a nd w ov e n t hough c ons c i ous a t t e nt i on a nd i nc l us i on r a t he r t ha n by phys i c a l m ove m e nt s i n s e que nc e s uc h a s a n e y e da r t i ng ov e r a pa i nt i ng. T he l i s t e ne r r e c e i ve s a l l pr e s e nt s ound s i m u l t a ne o us l y a nd t he n f oc us e s a t t e nt i on t hr ough i nt e r na l m e a ns T hough V a r e s e w a s op e n t o t he i nc l us i on of a l l s ound, 'c o m pos e r l y o r gani z at i on' w a s s t i l l a gi ve n, s hor t l y t o be c ha l l e nge d by J ohn C a ge a nd M ur r a y S c ha f e r U nl i ke t he s e l a t e r a r t i s t s / s ound t h e or i s t s E dga r d V a r e s e s t i l l put a g r e a t a m ount of s t oc k i n h a vi ng hi s c om pos i t i ons r e a c h t he l i s t e ne r una dul t e r a t e d by i nt e r pr e t a t i on 12 t hus e m pha s i z i ng t he r ol e of t he c om pos e r i n e a c h e xp e r i e nc e H e w a s s t i l l a pa i nt e r of s ound, a s i t w e r e i n f a vor of a c om pl e t e d a nd c om pl e t e l y de t e r m i ne d s oni c 'w or k'. T w o o f hi s e l e c t r oni c w or ks D e s e r t s ( 1950 54 ) w hi c h w a s c r e a t e d i n P i e r r e S c h a e f f e r 's P a r i s s t udi o, a nd P oe m e E l e c t r oni qu e ( 195 7 58) a r e c ons i de r e d e a r l y m a s t e r pi e c e s o f e l e c t r oni c m us i c T he w or k of E dg a r d V a r e s e w a s r e f o r m ul a t e d w i t h m or e pr e c i s e c ondi t i ons by P i e r r e S c ha e f f e r M us i qu e c onc r e t e r e f e r s t o t he s t yl e of m us i c de ve l ope d b y S ha f f e r i n t he e a r l y 1940's w hi l e t h e or i e s unde r t h e t e r m A c ous m at i c l i s t e ni ng de not e s hi s s pe c i f i c goa l s f or t he w a ys he ho pe d hi s c om pos i t i ons w oul d be he a r d a nd unde r s t ood. T he s e f oc us e d a r ound a n e w t y pe of l i s t e ni ng l e s s c e nt e r e d on t he f e e l i ng, pr ogr e s s i on or r e l a t i ona l o r ga ni z a t i on of t he m us i c a l w or k i t s e l f a nd i ns t e a d on w ha t i s r e ve a l e d by 'l i s t e ni ng' t o t he s ounds t he m s e l ve s a s obj e t s s onor e s or s ono r ous obj e c t s T he s e w or ks w e r e m a d e pos s i bl e by n e w l y e m e r gi ng e l e c t r oni c m e a ns of s ound pr oduc t i on a nd m a ni pul a t i on. S ounds w oul d be r e c o r de d f r om t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he n m a ni pul a t e d on t a pe s de l i be r a t e l y f o r ge t t i ng e ve r y r e f e r e nc e t o i ns t r um e nt a l c a us e s or p r e e xi s t i ng 1 2 V a r e s e L i b e r a t i o n o f S o u n d 1 9

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13 m us i c a l s i gni f i c a t i ons 13 M us i que c onc r e t e w a s i n t e nde d t o f oc us a t t e nt i on on t he pr ope r t i e s of t he s ounds t he m s e l ve s not on t he s our c e of t h e s ounds or r e l a t i ons hi ps c ons t r uc t e d. T he y w e r e i nt e nde d t o e xi s t be hi nd a m e t a phor i c c u r t a i n obs c ur i ng t he i r s our c e a nd a s s oc i a t i ons f l oa t i ng i s ol a t e d i n a pe r c e pt ua l voi d. O nc e t he s ounds a r e i s ol a t e d a nd e xi s t onl y f or t he m s e l ve s i t i s t he l i s t e ni ng i t s e l f t ha t be c om e s t he or i gi n of t he phe n om e non t o be s t udi e d[ ...] T he a c ou s m a t i c s i t ua t i on[ ...] s ym bol i c a l l y pr e c l ude s a ny r e l a t i on w i t h w ha t i s vi s i bl e t ouc ha bl e m e a s ur a bl e 14 W h a t t hi s l e a ve s ope n i s a di r e c t c o ns i de r a t i on of va r i ous a s pe c t s of l i s t e ni ng. S c ha e f f e r out l i ne s t he s e a s a ) pur e l i s t e ni ng, b) l i s t e ni ng t o e f f e c t s c ) va r i a t i ons i n l i s t e ni ng, a nd d) va r i a t i ons i n t he s i gna l T he f i r s t 'pur e l i s t e ni ng' a l l ow s t he i ndi vi dua l t o r e a l i z e how f ul l y one r e l i e s on t he vi s ua l c om po ne nt of s ound t o unde r s t a nd t he s ounds pur pos e a nd f o r m H e f e e l s w i t hout vi s ua l c ue s i t m a y t a ke s om e t i m e t o r e or i e nt t o t he s ounds a c t ua l na t ur e O n c e t hi s i s a c c om pl i s he d g r e a t e r de pt h of s oni c p e r c e pt i on c a n be gi n t o f or m B y t he s e c ond c om pone nt 'L i s t e ni ng t o E f f e c t s ', S c h a e f f e r hope s t ha t t he di s s oc i a t i on of s e e i n g a nd he a r i ng h e r e e nc ou r a ge s a not h e r w a y of l i s t e ni ng: [ ...] w i t hout a ny a i m ot he r t ha n t ha t of he a r i ng t he m b e t t e r i n or de r t o b e a bl e t o de s c r i be t he m t hr ough a n a na l ys i s of t he c ont e nt of ou r pe r c e pt i on. 15 I n m a ny w a ys t hi s i s a r e s t a t e m e nt of t he f i r s t a s pe c t 'P ur e l i s t e ni ng', but he r e he i nt r odu c e s t he i m por t a nc e o f t he c ont e nt of ou r pe r c e pt i ons a nd goe s on t o not e t ha t t he be s t w a y t o br e a k dow n t he u r g e t o t r a c e t he s ound t o i t s s our c e i s t hough r e pe t i t i on, w hi c h w i l l e xha us t t hi s ne e d a nd br i ng t o s oni c obj e c t i nt o c onc e nt r a t e d f o c us I t i s hi s hope t ha t t hr ough m or e r e f i ne d 13 S c h a e f f e r A c o u s m a t i c s 8 1 1 4 I b i d 7 8 1 5 S c h a e f f e r A c o u s m a t i c 7 8

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14 l i s t e ni ng t he r i c hne s s of t hi s pe r c e pt i on w i l l be r e v e a l e d a nd l a i d ba r e f or a p pr e c i a t i on. T he t hi r d a s pe c t V a r i a t i ons i n L i s t e ni ng', i s c onc e r ne d w i t h t he a bi l i t y of t hi s r e pe t i t i on t o r e ve a l s hi f t s i n a t t e nt i o n a s e a c h s ound i s r e pe a t e d, i de nt i c a l but c ha ng e d by t he i ndi vi dua l s ubj e c t i vi t y of t he l i s t e ne r s A s t he s oni c obj e c t i s e xpl or e d, n e w a s pe c t s a r e c ont i nuous l y r e ve a l e d i n t he pa t t e r ns of f o c us ge n e r a t e d by t he l i s t e n e r L a s t l y 'va r i a t i ons i n t he S i gna l out l i ne s t he s pe c i a l pos s i bi l i t i e s of pr e s e nt i ng s ys t e m a t i c va r i a t i ons of a s i ngl e s oni c obj e c t B y s t r e t c hi ng, c om pr e s s i ng, a m pl i f yi ng, or m ut i ng t he s a m e bi t of s ound, i t c a n be obs e r v e d unde r a va r i e t y of c ondi t i ons a l l ow i ng f ur t he r i nv e s t i ga t i on of t he l i s t e ni ng e xpe r i e nc e T he r e e xi s t m a ny s i m i l a r i t i e s but a l s o s om e i m por t a nt di f f e r e nc e s b e t w e e n t he s c ul pt ur e s pr e s e nt e d he r e a nd t he c om pos i t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s a nd t h e or i e s of P i e r r e S c ha e f f e r T h e s c ul pt ur e s r e l y on a di vi s i on be t w e e n t he di s c r e t e phys i c a l s ound s our c e s s o a s t o f oc us e xpe r i e nc e on t he qua l i a of s ounds R e pe t i t i on of r e l a t i ve l y s hor t e ve nt s i s a l s o e m pl oye d bot h i nt e r na l l y a nd by t he na t ur e o f t he pa r t i c i pa t i on r e qui r e d t o c ont i nue e nga ge m e nt w i t h t he w o r k. B ot h c onc e a l m e nt a nd r e pe t i t i on s e r ve t he s a m e pur pos e of di r e c t i ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a t t e nt i on t o t he e xpe r i e n c e of l i s t e ni ng i n i t s e l f H ow e ve r unl i ke t he m us i que c onc e r t e w o r k, s uc h a s M as qu e r age ( 1952) t he goa l i s n't t o s i m pl y t o l i s t e n t o t he s ounds a nd e xpl or e t he e xpe r i e n c e o f a t t e ndi ng t o t he m but t o t hr ow t he m i nt o c ont r a s t w i t h t he vi s ua l e xpe r i e nc e of e a c h obj e c t I n t hi s w a y a c ont r a s t i s c r e a t e d be t w e e n t he e ve nt r e ve a l e d a udi t or i l y w hi l e c onc e a l e d vi s ua l l y T h e vi s ua l l y pr e c i s e na t ur e of t he obj e c t s i nvol ve d i n t he ha ppe ni ng a r e c onc e a l e d i n f a vo r of e m pha s i z i ng t he e ve nt or ac t i on r e ve a l e d by l i s t e ni ng. T hi s t oo, hi ghl i ght s a n i m por t a nt c hoi c e i n t he s c ul pt ur e s na m e l y t o not e m pl oy s pe a ke r s i n c r e a t i ng s ounds w hi c h onl y r e pr oduc e a n

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15 e ve nt f r om a s i ngul a r pr e de t e r m i ne d or i e nt a t i on, a nd onl y pl a y i t ba c k f r om a t w i c e ove r r e duc e d poi nt of e m a na t i on; f i r s t by c ol l e c t i ng s ounds f r om a s i ngl e poi nt ( t he m i c ) a nd a ga i n i n i t s e m a na t i on f r o m a s i ngl e l oc a t i on of t he s pe a k e r T h e phys i c a l m ove m e nt of t he s ounds or i gi n t hr ough t he l oc a l e nvi r onm e nt w i t hi n t he s c ul pt ur e s pl a ys a c r uc i a l r ol e of c onne c t i ng s ound w i t h a n a c t i on/ c ha ng e or i e nt e d w or l d of s ound. Joh n C age V i s u a l i t y o v e rw h e l m s a u ra l i t y i n t h e c u l t u ra l b a l a n c e o f t h e s e n s e s T h e l i g h t t h a t s p a rk s t h e p re s e n c e o f o b j e c t s a n d e n v i ro n m e n t s s e e m s t o b e i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y e v e ry w h e re a n d t h u s a s s u m e s a s t a t e o f b e i n g t h a t h a s p ro v e d t o b e p a rt i c u l a rl y a t t ra c t i v e t o W e s t e rn c u l t u re w h e r e a s t h e a c t i o n s t h a t p ro d u c e s o u n d s a p p e a r s c a t t e re d i n s p a c e a n d t i m e t i e d t o e v e n t s t h a t m e re l y t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n a l a r g e r s t a t e o f b e i n g J o h n Ca g e s e t o u t t o t i l t t h e b a l a n c e i n fa v o r o f t h e e a r a n d m a n y p e o p l e h a v e h e a rd t h e w o r l d d i f fe re n t l y b e c a u s e o f h i s e f fo rt s 16 I a m one of t he m a ny i n t hi s c a s e a nd m uc h o f t hi s pr oj e c t be ga n w i t h m y i nt r oduc t i on t o J ohn C a ge 's s oni c T he or i e s D e e m phs i z i ng t he r ol e of c om pos i t i ona l i nt e nt i ona l i t y a nd hol di ng t o l i ght t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r ol e i n a m us i c a l e xpe r i e nc e i s pe r ha ps on e of C a ge 's m os t i m por t a nt a ugm e nt a t i ons t o w e s t e r n m us i c a l pr a c t i c e 17 T o a c c om pl i s h t hi s m onum e nt a l s hi f t i n t he W e s t e r n m us i c a l t r a di t i on C a ge e m pl oye d a num b e r of ne w t a c t i c s T he e m ph a s i s on l i s t e ni ng t o 's ound i n i t s e l f w a s not e nt i r e l y ne w a s w e s a w i n t he s pe c i f i c g o a l s l a t e nt i n P i e r r e S ha e f f e r 's a c ous m a t i c l i s t e ni ng. C a ge t hough, a dva nc e d t hi s pr a c t i c e i n t w o r e vol ut i ona r y w a ys T he f i r s t i s e xe m pl i f i e d by hi s e a r l i e s t f ul l y i nde t e r m i na t e w or k, M us i c of C ha nge s ( 1951) I n t hi s pi e c e C a ge us e d a c ha r t of s ounds dur a t i ons dyna m i c s t e m pi a nd de ns i t y w hi c h w e r e r a ndom l y c hos e n by c ons ul t i ng t he I C hi ng or book of c h a nge s T h e I C hi ng w a s f i r s t c ons ul t e d a bout 1 6 K a h n N o i s e W a t e r M e a t 1 5 8 1 7 K i m C o h e n N o n c o c h l e a r 2 1

