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Teaching to Cultivate

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004422/00001

Material Information

Title: Teaching to Cultivate Gardening Education Programs in Public Elementary Schools
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Noune, Andrew
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Gardening
Horticulture
Education
Public
Elementary
Teaching
Schools
Agriculture
Food Production
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In an attempt to explore ways that the educational system can encourage an understanding of food production systems and their effect on the environment and human health, I explore the components of edible school gardening programs. Eight public elementary school programs in a county in southwest Florida were studied by interviewing the facilitating teachers and observing in-class activities. Components related to horticultural procedures, academic connections, and students' home life were identified and analyzed. The findings of this research suggest that in-ground school gardens are likely to contain more horticultural components and academic connections than earth box or hydroponic gardens. Therefore, in-ground gardens are the best approach for raising awareness of food production systems. Furthermore, Horticulture teachers were found to be able to reach more children and to present gardening in a formal manner. This research also suggests that operating a school garden requires extra resources to which many schools do not have access
Statement of Responsibility: by Andrew Noune
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Supplements: Accompanying materials: CD?
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Hernandez, Sarah

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 N9
System ID: NCFE004422:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004422/00001

Material Information

Title: Teaching to Cultivate Gardening Education Programs in Public Elementary Schools
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Noune, Andrew
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Gardening
Horticulture
Education
Public
Elementary
Teaching
Schools
Agriculture
Food Production
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In an attempt to explore ways that the educational system can encourage an understanding of food production systems and their effect on the environment and human health, I explore the components of edible school gardening programs. Eight public elementary school programs in a county in southwest Florida were studied by interviewing the facilitating teachers and observing in-class activities. Components related to horticultural procedures, academic connections, and students' home life were identified and analyzed. The findings of this research suggest that in-ground school gardens are likely to contain more horticultural components and academic connections than earth box or hydroponic gardens. Therefore, in-ground gardens are the best approach for raising awareness of food production systems. Furthermore, Horticulture teachers were found to be able to reach more children and to present gardening in a formal manner. This research also suggests that operating a school garden requires extra resources to which many schools do not have access
Statement of Responsibility: by Andrew Noune
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Supplements: Accompanying materials: CD?
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Hernandez, Sarah

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 N9
System ID: NCFE004422:00001


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T E A C H I N G T O C U L T I V A T E : G A R D E N I N G E D U C A T I O N P R O G R A M S I N P U B L I C E L E M E N T A R Y S C H O O L S B Y A N D R E W N O U N E A T he s i s S ubm i t t e d t o t he D i vi s i on o f S oc i a l S c i e nc e s N e w C ol l e ge of F l o r i da i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f o r t he de gr e e B a c h e l or of A r t s U nde r t he s pons or s hi p of D r S a r a h H e r na nde z S a r a s ot a F l or i da M a y, 2011

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i i P r e f ac e I n 2010, I r e t ur ne d t o N e w C ol l e ge a s a s t ude nt a f t e r t a ki ng a s e ve n ye a r hi a t us f r om s c hool I n t ha t t i m e I ha ve be e n t r a i ne d a nd e m pl oye d a s a f a r m ha nd a t a l oc a l or ga ni c ve ge t a bl e f a r m he r e i n S a r a s ot a W he n I s t a r t e d w or ki ng a t t he f a r m I kne w ve r y l i t t l e a bout r a i s i ng ve ge t a bl e s or c a r i ng f or a ga r de n. A s I l e a r ne d ba s i c hor t i c ul t ur a l s ki l l s t ha t s e e m e d f or e i gn t o m e I w onde r e d w hy m or e c hi l dr e n, i nc l udi ng m ys e l f w e r e not e xpos e d t o t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s a t a n e a r l y a ge R a i s i ng f ood s e e m s t o be a n e s s e nt i a l hum a n s ki l l ye t m os t s c hool s do not t e a c h a ny ki nd of f ood p r oduc t i on. W i t h t he know l e dge ga i ne d f r om w or ki ng i n a gr i c ul t ur a l f i e l ds f or s i x ye a r s a s w e l l a s f r om m y s oc i ol ogy s t udi e s a t N e w C ol l e ge I c onduc t e d t he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h. T he s e e xpe r i e nc e s s ur e l y a f f e c t e d m y pe r s pe c t i ve a nd he l pe d m e c r e a t e a nd s t r uc t ur e s i gni f i c a nt pa r t s of m y i nt e r vi e w s W o r ki ng on a f a r m ga ve m e t he e xpe r i e nc e ne c e s s a r y t o t hor oughl y i nve s t i ga t e ga r de ni ng e duc a t i on, s i n c e I w a s a bl e t o i de nt i f y a nd di s c us s t he m a ny s t e ps of f ood pr oduc t i on B y c om bi ni ng a g r i c ul t ur a l know l e dge w i t h a c a de m i c s t udy, I hope m y pos i t i on w a s s t r e ngt he ne d a nd t h e r e s ul t i ng r e s e a r c h m a de m o r e m e a ni ngf ul

