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Social Tolerance and Marginalization in Post-War Germany

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004428/00001

Material Information

Title: Social Tolerance and Marginalization in Post-War Germany A Study of the "Others" in Contrast to German Identity
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Patti, Amber
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Germany
Turish Immaigrants
Gays and Lesbains
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis compares the experiences of two groups defined as the �other� in contrast to German identity. It surveys their experiences in Germany in the post-war period through reunification and to the present. The first chapter focuses on Turkish immigrants, primarily the experiences of guestworkers and asylum seekers. The chapter explores their arrival into both West and East Germany, issues of reunification, the rise in anti-foreigner violence, and laws that were reformed to fix Germany�s perceived �foreigner problem.� The second chapter focuses on the �third sex,� gays and lesbians. Similar to the first chapter, this chapter briefly explores homosexuality from 1871 to World War II, and then it compares homosexuality in East and West Germany, issues with reunification, AIDS, homophobia, legal reform, and a brief image of Germany today. This thesis exposes issues behind the continual exclusion of Tur
Statement of Responsibility: by Amber Patti
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Harvey, David

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 P32
System ID: NCFE004428:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004428/00001

Material Information

Title: Social Tolerance and Marginalization in Post-War Germany A Study of the "Others" in Contrast to German Identity
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Patti, Amber
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Germany
Turish Immaigrants
Gays and Lesbains
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis compares the experiences of two groups defined as the �other� in contrast to German identity. It surveys their experiences in Germany in the post-war period through reunification and to the present. The first chapter focuses on Turkish immigrants, primarily the experiences of guestworkers and asylum seekers. The chapter explores their arrival into both West and East Germany, issues of reunification, the rise in anti-foreigner violence, and laws that were reformed to fix Germany�s perceived �foreigner problem.� The second chapter focuses on the �third sex,� gays and lesbians. Similar to the first chapter, this chapter briefly explores homosexuality from 1871 to World War II, and then it compares homosexuality in East and West Germany, issues with reunification, AIDS, homophobia, legal reform, and a brief image of Germany today. This thesis exposes issues behind the continual exclusion of Tur
Statement of Responsibility: by Amber Patti
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Harvey, David

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 P32
System ID: NCFE004428:00001


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PAGE 17

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PAGE 22

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`$&%'(%,!&/+!2&#'3%-(,!,'33+!#1((6 [ .* [ H3;)>? PU D1(!0$(,';3%6(%,!;(%(!/3'!(<73,(+!'3!4$#1!32!'1(!]&,'!5(%4&/!#$)'$%(!&/+! '1(*!7%-4&%-)*!%(4&-/(+!-,3)&'(+8!/3'!(/#3$%&0(+!'3!-/'( 0%&'(:!-/,'(&+8!'1(*! #3/'-/$(+!'3!7%&#'-#(!'1(-%!3;/!#$)'$%( -/!7(&#( 8 ;1-#1!;3$)+!7%3C(!'3!#&$,(! '%3$.)(!23))3;-/0!%($/-2-#&'-3/> D1(!7%(,(/#(!&/+!/((+,!32!&,*)$4!,((6( %,!;(%( H$,'!&,!-/C-,-.)(!&,!'13,( 32! 0$(,';3%6(%,8!&/+!.3'1!;(%(!(`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i/K!&/+!I)%-#18!=_1&/0-/0!b&''(%/,!32!944-0%&'-3/!'3!5(%4&/*8?!AX> PU 9%()&/+8!=J3#-&)-,48!I/-2-#&'-3/!b3)-#*8!&/+!'1(!Q-,(!32!Q&#-,4!-/!]&,'(%/! 5(%4&/*8?!WUB> PW 9.-+8!WU^>

