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Geometric Geography

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004425/00001

Material Information

Title: Geometric Geography Harmonizing with the Florida Keys
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Parker, Lauren
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Landscape Painting
Florida Keys
Art History
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis is comprised of a series of paintings that investigate the landscape of the Florida Keys with an intention to convey ideas about mankind�s relationship to nature in the region. Throughout the body of work, non-naturalistic color and graphic brush mark are imposed on naturalistic compositions to create a theme that integrates organic and artificial forms in the landscape scene. This process juxtaposes styles of representation and abstraction, informed by 19th century American landscape painting and 20th century landscape painter Charles Burchfield, respectively. Ideas are symbolized by combining conventions from both periods, similar to the processes of contemporary painters Peter Doig and Laura Owens. The interplay of formal qualities exaggerates the artificiality of representation, creating a tension that is synonymous to mankind�s manipulations of the Florida Keys landscape in reality.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lauren Parker
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Anderson, Kim

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 P2
System ID: NCFE004425:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004425/00001

Material Information

Title: Geometric Geography Harmonizing with the Florida Keys
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Parker, Lauren
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Landscape Painting
Florida Keys
Art History
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis is comprised of a series of paintings that investigate the landscape of the Florida Keys with an intention to convey ideas about mankind�s relationship to nature in the region. Throughout the body of work, non-naturalistic color and graphic brush mark are imposed on naturalistic compositions to create a theme that integrates organic and artificial forms in the landscape scene. This process juxtaposes styles of representation and abstraction, informed by 19th century American landscape painting and 20th century landscape painter Charles Burchfield, respectively. Ideas are symbolized by combining conventions from both periods, similar to the processes of contemporary painters Peter Doig and Laura Owens. The interplay of formal qualities exaggerates the artificiality of representation, creating a tension that is synonymous to mankind�s manipulations of the Florida Keys landscape in reality.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lauren Parker
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Anderson, Kim

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 P2
System ID: NCFE004425:00001


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G E O M E T R I C G E O G R A P H Y : H A R M O N I Z I N G W I T H T H E F L O R I D A K E Y S B Y L A U R E N M I S S Y P A R K E R A T he s i s S ubm i t t e d t o t he D i vi s i o n of H um a ni t i e s N e w C ol l e ge of F l or i da i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he d e gr e e B a c he l or of A r t s U nde r t h e s pons or s hi p of K i m A nde r s on S a r a s ot a F l or i da M a y 2011

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i i T a bl e of C ont e nt s D e di c a t i on ...i i i A c know l e dge m e nt s .....i v L i s t of I l l us t r a t i ons ...v A bs t r a c t ...vi I nt r oduc t i on..1 T he s out h: M a ni pul a t e d i n i m a ge s a nd r e a l i t y .....3 I de a l l a nds c a pe vs vi s i o na r y l a nds c a pe : 19 t h a nd 20 t h c e nt ur y c onv e nt i ons ...................6 E nt e r i ng a s ym bol i c r e a l m : R e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd a b s t r a c t i on i n c ont e m por a r y a r t ..... 10 G e om e t r i c G e ogr a phy: V i s ua l t e ns i ons be t w e e n na t ur e a nd a r t i f i c i a l i t y ..13 C onc l us i on .18 I m a ge s B i bl i ogr a phy ..30

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i i i T hi s t he s i s i s de di c a t e d t o m y pa r e nt s E di s on a nd L a ur a P a r k e r f or a l w a ys s uppo r t i ng m e t hr ough a nyt hi ng a nd e v e r yt hi ng a nd t o a l l t hos e w ho l ove or ha ve l ove d t he F l or i d a K e ys

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i v A he a r t f e l t t ha nk you i s e xt e n de d t o e v e r yone w h o ha s s uppor t e d m e t hr ou gh t hi s pr oc e s s i nc l udi ng K i m A nde r s on, R i c ha r d H e r z og, C r i s H a s s ol d, m y pa r e nt s E di s on a nd L a ur a P a r k e r m y br ot he r s S onny a nd D a vi d P a r ke r B a r ba r a W e t z s t e i n, J oh n W e t z s t e i n, L i nda S c he l l e r S a ndi S c he l l e r D e b D uva l l N a t h a n D uva l l I a n H a m i l t on a nd of c our s e m y f e l l ow a r t t he s i s gr a d ua t e s of 2011, w i t h w ho m I ha ve m a de un f or g e t t a bl e m e m or i e s

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v I l l us t r a t i ons F i gur e 1. F or e s t w i t h, H e r on H e r m a n H e r z og. F i gur e 2. Suns e t on t he St J ohns R i v e r G e or ge H e r be r t M c C or d. F i gur e 3. Suns e t i n t he B e r k s hi r e H i l l s F r e de r i c E dw i n C hur c h. F i gur e 4. M ount W as hi ngt on, J ohn F r e de r i c K e ns e t t e F i gur e 5. C r i c k e t C hor us C ha r l e s B ur c hf i e l d. F i gur e 6. H e at W av e i n t he Sw am p, C ha r l e s B ur c hf i e l d. F i gur e 7. G as t hof z ur M ul de nt al s pe r r P e t e r D oi g. F i gu r e 8. 100 Y e ar s A go P e t e r D oi g. F i gur e 10. F l ow M i s s y P a r ke r F i gur e 11. O c e an, M i s s y P a r ke r F i gur e 12. W av e M i s s y P a r ke r F i gur e 13. N at ur al W or l d M i s s y P a r ke r F i gur e 14. G e om e t r i c G e ogr aphy M i s s y P a r ke r F i gur e 15. G e om e t r i c G e ogr aphy ( de t a i l ) F i gur e 16. M angr ov e H a nds M i s s y P a r ke r F i gur e 17. E y e i n t he Sk y M i s s y P a r ke r F i gur e 18. R e ac h, M i s s y P a r ke r

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vi G E O M E T R I C G E O G R A P H Y : H A R M O N I Z I N G WI T H T H E F L O R I D A K E Y S M i s s y P a r ke r N e w C o l l e g e of F l or i d a 2011 A B S T R A C T T hi s t he s i s i s c o m p r i s e d of a s e r i e s of p a i n t i n g s t ha t i nv e s t i g a t e t he l a n d s c a pe of t he F l or i d a K e y s w i t h a n i n t e n t i on t o c onv e y i d e a s a bou t m a nk i nd s r e l a t i ons h i p t o n a t ur e i n t he r e g i o n. T h r ou g h ou t t he bod y of w or k, non n a t u r a l i s t i c c o l or a nd g r a p hi c br u s h m a r k a r e i m p o s e d on n a t ur a l i s t i c c o m p o s i t i on s t o c r e a t e a t he m e t ha t i n t e g r a t e s or g a n i c a nd a r t i f i c i a l f or m s i n t he l a nds c a pe s c e n e T h i s p r oc e s s j u xt a p o s e s s t y l e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i on a nd a b s t r a c t i on, i nf or m e d b y 19 t h c e n t ur y A m e r i c a n l a nds c a p e p a i n t i n g a n d 20 t h c e n t ur y l a nds c a pe p a i n t e r C h a r l e s B ur c hf i e l d r e s p e c t i v e l y I d e a s a r e s y m bo l i z e d b y c o m b i n i n g c o nv e n t i on s f r o m bo t h p e r i od s s i m i l a r t o t he p r oc e s s e s of c on t e m p o r a r y p a i n t e r s P e t e r D o i g a n d L a u r a O w e n s T he i n t e r p l a y o f f o r m a l qu a l i t i e s e x a g g e r a t e s t he a r t i f i c i a l i t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i on, c r e a t i n g a t e n s i o n t ha t i s s y n o n y m ou s t o m a nk i nd s m a n i p ul a t i on s of t he F l or i d a K e y s l a nd s c a pe i n r e a l i t y K i m A nde r s on D i v i s i on of H u m a n i t i e s