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Ta bl e o f C o nte nts -Tea c hi ng to C ul ti v a te: Ga rd en i ng E duca ti o n P ro g ra m s i n P u bl i c El e m e nta ry Sc ho o l s Pref ace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i A b s t ra ct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i i Ch ap t er 1 In t ro d u ct i o n 1 Ch ap t er 2 L i t erat u re R ev i e w . . . . 6 E x p e ri en t i al E d u cat i o n 6 Fact o rs an d Ch ar act er i s t i cs o f Sch o o l G ard en s . . . . 8 A cad e mi c Co n n ect i o n s . . . . 1 1 N u t ri t i o n al Fi n d i n g s . 1 9 Ch ap t er 3 M et h o d s 2 4 Ch ap t er 4 R es u l t s . 2 9 H o rt i cu l t u ral Co mp o n en t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 0 E n t h u s i as m . . . . . . . . 9 A cad e mi c Co mp o n en t s . . . 4 1 A d mi n i s t rat i v e Co mp o n en t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1 Co n n ect i o n s t o St u d en t L i f e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0 Ch ap t er 5 Co n cl u s i o n . 6 9 Ref eren c es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5 A p p en d i x A : In t erv i e w G u i d e 8 0 A p p en d i x B: O b s erv at i o n G u i d e 4 Ta bl e o f Ta bl es T ab l e 1 : F act o rs o f G a rd en Su cc es s ( D e M arco 1 9 9 9 ). . . . 1 0 T ab l e 2 : H o rt i cu l t u ral Co mp o n en t s o f G a rd en i n g Pro g r ams . 3 2 T ab l e 3 : A c ad e mi c Co mp o n en t s o f G a rd en i n g Pro g ra m s . . 4 3 T ab l e 4 : A d mi n i s t rat i v e Co mp o n en t s o f G a rd en i n g P ro g rams 5 2 T ab l e 5 : St u d en t L i fe Co n n e ct i o n s o f G a rd en i n g Pro g r ams . 6 2

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iii TEACHING TO CULTIVATE: GARDENI NG EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Andrew Noune New College of Florida, 2011 ABSTRACT In an attempt to explore ways that th e educational system can encourage an understanding of food production systems and th eir effect on the environment and human health, I explore the components of edible school gardening programs. Eight public elementary school programs in a county in southwest Florid a were studied by interviewing the facilitating teachers a nd observing in-class activities. Components related to horticultural pro cedures, academic connections, and students' home life were identified and analyzed. The findings of this research suggest th at in-ground school gardens are likely to contain more horticultural components and academic connections than earth box or hydroponic gardens. Therefore, in-ground gardens are the be st approach for raising awareness of food production systems. Furthe rmore, Horticulture teachers were found to be able to reach more children and to pres ent gardening in a formal manner. This research also suggests that operating a school garden requires extra resources to which many schools do not have access. ______________________ Dr. Sarah Hernandez Division of Social Sciences