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36 f%!&!0)-,'(/-/0!6/-2(!3%!&!,'%-6-/0 ;(&73/> E&/*!;-))!,&*!;(!&%(!(<&00(%&'-/08 N$'!;(SC(!)-C(+!1(% ( 23%!';(/'*!*(&%,!&/+!&%( D-%(+!32!.(-/0!,-)(/'g 9!1&C(!&!0%((/!7&,,73%'!;-'1!&!03)+(/!(&0)(!3/!-'8! N$'!9S4!,'-))!23%(-0/!1(%(>! WA D1(!-%3/*!32!'1(!,-'$&'-3/!23%!"+C&/#(+!_1(4-,'%*!-,!'1&'8!&)'13$01!'1(*!&%(!&! 737$)&%!%&7!0%3$7! &43/0!5(%4&/ *3$'18!'1(-%!;3%+,!1&C(!03/(!$/1((+(+>!c(,7-'(! 2(()-/0!&/+!&,,3#-&'-/0!'1(-%!-+(/'-'*!&,!5(%4&/*8!'1(,(!=23%(-0/(%,?!&%(!'%(&'(+!&,!-2! '1(*!&%(!/3 '1-/0!)-6(!'1(!5(%4&/!7(37)(> f'1(%!#344(/'&%*!2%34!23%(-0/(%,!(C36(,!'1(!;3%+,!32!"+C&/#(+! _1(4-,'%*:!'1(*!&%(!#3/,-+(%(+!23%(-0/(%,!-/!'1(!3/)*!#3$/'%*!'1&'!43,'!7%3.&.)*! 1&C(!(C(%!6/3;/>!",!/3'(+!7%(C-3$,)*8!,34(!32!'1(!5(%4&/!7$.)-#!%(,73/+(+!'3!'1(! C -3)(/#(!'1%3$01!4&,,!7%3'(,',!&/+!7%(,,$%-/0!32!'1(!5(%4&/!03C(%/4(/'>!"'!'1(! ,&4(!'-4(8!23%(-0/!7%(,,! &/+!3%0&/-K&'-3/,!L,$#1!&,!IOG_QnGQV M!,-4$)'&/(3$,)*! 7%(,,$%(+!'1(!03C(%/4(/'!-/'3!7%3C-+-/0!&+(`$&'(!2&#-)-'-(,8!(4(%0(/#*!%(,73/,(8! &/+!2&-%!'%(&'4(/'! 23%!23%(-0/(%,>!",!;())!&,!7$.)-#!%(,73/,(8!3%0&/-K&'-3/,!,$#1!&,! e&/&6!"''&6!L&/3'1(%!%(&77%37%-&'-3/!32!&!7(H3%&'-C(!'(%4!23%!'13,(!32!"2%-#&/! +(,#(/'M!H3-/!'30('1(%!'3!=(%&+-#&'(!%&#-,4!2%34!5(%4&/!,3#-('*> ? WY V-'13$'!'1(-%! %(,73/,(8!-'!-,!)-6()*!'1&'!'1 (!,-'$&'-3/!;3$)+!1&C(!.((/!)&%0()*!-0/3%(+>!D1(,(! C&%-3$,!7(37)(!$/-'(+!2%34!+-22(%(/'!.<%3$/+,!'3!1()7!#%(&'(!&!/(;!5(%4&/! ,3#-('*!'1&'!;3$)+!.(!2%((!32!%&#-,4!&/+! '3!7%343'( (`$&)-'*:!e&/&6!"''&6!,'&'(,! WA 9.-+> WY e&/&6!"''&6>!=E&/-2(,'3>?! '-$()*+,-2$'-$:*,-#'/ 8!P^X>