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1 I I n t r od u c t i on M os t i m a ge s o f n a t ur e a r e not r e a l l y a bout na t u r e a t a l l ( S l oa ne ) T hi s s i m pl e c onc e pt s t a t e d by c ont e m por a r y a r t hi s t or i a n J o ha nn e S l oa ne i n A f t e r al l : A J our nal of A r t C ont e x t and E nqu i r y e nc a ps ul a t e s t he l a t e nt m e t a phor i c pot e nt i a l i nhe r e nt i n l a nds c a pe p a i nt i ng. I n t he 19 t h c e nt ur y, i m a ge s of t he s out h w e r e i d e a l i z e d by s t r a t e gi c c om po s i t i ona l a nd s ym bol i c t e c hni que s us e d by l a nds c a pe p a i nt e r s H e r m a n H e r z og a nd G e or ge H e r be r t M c C or d. E xot i c de pi c t i ons of t he r e gi on c a pt ur e d t he a t t e nt i on of t he na t i on a nd s ym bol i z e d a c ount e r poi nt t o t he c ul t ur a l t r e nd of i ndus t r i a l i z a t i on t ha t s pr e a d a c r os s t he r e s t of t he c ount r y. S uc h i de a l i z e d de pi c t i ons o f t he r e gi on i nvi t e d t he e ve nt ua l a nd c ont i nua l de ve l opm e nt t ha t ha s c ha ng e d t he l a nds c a pe of F l or i da ove r t he l a s t c e nt ur y. T he c onve nt i ons t ha t i de a l i z e d l a nds c a pe p a i nt i ngs of t he s out h w e r e s i m i l a r t o t hos e us e d i n t he no r t h by pa i nt e r s F r e de r i c E d w i n C hur c h a nd J ohn F r e de r i c K e ns e t t e T hr ough t he us e of c om pos i t i ona l a nd s y m bol i c c onve nt i ons 19 t h c e n t ur y l a nds c a p e s c e ne s e m bodi e d c ul t ur a l i de a l s I n t he 20 t h c e nt ur y, ho w e ve r a r t i s t i c goa l s a n d a e s t he t i c s t yl e s ve e r e d f r om ove r a r c hi ng c ul t ur a l i de a l s a nd be ga n t o s e r ve m or e s ubj e c t i ve e f f or t s I n t he w or k o f C ha r l e s B ur c hf i e l d, a bs t r a c t c onve nt i ons w e r e us e d t o c r e a t e vi s ua l e xpr e s s i ons of e l us i ve na t ur a l phe nom e na T ho ugh dr a s t i c a l l y di f f e r e nt i n f or m a l s t yl e a nd a e s t he t i c bot h 19 t h a nd 20 t h c e nt ur y a ppr oa c he s a c hi e v e a n e xp r e s s i o n of i de a w i t hi n a l a nds c a pe s c e n e I n c ont e m por a r y pa i nt i ng, t he l a nds c a pe i s r e i n ve nt e d a nd t r a ns f or m e d, of t e n t hr ough a c om bi na t i on o f s uc h va r i e d a r t hi s t or i c a l c onve nt i ons e a c h o f w hi c h e m body

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2 e s t a bl i s he d s ym bol i c f un c t i ons T he j uxt a pos i t i on of di s s i m i l a r s t yl e i s s e e n i n t he w or k of c ont e m por a r y a r t i s t s P e t e r D oi g a nd L a u r a O w e ns A pp r opr i a t i ng, c om bi ni ng a nd j uxt a pos i ng va r i ous s t yl e s a nd t he i r i nhe r e nt s y m bol i c c onnot a t i ons of f e r s s e e m i ngl y e ndl e s s m e t a phor i c pos s i bi l i t i e s f or t he c ont e m por a r y l a nds c a pe pa i nt e r I n t hi s t he s i s i m a ge s of t he F l or i da K e ys a r e t r a n s f or m e d t o e voke i d e a s r e l a t i ng t o m a nki nd s a r t i f i c i a l m a ni pul a t i on of t he n a t ur a l w or l d. T hr oughout t he body of w or k, na t ur a l i s t i c c om pos i t i on m a i nt a i ns t he ge ogr a phi c i de nt i t y of t he r e gi on w hi l e s t r a t e gi c i nt e r pl a y of a bs t r a c t br u s h m a r k a nd non na t ur a l i s t i c c ol or t r a ns f or m t he na t ur a l s ubj e c t a nd e xa gge r a t e t he a r t i f i c i a l i t y o f pa i nt i ng. T hi s ove r t s ubve r s i on of t r a di t i ona l l a nds c a pe pa i nt i ng c ha l l e nge s i de a l i z e d c onc e pt i ons of t he r e gi on by r e pr e s e nt i ng t he na t ur a l l a nds c a pe i n a di s c onc e r t i ng, unna t ur a l w a y. T hr ough s t r a t e gi c i nt e r pl a y of r e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd a bs t r a c t i on i n m y w or k, a t r a ns f or m a t i on of na t ur a l s ubj e c t t a ke s pl a c e c r e a t i ng a m e t a phor i c t e ns i on be t w e e n na t ur a l a nd unna t ur a l f o r m s t ha t i ns i nua t e s i de a s r e l a t i ng t o t he i nt e gr a t i o n of n a t ur e a nd a r t i f i c i a l i t y i n t he F l or i da K e ys T h e i nve nt i ve h a l l uc i noge ni c a e s t he t i c i m pos e d on t he l a nds c a pe c r e a t e s a vi s u a l t e ns i on t ha t i s s ynony m ous t o m a nki nd s m a ni pul a t i on of t he na t ur a l l a nd i n r e a l i t y.

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3 I I T h e s ou t h : M an i p u l at e d i n i m a ge s an d r e al i t y I n t he 19 t h c e nt ur y, l a nds c a pe pa i nt i ngs of t he s out h br ought F l or i da t o t he publ i c e ye a c r os s t he c ount r y. P a i nt i ngs of s w a m ps a nd gr a s s l a nds de pi c t e d t he s out h a s uns ui t a bl e f or i ndus t r i a l c ul t i va t i on i n t he e r a of W e s t w a r d e xpa ns i on, e s t a bl i s hi ng a s t a t us of t he r e gi on a s a n e xot i c ot he r t o out s i de r s D e pi c t e d i n t hi s w a y, t he s out h w a s vi e w e d a s a r e f uge f r o m t he de m a nds of pr ogr e s s a nd a s a nc t i f i e d, m yt hi c i m m or t a l s pa c e f r e e f r om t he r a v a ge s of t i m e a nd f r e e t oo, f r om t he s e c ul a r pr e oc c upa t i ons of m or t a l m a n, ( P e nni ngt o n, 9) B y t he 1870 s F l or i da w a s a t t r a c t i ng vi s i t or s t o t he hi s t or i c S pa ni s h c i t y, S t A ugus t i ne w hi c h l e nt i t s e l f t o t he w e a l t hy c l a s s of N e w Y or k a nd C hi c a go w i t h t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of a Y a c ht C l ub i n 1873. O ve r t he ne xt f e w de c a de s H e nr y F l a gl e r t r a ns f or m e d F l or i da s l a nds c a pe t o a m uc h g r e a t e r e xt e nt bui l di ng hot e l s a l ong c oa s t a l r e gi ons a nd t he F l or i da E a s t C oa s t R a i l w a y, w hi c h e xt e nd e d f r om nor t he a s t F l or i da t o K e y W e s t B y 1896 F l a gl e r s de ve l opm e nt s r e a c h e d M i a m i w hi c h be c a m e a not he r r e s o r t c i t y. T he l a nds c a pe o f F l or i d a w a s t r a ns f o r m e d i n t h e s e c ond ha l f of t h e ni n e t e e nt h c e nt ur y, pa r t l y due t o t he i de a l i z e d d e pi c t i ons i n l a nds c a pe p a i nt i ngs A r t i s t s H e r m a n H e r z og a nd G e or ge H e r be r t M c C or d i de a l i z e d s c e ne s of F l or i da t hr ough s t r a t e gi c us e of c onve nt i ons t ha t de pi c t e d dr a m a t i c s uns e t s b r i ght da yl i ght a nd, t hi s t i m e l ow e r pe r s pe c t i ve s