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16 w hi c h s ound t o us e f r om a s ound c ha r t t he n t h e s ound w a s s ha pe d by c ons u l t i ng a not he r s e r i e s of c h a r t s w i t h t he a bove m e nt i one d pa r a m e t e r s N e w m a t e r i a l i s i nt r o duc e d by s w i t c hi ng t he c ha r t s be t w e e n f i xe d a nd un f i x e d s t a t e s W he n t he c ha r t s a r e c ons ul t e d i n t he unf i xe d s t a t e t he us e d pa r a m e t e r i s i m m e di a t e l y r e pl a c e d by a ne w a ppr opr i a t e de s i gna t i on. 18 I nde t e r m i na c y pr i e d t he c om pos i t i ona l pr a c t i c e i t s e l f f r om t he gr i p o f t he c om pos e r 's di r e c t i m a gi na t i on. N o l onge r w e r e s o unds be i ng s t r uc t ur e d i nt e nt i ona l l y t o pr oduc e a c ohe r e nt 'pi e c e of m us i c .' A s K a hn s t a t e s hi s be s t know n c a m p a i gn, of c our s e w a s a ga i ns t s e l f e xpr e s s i on, w hi c h he e qua t e d m os t c om m onl y w i t h t he G e r m a n R om a nt i c t r a di t i on a nd t he c l a s s i c i s m of B e e t hov e n 19 W h a t f ol l ow e d f r om t hi s i nde t e r m i na t e pr a c t i c e w a s t he pr i vi l e gi ng of t he l i s t e ne r 's r ol e T hi s r e a c h e d i t s m os t poi gna nt e xpr e s s i on w i t h C a ge 's i nf a m ous w or k t i t l e d 4'33'' or 't he s i l e nt pi e c e '. 4' 33'' i t s e l f c ons i s t s of t hr e e m ove m e nt s a nd w a s f i r s t e xe c ut e d i n 1952. T h e w or k m a y be pe r f or m e d by ( a n y) i ns t r um e nt a l i s t or c om bi na t i on of i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s w i t h t he m os t i m por t a nt i ns t r uc t i o n be i ng t ha t t he pl a ye r i s t o r e m a i n s i l e nt f or t he d ur a t i on of t he pi e c e T he p e r f o r m a nc e w a s i ni t i a l l y gi ve n by a pi a ni s t w ho c a m e out a nd s a t a t t he pi a no be nc h f or t h e a l l ot t e d t i m e t he n got up a nd l e f t s t a ge T hi s pi e c e i s t he f o c u s of c ons t a nt s pe c ul a t i on a s t o w he n, w he r e a nd w ha t i ns pi r e d i t s c onc e pt i on. H e hi m s e l f c l a i m s t o ha ve be e n i ns pi r e d ( or p e r ha ps pr odde d ) by R obe r t R a us c he nbe r g's w hi t e p a i nt i ngs '. H e i s quot e d s a yi ng w he n I s a w t hos e I s a i d, 'O h y e s I m us t ; ot he r w i s e I 'm l a ggi ng, ot he r w i s e m us i c i s l a ggi ng. 20 A n ot he r s our c e of i ns pi r a t i on c om m onl y c i t e d w a s hi s vi s i t t o a n a ne c hoi c c ha m be r i n 1951. H e r e h e f a m ous l y he a r d t w o s ounds t ha t he l a t e r f ound 1 8 C a g e S i l e n c e ( G E T B O O K I N S E R T P G # ) 1 9 K a h n N o i s e W a t e r M e a t 1 6 4 2 0 K a h n N o i s e W a t e r M e a t 1 6 8 ( E r i k S a t i e : A C o n v e r s a t i o n C o n t a c t n o 2 5 )

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17 w e r e t he r us h of bl ood m ovi ng t hough hi s body a nd t he f a i nt hi gh pi t c he d w hi ne o f hi s ne r vous s ys t e m w or ki ng. T hi s vi s i t w he t he r or no t i t di r e c t l y i ns pi r e d 4'33'', w a s t he w e l l s pr i ng of 't he s i l e nt w or k'. F or i n t he e xpe c t e d s i l e nc e he f ound i t s i m pos s i bi l i t y a s t a t e a s una t t a i na bl e a s t he a bs ol ut e s t i l l ne s s of a n a t om W i t h 4'33' S i l e nc e w a s e f f e c t i ve l y 'de s t r oye d ', a n d s i m ul t a ne ous de m ot e d t he c om pos e r s ha nd r e l i n qui s hi ng a ny di r e c t i nt e nt i ona l i t y ( i n a w a y s i m i l a r t o hi s i nde t e r m i na t e w or ks ) a nd pl a c e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a bi l i t y t o l i s t e n a t t he c e nt e r of i m por t a nc e I n ne got i a t i ng hi s ne w w or l d of s ound, C a ge r e pl a c e d t he oppos i t i on of s ound a nd s i l e nc e w i t h a gr a di e nt of a l l s ound e xt e ndi ng f r om s m a l l s ounds t o l oud s ounds 21 I n doi ng s o he a l s o ope ne d m us i c up i nt o a n e m a nc i pa t or y e nd ga m e 22 A t t hi s poi nt m us i c be ga n t o bo r de r on t he r e a l m of 's ound a r t '. W i t h a l l s o unds i ni t i a t e d i nt o t he r e a l m of m us i c s ounds w oul d ha ve t o f i nd ot he r a r t i s t i c ve nue s t o de ve l op i n. T hi s i s not of c our s e t o s a y t ha t m us i c ha d r e a c he d i t s e nd; i t w oul d c ont i nuous l y e vol ve t hr ough t he e ndl e s s va r i e t y o f f or m s s ounds m e a ns o f c om pos i t i on, a nd pa t hs of a udi t i on t o f i nd ne w gr ound. I n one s e ns e t hough, w ha t c a m e a f t e r C a g e i s m or e of a p e r m ut a t i on ga m e i n t he r e a l m of m us i c O nc e a l l noi s e be c a m e m us i c ', f or C a ge a t l e a s t s ound w a s f r e e d t o a ns w e r a nd pos e que s t i ons a bout i t s ow n na t ur e a nd how w e pe r c e i ve i t T he s e que s t i ons a r e not ne c e s s a r i l y e xc l ude d f o r m t he t e r m m us i c e i t he r r a t he r t hi s i s j us t w he r e t he l i ne t e nds t o be dr a w n ( or s c r i bbl e d) i n a t he ge ne r a l s e ns e s ugge s t e d by K i m C ohe n i n t he di ve r gi ng p a t hs of e xpe r i m e nt a l m us i c a nd ga l l e r y a r t s t ha t be ga n t o s e e k t he d e m a t e r i a l i z a t i on of t he a r t obj e c t T hough m a ny of C a ge 's pr a c t i c e s w e r e c ouc h e d i n t e r m s of e xpe r i m e nt a l m us i c 2 1 I b i d 1 6 0 2 2 I b i d 1 6 4

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18 t he pr i nc i pl e s e xpl or e d p us he d t he c onc e pt ua l l i m i t s of 's oni c pr a c t i c e a t t he t i m e T h e pr a c t i c e s di s c us s e d a bov e i nde t e r m i na c y a nd s i l e nc e pl a y a n i m por t a nt r o l e i n 'c om pos i ng' t he e xpe r i e n c e of m y w or k a s a w hol e i ns t a l l a t i on/ e nvi r onm e nt U s i ng unr e c or d e d s ounds a nd e m pl oyi ng phys i c a l m e c ha ni s m s i n c r e a t i ng t he s o unds l e a ds t o s om e de gr e e of c h a nc e i n t he s ounds pr oduc e d. S o m e s c ul pt ur e s us e t hi s t o a l a r ge r de gr e e w hi l e s om e r e p e a t a ne a r l y i ndi s t i ngui s ha bl e s ound w i t h e ve r y i t e r a t i on. T he i nde t e r m i na c y e m pl oye d t hough i s r e s ol ut e l y m a ni f e s t i n t he 'r a ndom i nt e r a c t i ons of pe opl e w i t h t he obj e c t s A s one s c ul pt ur e i s pe r s ona l l y e nga ge d t he r e s t w i l l be r a ndom l y us e d by ot he r s i n t he r oo m E ve n i f pe opl e w e r e t o t r y a nd o r ga ni z e t he s o und e ve nt s by 'pl a yi ng' t he m di f f e r e nc e s i n t i m i ng i nhe r e nt i n t h e c ha n c e e v e nt s w oul d l e a d t o a n e f f e c t pr oba bl y l i t t l e di f f e r e nt t ha n i f a s i z a bl e num be r o f pe opl e w e r e t o j us t r oa m f r e e l y a nd e nga ge t he w or ks T he i n de t e r m i na c y o f e a c h s c ul pt ur e a nd be t w e e n c oi n c i di ng s c ul pt ur a l e ve nt s i s e m pl oye d i n t he s e r vi c e o f on e of P i e r r e S ha e f f e r 's t e na nt s of t h e a c ous m a t i c f i e l d, na m e l y V a r i at i ons i n t he Si gnal di s c us s e d e a r l i e r T he r e p e t i t i on of a ny s ound he l d i n a t t e nt i on i s na t ur a l l y va r i e d by t he r a ndom ne s s i nhe r e nt i n i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h a ny r e a l phys i c a l s ys t e m a s w e l l a s t he ow n pa r t i c i p a nt s m ove m e nt t hr ough t he s pa c e a nd t he c om bi na t or i a l e f f e c t s of ot he r e ve nt s s oundi ng i n t a nde m I n t hi s w a y t he s ounds a r e i n e f f e c t s e pa r a t e d f r om t he vi s ua l l y s t a t i c s he l l of t he i r or i gi n a nd f r e e d f or c o ns i de r a t i on i n t he i r va r i ous p e r m ut a t i on s t hough not j us t f or t he m s e l ve s but i n c ont r a s t t o t he vi s ua l C a ge i a n s i l e nc e i s a l s o e m pl oye d t o br i ng a w a r e n e s s t o t he l a r ge r f i e l d of s ounds s ur r oundi ng e a c h pa r t i c i p a nt I ns t e a d of r unni ng t he s ounds c ont i nuous l y w hi c h w oul d be r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o do m e c ha ni c a l l y t he pa r t i c i p a nt i s f or c e d t o e ndu r e t he s i l e nc e o f a n obj e c t w hi l e e i t he r m ovi ng on t o t he ne xt or r e p e a t i ng t he i nt e r a c t i on. T h e ga p pr ovi de s a

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19 m om e nt f or t he r e c e nt l y a t t e nt i ve e a r t o m ove b e y ond t he obj e c t t o e nc om p a s s not o nl y t he s ounds of ot he r s c ul p t ur e s but a l s o t he s ounds m a de pe r s on a l l y by ot he r s a nd t he e nvi r onm e nt s i m i l a r t o t he s ounds m a ni f e s t i n t he c onc e r t h a l l by a udi e nc e m e m be r s of 4'33''. I f e a c h s c ul pt ur e w e r e t o c ont i nuous l y r un r e pe a t i ng t he s ounds e v e n t e ndl e s s l y i t w oul d be c om e a n obj e c t i n i t s e l f t ha t c oul d be a t t e nde d t o or i gnor e d. B y a l l ow i ng a pi e c e t o be s i l e nt t he ot he r s ounds r us h i n t o f i l l t he voi d. T he n e c e s s i t y of phys i c a l e nga g e m e nt t o r e s e t t he pi e c e a l s o s t r e ngt he ns t he l i nk be t w e e n t he s o unds he a r d a nd t he a c t i on/ e ve nt i ni t i a t e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt I t i s ha r de r t o l i nk t he s ound w i t h t he obj e c t t o t hi nk of t he m a s one w he n p a r t i c i pa t i o n i s r e qui r e d t o dr a w f or t h s om e t hi ng m or e t ha n t he s t a t i c obj e c t a l one F l u xu s an d M i n i m al i s m A s B r a n don L e B e l l e s t a t e s i n hi s s ur ve y of s ound a r t t he m ove t ow a r d e v e r yda y l i f e a nd quot i di a n e xpe r i e nc e f ound i n C a ge 's ong oi ng out put of m us i c e c hoe d i n t he t um ul t uous e uphor i a of H a ppe ni ngs f i nds f ur t h e r i t e r a t i on i n F l uxus 23 T h e t e r m F l uxus i s r a t he r ha r d t o pi n dow n i n t e r m s of s pe c i f i c go a l s I f C a ge be g a n t o s e e a l l s ounds of t he w or l d a s pot e nt i a l l y m us i c a l t he n i t c oul d be s a i d t ha t F l uxus a r t i s t s w or ke d unde r t he a s s um pt i on t ha t e ve r yt hi ng ha ppe ni ng ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o unde r go t he t r a n s f or m a t i o n t o a r t a nd i s de t e r m i ne d onl y by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt ua l or i e nt a t i on t o a n e ve nt W o r ks w oul d c ons i s t of s m a l l s c a l e a nd o r di na r y e ve nt s t ha t c oul d be i nt e r pr e t e d a s dr yl y hum or s w hi l e of t e n e xi s t i ng on t he e dge of p e r c e pt i bi l i t y 24 M a ny F l uxi s t w or ks i nvo l ve d s ounds / s ound e ve nt s i n t he i r r e a l i z a t i on. G e o r ge 2 3 L e B e l l e B a c k g r o u n d N o i s e 5 8 2 4 I b i d 6 0