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39 #)&-4(+!'3!7%3C-+(!'1(!23%(-0/(%,!;-'1!'1(!43,'!.&,-#!%-01',!-/!3%+(%!'3!7%3'(#'! 5(%4&/*!&/+!'1(!/&'-3/>!F3))3;-/0!$7!3/!'1(!F3%(-0/(%S,!Z&;!&/+!-/!%(&#'-3/!'3!'1(! -/#%(&,(+!-44-0%&/'!737$)&' -3/8!_1&/#())3%!e31)! &+37'(+ &!23%(-0/(%!73)-#*!'1&'! ;&,8!&/+!,'-))!-,8!'1(!'*7-#&)!,3)$'-3/!23%!+(&)-/0!;-'1!23%(-0/(%,a!-/'(0%&'-3/8! 23%#(+n(/#3$%&0(+!%(7&'%-&'-3/8!&/+!-/,'-'$'-/0!)-4-'&'-3/,!3/!-44-0%&'-3/,>! ")'13$01!'1(*!&+C3#&'(+!-/'(0%&'-3/8!-'!;&,! 3.C-3$,!'1&'!'1(!03C(%/4(/'!7%(2(%%(+! 23% 23%(-0/(%,!'3!)(&C(!&/+!#34(!.!;1(/!/((+(+>!!",!'1(!(C(/',!2%34!'1(!@YAX,! '3!%($/-2-#&'-3/!$/23)+(+8!'1(!5(%4&/!,'&'(!.(0&/!'3!%(23%4!)&;,! '3! %(7)&#(!'1(! @Y^W! D"#&8-1)*@)# )/N >! F3%!43,'!32!'1(! ';(/'-('1 #(/'$% *8!5(%4&/!#-'-K(/,1-7!;&,!.&,(+!3/!'1(! !"#$ #,-@"'-'#$ u 3%!%-01'!32!.)33+! u (,'&.)-,1(+!-/!'1(!]47-%(!&/+!J'&'(!_-'-K(/,1-7!Z&;!32! @Y@T:!'1-,!4(&/'!'1&'!3/)*!'13,(!32!5(%4&/!#$)'$%&)!&/+!('1/-#!+(,#(/'!;(%(! #3/,-+(%(+!#-'-K(/,>!!"##3%+-/0!'3!'1(!)&;8!#-'-K( /,1-7!-,!&#`$-%(+!=.*!.-%'18!.*! )(0-'-4&'-3/8!.*!4&%%-&0(8!23%!&!5(%4&/!.*!&##(7'&/#(8!j3%k!23%!&!23%(-0/(%!.*! /&'$%&)-K&'-3/> ^U ? G3;(C(%8!;-'1!'1(!+-C-,-3/!32!5(%4&/* 322-#-&))*!-/!@YUY 8!V(,'! 5(%4&/*!,'-7$)&'(+!-/!'1(-%!N&,-#!Z&;!-/ "%'-#)(!@@^!'1&'!]&,'!5 (%4&/,8!&/+! '13,(! ;13!)-C(+!-/!3'1(%!23%4(%!5(%4&/!'(%%-'3%-(,8!&)3/0!;-'1!'1(-%!+(,#(/+&/',!&,!32!T@! c(#(4.(%!@YUB 8 ;3$)+!.(!#3/,-+(%(+!5(%4&/>!f/!'1(!3'1(%!1&/+8!0$(,';3%6(%,!&/+! &,*)$4!,((6(%,! ,'%$00)(+ '3!0&-/!/&'$%&)-K(+!#-'-K(/,1-7!3%!&$'34&'-#!#-'-K (/,1-7!23%! '13,(!23%(-0/!#1-)+%(/!.3%/!-/!5(%4&/*>!D1(!]47-%(!&/+!J'&'(!_-'-K(/,1-7!Z&;! ,'&'(,!'1&'!23%(-0/(%,!;13!1&C(!,('')(+!-/!&!5(%4&/!2(+(%&)!,'&'(!#&/!&77)*!23%! /&'$%&)-K&'-3/8!.$'!4$,'!4(('!#(%'&-/!#%-'(%-&>!F-%,'!32!&))8!'1(!23%(-0/(%!4$,'!.(! ^U ]47-%( [ &/+!J'&'( [ _-'-K(/,1-7!Z&;>!LJ(#'-3/!T8!@Y@TM!-/! ()*+,-2$'-$:*,-#'/ 8!@WU>!

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40 =)(0 &))*!#347('(/'!&##3%+-/0!'3!'1(!)&;,!32!1-,!7%(C-3$,!134()&/+!3%!;3$)+!.(! &##3%+-/0!'3!5(%4&/!)&;,g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bc8!-/!73;(%!2%34!@Y^Y [ @YAP8! 1&+ /3'!4&/&0( + '3!)3;(%!'1(!%&'(,! ,-0/-2-#&/')*>!V1(/!G()4$'!e31)!(/'(%(+!'1(!73)-'-#&)!,#(/(!+(4&/+-/0!&!#1&/0(!-/! '1(! D"#&8-1)*;%&'/'F 8 1(!7%34-,(+!&!WXh!%(+$#'-3/!32!'1(!0$(,';3%6(%!737$)&'-3/> ^B D1-,!7%34-,(!&-+(+!-/ e31) .(-/0!()(#'(+ &,!V(,'!5(%4&/*S,!#1&/#())3%!23%!'1(!/(<'! ,-<'((/!*(&%,>!G3;(C(%8!'1(!4&H3%!7&%'-(,!;(%(!,7)-'!3/!13;!#'-K(/,1-7!&/+! -44-0%&'-3/!)&;,!,1 3$)+!.(!%(23%4(+> D1-,!-/+(#-,-3/!&/+!)!32!#337(%&'-3/!4&+(! -'!+-22-#$)'!23%!%(23%4!'3!.(! &##347)-,1(+ `$-#6)*>!F3%(-0/(%!+(.&'(,!#3C(%(+!'1(! 73)-'-#&)!,71(%(8!.$'!&,!<(/3713.-#!C-3)(/#(!.(#&4(!43%(!C-,-.)(8!e31)!&/+!'1(!%(,'! 32!'1(!03C(%/4(/'!;(%(!23%#(+!'3!4&6(!+(#-,3/,!&/+!'%*!'3!;3%6!'30('1(%> ")'13$01!'1(!5(%4&/!03C(%/4(/'S,!,'&/#(!3/!-44-0%&/',!;&,!+-C-+(+! .(';((/!-/'(0%&'-3/8!%(7&'%-&'-3/8!3%!)-4-'&'-3/!32!-44-0%&'-3/8!;1(/!-'!#&4(!'3! -/'(0%&'-3/8!/&'$%&)-K&'-3/!32!23%(-0/(%,!&77(&%(+!'1(!43,'!)30-#&)!&/+!7%(2(% %(+! 7&'1!23%!'3'&)!-/'(0%&'-3/>!!c(,7-'(!'1(!322-#-&)!,'&/#(!3/!-/'(0%&'-3/8! 13;(C(%8! ^W 9.-+>!J(#'-3/!A>! ^^ 5%((/8!=944-0%&'-3/8!",*)$48!&/+!_-'-K(/,1-7!-/!5(%4&/*8?!AA> ^B 536'$ %68!5%&4)-/08!&/+!e&(,8! ()*+,-2$'-$:*,-#'/7$ @@>