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4 H e r z og's p a i nt i ng F or e s t w i t h H e r on ( f i gur e 1) i s a na t ur a l i s t i c de pi c t i on of t he na t ur a l l a nd o f F l or i da A m i xt ur e of p a l m t r e e s a nd pi ne t r e e s c om pr i s e a f or e s t t ha t e nc i r c l e s a s w a m p i n t he f or e gr ound. T h e us e of d a r k pa i nt i n t he unde r br u s h of t he f or e s t c r e a t e s a m ys t e r i ous de pt h t ha t s t r e t c he s i nt o t he unknow n. C ont r a r i l y, t he t r e e t ops e s pe c i a l l y t he p a l m s a r e i l l um i na t e d by br i ght s unl i ght T he c om pos i t i on s t r a t e gi c a l l y e nc i r c l e s t h e vi e w e r dr a w s t he i r i m a gi na t i on i nt o t he de pt hs of a n unkn ow n l a nd a nd gl or i f i e s t he e xot i c t r opi c a l pl a nt s a nd a ni m a l s t h a t e xi s t i n t hi s l a nd. S i m i l a r t e c hni que s a r e s e e n M c C or d s Suns e t on t he St J ohns R i v e r ( f i gur e 2) I n t hi s s c e ne t he s uns e t t a k e s t he s t a ge a s t he m a i n s ubj e c t a s i t s gol de n gl ow s pr e a ds a c r os s t he c om pos i t i on t o c r e a t e a n a l l ur i ng a t m os phe r e A pa t c h o f s i l houe t t e d pa l m t r e e s r e a c h e s i nt o t he s c e n e f r om t he r i ght f or e gr ou nd a s a c om pe t i ng s ub j e c t T hr ough s ym bol i c us e of c ol or a n d c e nt r a l pl a c e m e nt of p a l m t r e e s M c C or d i de a l i z e d t he s c e n e W hi l e r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l a e s t he t i c of bot h s c e n e s a ppe a r s s t r a i ght f o r w a r d, a c l os e r e xa m i na t i on r e v e a l s t ha t f or m a l a nd c om pos i t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s pr e s e nt out s i de vi e w e r s w i t h t he m os t i nt r i gui ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he s out h. I de a l i z e d d e pi c t i ons of t he r e gi on r e i nf or c e d a ne w c ul t ur a l t he r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he l a nd a nd i nf l ue nc e d phys i c a l m a ni f e s t a t i ons t ha t c ha ng e d t he f a c e of t h e l a nds c a pe i n r e a l i t y. S i nc e F l or i da s popul a r i t y be ga n t o gr ow a n i nf l ux of c ons t r uc t i on de v e l opm e nt ha s c ha nge d t he f a c e o f F l or i da t hr ough out t he l a s t c e nt ur y. T he r e gi on of t he F l or i da K e ys ha s be e n p a r t i c ul a r l y i m pa c t e d by s uc h de v e l opm e nt a s t he e f f e c t s a r e a m pl i f i e d due t o l i m i t e d i s l a nd l a nd. I n t he pa s t t w o de c a de s l a r ge s c a l e c ons t r u c t i on pr oj e c t s ha ve pa ve d ove r pr i s t i ne

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5 na t ur a l i s l a nds a nd r e pl a c e d be l ove d hi s t or i c bui l di ngs t ha t c om pr i s e t he qua i nt c ha r a c t e r of K e y W e s t A n a r t i c l e publ i s he d by U S A T od a y i n 2007 r e ve a l s i ns i ght f r om F l or i da K e ys l oc a l s on w ha t i s ha ppe ni ng i n t he i r r e gi on. T he a ut hor poi nt s out t he K e ys popul a t i on a nd popul a r i t y i nc r e a s e d ove r t he ye a r s l e a di ng t o m or e s t r uc t ur e s ge t t i ng bui l t on l i m i t e d i s l a nd l a nd," ( S a i nz ) T he r e pe r c us s i ons of s uc h de ve l opm e nt s t r i ke l oc a l s on a de e p l e ve l know i ng t ha t unne c e s s a r y c ha ng e s i n t he s ur r oundi ngs t hr e a t e n t he uni que s pi r i t of t he r e gi on. A s ur ve y c onduc t e d i n 2004 r e ve a l e d t ha t 73% of K e y W e s t r e s ponde nt s s a i d de ve l opm e nt w a s a t h r e a t t o t he c i t y's c ha r a c t e r a n d c ul t ur e ," ( S a i nz ) O ne of t he m os t pr om i ne nt f i gur e s r e s pons i bl e f or c ha ngi ng t he f a c e of t he hi s t or i c r e gi on i s de v e l ope r P r i t ha m S i ngh, w hos e obj e c t i ve w a s m a d e ob vi ous w he n he s t a t e d, i t 's c r i t i c a l f or K e y W e s t t o r e pl a c e ol de r pr ope r t i e s F a n c i e r va c a t i on r e nt a l s ke e p t our i s m c om pe t i t i ve a nd pr of i t a bl e ," ( S a i nz ) O ne of S i ngh's r e c e nt pr oj e c t s H a r bo r H ous e i s a 32 uni t l uxur y ga t e d c om m uni t y l oc a t e d ne a r t he hi s t or i c K e y W e s t ha r bor w i t h s u i t e s s t a r t i ng a t $ 1.87 m i l l i on a n unf i t t i ng ne i ghbor t o one of t he c i t y's ol de s t m os t be l ove d a nd w e a t he r e d b a r s t he S c hoon e r W h a r f L o c a l s ha v e e xpr e s s e d t h e i r di s c ont e nt f or t he un w e l c om e d de ve l opm e nt i n m e s s a ge s w r i t t e n on t he r e t a i ni ng w a l l s of t he c ons t r uc t i on s i t e : S t op t he M a dne s s ," M one y T a l ks ," E a t t he R i c h." A f t e r a l l t he onl y c om m uni t y t ha t us e d t o be ga t e d i n K e y W e s t w a s t he c e m e t e r y.

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6 I I I I d e al l an d s c ap e vs v i s i on a r y l an d s c ap e : 19 th an d 20 th c e n t u r y c on v e n t i on s N i ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y l a nds c a pe pa i nt e r s ut i l i z e d s t r a t e gi c c om pos i t i ona l c onve nt i ons t o he i ght e n t he e xp r e s s i on of c ul t ur a l i de a l s t ha t w e r e p r oj e c t e d ont o na t ur e T r a ns c e nd e nt a l i s m e m ph a s i z e d a s e ns e o f di vi ni t y e m bodi e d by t he uns poi l e d A m e r i c a n f r ont i e r N ot a l l A m e r i c a ns ha d t he oppor t uni t y t o s e e t he e xpa ns i ve l a nds c a pe of t h e c ount r y, t hough t he y w e r e i n t une w i t h t he c ul t ur a l s pi r i t of t he t i m e a nd de s i r e d t he m ys t i f i e d e xpe r i e nc e de s c r i be d by i nf l ue nt i a l w r i t e r s of t he t i m e I t be c a m e t he r ol e of t he l a nds c a pe p a i nt e r t o de l i ve r t he e xp e r i e nc e of t he A m e r i c a n f r ont i e r w i t h a l l i t s c ul t ur a l i de a l s t o t he vi e w e r T he a r t i s t w a s e xpe c t e d t o m a ke vi s i bl e bot h t h e s ubl i m e a nd s a nc t i f i e d ; t h e t a s k of t he a r t i s t a nd s pe c t a t or i s t o unve i l t o r e v e al t he hi dde n gl or y, ( N ova k, 38) I n t hi s dyna m i c pos i t i on, a s a n i nt e r m e di a r y be t w e e n na t ur e a nd c ul t ur e l a nds c a pe a r t i s t a ppr o a c he d t he s ubj e c t w i t h p r e de t e r m i ne d c onv e nt i ons t ha t m os t bl a t a nt l y s i gni f i e d t he i de a l l a nds c a pe ( N ov a k 25) S uc h c onv e nt i ons i nf l ue nc e d c om pos i t i ona l s t r uc t ur e w hi c h, onc e a da pt e d, r e m a i ne d l i t t l e m or e t ha n a s upe r f i c i a l i m pos i t i on of a w or n out s t r uc t ur a l c l i c h ( N ov a k, 25) I n F r e dr i c E dw i n C hur c h s Suns e t i n t he B e r k s hi r e H i l l s ( f i gur e 3) t h e s c e n e f a de s i nt o a ha z y m ount a i nous ba c kgr ound t ha t c r e a t e s a c onvi nc i ng a t m os phe r i c s pa c e G l ow i ng l i ght pe r m e a t e s t he a t m os phe r e a nd i l l u m i na t e s t he l a nd. D a r k s ha dow s de f i n e s i l houe t t e d ve ge t a t i on t ha t s t a nds be t w e e n t he vi e w e r a nd t he di s t a nt gl ow i ng s ky, e m pha s i z i ng t he i nt a ngi bi l i t y of t he di vi ne