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1 T e ac h i n g t o C u l t i vat e : G ar d e n i n g E d u c a t i on P r ogr am s i n P u b l i c E l e m e n t ar y S c h ool s C h ap t e r 1: I n t r od u c t i on I n t hi s t he s i s I e xpl or e t he c om pone nt s e f f e c t s a nd pos s i bi l i t i e s of e di bl e s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s S c hool ga r de ns t a ke m a ny di f f e r e nt f or m s a nd t he w a ys i n w hi c h t he ga r de ns a r e c onne c t e d t o a c a de m i c s t udi e s a nd ot he r s c hool a c t i vi t i e s a r e va r i e d. T he y ha ve be e n s how n t o i m pr ove a c a de m i c c om pr e he ns i on ( D i r ks a nd O r v i s 2005) a nd ha ve be e n l i nke d w i t h i m pr ove d e a t i ng ha bi t s ( M c A l e e s e a nd R a nki n 2007) T hi s t he s i s i nve s t i ga t e s t he e l e m e nt s of s c hool ga r de ni ng p r og r a m s by r e vi e w i ng pub l i s he d a c a de m i c l i t e r a t ur e a nd c ol l e c t i ng da t a a t e i ght publ i c e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s l oc a t e d i n one c ount y i n s out hw e s t F l or i da F r om t he s oi l t o t he s he l f t he c ur r e nt f ood pr oduc t i on s ys t e m i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s l e a di ng t o m a ny he a l t h, s oc i a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l pr obl e m s O n t he a gr i c ul t u r a l l a nds w he r e our f ood i s p r oduc e d, t he f e r t i l i t y o f t he s oi l a nd t he bi o di ve r s i t y of s oi l e c o s ys t e m s a r e be i ng di m i ni s he d due t o c u r r e nt f a r m i ng pr a c t i c e s ( R e ga nol d e t a l 2010) T he pe opl e w ho w o r k t he l a nds a nd ha r ve s t our f o ods a r e e xpl oi t e d a s m i l l i ons o f m i gr a t or y a nd s e a s ona l f a r m w or ke r s a r e c ont i nua l l y e xpos e d t o ha z a r dous w or ki ng a nd l i vi ng c ondi t i ons i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ( H a ns e n a nd D onohoe 2003) T he m a c hi ne s ne e de d t o pr oduc e a nd t r a ns por t a gr i c ul t u r a l s uppl i e s a nd pr oduc t s a r e t he m a i n c ont r i but or s t o f os s i l f ue l c ons um pt i on a nd C O 2 e m i s s i ons ( C ue l l a r 2010) I n t he g r oc e r y s t or e s pe opl e 's f ood pur c ha s e de c i s i ons a r e c onvol ut e d by gove r nm e nt f ood s ubs i di e s t o s oy, c or n a nd w he a t i ndus t r i e s m a ki ng j unk f ood, or hi gh e ne r gy de ns e f ood, c ons i de r a bl y l e s s e xpe ns i ve t ha n nut r i t i ous f ood ( M ons i va i s 2007) T hi s ha s c ont r i but e d t o t he hi gh obe s i t y r a t e s w hi c h a r e r e a c hi ng e pi de m i c pr opor t i ons a m ong a dul t s a nd

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2 c hi l dr e n i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ( H e be r 2010) E duc a t i ng c hi l dr e n a bout how f ood i s g r ow n m a y be a c r uc i a l pa r t of a ddr e s s i ng t he s e pr obl e m s i n t he ye a r s t o c om e S c hool ga r de ns ha ve be e n s how n t o e nha nc e s t ude nt s u nde r s t a ndi ng of a gr i c ul t ur a l s ys t e m s ( M a bi e a nd B a ke r 1996) M a ny s c hool s e s pe c i a l l y i n t he s out he r n s t a t e s f a c i l i t a t e e duc a t i ona l e di bl e ga r de ns S c hool ga r de ns a r e on t he r i s e w i t h a n e s t i m a t e d 2 000 ne w s c hool ga r de ns ha vi ng be e n c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e l a s t e i ght ye a r s i n C a l i f or ni a a l one ( F l a na ga n 2 010) F ur t he r m or e a s i gni f i c a nt m i nor i t y o f pe opl e i n t he U S a r e ga r de ne r s w i t h 37% of hous e hol ds r e por t i ng t o gr ow s om e of t he i r ow n f ood ( B ut t e r f i e l d 2009 ) T he s e ga r de ni ng e f f or t s a r e i m po r t a nt c on t r i but or s t o t he s ol ut i on o f t he s e f ood pr oduc t i o n pr obl e m s B y pr ovi di ng nut r i t i ous f ood a nd oppo r t uni t i e s f o r e xe r c i s e s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s c oul d i ns t i l l t he s ki l l s ne e de d f o r s c hool c hi l dr e n t o l i ve he a l t hi e r l i ve s G r ow i ng f ood by ha nd r e qui r e s p hys i c a l l a bor w hi c h s e r ve s a s ne e de d e xe r c i s e O r ga ni c ve ge t a bl e s a nd f r ui t s a r e r e l a t i ve l y e a s y t o p r oduc e a nd a r e o f t e n l a c ki ng f r om A m e r i c a n di e t s pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e of c hi l dr e n ( B r onne r 1996 ) S c hool ga r de ns ha ve be e n s how n t o i m pr ove t he e a t i ng ha b i t s of pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s ( M or r i s a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2002) P r ovi de d t he g r ow i ng t e nde nc y f or s c hool s t o ha ve a ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m i t i s i m por t a nt t o unde r s t a nd t he s ha pe of t he s e pr ogr a m s a nd how t he i r s ha pe a f f e c t s br oa de r l e s s ons a nd l i f e e xpe r i e n c e s i n t he c hi l dr e n s e duc a t i on. T he r e f or e I c onduc t e d a s t udy of e di bl e s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s i n a c ount y i n s out hw e s t F l or i da t o e xpl or e W ha t a r e t he c om pone nt s of e di bl e s c hool ga r de ni ng pr o gr a m s ? I a ddr e s s t he s t r uc t ur e a s w e l l a s s om e of t he f o r m a l a nd i nf or m a l l e s s ons of l oc a l ga r de ni ng pr og r a m s i de nt i f yi ng a nd c l a s s i f yi ng s om e of t he c om pone nt s of e di bl e s c ho ol ga r de ns I di s c us s c om pone nt s