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c(,7-'(!'1( ,( 73,-'-C (!#1&/0( 8!'1(!&C(%&0(!0&*!&/+!)(,.-&/!]&,'!5(%4&/,! ,'-))!)-C(+!-/!2(&%!32!7(%,(#$'-3/!&/+!+(/-&)!32!'1(-%!%-01',>!N(-/0!37(/)*!0&*!3%! )(,.-&/!#3$)+!,(C(%()*!)-4-'!'1(-%!%3)(!-/!,3#-('*!&/+!&43/0!'1(-%!2%-(/+,8!2&4-)*8!&/+! 7((%,>!b&%(/',!'*7-#&))*!+(/-(+!' 1(-%!#1-)+%(/S,!,(<$&)-'*!3%!6-#6(+!'1(4!3$'>!",! ,'&'(+!&.3C(8!-'!;&,!#3443/!23%!0&*!4(/!&/+!;34(/!'3!.(!4&%%-(+!;-' 1!#1-)+%(/!&,! '1(*!'%-(+!'3!1-+(! '1(-%!,(<$&)-'*!2%34!(C(%*3/(> @@A "!7(%,3/!;13!;&,!37(/)*!0&* #3$)+!2%(`$(/')*!.(!% (2$,(+!H3.!3773%'$/-'-(,!& /+! ,1$//(+!.*! 1-,!3%!1(%! 7((%,>! D1(,(!(<7(%-(/#(,!;(%(!/3'!&'*7-#&)!23%!]&,'!5(%4&/!0&*!&/+!)( ,.-&/, 8!.$'!-'! +(43/,'%&'(,!'1(!(22(#'!'1&'!-,3)&'-3/!1&,!1&+!&/+!13;!;-'1!%($/-2-#&'-3/8!0&* &/+! )(,.-&/,!;3$)+!.(!'1%3;/!-/'3!&/!(/'-%()*!/(;!,(<$&)!(/C-%3/4(/' >"A*2926)$2.*% % J(<$&)-'*8!.3'1!1('(%3,(<$&)-'*!&/+!1343,(<$&)-'*8!1&+!.((/!&!7%-C&'(! 4&''(%>!J(!G3;(C(%8!;-'1!%($/-2-#&'-3/! 5cQ!#-'-K(/,!;(%(!#3 /2%3/'(+!;-'1! '1(! 37(/!,(<$&)-'*!'1&'!1&+!2)3$%-,1(+!/!'1(! FQ5>!9/0%-+!J1&%7!;%-'(,!'1&'a @@A Z(46(8=5&*!d3-#(,!2%34!]&,'!5(%4&/* >?!

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71 I/)-6(!-/!]&,'!5(%4&/*8!;1(%(!'1(%(!;&,!&/!(/(4*!'3!$/-'(!&0&-/,'8!-/!'1(!% ($/-2-(+! 5(%4&/*!'1(%(!;&,!/3 #3443/!(/(4*>!"),38 ]&,'!5(%4&/!0&*,!3.,(%C(+!'1(! (<'%( 4(!-/+-C-+$&)-K&'-3/!-/!V(,'(%/!,3#-('*8!-/!;1-#1!(!7(%,3/!&,,3#-&'(+! '1(4,()C(,!;-'1!&!,7(#-2-#!0%3$7!-/,'(&+!32!;-'1!&!$/-2-(+!,$.#$)'$%(!'1&'!%('&)-&'(+! &0&-/,'!'1(!/3%4,> @PP b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a! &/*3/(!;13!+-+!/3'!2-'!'1(-%!,'(%(3'*7-#&)!/3%4,>!V-'1!'1(! _cI!-/!73 ;(%8!#3/,(%C&'-,4!, ((4(+!'3!.( 3/!'1(!%-,(>!D1(!_cI!'(/+(+ '3!-0/3%(!'1(! ,$22(%-/0,!32!4-/3%-'-(,8!$/'-)!'1(*! #&4(!'3!'1(!&'' (/'-3/!32!'1(!7$.)-#> F3%!0&*,!&/+! )(,.-&/,8!'1(!-/-'-&)!)!32!3%0&/-K&'-3/!;&,!&!1$0(!+-,&+C&/'&0(!'3!'1(-%! -47%3C(4(/'8!.$'!,3#-('&)!#1&/0(,!'1&'! &22(#'(+!'%&+-'-3/ &) 0(/+(%!%3)(,8!'1&'! ;(&6(/(+!#3/,(%C&'-,4!&/+!#3/,(%C&'-C(!C&)$(,8!&/+!'1&'!(471&,-K(+! -/+-C-+$&)-K&'-3/!73,-'-C()*!&22(#'(+!'1(!)-C(,!32!0&*,!&/+!)(,.-&/,>!!d-3)(/#(8! 7%(H$+-#(8!&/+!"9cJ!;(%(!3/!'1(!%-,(!-/!%($/-2-(+!5(%4&/*>!G3;(C(%8! &,!'1(!/(<'! ';3!,(#'-3 /,!+(43/,'%&'(8! +(,7-'( '1( /(0&'-C(,!'1(!@YYX,!&/+!(&%)*!PXXX,! ,&;! 73,-'-C(!%(23%4!23%!0&*!&/+!)(,.-&/,> @PP b(#68!=N(-/0!5&*!-/!5(%4&/*a!"/!9/'(%C-(;8?!@U^>