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20 B r e c ht 's D r i p M us i c i s a pr i m e e xa m pl e of t h e s e e ve nt s c or e s w hi c h s ought t o e l e va t e t he m unda ne t o i nvol ve pe op l e i n t he a ppr e c i a t i on of c om m onl y s ha r e d e xpe r i e nc e s of t e n un not i c e d or unc o ns i de r e d. I n t he w or k, w a t e r w a s s i m pl y s l ow l y dr i ppe d i nt o a n un a m pl i f i e d c ont a i ne r I t f or c e s t he l i s t e ne r i nt o t he de l i c a t e s i l e nc e of ne a r i na udi bi l i t y: t he e a r m us t m ove c l os e r t o t he qui e t s ounds t o f ol l ow e a c h d r i p, a s a uni ve r s e of pot e nt i a l i t y e a c h s i ngl e dr i p a nd e ve nt e a c h r e s o na nc e a s oni c r e v e l a t i on 25 T he r e qui s i t e a t t e nt i on on t he ne a r l y i m pe r c e pt i bl e r e s u l t s i n a n a w a r e n e s s of pe r c e pt i on i t s e l f S o i n a s e ns e i f C a ge m o ve d t he w or k f r om t he s t a ge t o t he s i t e of a udi t i on t he n F l uxus t o ok i t a s t e p f ur t he r m ov i ng i n t o t he a c t of pe r c e p t i on i t s e l f T he s i m pl i c i t y of m a ny f l uxus w or ks c r e a t e s a d e f i ni t e ove r l a p w i t h m i ni m a l i s t pr a c t i c e w hi c h w a s a l s o ne w l y e vol vi ng a r ound t he s a m e t i m e M uc h of L a M ont e Y o u n g's l a t e r w or k f a l l s m or e s qua r e l y und e r m i n i m a l i s t s oni c pr a c t i c e I t i s ha r d t o r e duc e s oni c m i ni m a l i s m be yond hi s D r e am H ous e ( 1964) pr oj e c t w he r e i n t one s a r e s us t a i ne d f or ne a r l y i nde f i ni t e t i m e s I n i t s f i na l l o c a t i on, D r e am H ous e c on s i s t s of m ul t i pl e r oom s e a c h w i t h a di f f e r e nt f r e que n c y A s t he t one s a r e l i ve d i n ov e r t i m e you'r e a bl e t o be t t e r h e a r a l l t he ha r m oni c nu a nc e w i t hi n f r e que nc y f or i t t a ke s t he e a r t i m e t o a dj us t t o t he f r e que nc i e s he a r d 26 I ns t e a d o f a s t a t i c vi e w e r s ound i s he l d 's t i l l w hi l e e m pha s i s i s pl a c e d on t he dyna m i s m of t he pa r t i c i pa nt T he a r c hi t e c t ur e of t he r oom s w i l l i ne vi t a bl y s ha pe t he s ound s pa c e s o a s one m ove s a bout t he r oo m node s a nd z one s a r e pa s s e d t h r ough a nd s t r ung t oge t he r i n c om bi na t i on vi a t he i nt e r a c t i on of di f f e r e nt s pa c e s i n t hr e s h ol d t r a ns i t i ons L a M ont e Y o u n g s ought a f or m of s ur r e nde r t o t he w or l d of s ound i n s e a r c h of a n e w pe r s pe c t i ve or unde r s t a ndi ng. H e s a y s t ha t i f w e 2 5 I b i d 2 6 L e B e l l e B a c k g r o u n d N o i s e 7 2

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21 c oul d t o s om e de gr e e gi ve our s e l ve s up t o t he m t he s ounds a nd ot he r t hi n gs t ha t i s w e e nj oye d t he pos s i bi l i t y of l e a r ni ng s om e t hi ng ne w 27 H e r e m i ni m a l m us i c a ppr oa c he s s oni c s c ul pt ur e W ha t 's i m por t a nt i s one s i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h a nd pe r s ona l m ove m e nt t hr oughout t he i nvi s i bl e 'w or l d' c ons t r ue d a nd und e r s t ood onl y s oni c a l l y B ot h vi s ua l l y a udi t or i l y a nd c onc e p t ua l l y m y w or k s ha r e s i n F l uxe s t a nd M i ni m a l i s t i c i de a l s I t t a ke s l i t t l e e f f or t t o unde r s t a nd how t he s e w o r ks pa r t a ke i n t he l e ga c y of m i ni m a l i s m T he vi s ua l f or m i s qui t e s i m pl e ( pe r ha ps r e duc i bl e onl y f ur t he r by e qua l i z i ng a l l di m e ns i ons ) w hi l e e a c h s on i c e v e nt i s r e l a t i ve l y s e l f c ont a i ne d a nd hi ghl y r e pe t i t i ve i n m os t r e s pe c t s r e l yi ng on a m i ni m a l va r i a t i on w i t hi n e a c h noi s e m a ki ng pa t h. F l uxus f oc us on t he s i m pl e s t e ve nt s of l i f e ( a nd e s pe c i a l l y s ound's a bi l i t y t o c onve y t he a c t i vi t y of t he s e e v e nt s a s ha ppe ni ngs ) i s m i r r or e d i n m y ow n m or e a bs t r a c t e d s ounds I ns t e a d of e ve r yd a y e ve n t s s uc h a s w a t e r d r oppi ng how e ve r t he e xpl or a t i o n of pe r c e pt i on i s e m pl oye d t hough a bs t r a c t e d s ounds f r e e d t o a gr e a t e r d e gr e e f r om c ont e xt ua l a s s oc i a t i ons t hough s om e t i m e s r e m i ni s c e nt of s ounds pr oduc e d by i ns t r um e nt s a nd pe r c us s i on; ot he r s a r e m or e t r ul y uni que t o t he m s e l ve s U n l i ke F l uxus 'e ve nt s t he f o c us on pe r c e pt i on c om e s not f r om t he s how c a s i ng of s ubt l e h ol i s t i c e ve nt s but r a t he r by c r e a t i ng pe r c e pt ua l di s j unc t i on or f r u s t r a t i on w he r e by t he i ns t i nc t t o or i e nt t he s ound vi s ua l l y i s de f e a t e d. I n doi ng t hi s t he vi s ua l pe r c e pt i on a nd a udi t o r y pe r c e pt i on a r e br ought i nt o a di a l og, r a i s i ng que s t i ons a bout how t he vi s ua l a nd a udi t or y s t i m ul i pe r c e i v e d r e l a t e a nd i nhe r e nt l y c r i t i que a s s um pt i ons he l d t hr ough e a c h m o de of a ppr e he ns i on. I n m a ny r e s pe c t s t hi s pr oj e c t i s a n e f f or t t o unde r s t a nd t h e w or l d of s ound on i t s ow n t e r m s a s i t s ow n w or l d. 2 7 Y o u n g i n K a h n N o i s e W a t e r M e a t 2 2 9

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22 W o r l d as s ou n d S o u n d s c a n n o t b e k n o w n t h e w a y s i g h t s c a n b e k n o w n S e e i n g i s a n a l y t i c a l a n d re fl e c t i v e It p l a c e s t h i n g s s i d e b y s i d e a n d c o m p a re s t h e m S i g h t s a re k n o w a b l e S i g h t s a re n o u n s S o u n d i n g i s a c t i v e a n d g e n e ra t i v e 28 R M ur r a y S c ha f e r l i ke C a ge w a s i nt e r e s t e d i n t he s ounds pr oduc e d i n t he e nvi r onm e nt t hough l e s s c onc e r n e d w i t h l i s t e ni ng t o t he s ounds c a pe a s a va s t m us i c a l c o m pos i t i on unf ol di ng a r ound us c e a s e l e s s l y; i ns t e a d, he s ough t t o unde r s t a nd how t hi s w or l d i nf or m e d our t hi nki ng a n d how w e s houl d a ppr o a c h i t s f ut ur e a nd our s i n i t S om e of hi s m os t i nt e r e s t i ng w or k, w i t h r e ga r ds t o m y ow n pur s ui t s i nvol v e s ound's a bi l i t y t o c ons t r uc t s pe c i f i c pl a c e s H e f e l t pe opl e w oul d ne c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t t he i r s ound e nvi r onm e nt a s m uc h a s t he y w oul d a l s o s ha pe i t H e m a k e s s pe c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o w ha t he t e r m s 'ke ynot e s ounds i n a gi ve n e nvi r on m e nt T he ke ynot e s oun ds of a gi ve n pl a c e a r e i m por t a nt be c a us e t he y he l p t o out l i ne t he c ha r a c t e r of m e n l i vi n g a m ong t he m 29 H e f e e l s t ha t e v e n i f t he s e s ounds a r e n't l i s t e ne d t o c ons c i ous l y t he y c a nnot be ove r l ooke d, f o r ke yno t e s ounds be c om e l i s t e ni ng ha bi t s i n s pi t e of t he m s e l ve s 30 T hough not pr e s e nt e d i n a ne c e s s a r i l y a r t i s t i c c ont e xt S c ha f e r r a i s e s i m por t a nt que s t i ons a bout how s ound s t r uc t ur e s our ow n t hi nki ng e ve n w he n w e don t gi ve pr i m a r y a t t e nt i on t o t he i r i nc e s s a nt pr e s e nc e H e w a s a l s o a c t i ng out of c onc e r n f or our f ut ur e s o ni c e nvi r onm e nt F r om hi s poi nt of vi e w w e a r e i nc r e a s i ngl y he a de d i nt o w h a t he t e r m e d a l o f i s ound e nvi r onm e nt ; i n s uc h t he s i gna l t o noi s e r a t i on i s 1 t o 1 a nd i t i s no l onge r pos s i bl e t o know w ha t i f 2 8 S c h a f e r i n L a B e l l e B a c k g r o u n d n o i s e 1 9 6 2 9 S c h a f e r T h e S o u n d s c a p e 9 3 0 S c h a f e r T h e S o u n d s c a p e 9

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23 a nyt hi ng, i s t o be l i s t e ne d t o. 31 A h i f i s oni c e nvi r onm e nt on t he ot he r ha n d, i s de f i ne d by t he a bi l i t y t o di s t i ngui s h di s c r e t e s ounds f r om a m ongs t t he a m bi e nt s oni c e nvi r onm e nt H e f e a r e d t ha t a s c i vi l i z a t i on a dva n c e d a nd t he pr i or i t y of t he e ye m a i nt a i ne d dom i na nc e t h a t a c ous t i c l a ndm a r ks a n d ge ne r a l a w a r e ne s s or a c ous t i c or i e nt a t i on w oul d de t e r i o r a t e e v e n f ur t he r ove r w h e l m e d by a n i m pe ne t r a bl e w a l l of i ndi s t i ngui s ha bl e noi s e L a c ki ng a pr op e r a pp r e c i a t i on of t he s oni c w or l d w oul d ne ga t i v e l y e f f e c t p e opl e 's c onne c t i on t o one a not h e r t he i r e nvi r onm e nt a n d e ve n t he s pa c e of 's i l e nc e f r om w he nc e c ont e m pl a t i ve t hought a r ous e T o he l p r e c on c i l e t hi s c o nundr um he w a s i n f a vor of t e a c hi ng p e opl e t o l i s t e n t hr ough w ha t he t e r m e d e a r c l e a ni ng e x e r c i s e s A f e w s ugge s t i ons a r e o f f e r e d f or t hi s t a s k. H e s ugge s t s s e t t i ng up l i s t e ni ng e xpe r i e nc e s w he r e s ound i s e l u c i da t e d by m e a ns of r e l a xa t i on a nd c onc e nt r a t i on e xe r c i s e s d e s i gne d t o f os t e r a w a r e n e s s H e a l s o s ugge s t s t he r e pe t i t i ve l i s t e ni ng t o a s i ngl e t ype of s ound or s ou nd e ve nt t o be t t e r und e r s t a nd i t s c om pl e xi t y S i m i l a r t o C a ge he f e l t i t e s s e nt i a l t o t e a c h t he r e s pe c t of s i l e n c e ( s i l e nc e he r e m e a ni ng pe r s ona l s i l e nc e or i n ot he r w or ks a s t a t e of r e c e pt i on r a t h e r t ha n out put ) ot he r t i m e s M y w or k r e f l e c t s a s i m i l a r e m pha s i s on s ound's a bi l i t y t o c ons t r uc t one s e nvi r onm e nt a nd dr a w f o r t h a m or e i m m e r s i ve m a ppi ng of s ur r oundi ngs t ha t c r e a t e a s ha r e d e xp e r i e n c e of a n e nvi r onm e nt W i t hout r e l yi ng on a c i r c um s t a nc e pr e s c r i be d f or e xpa ndi ng s oni c a w a r e n e s s m y w or ks a l s o s e e k a s i m i l a r r e a l i z a t i on w i t h i m pl i c a t i ons e xt e ndi ng t o how w e r e l a t e e xpe r i e n c e ou r e nvi r on m e nt A s S c h a f e r s ugge s t s s ounds do ha ve a n a bi l i t y t o c onne c t a nd or i e nt one t o a l a r ge s c a l e of e xpe r i e n c e t ha t e xt e nds 3 1 S c h a f e r M u s i c o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t 2 9

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24 be yond our o f t e n n a r r ow l y l i m i t e d vi s ua l f i e l d. O nc e a g a i n r e pe t i t i on a nd s i l e nc e ( bot h i m pl i c a t e d i n S c ha f e r 's e a r c l e a ni ng' e xe r c i s e s ) a r e i m por t a nt a s pe c t s of c o nne c t i ng t o a nd pe ne t r a t i ng t he s ounds one c om e s i nt o c ont a c t w i t h, w he t he r a t t e nt i ve l y or i na t t e nt i ve l y W hi l e S c h a f e r f e e l s a l l t ha t i s ne e d e d i s c l a s s l i ke i ns t r uc t i on t o ha ve one 'e a r s c l e a ne d', m y w or k s t a r t s w i t h t he a s s um pt i on t ha t t he e xpe r i e n c e w i l l be a l l t he m or e i m pa c t f ul a nd va l ua bl e i f i t c a n be dr a w n s pont a ne ous l y f r om t he pa r t i c i pa n t s e xpe r i e nc e a s pa r t of t he i ns t a l l a t i on. T hough t he onus i s pl a c e d on t he pa r t i c i pa nt t o e nga ge e xpe r i e n c e a nd t hi nk a b out t he w or ks t he r e s ul t s of pe r s ona l r e ve l a t i on a r e a l w a ys f a r t he r r e a c hi ng S p ac e of S ou n d B y que s t i oni ng s ound's i m por t a nc e i n c ons t r u c t i ng pe r c e pt u a l a nd phe nom e nol ogi c a l s pa c e t he r e e m e r ge d a ne w w a v e of s ound a r t i s t s F ol l ow i ng i n t he f oot s t e ps of L a M ont e Y oung, w i t h R M ur r a y S c ha f e r 's w or k c on c ur r e nt l y unde r w a y t he s e a r t i s t 's f oc us s hi f t e d f r om 'a udi t i on a s t he s i t e of c om pos i t i on' t o e xpe r i m e nt i ng w i t h a nd t e a s i ng a pa r t w a ys i n w hi c h s ound c oul d c onv e y a nd e f f e c t t he pe r c e pt i on of a n e nvi r onm e nt A r t i s t s s uc h a s M a x N e uh a us C hr i s t i na K ubi s h, a nd J a ne t C a r di f f a r e e nt r a nc e d by s ound's a bi l i t y t o c ons t r uc t a n e nvi r o nm e nt : not one s t r i c t l y r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l s uc h t ha t t he s ounds c or r e s pond t o obj e c t s but r a t he r t o t he ve i l e d ha pp e ni ngs or vi s ua l l y hi dde n e ve nt s of a s p a c e T he s e w or ks f oc us e d m o r e on t he s pa c e of s ound, a nd be ga n a t r e nd of s i t e s pe c i f i c i ns t a l l a t i ons t ha t t e a s e a pa r t t he w a y s ounds i nf or m ou r pe r c e pt i on of e nvi r onm e nt E a r l y e xa m pl e s i nc l ud e t he l i s t e n w a l ks be ga n a n d c onduc t e d i n 1966 by M a x