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3 r e l a t i ng t o a c a de m i c c onne c t i ons a g r i c ul t ur a l s t e ps a nd r e l a t i ons hi ps t o s t ude nt s hom e l i f e a nd t h e l a r ge r c om m uni t y. T o unde r s t a nd t he w a ys s c hool s t e a c h ga r de ni ng, w e ne e d t o e xpl or e t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he ga r de n p r ogr a m i s c onne c t e d t o ot he r s c hool s ubj e c t s T hi s i s r e l e va nt be c a us e i t i l l us t r a t e s t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h ga r de ni ng i s po r t r a ye d a s pa r t of t he l a r ge r s c hool i ng pr oc e s s H ow ga r de ni ng i s c onne c t e d t o a c a de m i c s t udi e s w i l l a f f e c t t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h i t i s pe r c e i ve d by t he s t ude nt s t o be a w or t hw hi l e e nde a vor S i nc e r e c e nt r e s e a r c h s how s t e a c he r s c onne c t s c hool ga r de ns t o s c i e nc e l a ngua ge a r t s m a t h e nvi r on m e nt a l a nd nut r i t i on e duc a t i on ( S om e r s e t a nd B os s a r d 2009) a c a de m i c c onne c t i ons a r e a f oc us of t he t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s a nd obs e r va t i ons A n e di bl e s c hool ga r de n c a n be c onne c t e d t o c ount l e s s e l e m e nt a r y a c a de m i c c onc e pt s : P l a nt s c i e n c e f ood c ha i ns w e a t he r pa t t e r ns s oi l c om pos i t i on a s w e l l a s c ount i ng a nd ba s i c l a ngua ge de ve l opm e nt A ga r d e n pr ovi de s a ha nds on e nvi r on m e nt w he r e e xpe r i e nc e s r e l a t e d t o a c a de m i c c onc e pt s c a n be c onne c t e d t o m a ny s e ns e s i nc l udi ng t ouc h, s m e l l a nd t a s t e E duc a t i on ba s e d on t he ou t door e nvi r onm e nt ha s be e n s how n t o boos t a c a de m i c c om pr e he ns i on a nd t e s t pe r f or m a nc e ( L i e be r m a n a nd H oody 1998) ; f u r t he r m or e us i ng t he f i ve s e ns e s a s t ool s i s a F l or i da e duc a t i ona l be nc hm a r k f o r f i r s t gr a de r s ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on 201 0: 21) T o unde r s t a nd how ga r de ni ng i s po r t r a ye d, w e a l s o ne e d t o l ook a t t he w a ys i n w hi c h t he t e a c he r s c onne c t t he s t ude nt s t o di f f e r e n t a s pe c t s of t he a gr i c ul t u r a l pr oc e s s D o t e a c he r s ha ve s t ude nt s ge r m i na t e t he i r ow n s e e ds or do t he y ge t s e e dl i ngs f r o m a l oc a l nur s e r y? D o t he t e a c he r s m a ke c om pos t w i t h t he c hi l dr e n or i s f e r t i l i z e r pu r c ha s e d? W ho ha r ve s t s a nd pr e pa r e s t he f ood? T he s e a r e s om e of t he pr oc e s s e s e xpl or e d i n t hi s