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74 %(4&-/,!1-01(%!-/!'1(!)&,'!+(#& +(8!;1-#1!#&$,(,!&)&%4!23%!])-,&.('1!b3''8!+-%(#'3%!32! '1(!F(+(%&)!G(&)'1!_(/'(%!23%!]+$#&'-3/>!b3''!%(73%'(+!-/!PXXWa 9/!PXXT8!BA!7(%#(/'!32!'13,(!(/0&0-/0!-/!,(!D1-,!-,! #)(&%)*!&!,-0/!'1&'!'()),!$,!43%(!1&,!'3!.(!+3/(!'3!%(!7(37)(> @T@ D1(,(!,'&'-,'-#,!(<73,(+!'1(!2&),(!,(/,(!32!,(#$%-'*!'1& '!*3$'1,!2()'!&.3$'!"9cJ!&/+! JDc,>!N*!PXXW8!2$/+-/0!23%!"9cJ!(+$#&'-3/!-/#%(&,(+!2%34!Y!4-))3/!]$%3,!'3!@P! 4-))-3/8!;-'1 1()7!2%34!-/,$%( %,>!c(,7-'(!'1(!-/#%(&,( 32!-/2(#'-3/, 8! 5(%4&/*!1&,!3/(! 32!'1(!)3;(,'!-/2(#'-3/!%&'(,!-/!V(,'(%/!]$%37(8!3C(%!^X8XXX!3 2!'1(!(/'-%(! 737$)&'-3/ 8 ;1(%(&,!F%&/#(8!J7&-/8!&/+!9'&)*!1&C(!3C(%!@XX8XXX!-/2(#'(+!&/+! -/#%(&,-/0!(!*(&% 3$'!32!,4&))(%!/&'-3/&)!737$)&'-3/,> O(C(%'1()(,,8! "9cJ!-,!,'-))!&! #3/#(%/!23%!'1(! (/'-%(! 737$)&'-3/> @TP O3!)3/0(%!;&,!"9cJ8!&/+!,$.,(`$(/')*!"9cJ! ( +$#&'-3/8!+-%(#'(+!'3;&%+,!1343,(<$&),!&)3/(8!.$'!'3!&/*3/(!&/+!(C(%*3/(>!F3%! 0&*,!&/+!)(,.-&/,8!"9cJ!1&,!.%3$01'!&!0%(&'(%!C-,-.-)-'*!'3!'1(-%!/((+,!&/+!.%3$01'!&! 0%(&'(%!%(,7(#'!23%!'13,(!#&47&-0/-/0!23%!)&%0(%!%(,(&%#1!#&7&.-)-'-(,!&/+!23%!0&*! %-01',!3% 0&/-K&'-3/,>! c(,7-'(!'1(!%-,(!32!/(3 [ O&K-!C-3)(/#(!-/!5(%4&/*8!'1( %(!-,!C(%*!)-'')(!;%-''(/! 3/ +-%(#'!1343713.-#!&'',!-/ 73,' [ %($/-2-(+!5(%4&/*>!\i%0(/!Z(46(!,'&'(+!-/!&/! -/'(%C-(;!'1&'!&'',!1&+!3##$%%(+!-/!'1(!*(&%,!2 3))3;-/0!%($/-2-#&'-3/>!G (!(<7) &-/,! '1&'!'1-,!C-3)(/#(!&/+!&00%(,,-3/!-/!'1(!73,' [ %($/-2-#&'-3/!(%&!;&,!+-%(#'(+!&'! 5(%4&/*S,!3)+!23(,8!,$#1!&,!\(;-,1!7(37)(8!0&*,!&/+!)(,.-&/,8!&/+!43%(!-473%'&/')*! 23%(-0/(%,>!Z(46(!,'&'(,!'1&'!.(#&$,(!32!5(%4&/*S,!7&,'8!=-/'3)(%&/#(!-,!/3'!-/!&/+! @T@ Q-77(%0(%8!J&.-/(>!=Q-,-/0!"9cJ!_&,(,!J7$%,!O(;!_&47&-0/>?! @TP ]$%37(&/!G9d!&/+!"9cJ!J'&'-,'-#,>!1''7ann;;;>&C(%'>3%0n1-C [ &-+, [ ($%37(>1'4)