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25 N e uha us F ol l ow i ng t he e xa m pl e of C a g e i n dr a w i ng a t t e nt i on t o t he m us i c of a ny s pa c e t he t i t l e of t he s e r i e s i s s e l f e xpl a na t or y K i m C oh e n not e s how N e uha us 's l i t e r a l m a r c h out of t he c onc e r t ha l l e c hoe s f i gur a t i ve l y s ound a r t 's r a m bl e a w a y f r om m us i c 32 T he s e w e r e e l a bor a t e d on a nd g i ve n a F l uxi s t f l a r e by C hr i s t i na K ubi s h w ho w oul d l e a d e l e c t r om a gn e t i c w a l ks w he r e i n pa r t i c i pa nt s w oul d be gi ve n a s e t of s p e c i a l he a dphone s t ha t c oul d pi c k up a m bi e nt e l e c t r om a gne t i c f i e l ds r e ve a l i ng a hi dd e n a s pe c t of t he i r e nvi r onm e nt vi a s ound. N e uha us e v e nt ua l l y e vol ve d a pr a c t i c e o f s i t e s pe c i f i c s ound i ns t a l l a t i ons t ha t w e r e m e a nt t o he l p s ha pe a nd a l s o bl e nd w i t h, t he e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h t he y w e r e e nga ge d. H e s t a r t s by pl a c i ng t he f i r s t s ound i n t he s pa c e l i s t e ni ng t o i t a n d f i ndi ng t he ne xt t hi ng t o t r y 33 U nl i ke Y o u ng's pi e c e s w hi c h a l s o c r e a t e d a s pa c e f r om i ns t a l l e d a nd c ons t a n t noi s e s N e uha us w or ks a r e not m e a nt t o e xpl or e t he nua n c e s o f a s i ngl e t one s ha pe d by i t s e nvi r onm e nt or t o i ni t i a t e t he l i s t e n e r i nt o t he w or l d of s oun d, but r a t he r t o i nt e gr a t e t he c ons t r u c t e d s ound s pa c e i nt o i t s l oc a t i on, a l l ow i ng t he de l i ne a t i on of bounda r i e s by a udi t i on. A g ood e xa m pl e of s u c h a w or k i s T i m e Squa r e ( 1 977) c ons i s t i ng of a gr a t e t ha t e m a n a t e s a c ons t r uc t e d noi s e r e s ul t i ng i n a c ont r i but i on t o t he ove r a l l f e e l of t he pl a c e s i m i l a r t o Y oung's D r e a m hous e t ho ugh he i s i nt e r e s t e d i n l o c a t i ng t he s ounds i n s pa c e a nd l e t t i ng t he l i s t e ne r pl a c e t he m i n hi s ow n t i m e 34 C hr i s t i na K ubi s h, e vol vi ng t he e l e c t r om a gn e t i c w a l ks m e nt i one d e a r l i e r h a s t a ke n t o us i ng w r a ppi ng ne t w or ks of c a bl e up w a l l s a nd a r ound t r e e s or pi l l a r s t o f or m a hi dd e n s oni c e nvi r onm e n t e xpl or e d by pa r t i c i p a nt s t hr ough m e a ns of he a dp hone s t ha t t r a ns l a t e t he s pa c e i nt o a nd a udi t or y e nvi r onm e nt S uc h w a l ks c l os e l y j oi n one s 3 2 K i m C o h e n N o n C o c h l e a r 1 0 8 9 3 3 N e u h a u s N o t e s o n P l a c e a n d M o m e n t 3 4 N e u h a u s i n s c r i p t i o n s o u n d w o r k s v o l 1 3 4

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26 m ove m e nt t hough a s pa c e t o t he s ounds e xpe r i e n c e d. I nt e r e s t i ngl y t hough t he s i gna l r e vi ve d a nd i s ol a t e d by t he he a dphon e s i s f a r m or e pr e c i s e i n c r e a t i ng not i c e a bl e s hi f t s w i t h l i t t l e m ove m e nt K u bi s h c r e a t e s a w onde r l a n d of s ound e xpe r i e nc e d o nl y by t he pr i vi l e ge d pa r t i c i pa nt N e uha us a l s o r e c e nt l y e m pl oye d a ne w t w i s t on t he c onc e pt f or J ohn C a ge 's S i l e nt P r a ye r w o r k by c r e a t i ng publ i c w or ks s uc h a s I nt e r s e c t i on I ( 1999) ; t he s e g e ne r a l l y w o r k by e xpl or i ng t he a f t e r i m a ge l e f t w h e n c om m on s ounds a r e s udde nl y r e m o ve d f r om t he e nvi r onm e nt a s i f s udde n l y a hol e ope ne d up i n s p a c e a nd s uc k a l l t he a i r o ut T he w or ks t a ke noi s e f r om t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd gr a dua l l y i nt r oduc e i t ba c k i n, t hi c k e n i ng t he s ound s pa c e a s t h e y gr ow l oude r a nd l oude r t he n s udd e n l y a l l a dd e d s ound i s r e m ove d l e a vi ng a s ha r e d e xpe r i e nc e a nd s udde n a w a r e ne s s o f t he s ound va c uum w i t h t he 'a f t e r i m a ge of t he s ounds l a i d ove r t he s udde nl y s t i l l e nvi r onm e nt T he s e w or ks s o f a r h a ve c e nt e r e d on i nt e gr a t i ng a nd c ons t r uc t i ng e xt r a l a y e r s t o t hi c ke n t he pe r c e pt i on of s pa c e t hr ough a udi t or y i nf or m a t i on. J a ne t C a r di f f t ook t he oppos i t e a ppr oa c h t o hi g hl i ght i ng t hough ne ga t i o n a udi t i on's ove r l ooke d r ol e i n f or m i ng our s e ns e of pl a c e S he w oul d hol d w a l ks l e d by por t a bl e W a l km e n pl a yi ng ba c k he r o w n na r r a t e d j our ne y a l ong t h e s a m e pa t h. T h e t he s ou nds he a r d don't a c t ua l l y r e f l e c t t he s pa c e a s i t i s pr e s e nt l y but dur i ng a di f f e r e nt t i m e S t a gi ng s uc h a j a g i n t i m e a nd s pa c e our s e ns e of s e l f i s uns e t t l e d, f or t he i ns t a bi l i t y of r e f e r e n c e l e a ds t o a n unc e r t a i n r e a l i t y w he r e t he bod y l i t e r a l l y f a l l s out of t i m e 35 H e r e vi s ua l e xpe r i e n c e i s pur pos e f ul l y di s c onne c t e d w i t h vi s ua l e xpe r i e n c e t o e m pha s i z e t he r ol e of our h e a r d e nvi r onm e nt t ha t of t e n unc ons c i ous l y he a vi l y s t r uc t ur e s our da i l y e xpe r i e nc e 'K e y s ounds a r e 3 5 L a B e l l e B a c k g r o u n d N o i s e 2 2 6

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27 c ons pi c uous l y out of s ync hi ghl i ght i ng t he di s or i e nt i ng e f f e c t s t ha t c a n e n s ue a nd na r r a t i on, c on c e pt ua l l y c ons t r uc t i ng t he e nvi r onm e nt s e e m s l i ke a voi c e c o nj ur i ng s pe c t e r s t ha t c a n be f e l t a s a l m os t r e a l pr e s e n c e R a t he r t ha n dr a w i ng a t t e nt i on t o a udi t i on t hr ough a de e p e ni ng of e xpe r i e nc e a l a y e r i ng of e xt r a i nf or m a t i on, s h e e m pha s i z e s i t s r ol e i ns t e a d by w a y o f c o nt r a s t t o t ypi c a l s oni c r ou t i ne B y pr e s e nt i ng m y w or k a s a c ohe s i ve e nvi r onm e nt bot h s oni c a l l y a nd vi s ua l l y I a m a t t e m pt i ng t o e nga ge i n a s i m i l a r f a s hi on t o t hos e a bove w i t h our e xpe r i e nc e o f e nvi r onm e nt t hr o ugh s ounds L i ke N e uha us a nd K ubi s h, t he s oni c e nvi r onm e nt i s m e a nt t o c ont r i but e f unda m e nt a l l y t o t he e xpe r i e nc e of s pa c e w hi l e f ol l ow i ng C a r di f f 's l e a d a s pl i t i s f or m e d be t w e e n t he vi s ua l a nd a udi t or y de f i ni t i ons of t he s pa c e I n t hi s w or k, t hough, unl i ke C a r di f f 's r e c or de d s ounds bot h t he vi s ua l a nd a udi t or y e xpe r i e nc e s a r e a s r e a l a nd p r e s e nt i n t he m om e nt a s pos s i bl e N o 'j a g i n t i m e i s s t a ge d, onl y one be t w e e n our t ypi c a l e m pl oym e nt of a udi t or y i n r e l a t i ons hi p t o vi s ua l e xpe r i e nc e T hi s i s s om e w ha t pr obl e m a t i z e d by t he a ppa r e nt s e pa r a t i on be t w e e n t he 'i ns t a l l a t i on s pa c e a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi ps t o t he r e s t of t he w or l d, t hough t he f e a t ur e s of vi s ua l e xp e r i e nc e t ha t a r e i nt e nde d f or s pe c i f i c c r i t i que r e m a i n r e l a t i ve l y a pp a r e nt T he r i ght a ngl e s a n d f l a t w hi t e s ur f a c e s w i t h t e xt s t r ongl y r e c a l l t he s h a pe s of bui l di ngs a s w e l l a s t he w i ndow s s c r e e ns a nd pa ge s t hough w hi c h t he w or l d i s s e e n w h e n l o oki ng out T he s ounds i n c ont r a s t a r e ne ve r l i m i t e d by t he c onf i ne s of t he i r obj e c t s or t h e phys i c a l or i e nt a t i on of pa r t i c i pa nt s T he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on e x a m i ne s s om e t he or i e s a s t o w hy a nd how t hi s di vi de ha s gr ow n, i t s i m pl i c a t i ons a nd how l i s t e ni ng m a y pr ovi de a us e e xpe r i e nt i a l / pe r c e pt ua l c ont r a s t t o m uc h of our vi s ua l w or l d

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28 P ar t I I I n s t a l l a t i o n : T h e o r y a n d E x p e r i e n c e T hi s s e c t i on f oc us e s m or e di r e c t l y on t he i ns t a l l a t i on i t s e l f i n a a t t e m pt t o c onve y s pe c i f i c a l l y t he n a t ur e of t he i ns t a l l a t i on a nd t o unde r s t a nd m or e di r e c t l y t h e t he or e t i c a l c ons t r uc t s a nd i m pl i c a t i ons e m pl oye d a nd c ons i de r e d. T he w or k c ons i s t s vi s ua l l y of 10 box f or m s w hos e s he l l s a r e m a de f r om a t hi n pl yw ood. T h e di m e ns i ons va r y f r om t he l onge s t a t 10'x 16''x 2'', t o t he s m a l l e s t a ne a r pe r f e c t c ube o f 23''. E a c h one pos s e s s e s i ndi vi dua l di m e ns i ons now he r e r e p l i c a t e d. A l l boxe s a r e c l e a nl y f i ni s he d a w a r m w hi t e T r a ns f e r r e d t o t he s ur f a c e o f e a c h box i s a n e xa c t i ng de s c r i pt i on of t he f or m i ns i de a nd out of t he i ndi vi dua l w or k a nd o f t he a c t i ons bl a c k m e t a l s phe r e s t he s i z e of pi nba l l s unde r go o nc e i ns i de t he box. T he o nl y vi s i bl e br e a k s i n t he s ur f a c e a r e t he hol e s t ha t a l l ow t he m e t a l ba l l s e nt r a nc e a nd e xi t a nd t he s m a l l di vot s ne a r e a c h e n t r a nc e hol e t o a l l ow a r e s t i ng s pot f or e a c h s phe r e w hi l e not be i ng a c t i ve l y e ng a ge d. E ve r y s c ul pt ur e i s pa i r e d w i t h a t l e a s t t hr e e b a l l s I ns i de e a c h box a pa t h e xi s t s f or t he s ph e r e s t o f ol l o w va r yi ng f r o m t he w e l l de f i ne d t o m o r e ope n e nde d i nt e r a c t i ons E a c h on e i s c ons t r uc t e d w i t h t he i nt e nt i on of c r e a t i ng a n i nt e r e s t i ng s ound e ve nt br ought f or t h by t h e c ont a c t b e t w e e n t he hi dde n i nne r f o r m a n d t he b a l l dr oppe d i nt o t he voi d. T he r e l a t i ve l y t hi n w a l l s a c t s i m i l a r t o t hos e of a gui t a r body c onduc t i ng t he s ounds a nd a l l ow i ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt t o a udi t or i l y t r a c k t he a c t i ons of t he ba l l w i t hi n. T h e i ns c r i pt i ons on e a c h box a r e pr ovi d e d a t t he e nd o f t hi s s e c t i on f or m or e i n di vi dua l de t a i l a s t o t he i nt e r na l c ons t r u c t i on a nd w or ki ngs of e a c h i ndi vi dua l pi e c e f o r t hos e una bl e t o e xpe r i e n c e t he w o r k i n p e r s on. A s a w hol e t he pi e c e s a r e di s pl a ye d i n a n a t ypi c a l s e t t i ng, i n t ha t t he y'r e not