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4 t he s i s A c c or di ng t o t he t he or y of c ont i nui t y o f e xpe r i e nc e i t i s f r om not i ng how e xpe r i e nc e s a f f e c t e a c h ot he r t ha t w e l e a r n t o di s c r i m i na t e a m ong e xpe r i e nc e s ( D e w e y 1938) S t ude nt s t ha t ha ve be e n e xpos e d t o di f f e r e nt s t a ge s of t he a gr i c ul t ur a l p r oc e s s ha ve m or e e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h w hi c h t o w or k C onc e pt s c a n be i nt e r na l i z e d m or e e a s i l y w he n t he r e i s a c onc r e t e e xa m pl e t o w hi c h a n i ndi vi dua l c a n c onne c t ne w i de a s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s S c hool ga r de ns of t e n r e qui r e s uppor t f r om pa r e nt v ol unt e e r s ( O z e r 2007) a nd dona t i ons f r om l oc a l bus i ne s s e s t o be a bl e t o ope r a t e L ooki ng i nt o how t e a c he r s ge t t he m a t e r i a l s a nd l a bor ne e de d f or t he i r ga r de ni ng e du c a t i on pr oj e c t s i s ne c e s s a r y t o unde r s t a nd how s c hool ga r de ns w or ks T o ga t he r i nf or m a t i on, I i n t e r vi e w e d publ i c e l e m e nt a r y s c hool t e a c he r s w ho f a c i l i t a t e e di bl e s c hool ga r de ns a nd c onduc t e d obs e r va t i ons of t he t e a c he r s dur i ng ga r de ni ng a c t i vi t i e s w i t h s t ude nt s T he s e f a c i l i t a t i ng t e a c he r s w e r e t he be s t s our c e s of know l e dge r e ga r di ng t he ope r a t i on o f t he s c hool ga r de ns T he y w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h how t he s uppl i e s w e r e a c qui r e d, how t he a c t i vi t i e s a r e p l a nne d a nd c onduc t e d, a nd a r e t he i ndi vi dua l s l e a di ng t he c onne c t i ons of t he ga r de n t o a c a de m i c c onc e pt s I i nt e r vi e w e d e i ght t e a c he r s a bout t he i r ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m s I n or de r t o ga i n a ke e ne r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t hi s r e s e a r c h, i n C ha pt e r 2 I pr e s e nt a l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w of r e c e nt e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h pe r t a i ni ng t o s c hool ga r de ns S om e of t he a ut hor s i nve s t i ga t e d t he c om pone nt s of ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m s w hi l e m os t of t he l i t e r a t ur e f oc us e d on t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of s c hool ga r de ns a t a t t a i ni ng c e r t a i n out c om e s I s um m a r i z e t he a ut ho r s f i nd i ngs a s t h e y pe r t a i n t o 1) t he e s s e nt i a l f a c t or s of ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s 2) a c a de m i c c onne c t i ons a nd 3) nut r i t i on a nd he a l t h.

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5 H a vi ng ga i ne d a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he body of l i t e r a t ur e t o w hi c h m y r e s e a r c h i s c ont r i but i ng, i n C ha pt e r 3 I de s c r i be m y r e s e a r c h m e t hods A l l i nt e r vi e w s a nd obs e r va t i ons w e r e c onduc t e d i n F e br ua r y a nd M a r c h of 2011 T he da t a c ol l e c t i on t ool s m y i nt e r vi e w a nd obs e r va t i on gui de s a r e i nc l ude d a s A ppe ndi c e s A a nd B I n C ha pt e r 4 I p r e s e nt t he r e s ul t s f r om t he r e s e a r c h. D a t a ha s be e n c om pi l e d a nd i s pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e s 2, 3, 4, a nd 5 I s um m a r i z e t he r e s pons e s t o t he que s t i onna i r e i n t he t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s a nd di s c us s t he i nf o r m a t i on obt a i ne d i n t he g a r de n a nd c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons I s how w ha t c om pone nt s a r e i nc l ude d i n one s out hw e s t F l o r i da c ount y's s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s a nd a t w ha t f r e que nc i e s I a l s o s how how t he ga r de ni ng a c t i vi t i e s a r e c onne c t e d t o ot he r a s pe c t s of t he c ur r i c ul um I c l os e t hi s t he s i s i n C ha pt e r 5 w i t h a di s c us s i on of t he i m pl i c a t i ons a nd pos s i bi l i t i e s t ha t c a n be de r i ve d f r om t he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs l i nki ng m y f i ndi ngs t o r e c e nt e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s I s ha r e m y i de a s r e ga r di ng s c hool ga r de n i m pl e m e nt a t i on s c hool ga r de ns po t e nt i a l c onne c t i ons t o he a l t h, s oc i a l a n d e nvi r onm e nt a l p r obl e m s a nd f ut ur e r e s e a r c h. A s our na t i ona l f ood s ys t e m c ont i nue s t o c r e a t e m a ny s oc i a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l pr obl e m s l oc a l s c hool ga r de ns a r e gr ow i ng f ood t ha t he l ps c hi l dr e n unde r s t a nd t he f ood p r oduc t i on pr oc e s s a nd t he i m po r t a nc e of pr ope r n ut r i t i on. S i m ul t a ne ous l y, t he ga r de ns a r e pr ovi di ng r e a l l i f e a nd r e a l t i m e e xa m pl e s of c onc e pt s t he s t ude nt s a r e s t udyi ng i n c l a s s W i t h i n f or m a t i on ga t he r e d f r om e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e a nd f r om l oc a l t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s a nd obs e r va t i ons I hope t o s he d m or e l i ght on t he c om pone nt s of s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s i n s out hw e s t F l or i da