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7 M a ny a r t i s t s a dopt e d t he c onve nt i on of e l e va t e d pe r s pe c t i ve t o c r e a t e a d e pi c t i on of t he l a nd t ha t s pe a ks t o t he hi ghl y c ol or e d o pt i m i s m of t r a ns c e nd e nt a l i s m a nd l a nd gr a nt oppor t uni s m ," ( P e nni ngt on, 8) T he va s t ne s s of t he l a nd w a s pr om i s i ng f or e xpa ns i on a nd oppor t uni t y. C om bi ne d w i t h e xa gg e r a t e d i l l um i na t i on a nd t he a t m os phe r i c i l l us i on of s pa c e t he l a nds c a pe s e m bodi e d t h e m os t pr of ound f e a t ur e s of t he na t i ona l m ood a t t he t i m e J ohn F r e de r i c k K e ns e t t s M ount W as hi ngt on ( f i gur e 4 ) a l s o i de a l i z e s t he l a nds c a pe w i t h c om pos i t i ona l a nd s ym bol i c c onv e nt i ons E l e va t e d p e r s pe c t i ve s u gge s t s di vi ni t y a nd oppor t uni t y. T he f a di ng hor i z on c r e a t e s a n i l l us i on of s pa c e i l l um i na t e d by a gl ow i ng s ky, s ym bol i z i n g a t r a ns c e nde nt s pi r i t ua l i t y e m bodi e d by t he na t ur a l w or l d. Q ui t e di f f e r e nt t ha n t he 19 t h c e nt ur y e f f or t t o e xpr e s s c ul t ur a l i de a l s i n t he l a nds c a pe 20 t h c e nt ur y p a i nt e r C ha r l e s B ur c hf i e l d de f i ne d t he m ood o f a s c e ne b a s e d on hi s pe r s onal e xpe r i e nc e of na t ur e I n hi s e f f or t t o vi s ua l l y e xpr e s s e x pe r i e nc e s of a pl a c e he i nc or por a t e d a bs t r a c t s ym bol i s m a s w e l l a s r e f e r e nc e s t o t he na t u r a l w o r l d. B ur c hf i e l d ke pt hi s vi e w e r s gr ound e d i n na t ur e t hr ough na t ur a l i s t i c c om pos i t i on a nd us e d a bs t r a c t br us h m a r k a nd c ol or t o c onve y i de a s a bout t he pl a c e B ur c hf i e l d w a s f a s c i na t e d by w ha t he e xpe r i e nc e d a s t he m oods of n a t ur e t he pa s s i ng of t i m e c ha nge s i n w e a t he r s e a s ons s ounds a nd f e e l i ngs of t he a t m os phe r e T he s e e xp e r i e nc e s a r e w ha t B ur c hf i e l d s t r i ve d t o t r a ns l a t e i n pi c t or i a l f or m I n a j our na l e nt r y dur i ng t he s pr i ng of 1915, B ur c hf i e l d w r o t e m y gr e a t i de a i s t hi s : t o s how i n c ont i nui t y t he t r a ns i t i on of w e a t he r a nd of t he s e a s ons ; s uc h a s t he d e ve l opm e nt of a

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8 t hunde r s t or m f r om a c a l m c l e a r da y, a nd t he n i t s pa s s i ng a nd pe r ha ps a m oonr i s e f ol l ow i ng, ( B a ur 29) T o c onve y a bs t r a c t i de a s a bout a t ot a l e xpe r i e nc e of na t ur e B ur c hf i e l d b e ga n t o de ve l op a pi c t or i a l l a ngu a ge of gr a phi c m a r ks t ha t w oul d r e p r e s e nt i nt a ngi bl e f or c e s o f na t ur e H e us e d t he s i m p l i f i e d m a r ks a nd s ha p e s r e pe t i t i ve l y t hr oughout hi s c om pos i t i ons i n or de r t o c r e a t e a r hyt hm i c e ne r gy t ha t he i ght e ne d t he m ood i n a s c e n e H e not e d t ha t hi s i nt e nt i on w a s t o m a ke c onve nt i ona l i z a t i ons of t he i de a o f t he s un, w i nd, s t or m r a i n, e t c ., a nd i nt e r w e a v e t he m i n a m us i c a l c om pos i t i on i n pa i nt i ng, ( B a ur 2 9) A s B ur c hf i e l d f o c us e d on c r e a t i ng vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of a bs t r a c t i d e a s h e a t t e m pt e d t o c onve y t he e xpe r i e n c e of i nt e r s e ns or y e f f e c t s i n hi s w or k. P e r ha ps t hi s i de a s t e m s di r e c t l y f r om hi s ow n i nt e r s e ns or y e xpe r i e nc e s of na t ur e B ur c h f i e l d s e e m s t o ha ve ha d a c a s e of s yne s t he s i a or s om e s i m i l a r c on di t i on of ove r l a ppi ng s e n s e s I n j our na l e nt r i e s of t he t i m e he r e po r t s a num be r of s t r a nge e nc ount e r s w hi l e obs e r vi ng a nd e xpl or i ng t he na t u r a l w o r l d, s uc h a s hi s l ooki ng a t a ut u m n l e a ve s a nd r e por t i ng t ha t h e f e l t a s i f t he c ol o r s m a de s ound, ( B a ur 30) T he e nt r i e s gr e w s t r a nge r r e c or di ng hi s t hought s : I know a c he s t nut t r e e w hi c h, w i t h i t s pe c ul i a r t w i s t i ng ba r k, i s l i ke a bi t of m us i c a nd I ha v e n e ve r l e a r n e d t o t a l k a nd h a ve onl y l i s t e ne d t o t he t r e e s ( B a ur 30) A t t he be gi nni ng of 191 6, B ur c hf i e l d be ga n t o r e a d a bout H i ndu a nd B uddhi s t m yt hs w hi c h i nf l ue nc e d a nd r e i n f or c e d hi s a r t i s t i c e nde a vor s H e w r ot e a bout hi s a dm i r a t i on of t he i r pe r s oni f i c a t i on of na t ur a l ph e nom e na w hi c h s t r i ke s t he m a i n c hor d i n m y l i f e ( B a ur 31 ) W i t h i nt e nt t o c onve nt i o na l i z e na t u r a l phe nom e n a us i ng a bs t r a c t m a r ks a nd c r e a t e i nt e r s e ns or y e f f e c t s t ha t pe r s o ni f y t he m oods of n a t ur e B ur c hf i e l d s