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29 s i m pl y pl a c e d a ga i ns t w h i t e ga l l e r y w a l l s T he i ns t a l l a t i on t a ke s pl a c e i n t he B l a c k B ox T he a t e r i n t he H a m i l t on C e nt e r a pt l y na m e d a s e ve r yt hi ng i s pa i nt e d bl a c k; w i t h t hi c k bl a c k c ur t a i ns t ha t s ur r ou nd t he i nne r s pa c e T he c ur t a i ns de a de n s ound c o m i ng f r om out s i de a nd a bs or b s ound s qui c kl y w i t hi n t he s pa c e c r e a t i ng a s ha r p c ont r a s t be t w e e n t he m u f f l e d a i r a nd a ny s oun ds pr oduc e d w i t hi n. T he i ndi vi dua l s c ul pt ur e s a r e s us pe nde d by t r a ns pa r e nt f i s hi ng l i ne a l l ow i ng e a c h t o hove r i n s pa c e a ga i ns t t he t he bl a c kne s s t ha t s ur r ounds i t T h e obj e c t s a r e s qua r e d t o t he w a l l s f l oo r a nd c e i l i ng f i t t i ng w i t hi n a n i m a gi na r y gr i dde d t he i n di vi dua l w or ks a dhe r e t o. T he i r pos i t i ons w e r e c ho s e n f or e a s e of a c c e s s m ove m e nt a n d a n a t t e m pt a t c r e a t i ng a n i nt e r l oc ki ng c ohe s i ve s pa c e T h e y w e r e l a i d out a s f ol l ow s ( I ns e r t gr a phi c of t op do w n vi e w of s pa c e w i t h l a be l s ) A r t i s t i c C on c e p t s T o br i e f l y r e c a l l t he c e nt r a l t e na nt of t hi s t he s i s t hi s i ns t a l l a t i on r e vol ve s a r ound a di s j unc t i on t ha t e xi s t s be t w e e n t he vi s ua l a nd a udi t or y w or l ds w e e xpe r i e n c e da i l y A s hi nt e d a t i n t he ope ni ng pa r a gr a phs a nd br i e f l y t o uc he d upon i n f i ndi ng a hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt f or t hi s w or k, t he s e poi nt s of c ont e nt i on c a n m os t e a s i l y be di vi de d i nt o t hr e e f unda m e nt a l a s p e c t s f or c ons i de r a t i on. T he r e i s a l s o a s e ns e t ha t m a ny of t he s e di s t i nc t i ons a r e a l s o m or e t r ue t oda y t ha n p e r ha ps i n t i m e s pa s t T ha t be i ng s a i d, t hough, t hi s i s not i ndi c a t i ve of a l ongi ng f or a l i f e i n t i m e s pa s t but r a t he r a s i m pl e a t t e m pt t o br i ng pr i m a r y a w a r e n e s s t o a w or l d of t e n unc ons i d e r e d f o r i t s ow n qua l i t i e s E a c h di vi s i on i s s ubs um e d i nt o a l a r g e r c ont r a s t t h a t c a n be m a de be t w e e n vi s ua l a nd a udi t or y e xpe r i e nc e ; a s a ge ne r a l poi nt of d e pa r t ur e our vi s ua l e xpe r i e nc e i s pr i m a r i l y l i ne a r s i ngul a r r e m ove d a nd c om pa r a t i ve l y s t a t i c i n c ont r a s t t o a udi t i on w hi c h

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30 i l l um i na t e s a m ul t i di m e n s i ona l pl ur a l i m m e r s i ve a nd dyna m i c w or l d. T he f i r s t di s t i nc t i on m a de i s a s V o e ge l i n s t a t e s i n he r book L i s t e ni ng t o N oi s e and s i l e nc e : T o w a r d s a P hi l os ophy of Sound A r t t ha t s ound i s t he w o r l d a s dyna m i c a s pr oc e s s r a t he r t ha n a s ou t l i ne of e xi s t e nc e 36 O ve r t i m e or r a t he r i n t i m e s o und i s t he e xpe r i e n c e of a w or l d i n a c t i on. I t i s of t e n t he ve r b of e xpe r i e nc e w he r e a s vi s ua l i t y t e nds t ow a r ds s t a bl e c oh e r e nt o bj e c t s s e pa r a t e f r om t he i r g r ound. S e c ondl y vi s ua l e xp e r i e nc e c r e a t e s a n 'obj e c t i ve di s t a nc e be t w e e n t he obs e r ve r a nd t he obj e c t obs e r ve d w hi l e a udi t or y e xpe r i e nc e w oul d ha ve on e be l i e ve t he y a r e i m m e r s e d i n a m ul t i di m e ns i ona l e nvi r onm e nt w h e r e a c t i ve p r oc e s s e s a r e s i m ul t a ne o us l y r e l a t e d w i t h c e nt e r s e v e r yw he r e a nd bounda r i e s now he r e 37 T he di f f e r e nc e m a y be s ubt l e but i t s i m pl i c a t i ons w he n a t t e nde d t o, a r e not B y or i e nt i ng e xpe r i e n c e t hough t he e y e a s t r ong s e ns e o f a s s ur e d obj e c t i vi t y i s c r e a t e d i n t he a ppa r e nt di s t a nc e g e ne r a t e d b e t w e e n s e l f a nd s ubj e c t T he e a r on t he ot he r h a nd, m a y unde r s t a nd s ounds or i gi ns t o e xi s t a t a di s t a nc e but a r e unde r s t ood t o gr e e t t he e a r a s t h e poi nt of e xpe r i e n c e W e r a r e l y go a r ound i nt e r pr e t i ng w ha t w e s e e a s a f i e l d of c r i s s c r os s i ng l i g ht r a ys t ha t w e m ove t hr oug h a nd i nt e r pr e t r a t he r t h e r e s i m pl y e xi s t obj e c t s 'out t he r e i n our a w a r e ne s s t ha t w e 'r e f r e e t o l ook a t r a t he r t h a n r e c e i v e t hr ough our r e t i na T hi s s e ns e of s oni c i m m e r s i on i s a l s o r e i nf or c e d by our a bi l i t y t o he a r s ound f r om a l l di r e c t i ons s i m ul t a ne ous l y a s c om pa r e d t o t he ne e d o f our e ye s t o f oc us on on s i ngl e obj e c t a t a c e r t a i n di s t a nc e T hough i t i s pos s i bl e t o e xt e nd vi s ua l a w a r e ne s s be yond a s i ngl e poi nt t hi s i s onl y pos s i b l e a t t he e xpe ns e o f s e e i ng i n f oc us W he n a t t e nt i on i s gi ve n t o t he e nt i r e vi s ua l f i e l d a t onc e i t i s s t i l l out of f oc us a n d e xt e nde d i n a r e l a t i ve l y s i ngul a r 3 6 V o e g e l i n N o i s e a n d S i l e n c e 3 6 3 7 I b i d 7 1

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31 di r e c t i on. W e don't ha v e e ye s i n t he ba c k no r t op of our he a ds y e t T hi r dl y a nd c l os e l y r e l a t e d t o t he pr e vi ous t e na nt i s s ounds a bi l i t y t o t r a ns c e nd phys i c a l bounda r i e s I n d oi ng s o t he s oni c w or l d i nva de s s pa c e c r e a t e d vi s ua l l y t hus l i nki ng one s c ons c i ous ne s s t o e ve nt s a nd a c t i ons t ha t s ur r ound a nd e xt e nd be yond of t e n l i m i t e d vi s ua l bounda r i e s I n a s i m i l a r ve i n, t hi s a l s o a l l ow s s ounds t o oc c upy t he s a m e s pa c e w h e r e vi s u a l l y e a c h obj e c t s e e n r e qui r e s i t s ow n bounda r i e s f o r pr o pe r pe r c e pt i on. T hough i t m a y s ound obvi ous but I f you t hi nk of e ve r y hum a n s e ns e a s c r e a t i ng i t s ow n s pa c e t h e n t he e ye c r e a t e s a s p a c e w he r e t he r e c a n onl y b e one t hi ng a t a t i m e 38 T h e s e poi nt s of c ont r a s t a r e i m por t a nt f o r c ons i de r i ng how w e no r m a l l y r e l a t e t o our e xpe r i e nc e o f t he w o r l d. O ne of M c L uh a n's m os t pe ne t r a t i ng i ns i ght s w a s t o unde r s t a nd how our m od e l of t he w or l d i s j us t t ha t a m ode l a nd be i ng s o i s he a vi l y s ha pe d by t he s e ns e s w e r e l y upon t o i nt e r pr e t our e xpe r i e n c e T h e w a y w e t h i n k a b o u t t h e w o r l d i s i n n o s m a l l w a y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e s e n s e s w e e n g a g e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h i s w o r l d a n d i n t u r n t h e s e s e n s e s h a v e a l w a y s a l r e a d y a n i d e o l o g i c a l a s w e l l a s a c u l t u r a l f u n c t i o n p r i o r t o u s e m p l o y i n g t h e m T h e j u d g m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e a c h e d i s i n a d v e r t e n t l y d i r e c t e d b y t h a t i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e s e n s e e m p l o y e d 39 T h e I n s t al l at i on U pon e nt e r i ng t he i ns t a l l a t i on one i s c onf r ont e d w i t h t he s t a r k c ont r a s t be t w e e n obj e c t a nd gr ound, of l a r ge w hi t e boxe s s us pe nd e d i n bl a c k va c uous s pa c e T he m i ni m a l vi s ua l a ppe a r a nc e e m pl o ys r i gi dl y gr i dde d obj e c t s a l l di f f e r e nt but onl y a s r e l a t i ve pe r m ut a t i ons of t he ot he r s T he c l e a n l i ne s a nd ge om e t r i c o r ga ni z a t i on a r e i nt e nde d t o r e c a l l i de a l obj e c t s of E u c l i de a n ge om e t r y P e r f e c t pa r a l l e l e pi pe ds gr a f t e d ont o a n i m a gi na r y e ve r pr e s e nt t hr e e di m e ns i ona l g r i d. M a r s ha l M c L uha n, a m i d c e nt ur y m e di a 3 8 M c L u h a n A c o u s t i c S p a c e 6 9 3 9 V o e g e l i n N o i s e a n d S i l e n c e x i

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32 t he or i s t a nd s oc i a l c r i t i c not e s t ha t f or hundr e ds of t hous a nds of ye a r s m a nki nd l i ve d w i t hout a s t r a i ght l i ne i n na t ur e obj e c t s i n t hi s w o r l d r e s ona t e d w i t h e a c h o t he r 40 T he boxe s e m body t hi s s hi f t i m pos e d on vi s i ons c e nt r a l r ol e e xa gge r a t i ng t he l i ne a r na t u r e of our ow n s ha pi ng of t he v i s ua l l a nds c a pe m a ki ng i t c onf or m t o t he c ons t r a i nt s of a n i m a gi na r y a nd s e e m i ngl y pe r pe t ua l gr i d. T h e s e i d e a l i z e d p a r a l l e l e pi p e ds c a pt ur e a s F e l i pe F e r na nde z A r m e s t o a ut hor of C i v i l i z at i ons s a ys m ode r n s oc i e t y's p a s s i on f or r e gul a r g e om e t r y ove r l a i d on na t ur e 's br i s t l e s a n d bum ps 41 A s c i vi l i z a t i on' ha s t r undl e d on, m or e a nd m or e of our vi s ua l e nvi r on m e nt i s dom i na t e d by t he a ngul a r s ha pe s of hous e s o f f i c e bui l di ngs a nd r e t a i l ve nu e s ; a nd, t o a gr ow i ng e xt e nt pe opl e ha ve s pe nt m or e t i m e e nc l os e d w i t hi n s uc h f our w a l l e d a ngul a r e nvi r onm e n t s T he onl y r e l i e f f r om t he unde r s t i m ul a t i ng vi s ua l e xpe r i e n c e c om e s f r om t ype w r i t t e n t e xt t r a ns f e r r e d t o t he w hi t e s ur f a c e of e ve r y obj e c t T he de s c r i pt i ons a r e r e p e t i t i ve a nd un i nt e r e s t i ng i n t he i r c ons t r uc t i on a dhe r i ng t o t he vi s ua l pr e s e nt a t i on of t he ob j e c t s T h e r e e xi s t s one i nt e r e s t i ng c a u s e w a y be t w e e n be t w e e n w or l ds he a r d a nd s e e n: l a ngua ge A s V o e g e l i n c or r e c t l y obs e r ve s t he onl y c r ut c h I c a n f i nd i s t he voi c e w he r e a t l e a s t on a s e m a nt i c l e ve l s ound i s t e m por a r i l y r e d e e m e d i nt o t he t r a ns c e nd e nt a l or de r of t he vi s ua l B ut no voi c e i s pur e l y s e m a nt i c 42 T hi s a s pe c t o f t he i ns t a l l a t i on i s i nt e nde d t o s pa r k r e f l e c t i on on pa r a l l e l s be t w e e n w r i t t e n w or ks ( i nt e r f a c e d w i t h vi s ua l l y a nd unf ol di ng l i ne a r l y) a nd c onve r s i ng vi a voi c e ( c om p r e he nd e d a udi t or i l y t hr ough e xc ha nge ) H e r e t he i nt e nt i on i s t o e xt e nd t he i nf l ue nc e of vi s u a l i t y f ur t he r t o e xa m i ne how i n f or m a t i on t r a ns f e r r e d vi a p r i nt r e i nf or c e s vi s ua l a s s um pt i ons i n c ont r a s t t o c onve r s a t i on w hi c h 40 M c L u h a n A c o u s t i c S p a c e 6 8 4 1 F e r n a n d e z A r m e s t o C i v i l i z a t i o n 1 5 4 2 V o e g e l i n N o i s e a n d S i l e n c e 3 7