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6 C h ap t e r 2: L i t e r at u r e R e vi e w I n t hi s c ha pt e r I p r e s e nt a s um m a r y o f r e l e va nt l i t e r a t ur e on e di bl e s c hool ga r de ns I be gi n by hi ghl i ght i ng t he i m por t a nc e of e xpe r i e nt i a l e duc a t i on a s di s c us s e d by t w o c l a s s i c e duc a t i on phi l os ophe r s a nd r e ve a l e d by a pi vot a l s t udy. I t he n pr e s e nt t he f i ndi ngs of r e c e nt e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s t ha t i nve s t i ga t e d s c hool ga r de ni ng pr og r a m s a nd t he i r e f f e c t i ve ne s s a t a c hi e vi ng a c a de m i c a nd nut r i t i ona l out c om e s E xp e r i e n t i al E d u c at i on G a r de ni ng e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s a r e e xa m pl e s of e x pe r i e nt i a l e duc a t i on, o r l e a r ni ng by doi ng. T he i m por t a nc e of e xpe r i e nt i a l e duc a t i on w a s hi ghl i ght e d by bot h J e a n J a c que s R ou s s e a u i n t he 18t h c e nt ur y a nd J oh n D e w e y i n t he 20 t h c e nt ur y T he s e e a r l y s c hol a r s f oc us e d on t he e xpe r i e nc e s of t he c h i l d i n l e a r n i ng s i t ua t i ons R a t he r t ha n l e a r ni ng f r o m l e c t ur e s or books t he s e a ut hor s e m p ha s i z e d t he i m por t a nc e of ha nds on a c t i vi t i e s L a t e r i n t he 20t h c e nt ur y, L i e be r m a n a n d H oody ( 1998 ) c onduc t e d a s t udy of e xpe r i e nt i a l a ppr oa c he s t o e duc a t i on a nd f ound t he m t o be e f f e c t i ve a t e nha nc i ng a c a de m i c c om pr e he ns i on a nd a c hi e ve m e nt I n hi s book E m i l e or O n E duc a t i on R ous s e a u e m pha s i z e d t ha t a young pupi l s houl d l e a r n by e xpe r i e nc e not ve r ba l l e s s ons ( 1979: 92) H e s t r e s s e d t he i m por t a nc e of t e a c hi ng s t ude nt s t o us e t he i r bodi l y s e ns e s : T o e xe r c i s e t he s e ns e s i s t o not onl y m a ke us e of t he m i t i s t o l e a r n t o j udge w i t h t he m I t i s t o l e a r n, s o t o s pe a k, t o s e ns e ; f or w e know how t o t ouc h, s e e a nd he a r onl y a s w e ha ve l e a r ne d" ( 1979: 132) R ous s e a u a l s o de m ons t r a t e d how pr ope r l y c oor di na t e d s t ude nt e x pe r i e nc e s c a n c or r e c t e r r o r s of pe r c e pt i on ( 1979: 204) G a r de ni ng i t s e l f w a s a n i nt e gr a l pa r t o f R ous s e a u's i de a l e duc a t i on ( 1979: 195)