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75 32!',()2!5(%4&/8!.$'!-/!'1-,!23%4!-'!-,!-/#)-/(+!'3;&%+,!&00%(,,-3/> @TT ?!F3%!'1&'! %(&,3/8!0&*,!&/+!)(,.-&/,!;(%(!2(&%2$)!32!&'',!'3;&%+,!'1(4,()C(,!.(#&$,(!32! '1(-%!,(<$&)-'*>!Z(46(!&),3!%(73%',!'1&'!7%(H$+-#(,!'3;&%+,!0&*,!&/+!)(,.-&/,!;(%(! 2%(`$(/')*!(<7%( ,,(+!.*!%&-+-/0!0&*!.&%,!&/+!3'1(%!2%((!,7&#(,!%&'1(%!'1&/!+-%(#'! &00%(,,-3/>!c(,7-'(!'1&'!2&#'8!43,'!&#&+(4-#!%(,(&%#1!3/!73,' [ %($/-2-#&'-3/!C-3)(/#(! -,!0(&%(+!'3;&%+,!<(/3713.-&8!&,!-'!3##$%%(+!43%(!7%(C&)(/')*!&/+!43%(!C-3)(/')*>! V1(/!C-3)(/#(!'3;&%+,!4 &%0-/&)-K(+!0%3$7,!.(#&4(!43%(!2%(`$(/'8!0&*,!&/+! )(,.-&/,!%(&#'(+!,'%3/0)*!&0&-/,'!'1(!C-3)(/#(8!(,7(#-&))*!'3;&%+,!23%(-0 /(%,>!D1(! %-,(!32!/(3 [ O&K-,4!4&+(!1343,(<$&),!2(&%!'1&'! '1(,(!&'', #3$)+!.( .(-/0! +-%(#'(+!'3;&%+,!'1(4!&/+!32!'1(!73,,-.)(!%('$%/!32!&/3'1(%!=D1-%+!Q(-#1>?!c(,7-'(! '1(!7%(,(/'!)&;,!'3!7%3'(#'!&/+!(,'&.)-,1!(`$&)-'*8!1343713.-&!+3(,!(<-,'!-/! 5(%4&/*8!.$'!'1(!'(/+(/#-(,!23%!-'!'3!)(&+!'3;&%+!C-3)(/#(8!'3!'1(!)(C(),!32!'13,(! '3;&%+ ,!23%(-0/(%,8!1&+!/3'!.((/!,((/!&,!)-6()*!7%-3%!'3!PXXX>!! c$%-/0!'1(!@YYX,8!&,!4(/'-3/(+!-/!'1(!7%(C-3$,!#1&7'(%8!/(3 [ O&K-!C-3)(/#(! ;&,!+-%(#'(+! #1-(2)*! '3;&%+,!23%(-0/(%,>!5&*,!&/+!)(,.-&/,8!&)3/0!;-'1!43,'!32!'1(! /&'-3/8!H3-/(+!'30('1(%!'3!7%3'(,'!;1(/! '1(!C-3)(/#(!(,#&)&'(+!'3!2%-01'(/-/0!)(C(),>! b%-3%!'3!'1-,8!43,'!5(%4&/!#-'-K(/,!;( %(!&7&'1('-#!'3!'1(!/((+,!32 23%(-0/(%,8!.$'! ;1(/!/&'-3/&)!4(+-&!#3C(%(+!&/+!#347&%(+!'1-,!#%-,-,!'3!O&K-!5(%4&/*8!7(37)(! .(0&/!'3!0('!-/C3)C(+!&/+!+(4&/+(+!4(&,$%(,!.(!'&6 (/!'3!7%3'(#'!'13,(!;13!&%(! &/+!#3$)+!.(!'&%0('(+!.*!/(3 [ O&K-,!&/+!,6-/1(&+,:!23%!'1&'!4&''(%8!0&*,!&/+!)(,.-&/,! 2()'!'1&'!'1(*!#3$)+!.(!/(<' 8 &,!'1(*!;(%(!3)+!'&%0(',!32!O&K-!C-3)(/#(!&/+!/(3 [ O&K-,! @TT b(#68!@UY>