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33 ne ve r e vol v e s l i ke t e xt o n a pa g e M a r s ha l M c L uh a n a r gu e s i n hi s book T he G ut e nbe r g G al ax y t ha t a udi t or y e xpe r i e n c e us e d t o pl a y a l a r ge r r ol e i n a t t e nt i on a nd m e nt a l c ons t r uc t i ons of t he w or l d. S e t h K i m C ohe n s um m e d up hi s a r gum e nt be s t w he n he s a i d: Bro a d l y M c L u h a n a t t ri b u t e s a re o r d e ri n g o f h u m a n b e i n g s p e rc e p t u a l fa c u l t i e s t o t h e a d v e n t o f m o v e a b l e t y p e a n d o f w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e p ri n t e d m a t t e r P ri n t c u l t u re -i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Re n a i s s a n c e p e rs p e c t i v e e m p h a s i z e s t h e v i s u a l t o t h e d e t ri m e n t o f o t h e r s e n s e s i n c l u d i n g t h e t a c t i l e a n d t h e a u ra l T h i s p e rc e p t u a l re o r g a n i z a t i o n c a t a l y z e s a c o g n i t i v e re o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o n g l i n e a r a n d p e rs p e c t i v a l l i n e s ; v i s u a l l y c e n t e re d c o g n i t i o n o rd e rs i t s e l f s e q u e n t i a l l y : h o ri z o n t a l l y l i k e w o rd s o n a p a g e o r v e rt i c a l l y l i k e t w o d i m e n s i o n a l r e p re s e n t a t i o n s o f s p a c e S u c h re c o n d i t i o n i n g o f p e r c e p t u a l a n d c o g n i t i v e s e n s i b i l i t i e s n e c e s s a ri l y re l e g a t e s s o u n d t o a s e c o n d a ry p o s i t i o n w i t h l i t t l e m e t a p h o ri c o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n fl u e n c e o v e r t h e o rd e ri n g o f t h o u g h a n d e x p e ri e n c e M c L u h a n i m a g i n e s t h a t t h e l i fe w o rl d b e fo re G u t e n b e r g w a s o r g a n i z e d b y a u ra l e x p e ri e n c e W h a t M c L u h a n re fe rs t o a s a c o u s t i c s p a c e i s h o l i s t i c i m m e rs i v e n o n l i n e a r A g a i n s t t h e fra g m e n t a t i o n o f t h e h u m a n p s y c h e b y p ri n t c u l t u re 43 T he us e of t e c hni c a l t e xt ua l de s c r i pt i ons t ha t a t t e m pt t o r e l a t e t he hi dde n e ve nt s t o t he c ur i ous pa r t i c i pa nt c r e a t e s a not he r puz z l i ng di s c onne c t be t w e e n vi s ua l a nd s oni c e xpe r i e n c e T h e t e xt unf o l de d i n e xpe r i e n c e t hr oug h t i m e but i s s t r i ki ngl y l i m i t e d, bot h i n i t s a bi l i t y t o r e l a t e m or e t ha n a s pe c i f i c a s p e c t of t he e xpe r i e nc e a t a s i ngl e t i m e a nd i t s r e l a t i ve i nf l e xi bi l i t y t o a c c ount f or c h a nge s i n t he ove r a l l e xpe r i e nc e B y a c t i ve l y e nga gi ng t he s c ul pt ur e t hough, a ne w e xpe r i e n c e i n c ont r a s t t o i t s vi s ua l a ppe a r a nc e c a n b e br o ught f or t h. T he m e t a l ba l l w hi c h i s r e f l e c t i ve a nd t he r e i n i nc l us i ve of t he s ur r ound i ngs w i t hi n i t s e l f a nd ge om e t r i c a l l y oppos e d t o t he ha r d s t r a i ght l i ne s of t he boxe s c a n be s e t i n m ot i on w i t hi n t he hi dde n s t r uc t ur e of t h e b ox. T he a c t of e nga ge m e nt w i t h t he obj e c t br i ngs f or t h a n ot h e r w i s e c onc e a l e d di m e ns i o n. T he s ounds de s t a bi l i z e t he s t a t i c obj e c t m a ki ng i t 't r e m bl e w i t h l i f e a s a n obj e c t of pr o c e s s oppos e d t o i t s nor m a l l y m ut e l i ne a r s t a bi l i t y A udi t i on's i ne vi t a bl e i ndi c a t i on of a c t i on c ont r a di c t s 4 3 K i m C o h e n N o n C o c h l e a r 9 2

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34 t he r i dge d l i ne s a nd r e s ol ut e i m pe ne t r a bi l i t y br ought f or t h i n vi s i bl e pe r c e pt i on: uns e t t l i ng w ha t i s t hr ough s oni c phe nom e na a nd a udi bl e s pi r i t s 44 R e qui r i ng a c t i ve e ng a ge m e nt w i t h t he obj e c t t o br i ng f or t h i t s s oundi ng ha s a t hr e e f ol d pur pos e c hos e n ove r a f ul l y a ut om a t e d m e c ha ni s m s uc h a s a s e t of c om put e r c ont r ol l e d s pe a k e r s I ni t i a l l y i t c r e a t e s a t i e b e t w e e n t he pa r t i c i pa nt a nd t he e ns ui ng s ounds e nf ol di ng t he t he pa r t i c i pa nt i nt o t he a c t i vi t y a nd m ot i on of t he s oundi ng. S e c onda r i l y i t pr ovi de s f or a s e m i r a ndom a nd un i que s ound e ve nt w i t h e v e r y i t e r a t i on. S om e s c ul pt ur e s o f f e r m or e l e e w a y i n t hi s r e ga r d w hi l e ot he r s w i l l pr e s e nt a ne a r l y i ndi s t i ngui s ha bl e r e i t e r a t i on of t he pr e vi ous e v e nt A s m e nt i one d p r e vi ous l y t hi s t e c hni que i s dr a w n f r om P i e r r e S c ha e f f e r 's t he or i e s of r e pe t i t i on a nd va r i a t i on a l l ow i ng f or t he l i s t e ne r t o t hor oug hl y unde r s t a nd t he s ound s a nd t he i r f or m s of v a r i a t i on, e xt r a c t i ng t he i nt r i c a c i e s o f f e r e d by e a c h s oni c e x pe r i e nc e L a s t l y r e qui r i n g pa r t i c i pa t i on l e a ve s s pa c e f o r t he s i l e n c e of i ndi vi dua l w or ks ; t hi s i s J ohn C a ge 's s i l e nc e I n t he s pa c e of s oni c a t t e nt i on, w he r e t he vi s ua l obj e c t i s m om e nt a r i l y s i l e nt t he s ounds of ot he r s c ul pt ur e s be i ng e nga g e d a l ong w i t h t he bodi l y noi s e s voi c e s a nd ot he r e nvi r onm e nt a l s ou nds a r e gi ve n a c ha n c e t o e nt e r t a i n our a t t e nt i on be yond t he i r vi s ua l pr e s e nc e H i di ng t he s oundi ng be hi nd vi s ua l ba r r i e r s a l s o w or ks i n c onj unc t i on w i t h t he 's i l e nt m om e nt by c ont r a s t i ng t he s i ngul a r f oc us o f t he e ye w i t h t he s ounds t ha t m ove t hough t h e obj e c t a nd c o m e f r om a l l ot he r di r e c t i ons a s w e l l E a c h vi s ua l obj e c t w or ks w i t h t he ot he r s t o c r e a t e a pa l pa bl e s pa c e o r ga ni z e d m or e l us c i ous l y by t he s ounds of t he e ve nt s w i t hi n t he s c ul pt ur e a nd of a c t i ve p a r t i c i pa nt s t ha t m a ke up t he s pa c e I n c ont r a s t t he s oni c a l l y s t r uc t ur e d s pa c e t he vi s ua l r e a l m i s r i gi dl y s t r uc t ur e d a r ound t he s ha r p a nd 4 4 V o e g e l i n N o i s e a n d S i l e n c e 1 2

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35 uni f or m a ngl e s of e a c h b ox a s i t l oc ks i nt o t he i nvi s i bl e gr i d. U nl i ke L a M ont e Y o u ng's or M a x N e uh a us 's s oni c i ns t a l l a t i ons t he s oni c s pa c e he r e i s n't c r e a t e d by s t a ndi ng w a ve s but r a t he r by w a ve s t ha t c r a s h ove r a nd ov e r a g a i n, r e f or m i ng w i t h e a c h i t e r a t i on a nd i n ne w c om bi na t i on w i t h t he s oni c c e nt e r s t ha t s t r uc t ur e t he m ul t i l a ye r e d a ud i t or y s pa c e P e r ha ps put be s t by M c L uha n i n r e f e r e n c e t o t he s oni c w or l d i n ge ne r a l i t s r e s ona nt a nd i nt e r pe ne t r a t i ng pr oc e s s e s a r e s i m ul t a ne ous l y r e l a t e d w i t h c e nt e r s e ve r y w he r e a nd bounda r i e s now he r e 45 S ou n d a D i f f e r e n t W a y of C r e a t i n g? E v e ry t h i n g i s a c o n v e rs a t i o n o r a s H e ra c l i t u s w o u l d h a v e i t e v e ry t h i n g fl o w s 46 I t m a y a ppe a r t o one c o m m i t t e d t o t he pr i or i t y of s e e i ng, t ha t t hi s w or k a n d pa pe r a s s e r t a ne e d t o 'r e t ur n' t o a n a c ous t i c a l l y f oc us e d/ o r ga ni z e d w or l d. I n s om e w a ys t hi s m a y hol d t r ue but t he i nt e nt i on i s m or e s ubt l e 'R e gr e s s i on' w i l l ne ve r be t he a ns w e r t o a ny pr obl e m E a c h n e w c h a l l e nge w i l l i ne vi t a bl y c om e w i t h i t s ow n w a y t o m ove f or w a r d; pe r ha ps r e l a t e d t o s i m i l a r pr obl e m s pa s s e d but ne v e r a n e x a c t c o r r e l a t i on. T r e a t i ng ne w c ha l l e nge s a s s u c h onl y c onf us e s t he r e a l i s s ue s a t ha nd. T he i nt e nt i on, i n s t e a d, i s t o hi ghl i ght how s oni c s e ns i bi l i t y di f f e r s a nd p r ovi de s a poi nt of c ont r a s t t o w hi c h vi s ua l l y o r ga ni z e d t hou ght c a n be e x a m i ne d f or i t s ow n i m pl i c i t a s s um pt i ons a bo ut t he s t r uc t ur e of ou r w o r l d. B y f r us t r a t i ng t he i m m e di a t e r e s pons e t o a udi t or y s t i m ul us ( t he a t t e m pt t o l oc a t e i t s vi s ua l obj e c t ) t he a u t om a t i c 45 M c L u h a n A c o u s t i c S p a c e 7 1 4 6 K i m C o h e n N o n c o c h l e a r x x i i i

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36 t r a ns f e r o f s oni c s t i m ul us t o vi s ua l s t i m ul us i s ha l t e d. ( T hi s w oul dn't ha ve b e e n a s e f f e c t i ve w i t h s pe a k e r s s i nc e w e h a ve s i nc e be e n t r a i ne d i n t hi s r e ga r d t o r e a l i z e t he l a c k of a ny r e a l a c t i on [ ot he r t ha n t he vi br a t i on of t he s pe a ke r c one ] t ha t c oul d n e c e s s i t a t e a t t e nt i on ot he r t ha n a udi t or y) T he ove r a l l e f f e c t i s t o c r e a t e c l os e l y r e l a t e d vi s ua l a nd a udi t or y e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t don't m a t c h up ve r y w e l l i n t he w or l d e a c h c r e a t e s T hi s of c our s e i s a 's pe c i a l c a s e c r e a t e d t o ove r e xt e nd bot h r e a l m s i n oppos i t e di r e c t i ons w i t h t he i nt e nt i on of c ons t r uc t i ng obvi ous di f f e r e n c e s f o r c om pa r i s on. S ound ha s i n W e s t e r n ph i l os ophy's pa s t be e n i n t he 'a t t r i but a bl e pos i t i on a bl e t o f unc t i on onl y a s a n e nh a nc e m e nt t o t he vi s ua l l y know n obj e c t but ne ve r t o do a nd be c om e B ut a s S a l om e V o g e l i n s a ys i n t he book L i s t e ni ng t o N oi s e and Si l e nc e : W h e n w e s t a rt t o l i s t e n a s a c ri t i c a l m o t i l i t y t h i s p o s i t i o n b e c o m e s u n t e n a b l e L i s t e n i n g e m a n c i p a t e d fro m t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t o e n h a n c e d o e s s o m e t h i n g e l s e I t p ro d u c e s i n v e n t s i t g e n e ra t e s It d e m a n d s t h a t t h e h e a rd b e m o re t h a n a g h o s t o f t h e v i s u a l a fl i m s y fi g m e n t o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n s o o n d i s p e l l e d H o w e v e r i n s t e a d o f d e n y i n g t h e e p h e m e ra l q u a l i t y o f i t s o b j e c t i t i s t h e p r e fe re n c e fo r t h e a s s u m e d s u b s t a n c e o f v i s u a l i t y t h a t n e e d s t o b e re a s s e s s e d b y f o c u s i n g o n t h e e p h e m e ra l e x a c t l y 47 T he pr i m a c y o f a c t i on/ m ove m e nt m a ni f e s t i n s oni c e xpe r i e nc e i n c ont r a s t t o t he vi s ua l s t a bi l i t y of obj e c t s t he c or e of t hi s i ns t a l l a t i on. I f t he w or l d i s c ons i de r e d i n t e r m s of m ove m e nt s w hi c h ne c e s s i t a t e c ons t a nt i nt e r a c t i on a nd e xc h a nge i t c a n b e s e e n how t he vi s ua l bounda r i e s be t w e e n one s e l f a nd t he w or l d o nl y f or m a f r a gm e nt of t h e pi c t ur e D a vi d B ohm a t he or e t i c a l phys i c i s t w ho w r ot e t e xt books on bot h E i ns t e i n's t he or y of r e l a t i vi t y a nd qua nt um t he or y l a t e r b e ga n a ppl yi ng c onc e pt s he f or m ul a t e d i n phys i c s t o i de a s a bout c r e a t i vi t y t hought pe r c e pt i on, a nd di a l og. I n hi s book O n C r e at i v i t y h e us e s a s a na l ogy t o de m on s t r a t e how i t s s om e t i m e s be ne f i c i a l o r m or e a c c u r a t e t o 4 7 V o e g e l i n N o i s e a n d S i l e n c e 1 3