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7 S i m i l a r l y, J ohn D e w e y ( 1938 ) hi ghl i gh t e d t he i de a t ha t e duc a t i on ne e ds t o be ba s e d upon e xpe r i e nc e H e t hought i t be s t t o us e e ve r yda y oc c ur r e nc e s t o i nt r oduc e s t ude nt s t o s c i e nt i f i c s ubj e c t m a t t e r a nd r e ga r de d phys i c a l a c t i vi t y a s a n e s s e nt i a l c om pone nt of e duc a t i on. D e w e y c ons i de r e d t he e nvi r onm e nt t o be t he be s t s our c e o f t e a c hi ng m a t e r i a l H e r e m a r ke d, a bove a l l [ e duc a t or s ] s houl d know how t o u t i l i z e t he s ur r oundi ngs phys i c a l a nd s oc i a l t ha t e x i s t s o a s t o e xt r a c t f r om t he m a l l t ha t t he y ha ve t o c ont r i but e t o bui l di ng up e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t a r e w or t h w hi l e ( 1938: 40 ) U s i ng t he e nvi r onm e nt a s t he s our c e of l e a r ni ng w a s t he s ubj e c t of a l a t e r e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t by L i e be r m a n a nd H ood y ( 199 8) T he s t udy e nt i t l e d C l os i ng t he A c hi e ve m e nt G a p: U s i ng t he E nvi r onm e nt a s t he I nt e gr a t i ng C ont e xt f or L e a r ni ng" pr ovi de s r e c e nt s uppor t t o t he i m por t a nc e of e xpe r i e nt i a l e duc a t i on a s di s c us s e d by e a r l y s oc i ol ogi c a l t he or i s t s ( L i e be r m a n a nd H oody, 199 8 ) T hi s r e por t pr ovi de s s ound e m pi r i c a l e vi de nc e t ha t e nvi r on m e nt a l l y ba s e d, i nt e gr a t i ve e duc a t i on c a n i m pr ove s t ude nt s gr a de poi nt a ve r a ge s a nd t e s t s c or e s T h e pe da gogi c a l m ode l s t udi e d, r e f e r r e d t o a s E nvi r onm e nt a s t he I nt e gr a t i ng C ont e xt f or L e a r ni ng" ( or E I C ) us e s t he na t ur a l a nd s oc i o c ul t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt s a s t he c ont e xt f o r s t ude nt l e a r ni ng. A l t hough no t f oc us e d e xc l us i ve l y on ga r de ni ng, t hi s r e por t i s r e f e r r e d t o by m a ny o f t he s c hol a r s a ddr e s s e d be l ow be c a us e of i t s e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h s t r e n gt hs a nd i t s r e l a t i on t o e xpe r i e nt i a l e duc a t i on. L i e be r m a n a nd H oody ( 1998 ) c ol l e c t e d da t a f r o m f o r t y U S s c hool s i nt e r vi e w i ng ove r 400 s t ude nt s c om pa r i ng s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s c or e s a nd G P A s a nd i nt e r vi e w i ng a nd s ur ve yi ng 2 50 t e a c he r s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t or s B y pr ovi di ng a c om pr e he ns i ve e duc a t i ona l f r a m e w or k, i ns t e a d of t r a di t i ona l c om pa r t m e nt a l i z e d a ppr oa c he s E I C a ppe a r s t o s i gni f i c a nt l y i m p r ove s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e i n r e a di ng

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8 w r i t i ng, m a t h, s c i e nc e a nd s oc i a l s t udi e s a nd e nr i c he s t he ove r a l l s c hool e xpe r i e nc e ( 1998: 2) T he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t s t ude nt s l e a r n m or e e f f e c t i ve l y w i t h E I C a ppr oa c he s S c hool ga r de ns c a n be ut i l i z e d a s a n E I C be c a us e t he y a r e out doo r ba s e d, e xpe r i e nt i a l l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt s ( B l a i r 2009) H ow e ve r t he r e i s l i m i t e d a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h pe r t a i ni ng s pe c i f i c a l l y t o s c hool ga r de ni n g pr ogr a m s I n ge ne r a l t he r e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t e di bl e ga r de ns c a n be us e d a s a n e f f e c t i ve e duc a t i ona l t ool a nd, t o a l e s s e r e xt e nt a s a nut r i t i ona l t ool t o e nc our a ge he a l t hi e r e a t i ng ha bi t s a m on g s c hool c hi l dr e n. M os t r e s e a r c he r s how e ve r do not a ddr e s s t he i s s ue of a c c e s s t o r e s our c e s ne e de d f or a s c hool ga r de n. M a ny o f t he s t udi e s i nvol ve d r e s e a r c hi ng t he e f f e c t s of ga r de ni ng i nt e r ve nt i on" pr ogr a m s t ha t w e r e not a r e gul a r pa r t of t he s c hool s but w e r e i nt r oduc e d i nt o t he s c hool s s e t t i ngs f or t he s a ke of t he s t udy. N e ve r t he l e s s t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e i l l um i na t e s s om e of t he c om pone nt s of s c hool ga r d e ni ng pr ogr a m s a nd p r ovi de a s e t t i ng i n w hi c h t o gr ound a nd c onne c t t he f i ndi ngs f r om m y ow n l oc a l r e s e a r c h. T he s t udi e s a r e pr e s e nt e d a s t he y pe r t a i n t o 1) f a c t or s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of s c hool ga r de ns 2 ) a c a de m i c c onne c t i ons a nd 3) nu t r i t i on a nd he a l t h. F ac t or s an d C h ar ac t e r i s t i c s of S c h ool G ar d e n s G a r de ni ng e duc a t i on i s a n e xpe r i e nc e t ha t o nl y a f r a c t i on of a l l s t ude nt s ge t t o ha ve N ot a l l s c hool 's ha ve e di bl e ga r de ns a nd w h e n t he y do, not a l l s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e S om e r s e t a nd B os s a r d ( 2009: 1487) s ur ve ye d a nd i nt e r vi e w e d publ i c pr i m a r y s c hool s i n t hr e e pr ovi nc e s i n A us t r a l i a a nd f ound t ha t 23 % o f t he s c hool s ha d or w e r e c ur r e nt l y e s t a bl i s hi ng a f ood ga r de n, w hi l e 6 % pr e vi ous l y h a d a ga r de n. T he y a l s o f ound t ha t i n 59% of t he s c hool s w i t h ga r de ns l e s s t ha n 25% of t he s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he