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95 N3%/(4&/8!\31/>!="9cJ!-/!'1(!D;3!N(%)-/,>?! A6/%9)* $ ^_ : $ D0`KS$Q"&/"*,&$ D-,&2#'#aQ"&/"*,&$D6/'X'#+ L@YABMa!PPT [ PT^> $ N3,,;-#68!V3)20&/0>!=c(C()374(/'!32!",*)$4!b3)-#*!-/!5(%4&/*>?! V%"*-,&$%3$E)3"@))$ K/"1')#$ @T!LPXXXMa!UT [ ^X> N3*(,8!Q30(%>!="/0()&!E(%6()!&/+!5$-+3!V(,'(%;())(!b%(7&%(!'3!J1&7(!5(%4&/*! O(;!5(%4&/!53C(%/4(/'>?!J(7'>!PXXY>! :'+)#$A-&'-)$ 1''7ann;;;>'-4(,3/)-/(>#3>$6n'3)n/(;,n;3%)+n( $%37(n&%'-#)(^AWTXPA>(#( j&##(,,(+!E&%#1!PX@@k N%334.*8!Q3.>!=5(%4&/*!"77%3C(,!R5&*!E&%%-&0(>S?! ==Q$.)>#$A-&'-)$ 1''7ann/(;,>..#>#3>$6nPn1-n($%37(n@XWXTTX>,'4 j&##(,,(+!E&%#1!PX@@k N%$.&6(%8!Q 30(% >!=D1(!Q('$%/!32!",,-4-)&'-3/l!_1&/0-/0!b(%,7(#'-C(,!3/! 944-0%&'-3/!&/+!-',!,(`$(),!-/!F%&/#(8!5(%4&/*8!&/+!'1(!I/-'(+!J'&'(,>?! Z/4-'6$,-1$ E,6',&$K/"1') #$ PU8!/3>!U!LPXX@Ma!WT@ [ UA> N%$.&6(%8!Q30(%,!&/+!F%(+(%-#6!_337(%>!=N(*3/+!9+(/'-'*>?! :4)%*2$,-1$K %6')/2 PY8! /3>!@!LPXX@Ma!@ [ UB> _&/(2(8!O(%0-,>!=_-'-K(/,!C(%,$,!b(%4&/(/'!5$(,',a!_$)'$%&)!E(43%*!&/+!_-'-K(/! Z&;,!-/!Q($/-2-(+!5(%4&/*>?! Q'/'N)-#4';$K/"1')# P8!/ 3> T L@YYAMa!W@Y [ UU> _&%3;8!G(-/(%8!E&''1-&,!F%(-1328!c&04&%!E&/K()8!&/+!c-%6!e$44(%>! Q%+'-@ $ %"/ >! jJ>)>ka!9#(,'3%4!9/'(%/&'-3/&)!ZZ_8!@YYA> _&%'/(%8!G3))*>!=F3%(-0/(%,!f$'p?!G(),-/6-!G$4&/!Q-01',!V&'#18!@YYP> _9"!V3%)+!F&#'.336>!! 1''7,ann;;;>#-&>03Cn)-. %&%*n7$.)-#&'-3/,n'1( [ ;3%)+ [ 2&#'.336n2-()+,nP@W^>1'4) j&##(,,(+!E&%#1!PX@@k _)&%68!_1%-,'371(%>!= D%&/,#$)'$%&'-3/8! :*,-#)$ J(<$&)-'*8!&/+!D$%6-,1!5(%4&/*a! e$)'$0!"'&4&/S,! <%&,$"-1$='&'1'F'1I ?! ()*+,-$<'3)$,-1$<)//)*# WY 8!/3!U LPXX^Ma!WWW [ BP> _)&%68!\31/>!=]#3/34-#,8!Q&#-,48!&/+!"''-'$+(,!'3;&%+,!944-0%&'-3/!-/!'1(!O(;! 5(%4&/*>?! O%&'/'6,&$E)#),*64$b",*/)*&2$ W X 7$ /3>!U $ L @YYB Ma!YX@ [ @B> $ $ $ _3/,'&/'8!"4()-&!&/+!c3$0)&,!E&,,(*>!=Q('$%/ E-0%&'-3/!.*!5(%4&/! 5$(,';3%6(%,a!O(3#)&,,-#&)!C(%,$,!O(;!]#3/34-# D1(3%-(,>?! 0-/)*-,/'%-,&$ W'@*,/'%! UX!LPXXPMa!W [ TP> $ c-(1)8!_)&$+-&>!=Q-01',!3%!9+(/'-'*l!O&'$%&)-K&'-3/!b%3#(,,(,!&43/0!RZ&.3%!E-0%&/',S! -/!5(%4&/*>?!! 0-/)*-,/'%-,&$W'@*,/'%-$E)X')>$ TB8!/3>!@ LPXXTMa!@TP [ ^P>