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9 w or k de m ons t r a t e s t he w a y t ha t dr a s t i c t r a ns f or m a t i ons of t he l a nds c a p e s c e ne c a n be us e d t o s ym bol i z e s pe c i f i c i de a s a bout na t u r e H i s pa i nt i ng, C r i c k e t C hor us ( f i gur e 5) de pi c t s a n a udi t or y e xpe r i e nc e of na t ur e R e pe t i t i ons of s i m pl e gr a phi c m a r ks s ym bol i z e s ound w a ve s e m a n a t i ng f r om t he t r e e s a nd bus he s T he s c e ne i s r e duc e d t o a r e a s of c ol o r a nd de f i n e d by gr a phi c m a r ks t hough t he c om pos i t i on r e m a i n s na t ur a l i s t i c a nd r e c og ni z a bl e a s a l a nds c a p e H i s pr oc e s s o f i m pos i ng a bs t r a c t t e c hni que s ove r na t ur a l i s t i c c om pos i t i on gi ve s f or m t o a vi s ua l e xpr e s s i on of i nvi s i bl e i nt a ngi bl e phe nom e na H e at W av e i n t he Sw am p ( f i gur e 6 ) a c hi e ve s a s i m i l a r e f f e c t t hr ough br us h m a r k a nd c ol or pa l e t t e T he g ol de n ove r t one s of t he p a i nt i ng c r e a t e a s e ns e of w a r m t h, w hi l e s i nuous gr a phi c m a r ks r e pr e s e nt he a t w a v e s B ur c hf i e l d a c hi e v e s a n a t m os phe r i c e f f e c t a s w e l l a s a s e ns e of m e l t i ng a nd di s t or t i on of t r e e s a nd pl a nt s w i t h t he us e of s i m pl i f i e d gr a phi c l i ne s C om pos i t i on r e m a i ns na t ur a l i s t i c a nd t he a bs t r a c t m a r ks t ha t c om pos e t he s c e ne a r e us e d s t r a t e gi c a l l y t o s ym bol i z e i de a s of e xpe r i e n c e a t t r i but e d t o n a t ur e W i t h a n a ppr oa c h t o p a i nt i ng t ha t w a s dr a s t i c a l l y di f f e r e nt f r om 19 t h c e nt ur y l a nds c a pe pa i nt e r s B ur c hf i e l d s ym bol i z e d i de a s a bout na t ur e t hr ough s t r a t e gi c f or m a l m a ni pul a t i on of t he s c e ne T oda y, c ont e m por a r y a r t i s t s P e t e r D oi g a nd L a ur a O w e ns dr a w f r om bot h r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l a nd a bs t r a c t f o r m a l l a ngua ge s of pa i nt i ng. T he c onc e pt ua l c ont e nt of t h e i r w or k i s c r e a t e d i n t he ve r y pr oc e s s of uni f yi ng di s c or da nt s t yl e s i n a l a nds c a pe s c e ne T he e s t a bl i s he d a s s o c i a t i ons i nhe r e nt i n a r t hi s t or i c a l s t yl e s of f e r dyn a m i c i m pl i c a t i ons w he n c om bi ne d i n a p os t m ode r n w or k of a r t

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10 I V E n t e r i n g a s y m b ol i c r e al m : R e p r e s e n t at i on an d ab s t r ac t i on i n c on t e m p or ar y a r t C ont e m por a r y a r t i s t P e t e r D oi g c om pos e s di s t or t e d a t m os phe r i c l a nds c a pe s i n hi s w or k. I n doi ng s o, he c r e a t e s a s ym bol i c c ont e xt f or t he s ubj e c t a nd c ont e n t c onve ye d i n a s c e ne B y a l t e r i ng, s c r a pi ng, l a ye r i ng a nd i nt e r t w i ni ng a bs t r a c t a nd n a t ur a l i s t i c s t yl e s ove r r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l c om pos i t i ons he c r e a t e s a t m os phe r i c di s t or t i ons t ha t m ove a w a y f r om r e a l i t y a nd i nt o a s ym bo l i s t r e a l m ," ( D e xt e r 9 2) A vi s ua l t e ns i on e m e r g e s s e e n i n hi s pa i nt i ng G as t hof z ur M ul de nt al s pe r r e ( f i gur e 7) t ha t a c t s a s a l oc us of s i ght i m a gi na t i on a nd hope b ut i t i s a l s o t he e nt r a n c e t o t he s ubl i m e a nd t he unknow a bl e ," ( D e xt e r 92) D oi g s pr oc e s s of r e duc i ng a nd a b s t r a c t i ng t he l a nds c a pe i s s ym bol i c i n t ha t i t t r a ns f or m s a know a bl e s c e ne i nt o a n un r e a l s p a c e i n w hi c h i l l us i on a nd r e a l i t y s e e p i n a nd out of t hi n a i r s e t t i n g a m e t a phor i c t one f or a n i m a gi na r y r e a l m S e t t i ng hi s s ubj e c t a nd vi e w e r i n t hi s i m a gi na r y c ont e xt e vok e s i de a s a bout w h a t e xi s t s be yo nd our hum a n pe r c e pt i on. D oi g a l s o ut i l i z e s c om p os i t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s t o c r e a t e s y m bol i s m I n hi s pa i nt i ng 100 Y e ar s A go ( f i gur e 8) a s i t s i n a c a noe i n t he f or e gr ound a c om m on m ot i f i n D oi g s w or k, a nd ga z e s t o w a r d t he vi e w e r A n i s l a nd r e s t s i n t he di s t a nc e s e p a r a t e d f r om t he f i gur e ( a nd vi e w e r ) by a body of w a t e r T he s c e ne r e p r e s e nt s t he R i ve r S t yx a nd t he f i gur e i nvi t e s t he vi e w e r t o j oi n hi m on t he j our ne y. D oi g f or m a l l y r e duc e s a nd f l a t t e ns t he s c e ne di v i di ng t he c om pos i t i on i nt o a r e a s of c ol or t ha t a r e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of di f f e r e nt s t a ge s i n a n i m pl i e d na r r a t i ve s ym bol i c of a f i na l j our ne y t o a n unknow n p l a c e

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11 L a ur a O w e ns a l s o pa i nt s on t he boa r de r of r e p r e s e nt a t i on a nd a bs t r a c t i on w i t h a n i nt e nt i on t o r e ve a l t he na t ur e of r e pr e s e nt a t i on i t s e l f as a pr oc e s s of a bs t r a c t i on. H e r c a r e f ul l y r e nd e r e d s c e n e s a r e s e t i n f r ont of r e duc t i ve ba c kgr ounds s ugge s t i ve of a l a nds c a pe T he obj e c t s i n he r p a i nt i ngs w he t he r a n a ni m a l t r e e o r f i gur e a r e us ua l l y r e c ogni z a bl e t hough d e c l a r e t o be a c know l e dg e d a s a bs t r a c t s ha pe s a nd s pl ot c he s of pa i nt a t t he s a m e t i m e O w e ns e xpa nds f o r m a l c onc e pt s a nd pr oc e s s e s t o a poi nt t ha t s ym bol i z e s pa i nt i ng s a l w a ys a r t i f i c i a l a t t e m pt a t r e pr e s e nt a t i on. H e r w or k i s i nf or m e d by t he i de a t ha t a ny f r a m e d i m a ge w h e t he r i t i s of na t ur e or c ul t ur e i s a c ons t r uc t i on, not a r e pr e s e nt a t i on of a b s ol ut e t r ut h, ( O w e ns 28 ) I n a n unt i t l e d pa i nt i ng ( f i gur e 9) O w e ns de pi c t s a n a m bi guous de s e r t / m ount a i n l a nds c a pe i n f l a t a r e a s of pa s t e l c ol o r T he d r a s t i c va l ue c h a nge f r om t he s o f t ba c kg r ound t o t he f or e m os t m ount a i n a nd s t a r k t r e e l i m bs i n t he f or e gr ound e l i m i na t e t he e f f e c t of a t m os phe r i c pe r s p e c t i ve f l a t t e ni ng a nd r e du c i ng t he s c e ne t o a gr a phi c i m a ge S ubt l e f l ur r i e s of pa i nt s ugge s t s pa r s e l e a v e s of t he t r e e t hough t he i r t hi c k, c a r e f ul a ppl i c a t i on on t he s ur f a c e of t he c a n va s r e m i nds t he vi e w e r t ha t t he obj e c t r e pr e s e nt e d i s a c t ua l l y a pa i nt i ng O w e ns r e ve a l s t he r e l a t i ons hi p of s ubj e c t a nd obj e c t f or m a nd c ont e nt by f l a t t e ni ng t he c om pos i t i on w hi l e m a i nt a i ni ng i t s vi s ua l r e f e r e nc e t o a l a nds c a pe B ot h t he s ubj e c t a nd t he f l a t ne s s o f t he p a i nt i ng a r e c l e a r l y di s c e r na bl e W hi l e t he t r e e i s p a i nt e d i n a m a nne r t ha t dr a w s o n hi s t or i c r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l s t yl e s of pa i nt i ng, i t s dr a s t i c va l ue c ont r a s t t o t he r e s t of t h e s c e ne r e i nf o r c e s t he f l a t gr a phi c qua l i t y of t h e pa i nt i ng. T o a c hi e ve t hi s e f f e c t O w e ns c om bi ne s di ve r s e vi s ua l l a ngua ge s us i ng he r c om m a nd of ve r na c ul a r pa i nt i ng e f f e c t s t o c onc e pt ua l e nds ( F ogl e 318) T hus O w e ns i nve s t i ga t e s