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37 unde r s t a nd obj e c t s a s r e l a t i ons of m ot i on. H e be gi ns w i t h a s t r e a m f l ow i n g pa s t a br i dge pr oduc i ng vor t i c e s a nd s t a t i ona r y w a v e f or m s E vi de nt l y e a c h vor t e x or s t a t i ona r y w a ve f or m i s a n a bs t r a c t i on of a n or de r e d f or m of m ove m e nt w h i c h i s c e nt e r e d i n a c e r t a i n r e gi on of s pa c e but w hi c h a c t ua l l y i nvol ve s t he w hol e f l ui d. 48 H e r e he 's i ndi c a t e d a s i t ua t i on i n w hi c h i t i s obvi ous l y a dva nt a ge ous t o c om pr e he nd t he r e l a t i ve l y s t a t i c f or m t a k e n a s not a s pr i m a r y but a s t he r e s ul t of t he i nt e r w ove n m ove m e nt of t he e nt i r e s ys t e m T he du a l i t y t ha t c a n e xi s t be t w e e n m ot i on a nd obj e c t i s gi ve n f ur t he r und e r s t a ndi ng by t ur ni ng t o e xpe r i m e nt a l r e s ul t s c onc e r ni ng l i ght i t s e l f w hi c h c a n't be und e r s t oo d a s s i m pl y a w a ve ( m ot i on/ a c t i on) or s i m pl y a pa r t i c l e ( obj e c t unt o i t s e l f ) but r a t he r a s bot h s i m ul t a ne ous l y B o hm 's f unda m e nt a l t he s i s i s t ha t by unde r s t a ndi ng bot h t he p hys i c a l w or l d a nd t hough t a s a n i nt e r a c t i ve a nd c o ns t a nt l y e vol vi ng pr oc e s s w e c a n be f r e e d t o a l l ow t r u e c r e a t i vi t y w hi c h i nvol ve s c ha l l e ngi ng a l l a s s um pt i ons t o c ons t a nt l y m ove be yond de l vi ng i nt o i nc r e a s i ngl y de e p e r a nd i nc l us i ve unde r s t a ndi ngs of our s e l ve s a nd our w o r l d. T he a na l ogy of t h e s t r e a m a bove a l s o poi nt s t o a not he r e s s e nt i a l qua l i t y s h a r e d i n t he e xpe r i e n c e o f s ound. A l l t he m ove m e nt s w i t hi n t he s t r e a m a r e e nt i r e l y i nt e r de pe nde nt e a c h f or m r e l i e s on t he ne xt f or t he c onf l a t i on of f or c e s t ha t c r e a t e i t s e xi s t e nc e S i m i l a r l y s ou nd pl a c e s ( a t l e a s t t o a gr e a t e r e xt e nt ) e a c h i ndi vi dua l a t t he c e nt e r o f e xpe r i e nc e i m m e r s e d s i m ul t a ne ous l y i n t he e ve nt s s ur r oundi ng a s w e l l a s i nt e r pr e t i ng a nd r e a c t i ng t o e ve nt s i m pl i e d. T hi s i s c ont r a s t e d a g a i ns t t he vi s ua l e xpe r i e n c e of a r e m ov e d a nd una s s oc i a t e d obs e r ve r w ho c a n e xpe r i e nc e a n obj e c t a t a di s t a nc e w i t h no a ppa r e n t e f f e c t on t he s i t ua t i on. N ot onl y doe s t he obs e r v e r s e e m t o be 4 8 B o h m O n C r e a t i v i t y 9 4

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38 s e pa r a t e but e a c h obj e c t s s e e m s t o c ons t i t ut e i t s ow n s e pa r a t e a nd i ndi vi du a l e xi s t e nc e a s w e l l A s w i t h t he vor t i c e s t hough, i t c a n be ha r d t o de c i de w h e r e on e e nds a nd t he ot he r be gi ns T h e y m a y a pp e a r a s s e pa r a t e e nt i t i e s i n s pa c e w hi l e t h e y a r e i n f a c t c ons t r uc t e d by s ha r e d m ove m e nt I n t hi s w a y t he i r f or m i s a c t ua l l y a s t r uc t ur e o f m ot i on r a t he r t ha n a s t a bl e a nd s t a t i c obj e c t T he s ounds of t he i ns t a l l a t i on i n a s i m i l a r w a y c ons t r uc t a s pa c e t ha t i s a ppa r e nt l y i nt e r c o nne c t e d a nd d e pe nd e nt not onl y on a ppa r e nt f o r m but a l s o e qua l l y on m ot i on of obj e c t s s ound, a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s t he m s e l ve s V o e g e l i n e c hos t hi s s t a t i ng: L i s t e ni ng t o s ou nd a s ve r b i nve nt s pl a c e s a nd t hi ngs w hos e a udi e n c e i s t he i r pr oduc e r I n t hi s a ppr e c i a t i on of ve r b ne s s t he l i s t e ne r c onf i r m s t he r e c i pr oc i t y of hi s a c t i ve e ng a ge m e nt a nd t h e t r e m bl i ng l i f e of t he w o r l d c a n be h e a r d. 49 S ounds e m e r g e a s a l a ye r e d a nd e n f ol de d ha pp e ni ng w he r e a s s i ght i s m ut u a l l y e xc l us i ve i n i t s pe r c e pt i o n of t he w or l d. L i ne r a l i t y of c our s e h a s i t s pl a c e ; but t he i n be t w e e n i s of t e n f o r got t e n w i t hi n t hi s c ont e xt T he c ons t r a i nt s of W e s t e r n l ogi c a r e t i e d t o our s e ns e of s e qu e nt i a l r e l a t i ons hi ps l ogi c m a de vi s ua l T h e m i ddl e gr ound, how e ve r a c c ount e d f or i ni t i a l l y i s e ve nt ua l l y e xude d. I t i s e i t he r o r I f your c ul t ur e nur t ur e s you t o f a vor t he e ye your b r a i n ha s di f f i c ul t y gi vi ng e qu a l w e i ght t o a ny ot he r s e ns e bi a s Y o u a r e t r a ppe d by vi s ua l onl y a s s um pt i ons 50 A s s t a t e d, t he s e a r e a s s um pt i ons of e xc l us i on w he r e i n a nyt hi ng c a n onl y be i t s e l f a nd not hi ng e l s e be i t a n i de a obj e c t o r s ys t e m S ound of c our s e ha s a m pl e r oom f or t he m i ddl e gr ound. S ounds a r e l a ye r e d a nd i m pos e d on e a c h ot he r T he a udi t or y e xpe r i e nc e o f one w i l l i ne vi t a bl y a f f e c t t he e xp e r i e nc e of a not he r a s t he y a r e p e r c e i ve d s i m ul t a ne ous l y r a t he r t ha n i n l i ne a r s e qu e nc e L i ke t he l e f t br a i n a nd t he r i ght e a c h f or m of p e r c e pt i on i s e nga ge d i n pr e s e nt i ng 4 9 V o e g e l i n N o i s e a n d S i l e n c e 1 4 5 0 M c L u h a n A c o u s t i c s p a c e 7 0

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39 a vi e w of t he w or l d t ha t i n s om e s e ns e c h a l l e nge s t he ot he r T hi s c ha l l e ng e t hough, i s m e r e l y a w a y of c r e a t i ve l y unde r s t a ndi ng t he l i m i t a t i ons of bot h t o a l l ow a de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng. W he r e t h e l e f t br a i n f unc t i ons f a nt a s t i c a l l y w i t h l i ne a r r e l a t i ons hi ps t he r i ght br a i n i s a bl e t o pe r c e i ve br oa d p a t t e r ns a nd o r de r be t w e e n l e s s a ppa r e nt l y r e l a t e d phe nom e non, but ne i t he r i s s u f f i c i e nt f or a t r ul y de e p unde r s t a ndi ng of ou r e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he i nt e gr a l r ol e w e p l a y i n unde r s t a ndi ng a nd s ha pi ng i t s c our s e B y ut i l i z i ng bot h a nd by c om pa r i ng t he l i m i t a t i ons of b ot h t he y c a n be unde r s t ood a nd t r a n s c e nde d i nt o a m or e c om pl e t e unde r s t a n di ng w hi c h i t s e l f m us t i ne vi t a bl y be unde r s t ood a s t e m por a r y a nd up f or r e vi s i on. M y w or k t he n, i n i t s m os t ge ne r a l s e ns e a i m s t o i ni t i a t e t hi s s a m e c r e a t i ve t r a ns c e nde nc e

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40 D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i on s of t h e s c u l p t u r e s a n d t h e i r m e c h an i s m s 17 S t e p C l om p T he box i s m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood w i t h t hr e e c oa t s of pr i m e r a nd t w o c oa t s of pa i nt w i t h ove r a l l di m e ns i ons of 8' x 17 7/ 8'' x 1 15/ 16''. A c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l 1 a nd 1/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r c o a t e d bl a c k, i s pi c ke d up f r om one o f t h r e e di vot s i n t he s ur f a c e or r e m ove d f r om t he ope ni ng 1 '' x 1 9/ 16'' on t he e nd of t he box. T h e c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l i s pl a c e d i n a 1 '' x 1 3/ 16' ope ni ng on t he t op of t he box. I t f a l l s o nt o a s m a l l w oode n 10 de gr e e r a m p w hi c h p r ope l s i t t ow a r ds t he c e nt e r o f t he box o f f t he f i r s t of 1 7 s t e ps A s i t r e a c h e s t he e dg e of t he f i r s t s t e p t he ba l l de s c e nds dow n a not he r s m a l l s l ope of 15 de gr e e s a nd 3/ 8t hs of a n i n l ong w hi c h w i l l i m pa r t e xt r a m om e nt um t o c a r r y i t a c r os s t he ne xt pl a t f or m T he ba l l t he n f a l l s 7/ 16 t hs of a n i n t o t he ne xt s t e p. T he s e c o nd s t e p va r i e s f r om t he f i r s t i n t ha t i t l a c ks a 10 de gr e e r a m p a t i t s s t a r t a nd ha s a t t a c h e d t o t he unde r s i de a s m a l l 3/ 4''x2' 'x1 '' bl oc k of w hi t e pi n e T hi s c ha nge s t he s oun d i n r e l a t i on t o t he f i r s t s t e p w hi c h: l a c k e d s uc h a bl oc k, w a s gl ue d t he out e r w a l l a nd w a s f i t t e d w i t h t he l a r g e r i ni t i a l r a m p. I t r ol e s a c r os s t hi s ne w s t e p 6'' i n l e ngt h be f or e r e p e a t i n g t he a c c e l e r a t i on a nd d r op. L a nd i ng on t he t hi r d pl a t f or m t he ba l l l a nds on a ne w s t e p l a c ki ng t he bl oc k of w hi t e pi ne u nde r ne a t h. E a c h s uc c e s s i ve s t e p w i l l a l t e r na t e w i t h a nd w i t hout a bl oc k of w ood gl ue d t o t he bot t om T he ba l l e nd s on t he l ow e r out e r f r a m e of t he box

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41 w he r e i t c om e s t o a s t op a s i t hi t s t he l ow e r e dge o f t he ope ni ng on t he a dj a c e nt w a l l of t he box w he r e i t c a n be r e t r i e ve d a nd e i t he r pl a c e d i n t he a f or e m e nt i one d di vot s or i ni t i a l i z i ng ope ni ng. M e t al r od z i g z ag T he box i s m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood w i t h t hr e e c oa t s o f pr i m e r a nd t w o c oa t s of pa i nt w i t h ove r a l l di m e ns i ons of 48'' x 48'' x 2 7/ 8''. A c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l 1 a n d 1/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r c o a t e d bl a c k, i s pi c ke d up f r om one o f t h r e e di vot s i n t he s ur f a c e or r e m ove d f r om t he ope ni ng 1 7/ 16'' x 1 5/ 8'' on t he e n d of t h e box. T he c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l i s pl a c e d i n a 1 1/ 8'' x 1 1/ 8' ope ni ng on t he t op of t he box. T h e ba l l l a nds on t w os t e e l r ods 3/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r t ha t gr a dua l l y gr ow w i de r a nd dr op 2'' a c r os s t he t he di a m e t e r of t he box. A f t e r r ol l i ng t he m a j or i t y of t he di s t a nc e t he ba l l r e a c h e s a g a p w i de e nough t o f a l l t hr ough. A f t e r f a l l i ng t he ba l l l a nds on a pa i r of 3/ 16'' s t e e l r ods s e t of i n r e ve r s e T hi s ha ppe ns a t ot a l of 18 t i m e s I f t he b a l l ge t s de r a i l e d t he r e a r e a s e r i e s of s a f e ga ur ds t ha t w i l l s e t t he ba l l ba c k on t r a c k. W h e n t he ba l l i s t r a ppe d a ga i ns t t he w a l l a s e r i e s of w e dge s nudge t h e ba l l ba c k ont o t he r ods C om pl e t i ng t he ne a r l y one m i nut e r ound t r i p t he ba l l c om e s t o a s t op a s i t hi t s t he l ow e r e dge of t he ope ni ng on t he s i de of t he t he box ne a r e s t t he op e ni ng w he r e i t c a n be r e t r i e ve d a nd e i t he r pl a c e d i n t he a f o r e m e nt i one d di vot s or i ni t i a l i z i ng ope ni ng.

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42 S h e e t M e t al C on e T he box i s m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood w i t h t hr e e c oa t s of pr i m e r a nd t w o c oa t s of pa i nt w i t h ove r a l l di m e ns i ons o f 48'' x 48'' x 17 1/ 4''. A c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l 1 a n d 1/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r c o a t e d bl a c k, i s pi c ke d up f r om one o f t h r e e di vot s i n t he s ur f a c e or r e m ove d f r om t he ope ni ng 1 7/ 8'' x 1 3/ 8'' on t he e nd of t he box. T h e c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l i s pl a c e d i n a 1 # '' x 1 5/ 16'' ope ni ng on t he t op of t he box. D r oppi ng t hr ough t he hol e t he ba l l l a nds on t w o s t e e l r ods 1 4'' i n l e ngt h. T he s e a c c e l e r a t e t he b a l l de pos i t i ng i t a t t he pr ope r s pe e d a nd a ngl e t o or bi t t he l a r ge s t e e l c one M a ki ng be t w e e n 7 10 r ot a t i on s be f or e r e a c hi ng t he c e nt e r w he r e i t i s de pos i t e d ont o a r e t r i e va l r a m p m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood. T hi s de l i ve r s t h e ba l l t o t he l ow e r e dg e o f t he ope ni ng on t he a dj a c e nt w a l l of t he box w he r e i t c a n be r e t r i e ve d a nd e i t he r pl a c e d i n t he a f or e m e nt i one d di vot s or i ni t i a l i z i ng ope ni ng.