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97 F$))(%'3/8!E&%*())(/>!=5(%4&/*!23%!5(%4&/,>?!IOG_QnGQV!Q(73%'>!@YYW> =5(%4&/*!Z(0&)-K(,!5&*!E&%%-&0(>?! ==Q$.)>#$A-&'-)$ 1''7ann/(;,>..#>#3>$6nPn1-n($%37(n@U^AXT@>,'4 j&##(,,(+!E&%#1!PX@@k =5(%4&/!5&*!E&%%-&0(!Z&;!E&%6,!F-2'1!"//-C(%,&%*>?!! 1''7ann;;;>+; [ ;3%)+>+(n+;n&%'-#)(nX88P@@WAAT8XX>1'4) j&##(,,(+!E&% #1!PX@@k 5-(%,.(%08!c&04&%>!=D1(!G343713.-#!V3%)+!32!F33'.&))a!D&.33,!3/!'1(!b-'#1>?! (%)/4)$0-#/'/"/)$ 1''7ann;;;>03('1(>+(n0(,n43)n+()nK,)n(/PA^XPB@>1'4 j&##(,,(+! E&%#1!PX@@k 53(.()8!Q3)2> =|$((%!N(%)-/a!Z-2(,'*)(,8!b(%23%4&/#(,8!&/+!_&7-'&)-,'!_3/,$4(%! J3#-('*>?! :4)$()*+,-$b",*/)*&2 BY8!/3>!U!LPXX^Ma!UAU [ WXW>! 53228!b&'%-#-&!E>!=9/C-,-.)(!N3%+(%,a!]#3/34-#!Z-.(%&)-K&'-3/!&/+!O&'-3/&)!9+(/'-'*>?! 0-/)*-,/'%-,&$K/"1')#$b",*/)*&2 UU8!/3>!U LPXXXMa!WTT [ W^P> 5t6'i%68!c(/-K8!c&C-+!5%&4)-/08!&/+!"/'3/!e&(,>! ()*+,-2$'-$:*,-#'/S$.,/'%-$,-1$ W'@*,/'%-7$G[UU J \]]U >! Y)'+,*$,-1$.%>I N(%6()(*a!I/-C(%,-'*!32!_&)-23%/-&!b%(,,8! PXXB> 5%((/8!c3/&)+!('!&)>!=G&'(!_%-4(a!"/!]4(%0(/'!Q(,(&%#1!"0(/+&>?! D--",&$E )X')>$%3$ K%6'%&%@2 8 PB LPXX@Ma!UBY [ WXU> 5%((/8!J-43/>!=9 44-0%&'-3/8!",*)$4!&/+!_-'-K(/,1-7!-/!5(%4&/*a!D1(!947&#'!32! I/-2-#&'-3/!&/+!'1(!N(%)-/!%(7$.)-#>?! Y)#/$Z"*%;),-$O%&'/'6#$ PU!LPXX@Ma!AP [ @XU>! 5%-(,1&.(%8!e-%,'(/>!=5$-+3!V(,'(%;())(8!5(%4&/*S,!O(<'! Z-6()*!F3%(-0/!E-/-,'(%8! f7(/)*!5&*>?!J(7'>!PXXY>! 1''7ann;;;>1$22-/0'3/73,'>#34nPXXYnXYnPYn0$-+3 [ ;(,'(%;())( [ 0(%4&/*y/yTXPBWA>1'4) j&##(,,(+!E&%#1!PX@@k G&/#3#68!E>!c3/&)+8!&/+!G()0&!">!V(),1>! ()*+,-$M-'3'6,/'%-S$O*%6)##$,-1$A"/6%+)# >! N3$)+(%a!V(,'C-(;!b%(,,8!@YYU> G&0(4&//8!E&%'-/8!e$')$0!"'&4&/8!5&/+-!E$6)-8!]%+&)!w-)+-K8!N&6-!c&C%&68!&/+!9/0(! e())(%>! <%&,$"-1$='&'1'F'1$<%&,$,-1$='&&2$/4)$e'1 >!Z3,!"/0() (,8!_"a!b-#'$%(!D1-,p!G34(! d-+(38!PXXX>! G&/,(/8!Q&/+&))>!= E-0%&'-3/8!_-'-K(/,1-7!&/+!Q&#(!-/!]$%37(a!N(';((/!9/#3%73%&'-3/! &/+!]<#)$,-3/>? Z"*%;),-$V%"*-,&$%3$O%&'/'6,&$E)#),*64 TW 8!/3!U L@YYYMa!U@W [ UU> G&%'4&//8!G(-+->!=D1(!I/1&77*!E&%%-&0(!32!E&%<-,4! &/+!F(4-/-,48?! Q,;'/,&$,-1$ Q&,## T!L@YBYMa!@ [ TT>

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