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12 f or m a l a s p e c t s of t he m e di um a nd a ppl i e s i t t o a na t ur a l s ubj e c t t o dr a w a t t e nt i on t o t he ga p t ha t e xi s t s be t w e e n r e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd r e a l i t y. T he w or ks of O w e ns a nd D oi g he i ght e n t he v i e w e r s a w a r e ne s s of t he non r e a l i t i e s c r e a t e d i n pa i nt i ng. T h e y dr a w vi s ua l a s s oc i a t i ons t o r e a l i t y by a p pr opr i a t i ng t he l a nds c a pe t hough t he y t r a ns f or m i t i n t he pa i nt i ng pr oc e s s t o c r e a t e m e a ni ng. D oi g's m e s s a ge r e f e r s t o t h e unknow a bl e e voke d by i nc ons i s t e nc i e s i n t h e l a nds c a pe a nd de vi a t i ons f r om r e a l i t y. O w e n s m e s s a ge hi ghl i ght s t he ve r y c a pa c i t y f or pa i nt i ng t o pr ovoke t hought t hr ough obvi ous t r a ns f or m a t i on o f vi s ua l i nf or m a t i on.

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13 V G e om e t r i c G e o g r ap h y: V i s u a l t e n s i on s b e t w e e n n at u r e an d a r t i f i c i al i t y S i m i l a r t o t he w or k of D oi g a nd O w e ns m y pa i nt i ngs a r e r e f e r e nt i a l t o t he na t ur a l w or l d a nd ove r t l y de t a c he d f r om r e a l i t y a t t he s a m e t i m e E xa gge r a t e d non na t ur a l i s t i c c ol or s a nd gr a phi c br us h m a r ks he i ght e n t he a r t i f i c i a l i t y of t he pa i nt i ngs c ount e r a c t i ng t he na t ur a l i s t i c c om pos i t i ona l s t r uc t ur e a nd a t m os phe r i c i l l us i on of s pa c e T e ns i ons be t w e e n i l l us i on a nd r e a l i t y a r i s e f r om t he j uxt a po s i t i on of r e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd a bs t r a c t i on, na t ur a l s ubj e c t a nd a r t i f i c i a l pa i nt h a ndl i ng, i nt e gr a t i o n of n a t ur a l a nd o r g a ni c f o r m s a nd di s c or da nt non na t ur a l i s t i c c ol or s f a di ng i nt o pe c u l i a r w hi t e s ki e s M y w or k t r a ns f or m s a t m os phe r e i n a w a y t ha t g e ne r a t e s a n unus ua l f e e l i ng i n t he s c e ne s i m i l a r t o t he w o r k of P e t e r D oi g. W hi t e s ki e s a ppe a r t hr oughout t he body of w or k t o c r e a t e a n i l l us i on of a t m os p he r e t ha t i s p e c ul i a r l y c a l m T h e uns e t t l i ng c a l m ne s s pe r m e a t e s t he s c e n e s a s hor i z ons f a de i nt o a ha z y a t m os phe r i c voi d. T hi s qui e t ne s s i s j uxt a pos e d w i t h t he vi v a c i t y of non na t ur a l i s t i c c ol or e d w a t e r e voki ng t e ns i on i n t he s c e ne F l ow ( f i gur e 10) de pi c t s a c i di c c ol or s of pa i nt s w i r l i ng t oge t he r unde r a ha z y w hi t e s ky i n a s i nuous ha l l uc i noge ni c s e e m i n gl y m e t a l l i c body of w a t e r F l ow i ng pr ope r t i e s of w a t e r a r e e xa gge r a t e d by t he p a i nt a ppl i c a t i on, t hough t he pa t t e r ne d s t r uc t ur e of w a v e s a nd u nbr oke n br us h m a r ks f i x t he s c e ne i n a di s c onc e r t i ng s t i l l ne s s s c he m a t i z i ng a not he r t e n s i on be t w e e n i l l us i on a nd r e a l i t y. T he f l ui d t opogr a phy f a de s i nt o t he ho r i z on, f i xi ng i t i n a t hr e e di m e ns i ona l a t m os phe r i c s pa c e r e m i n i s c e nt of t he w or l d w e know T he i l l us i on of a n a l l pe r va di ng

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14 l i ght t ha t di s pe r s e s i nt o a l l pa r t s t he s c e ne dr a w s f r om c om pos i t i ona l t e c hni que s of 19 t h c e nt ur y T r a n s c e nde nt a l l a nds c a p e pa i nt e r s T hi s s ubt l e gr a da t i on o f a t m os phe r i c pe r s pe c t i ve e n a bl e s t he s c e ne t o be c ons t i t ut e d a s a t hr e e di m e ns i ona l s pa c e t hough t he e xa gge r a t e d w hi t e ne s s h a r ks ba c k t o non r e a l i t y. T oge t he r t h e t e ns i ons pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s s c e ne unde r m i ne t he a r t i f i c i a l i t y of r e pr e s e nt a t i on. O c e an ( f i gur e 11) de pi c t s a not he r r hyt hm i c pa t t e r n of w a v e s t hi s t i m e pa i nt e d w i t h gr a phi c l a ye r s of br oke n bl ue gr e e n a nd pa l e ye l l ow br us h m a r ks t ha t c r e a t e ge om e t r i c w a ve pe a ks P ur pl e z i gz a g l i ne s s e e p i n be t w e e n w a ve s a nd a c r os s t he s ur f a c e of w a t e r i nt e r l oc ki ng a n d r e i nf or c i ng t he r hyt hm of t he c om pos i t i on. T h e br us h m a r ks br e a k a p a r t c om pl e t e l y i n t he r i ght f or e gr ound r e v e a l i ng t he l a ye r i ng of c ol or s m a r ks a nd s ha pe s t ha t m a ke up t he i l l us i ona r y i m a ge A w hi t e s ky w i t h onl y s ubt l e v a l ue s hi f t s t ha t s ugge s t c l oud f or m a t i on s m a i nt a i ns t he s t r a nge t r a nqui l i t y s e e n i n F l ow t hough a l e s s a s s e r t i ve g r a da t i on o f a t m os phe r e pl a c e s e m pha s i s on t he g r a phi c l i ne s a nd ha r d e dge d w a ve pe a ks t ha t c om pos e t he a r t i f i c i a l w a t e r F r a gm e nt e d br us h m a r ks t ha t c om pos e t he w a t e r a r e r e m i ni s c e nt o f B ur c h f i e l d s a bs t r a c t l a nds c a p e s L a y e r s of i ndi vi dua l gr a phi c m a r ks c om e t oge t h e r i n a r hyt hm i c vi br a t i on t ha t uni t e s t he na t ur a l i s t i c c om pos i t i on. T he ove r t l y a r t i f i c i a l c o ns t r uc t i on t ha t r e pr e s e nt s t he na t ur a l s ub j e c t c r e a t e s a s ym bol i c t e ns i on i n t he s c e ne T he s a m e e f f e c t i s s e e n i n t he a bs t r a c t s ur f a c e qu a l i t y of W a v e ( f i gur e 12) t hough t he b r us hs t r oke s t ha t c om pos e t he s c e ne a r e e ve n m or e gr a phi c D i s c or da nt non na t ur a l i s t i c c ol or s a r e pl a c e d a dj a c e nt l y t o o ne a not he r e m pha s i z i ng t he gr a p hi c c ons t r uc t i on of t he w a t e r I n s om e a r e a s of t he s c e ne br i ght or a nge s t r ok e s o f pa i nt dr i p dow n t he pa ne l r e i nf or c i ng t he f l a t s ur f a c e of t h e pa i nt i ng. T he s e g r a phi c m a r ks c om e