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43 S h e e t M e t al r am p T he box i s m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood w i t h t hr e e c oa t s of pr i m e r a nd t w o c oa t s of pa i nt w i t h ove r a l l di m e ns i ons of 74 '' x 23 7/ 8'' x 13 3/ 8''. A c a r bon s t e e l pi nb a l l 1 a nd 1/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r c oa t e d bl a c k i s pi c ke d up f r om one o f t hr e e di vot s i n t he s ur f a c e or r e m ove d f r om t he ope ni ng 4 5/ 8'' x 1 1/ 4'' on t he e nd of t he box. T h e c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l i s pl a c e d i n one of t w o ope ni ngs 1 3/ 16'' x 9 3/ 4'' on t he t op of t he box. T he l e f t ope ni ng i m m e di a t e l y de l i ve r s t he ba l l ont o a s m oot h s l a nt e d s ur f a c e w hi l e t he r i ght s e nds i t dow n a pa t h of bum ps a nd c a n yons T he r e i s no ba r r i e r pr e ve nt i ng t he ba l l f r om c r os s i ng ba c k a nd f or t h f r om one ha l f t he t he ot he r T h e l e f t a nd r i ght s i de s bot h r e m a i n t e xt ur e d t he w a y t he y be g a n. A ppr o a c hi ng t he oppos i t e e nd of t he box, t he ba l l r e v e r s e s di r e c t i on a f t e r e nc ount e r i ng t he w a l l T he s e c ond r a p c ont a i ns t he r e ve r s o f t he f i r s t T he l e f t hol ds de e p w e l l s t ha t m a y t r a p t he ba l l s t e m por a r i l y w hi l e t he r i ght i s f l a t a nd s m oot h A ppr oa c hi ng t he n e a r w a l l t he ba l l i s f unne l e d t ow a r ds t he l ow e r hol e w he r e i t c om e s t o a s t op a s i t hi t s t he l ow e r e dge of t he ope ni ng w h e r e i t c a n be r e t r i e ve d a nd e i t he r pl a c e d i n

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44 t he a f or e m e nt i one d di vo t s or i ni t i a l i z i ng ope ni ng. C h i m e B ox T he box i s m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood w i t h t hr e e c oa t s of pr i m e r a nd t w o c oa t s of pa i nt w i t h ove r a l l di m e ns i ons of 10' x 24'' x 5 3/ 8''. A c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l 1 a nd 1/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r c o a t e d bl a c k, i s pi c ke d up f r om one o f t h r e e di vot s i n t he s ur f a c e or r e m ove d f r om t he ope ni ng 3 3/ 8'' x 1 1/ 8'' on t he e nd of t he box. T h e c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l i s pl a c e d i n a 1 # '' x 1 # '' ope ni ng on t he t op of t he box. T h e ba l l be gi ns dow n a r a m p t ha t s t r e t c he s t he f ul l l e ngt h o f t he box. D a ngl i ng i n i t s pa t h a r e s t e e l r o ds of v a r yi ng l e ngt h ( 2'' 14'') a nd t hi c kne s s ( 1/ 8'' '') T he r ods h a ng by f i s hi ng l i ne f r om t he t op of t he box a nd t he f i r s t r a m p. T h e b a l l s pa t h i s not s e t a nd w i l l va r y w i t h e ve r y r un b a s e d on r a ndom i nt e r a c t i ons be t w e e n s w i ngi ng r ods a nd t h e pa t h of t he b a l l R e a c hi ng t he s e c ond t i e r t he ba l l be gi ns ba c k i n t he oppos i t e di r e c t i on n ow e nc ount e r i ng a t hi c ke ni ng de ns i t y of r ods R e a c hi ng t he e n d i t c om e s t o a s t op a s i t hi t s t he l ow e r e dge o f t he ope ni ng on w a l l of t he box w he r e i t c a n be r e t r i e ve d a n d e i t he r pl a c e d i n t he a f or e m e nt i one d di vot s

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45 or i ni t i a l i z i ng ope ni ng. M u l t i d i r e c t i on al C h i m e d C u b e T he box i s m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood w i t h t hr e e c oa t s of pr i m e r a nd t w o c oa t s of pa i nt w i t h ove r a l l di m e ns i ons of 23 3/ 8'' x 23 3/ 3'' x 23 1/ 8''. A c a r bon s t e e l pi n ba l l 1 a nd 1/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r c oa t e d bl a c k, i s pi c ke d up f r om one of t hr e e di vot s i n t he s ur f a c e or r e m ove d f r om t he ope ni n g1 '' x 1 7/ 16'' on t he e n d of t he box. T he c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l i s pl a c e d i n a 1 1/ 8'' x 1 1 / 8'' ope ni ng on t h e t op of t he box. T h e ba l l be gi ns m ovi ng c ount e r c l oc k w i s e a r oun d t he pe r i m e t e r P e r i odi c l y s pa c e d a l ong t he t r a c k a r e s t e e l ba r s hung ve r t i c a l l y a nd hor i z ont a l l y i n t he pa t h of t he ba l l D ue t o m ove m e nt a nd r a ndom e f f e c t s e ve r y pi e c e i s not hi t by e ve r y b a l l A f t e r m a ki ng 1.25 l a ps t he pa t h r e ve r s e s di r e c t i on a nd t he ba l l m o ve s 1.5 l a ps c l oc kw i s e A ga i n t he pa t h r e v e r s e s di r e c t i on a nd t he ba l l m ove s 1.5 l a ps c ount e r c l oc kw i s e be f o r e t a ki n g a di a gona l pa t h a c r os s t he box t o e nd of a t t he l ow e r e xi t w he r e i t c om e s t o a s t op a s i t hi t s t he l ow e r e dge o f t he ope ni ng on

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46 t he a dj a c e nt w a l l of t he b ox. I t c a n be r e t r i e v e d a n d e i t he r pl a c e d i n t he a f o r e m e nt i one d di vot s or i ni t i a l i z i ng ope ni ng. P i an o W i r e T he box i s m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood w i t h t hr e e c oa t s of pr i m e r a nd t w o c oa t s of pa i nt w i t h ove r a l l di m e ns i ons of 83 3/ 8'' x 12 3/ 8'' x 1 1 15/ 16''. A c a r bon s t e e l p i nba l l 1 a nd 1/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r c oa t e d bl a c k, i s pi c ke d up f r om one of t hr e e di vot s i n t he s ur f a c e or r e m ove d f r om t he ope ni n g 2 7/ 16'' x 1 1/ 8'' on t he e nd of t he box. T he c a r b on s t e e l pi nba l l i s pl a c e d i n a 1 3/ 3'' x 1 3/ 8'' ope ni ng on t he t op of t he box. F a l l i ng e i ght i nc he s t he ba l l l a nds on a be d of pi a no w i r e s s t r e t c h e d t he l e ngt h of t he box. A f t e r bounc i ng c ha ot i c l y a c r os s t he m i t m ove s dow n t he gr a du a l de c l i ne of t he s t r i ngs t o t he e nd of t he box w he r e i t dr ops b e l ow a nd r ol l s dow n a s hor t r a m p c om e i ng t o a s t op a s i t hi t s t he l ow e r e dge o f t he ope ni n g on t he a dj a c e nt w a l l of t he box w he r e i t c a n be r e t r i e ve d a nd e i t he r pl a c e d i n t he a f o r e m e nt i one d di vot s or i ni t i a l i z i ng ope ni ng.

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47 S i l e n t B an g T he box i s m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood w i t h t hr e e c oa t s of pr i m e r a nd t w o c oa t s of pa i nt w i t h ove r a l l di m e ns i ons of 73 '' x 8 '' 10 7/ 16'' A c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l 1 a nd 1/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r c o a t e d bl a c k, i s pi c ke d up f r om one o f t h r e e di vot s i n t he s ur f a c e or r e m ove d f r om t he ope ni ng 3 5/ 8'' x 1 1/ 8'' on t he e nd of t he box. T h e c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l i s pl a c e d i n a 2 7/ 16'' x 4 3/ 16'' ope ni ng on t he t op of t he box. I t l a nds i n a c ha nn e l m a d e f r om s us pe nde d c l ot h. F ol l ow i ng a s e r i e s of 23 s u c h C ha nne l s t he ba l l m a ke s i t s w a y ba c k a nd f or t h t o t he bot t om l a ndi ng on a w oode n r a m p a n d r ol l i ng 4'' t o 6'' w he r e i t c om e s t o a s t op a s i t hi t s t he l ow e r e dge of t he ope ni ng on t he w a l l of t he box w he r e i t c a n be r e t r i e ve d a nd e i t he r pl a c e d i n t he a f or e m e nt i one d di vot s or i ni t i a l i z i ng ope ni ng.

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48 C h aos D r op T he box i s m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood w i t h t hr e e c oa t s of pr i m e r a nd t w o c oa t s of pa i nt w i t h ove r a l l di m e ns i ons of 67 9/ 16'' x 23 15/ 16'' x 2 7/ 16''. A c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l 1 a nd 1/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r c oa t e d bl a c k, i s pi c ke d up f r om one of t hr e e di vot s i n t he s ur f a c e or r e m ove d f r om t he ope ni n g 1 # '' x 1 7/ 8'' on t he e n d of t he box. T he c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l i s pl a c e d i n a 22 '' x 2'' ope ni n g on t he t op of t he box. L i t t e r e d i n t he c ol u m n of t he box a r e r a ndom l y pl a c e d do w e l s a nd bl oc ks w hi c h ha v e t hi c k r ubbe r b a nds s t r e t c he d a c r os s t he i nt e r m e di a t e s pa c e T he obs t a c l e s gr o w i nc r e a s i ngl y l a r ge r e ve nt u a l l y t ur ni ng i nt o s m a l l r a m ps T h e ba l l s p a t h i s di f f e r e nt e ve r y t i m e de pe ndi ng on i t s or i gi na l pos i t i on

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49 f or c e a nd s pi n. R e a c hi ng t he bot t om i t c om e s t o a s t op a s i t hi t s t he w a l l of t he box ne xt t o t he ope ni ng w he r e i t c a n be r e t r i e ve d a nd e i t he r pl a c e d i n t he a f or e m e nt i one d di vot s or i ni t i a l i z i ng ope ni ng. P V C C l om p T he box i s m a de f r om L a una pl yw ood w i t h t hr e e c oa t s of pr i m e r a nd t w o c oa t s of pa i nt w i t h ove r a l l di m e ns i ons of 39 15/ 16'' x 38 '' x 24''. A c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l 1 a nd 1/ 16'' i n di a m e t e r c oa t e d bl a c k i s pi c ke d up f r o m one o f t hr e e di vot s i n t he s ur f a c e or r e m ove d f r om t he ope ni ng 2 7/ 8'' x 1 5/ 8'' on t he e nd of t he box. T h e c a r bon s t e e l pi nba l l i s pl a c e d i n one of t w o ope ni ngs 1 1/ 8'' x 1 1/ 8'' on t he t op of t he box. B ot h c ont a i n s i m i l a r t r a c ks E a c h c ons i s t s of a s e r i e s of di f f e r e nt l e ngt h P V C pi pe s w i t h c ount e r w e i ght e d pa ddl e s he l d a bove t he e nds of t h e t ube s F a l l i ng on t he pa ddl e t he t ube i s s t r uc k w hi l e t he ba l l

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50 m ove s dow n t he r a m p t o f a l l on t he ne xt t ube A f t e r l e a vi ng t he s ur f a c e of t he pa ddl e i t i s a ut om a t i c a l l y r e s e t by t h e c ount e r w e i ght E a c h s t r i ke i s va r i e d by t he l e ngt h of t he a dj oi ni ng pi pe B ot h t r a c ks c onve r ge on t h e s a m e ope ni ng w he r e t he ba l l c om e s t o a s t op a s i t hi t s t he l ow e r e dge o f t he ope ni ng on t he w a l l of t he box w he r e i t c a n b e r e t r i e v e d a nd e i t he r pl a c e d i n t he a f or e m e nt i one d di vot s or i ni t i a l i z i ng ope ni ng. B i bl i ogr a ph y B ohm D a vi d. O n C r e at i v i t y L ondon: R out l e dge C l a s s i c s 2006. P r i nt C ox, C hr i s t oph, a nd D a ni e l W a r ne r A udi o C ul t u r e R e adi ngs i n M ode r n M us i c N e w Y o r k: C ont i nu um 2004. P r i nt F e r n nde z A r m e s t o, F e l i pe C i v i l i z at i ons : C ul t u r e A m bi t i on, and t he T r ans f or m at i on of N at u r e N e w Y o r k: T o u c hs t one 2001. P r i nt K a hn, D ougl a s N oi s e W at e r M e at : a H i s t or y of Sound i n t he A r t s C a m br i dge M A : M I T 1999. P r i nt

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51 K i m C o he n, S e t h. I n t he B l i nk of an E ar : t ow a r d a N on c oc hl e ar Soni c A r t N e w Y o r k: C ont i nuum 2009. P r i nt L a B e l l e B r a ndon. B ac k g r o und N oi s e P e r s pe c t i v e s on Sound A r t N e w Y o r k [ u.a .: C ont i nuum 2007. P r i nt M c L uha n, M a r s h a l l V i s ua l a nd A c ous t i c S pa c e A u di o C ul t u r e : R e adi n gs i n M ode r n M us i c B y C hr i s t oph C ox a nd D a ni e l W a r ne r N e w Y o r k: C ont i nuum 2004. 67 72. P r i nt N e uha us M a x. M ax N e u haus : I ns c r i pt i on, Sound W o r k s V o l 1 O s t f i l de r n, G e r m a ny: C a nt z V e r l a g, 1994. P r i n t N e uha us M a x. N ot e s o n P l a c e a nd M om e nt ." M ax N e uhaus : Sound W o r k s V o l 1. 1992. H t t p: / / w w w m a x n e uha us .i nf o/ W e b < ht t p: / / w w w m a x ne uha us .i nf o/ s oundw or k s / ve c t or s / m om e nt / not e s / > R us s ol o, L ui gi T he A r t of N oi s e s : F ut ur i s t M a ni f e s t o." A udi o C ul t u r e : R e adi ngs i n M ode r n M us i c B y C hr i s t oph C ox a nd D a ni e l W a r ne r N e w Y o r k: C ont i nuum 2004. 10 14. P r i nt S c ha e f f e r P i e r r e A c ous m a t i c s ." A udi o C ul t u r e : R e adi ngs i n M ode r n M us i c B y C hr i s t oph C ox a nd D a ni e l W a r ne r N e w Y o r k: C ont i nuum 2004. 76 81. P r i nt S c ha f e r R M ur r a y T he M us i c of t he E nvi r onm e nt ." A udi o C ul t u r e : R e ad i ngs i n M ode r n M us i c B y C hr i s t oph C ox a nd D a ni e l W a r ne r N e w Y o r k: C ont i nuum 2004. 29 39. P r i nt S c ha f e r R M ur r a y T he Sounds c ape : O ur Soni c E nv i r onm e nt and t he T u n i ng of t he W o r l d R oc h e s t e r V T : D e s t i n y 1993. P r i nt V a r e s e E dga r d. T h e L i be r a t i on of S ound." A udi o C ul t u r e : R e adi ngs i n M ode r n M us i c

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52 B y C hr i s t oph C ox a nd D a ni e l W a r n e r N e w Y o r k: C ont i nuum 2004. 17 21 P r i nt V o e g e l i n, S a l om e L i s t e ni ng t o N oi s e and Si l e nc e : t ow a r d a P hi l os ophy of Sound A r t N e w Y o r k: C ont i nuum 2010. P r i nt W i s ha r t T r e vo r O n So ni c A r t E d. S i m on E m m e r s on. L ondon: R out l e dge 2002. P r i nt


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