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15 t oge t he r t o c om pos e a hi ghl y na t ur a l i s t i c t hr e e di m e ns i ona l s t r uc t ur e o f w a v e s S uc h c a r e f ul na t ur a l i s t i c c om p os i t i on a nd e xa gge r a t i on t he s ynt he t i c na t ur e of r e pr e s e nt a t i on a t t he s a m e t i m e i s r e m i ni s c e nt of t he e vo c a t i ve pa i nt i ngs of L a ur a O w e ns N at ur al W or l d ( f i gur e 13) de pi c t s a w a t e r s ur f a c e t ha t i s c om pl e t e l y a bs t r a c t t hough s t i l l di s c e r na bl e a s a w a ve T h e hor i z on i s om i t t e d f r om t he c om pos i t i on a nd a w a ve e m e r ge s f r om vi vi d or a nge w hi t e pi n k a n d da r k bl ue a r e a s o f c ol o r S t r ong va l ue s hi f t s a r e pl a c e d a dj a c e nt l y t o de f i ne t he s ur f a c e r e f l e c t i on of t he w a t e r T he a r e a s of c ol or t ha t c om pr i s e t he s t r uc t ur e of t he w a v e m a i nt a i n a nd r e i nf or c e t he f l a t n e s s of t he pa i nt i ng t hough r e m a i n c om pos i t i ona l l y r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l a ga i n s i m i l a r t o t he w or k of L a ur a O w e ns E xpe r i m e nt a t i on w i t h f or m a l qua l i t i e s of pa i nt i ng i n t he s e a s c a pe s e r i e s e xa gge r a t e s t he di s c onn e c t i on be t w e e n r e pr e s e n t a t i on a nd r e a l i t y. T o d r a w a s t r onge r r e f e r e n c e t o t he F l or i da K e ys t he a e r i a l l a nds c a pe s pr e s e nt a ge ogr a phi c pe r s pe c t i ve of t he r e gi on. I n t hi s s e r i e s m a s s e s of l a nd m or ph f r om s e e m i ngl y or ga ni c t o a m bi guous ge om e t r i c f or m s P a i nt e d f r om phot ogr a phs t ha t w e r e t a ke n i n a pl a ne t he e l e va t e d pe r s pe c t i ve d r a w s a s t r o nge r vi s ua l r e f e r e n c e t o t he ge ogr a phi c l oc a t i on a s w e l l a s t o t he i nt e gr a t i on of a r t i f i c i a l i t y i n t he l a nds c a pe o f t he r e gi on I n G e om e t r i c G e ogr aphy ( f i gur e 14) c om pos i t i on a nd c ol or pa l e t t e a r e g e ne r a l l y na t ur a l i s t i c w hi l e ge om e t r i c br us h m a r ks m a ni p ul a t e t he s c e n e C ol or r e l a t i ons hi p a nd gr a da t i on c r e a t e a n a t m o s phe r i c i nt e gr a t i on of na t ur a l a nd a r t i f i c i a l f or m s B r us h m a r ks t ha t m a ke up l a ndf or m s be gi n t o br e a k a pa r t i nt o ge om e t r i c bl oc ks of c ol or a s s e e n i n a de t a i l ( f i g ur e 14 )

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16 S i m i l a r t o t he w a y f o r m a l t e c hni que s w e r e us e d i n t he s e a s c a pe s na t ur a l c om pos i t i on i s t r a ns f or m e d by a bs t r a c t br us h m a r k. T he c ol or p a l e t t e i s na t ur a l i s t i c i n t hi s s e r i e s i n or d e r t o m a i nt a i n e m pha s i s on r e c ogn i z a bl e na t u r a l l a nd f or m s A l t e r i ng t he s ubj e c t a nd w i t h ove r t l y unna t ur a l br us h m a r ks r e c a l l s t he ba l a nc e of r e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd a bs t r a c t i on t ha t i s e m pha s i z e d by L a ur a O w e ns T he s e m i ge om e t r i c s t yl e of br us hs t r oke i n t he a e r i a l l a nds c a p e s s ym bo l i z e s a n i de a of a r t i f i c i a l i t y s h a pi ng t he na t ur a l l a nd T h e t ot a l i t y of m a r ks c r e a t e s a r hyt hm a nd f l ow t ha t d e f i ne s t h e s ha pe o f t he na t ur a l l y c om pos e d l a nds c a p e T hi s i s s i m i l a r t o B ur c hf i e l d s gr a phi c br o ke n br us hs t r oke s t ha t de f i ne a c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of t he na t ur a l w or l d. T he s e a s c a pe s f or m a l l y m a ni pul a t e a n a t ur a l s ub j e c t t o r e v e a l t he di s c on ne c t i on be t w e e n r e a l i t y a nd i l l us or y r e pr e s e nt a t i on. T he a e r i a l l a nds c a p e s e voke a vi s ua l t e ns i on be t w e e n or g a ni c a nd a r t i f i c i a l f or m s i n na t ur e T he f i na l s e r i e s hon e s i n e ve n m or e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n m a nki nd a nd na t ur e t ha t i s s ym bol i z e d t hr oughout t he body of w or k. T he s e r i e s of i nv e nt e d l a nds c a pe s s ugg e s t s a n oppos i t i on be t w e e n na t u r e a n d s t r uc t ur e t hr ough s ubt l e pe r s oni f i c a t i on o f e a c h, r e i nf or c e d by c om pos i t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s t ha t he i ght e n t he s ugge s t i on of di a l og. M angr ov e H ands ( f i gur e 16) de pi c t s br a nc h e s of a m a ngr ove t r e e i nt r udi ng i nt o t he f or e g r ound f r om t he l e f t s i de of t he c om pos i t i on. A body of w a t e r s e p a r a t e s t he t r e e ( a nd t he vi e w e r w ho s h a r e s i t s i m pl i e d l oc a t i on) f r om a ha z y i s l a nd i n t he di s t a nc e T he i s l a nd i s c om pr i s e d o f a m bi guous ge om e t r i c s t r uc t ur e s t ha t e m e r g e f r om t r e e l i ke f o r m s S hi f t s i n c ol or a nd m a r k j uxt a pos e l i ne a r f or m s w i t h na t ur a l f or m s i n t he l a nds c a pe S e e d pods t ha t ha ng f r o m t he l i m bs of t he m a ngr ove m i m i c hu m a n h a nds l i m p a nd

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17 he l pl e s s a s ym bol f or n a t ur e s he l pl e s s n e s s t o pr ot e c t i t s e l f T he l i m bs of t he t r e e r e a c h out w a r d t ow a r d t he i s l a nd, i m pl yi ng t he op t i m i s m of gr ow t h, e nc our a gi ng t he pr e s e r v a t i on of na t ur a l l a nd e ve n t hough t he di s t a nt i s l a nd s e e m s unt ouc ha bl e E y e i n t he S k y ( f i gur e 17 ) pr e s e nt s a hous e r e nd e r e d i n a c ont e m por a r y r e s i de nt i a l a r c hi t e c t u r a l s t yl e t ha t d r a w s a c l e a r a s s oc i a t i on t o t he t ype of ove r de v e l opm e nt t ha t t hr e a t e ns t o s pr e a d a c r os s t he l a nds c a pe of t he F l or i da K e ys I t s po s i t i on on a n i s l a nd i n t he f or e gr ound di r e c t s t he e y e of t he vi e w e r a c r os s a s t r e t c h o f vi vi dl y c ol or e d w a t e r t ow a r d a l ow l yi ng i s l a n d t ha t r e s t s be ne a t h t he s un i n t he b a c kgr ound. T h e s e p a r a t i on o f f or e gr ound a nd b a c kgr ou nd s t r e ngt he ns t he oppos i t i on of t he t w o a nd c r e a t e s a na r r a t i ve s t r uc t ur e s i m i l a r t o P e t e r D oi g s 100 Y e ar s A go T he s t r uc t ur e a nd c om pos i t i ona l or i e nt a t i on of t h e hous e w i t hi n t he s c e ne s ugge s t s t ha t t he hous e ha s i t s e y e on t he na t ur a l l a nd i n t he di s t a n c e I n t he ba c kgr ound, t he ga z e i s r e c i pr o c a t e d by na t ur e a s t he br i ght s m ol de r i ng s un s i t s pr ot e c t i ve l y a bove t h e i s l a nd, w a t c hi ng ba c k. I n R e ac h ( f i gu r e 18) a ge om e t r i c l a ndf o r m t a ke s a c e nt r a l pos i t i on i n t he c om pos i t i on. A bove t he i s l a nd, c l ouds t a ke f or m i n a s ha p e s ugge s t i ve of a f i gur e W h a t a ppe a r s t o m i m i c a n a r m r e a c h e s out ove r t he i s l a nd. A t t he t i p of t hi s a r m i n t he c e nt e r of t he c om pos i t i on, br us h m a r ks f a l l a nd f a de a m bi guous l y, r e m i ni s c e nt of t he l i m p ha nds i n M angr ov e H ands i m pl yi ng a n i m pos s i bl e de s i r e o f na t ur e t o i nt e r j e c t L i ke t he s e e dpods i n M angr ov e H ands a nd t he s un i n E y e i n t he Sk y t he c l o ud i n R e ac h i s pe r s oni f i e d, a l i gni ng t he vi e w e r w i t h na t ur e

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18 V I C on c l u s i on I n he r book N at ur e and C ul t ur e a r t hi s t or i a n B a r ba r a N ova k e l a bo r a t e s on t he c onve nt i o ns of 19 t h c e nt ur y l a nds c a pe p a i nt i ng t ha t s ym bol i z e d c ul t ur a l i de a l s pr oj e c t e d on na t ur e S he e m pha s i z e s t ha t ne w pr oj e c t i ons on na t ur e a ugm e nt e d t he A m e r i c a n's s e ns e of hi s o w n uni que na t ur e hi s uni que oppo r t uni t y, a nd c oul d i nde e d f os t e r a s e ns e of de s t i ny w hi c h, w he n i t s e r ve d t o r a t i ona l i z e que s t i ona bl e a c t s w i t h e l e va t e d t hought s c oul d ha ve a da r k e r s i d e ," ( N ova k, 6) H e r e s he hi nt s a t t he f unc t i on of ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y l a nds c a p e pa i nt i ng a s a c ul pr i t o f c ul t ur a l i de a l i z a t i on t ha t i n f l ue n c e d c ul t i va t i on of l a nd dur i ng m a n i f e s t de s t i ny. A t t he s a m e t i m e s i m i l a r l y i de a l i z e d de pi c t i ons of t he s out h c ont r i but e d t o t he e ve nt ua l t r a ns f or m a t i on of t he F l or i da l a nds c a pe T hi s body of w or k s ubve r t s t he f or m ul a i c t r e a t m e nt of l a nds c a pe pa i nt i ng t hr ough s t r a t e gi c i nt e r pl a y of r e p r e s e nt a t i ona l a nd a bs t r a c t f or m a l qua l i t i e s t ha t dr a w f r om 19 t h c e nt ur y r e p r e s e nt a t i on a s w e l l a s t he a bs t r a c t c onve nt i ons of C ha r l e s B ur c hf i e l d. T he a l t e r e d r e a l i t i e s a nd ove r t a r t i f i c i a l i t y of t he w or k a r e s i m i l a r t o t he w or ks of c ont e m por a r y a r t i s t s P e t e r D oi g a nd L a u r a O w e ns B y e m pha s i z i ng t h e f l e xi bi l i t y of r e pr e s e nt a t i on i n pa i nt i ng, m y w or k unde r m i ne s t he non r e a l i t i e s t ha t c a n be c r e a t e d i n t he pa i nt i ng pr oc e s s a nd e voke s a t e ns i on t ha t p a r a l l e l s i s s ue s be t w e e n a r t i f i c i a l i t y a nd na t ur e i n t he F l or i da K e y s G e ne r a l l y r e pr e s e nt a t i on a l c om pos i t i ons a r e r e n de r e d i n a bs t r a c t gr a phi c br us h m a r ks a nd non n a t ur a l i s t i c c ol or s s w i r l i ng t oge t he r or j a gg e dl y i nt e r l oc ki ng t o c r e a t e f l ui d a nd ge om e t r i c p a t t e r ns t ha t m a ni pul a t e t h e a t m os phe r e o f a s e e m i ngl y f a m i l i a r s c e ne t r a ns po r t i ng t he vi e w e r t o a n i m a gi n a r y r e a l i t y. B y a l t e r i ng c onve nt i ona l

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19 r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he F l or i da K e ys l a nds c a pe i dyl l i c c onc e pt i on s of t he r e gi on a r e br oke n dow n a nd i de a s a bout t he m a ni pul a t i on of our na t u r a l l a nds c a p e a r e e vok e d.

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20 F i gur e 1. F or e s t w i t h H e r on F i gur e 2. Suns e t on t he St J ohns R i v e r

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21 F i gur e 3. Suns e t i n t he B e r k s hi r e H i l l s F i gur e 4. M ount W as hi ngt on

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22 F i gur e 5. C r i c k e t C hor us F i gur e 6. H e at W av e i n t he Sw am p

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23 F i gur e 7. G as t hof z ur M ul de nt al s pe r r F i gur e 8. 100 Y e ar s A go

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24 F i gur e 9. U nt i t l e d

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25 V i s u al w or k s c r e at e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s : F i gur e 10. F l ow F i gur e 11. O c e an

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26 F i gur e 12. W av e F i gur e 13. N at ur al W or l d

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27 F i gur e 14. G e om e t r i c G e ogr aphy F i gur e 15. G e om e t r i c G e ogr aphy ( de t a i l )

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28 F i gur e 16. M angr ov e H a nds F i gur e 17. E y e i n t he Sk y

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29 F i gur e 18. R e ac h

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30 B i bl i ogr a phy B a ur J ohn I H T he I n l a nd e r : L i f e and w o r k o f C ha r l e s B u r c h f i e l d N e w Y or k : C or n w a l l B ook s 1982. C r ow e N or m a n. N at ur e an d t he I de a of a M an m ade W or l d. F i r s t M I T P r e s s : 1997. D e xt e r E m m a V i t am i n P : N e w P e r s pe c t i v e s i n P ai nt i ng. P ha i don I nc L t d, L ondon: 2004. D oi g, P e t e r P e t e r D oi g a nd C hr i s O f i l i B om b. N o 101 ( F a l l 2007) 2007. E m e r s on, R a l p h W a l d o. N a t ur e and A r t H A l t e m us N e w Y or k : 1896. F e l d m a n, E d m und B ur k e A r t a s I m age and I d e a. P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c E n g l e w ood C l i f f s : 1967. F o g l e D ou g l a s P a i n t i n g a t t h e E dg e o f t h e W o r l d W a l k e r A r t C e n t e r M i nn e a p ol i s : 2001. G r os s J e nni f e r R L aur a O w e ns E di z i oni C ha r t a M i l a n: 2001. H a l l M i c ha e l D ., T he P a i nt i ngs of C har l e s B ur c hf i e l d: N or t h by M i dw e s t N e w Y or k: H a r r y N A br ha m s I n c ., 1997. M e nde l s ohn, A da m P e t e r D oi g. F l a s h A r t ( I nt e r n a t i ona l E di t i on) V ol um e 42 ( M a r c h/ A p r i l 2009) 200 9. N ova k, B a r ba r a N at ur e and C ul t ur e : A m e r i c an L ands c ape and P ai nt i ng, 1825 1875. O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s N e w Y or k: 1980. P e nni ngt on, E s t i l l C ur t i s Subdue d H ue s : M ood an d Sc e ne i n Sout he r n L an ds c ape P ai nt i ng, 1865 1925. M or r i s M us e um of A r t A ug us t a : 1999. S a i nz A dr i a n F l or i da K e y s at a C r os s r oads be t w e e n L oc al s and t he W e al t hy U SA T O D A Y .c om U SA T oday C a nne t t C o I nc : 20 07. < ht t p: / / w w w .us a t oda y.c o m / t r a ve l / de s t i na t i ons / 2007 11 20 f l or i d a ke ys _N ht m > S l oa ne J oha nne R ai nbo w s and O t he r R ui ns A f t e r a l l : A J our na l of A r t C ont e xt a nd E nqui r y. I s s ue 2, 2000. T r e e s as Se e n T hr ough t he E y e s of J ohn M ar i n and C har l e s B ur c hf i e l d, Se l e c t e d E x hi bi t i on St at e m e nt s N e w Y or k: K e nne dy G a l l e r i e s I nc ., 1991.


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