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9 ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m F l a na ga n ( 2010 ) r e por t e d t ha t r oughl y 3 400 of C a l i f o r ni a 's 9, 000 publ i c s c hool s ha ve a ga r de n. D e s pi t e t hous a nds of s c hool ga r de ns i n ou r c ount r y, m os t s t ude nt s i n t he U S do not go t hr ough a ga r de ni ng e duc a t i on pr ogr a m a s pa r t of t he i r publ i c s c hool e xpe r i e nc e W i t h s c hool ga r de ns of t e n i n t he m e di a a nd t he i r b e ne f i t s t out e d, m a ny t e a c he r s s t a r t a s c hool ga r de n but a r e una bl e t o m a i nt a i n t he pr oj e c t D e M a r c o, R e l f a nd M c D a ni e l ( 1999: 278) e xpl or e d w ha t f a c t or s e xpe r i e nc e d t e a c he r s c ons i de r e d e s s e nt i a l f or s c hool ga r de n s uc c e s s T he s c hol a r s s ur ve ye d 236 a nd i nt e r vi e w e d 28 e l e m e nt a r y s c hool t e a c he r s w ho ha d r e c e i ve d a Y out h G a r de ni ng G r a nt f r om t he N a t i ona l G a r de ni ng A s s oc i a t i on w i t hi n t he l a s t t w o ye a r s T he f ou r m os t c r uc i a l f a c t or s f o r ga r de n s uc c e s s r e por t e d by t he t e a c he r s w e r e 1) s t ude nt ow ne r s hi p of t he ga r de ni ng p r oj e c t 2) i nt e gr a t i ng ga r de ni ng w i t h ot he r s ubj e c t m a t t e r 3) t he a va i l a bi l i t y of a s i t e t o gr ow pl a nt s a nd 4) t he a va i l a bi l i t y o f w a t e r T a bl e 1 be l ow i s f r om t he i r s t udy a nd i nd i c a t e s t he e s s e nt i a l f a c t or s f or ga r de n s uc c e s s A l t hough a l l of t he t e a c he r s i n t he s t udy ha d r e c e i ve d gr a nt f undi ng f o r t he i r pr oj e c t s a va i l a bi l i t y of f undi ng f or s uppl i e s w a s onl y r e por t e d a s c r uc i a l by 11% of t he i nt e r vi e w e d t e a c he r s S uppor t f r om s c hool a dm i ni s t r a t i on, ot he r t e a c he r s a nd pa r e nt vo l unt e e r s ha s be e n f ound t o be i m por t a nt t o t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s T hi s buy i n" by t he s c hool c om m uni t y ha s be e n not e d t o be e s s e nt i a l t o ga r de n s us t a i na bi l i t y ( O z e r 2007 ) A s c a n be s e e n i n T a bl e 1 s uppor t o f t he p r i nc i pa l a s w e l l a s f a c ul t y i nt e r e s t i n s c hool ga r de ni ng w e r e r e po r t e d by 25 % o f t he t e a c he r s i nt e r vi e w e d w hi l e a va i l a bi l i t y o f vol unt e e r he l p w a s r e por t e d by 11 % o f t he t e a c he r s ( D e M a r c o e t a l 199 9) S om e r s e t a nd B os s a r d's s ur ve y of A us t r a l i a n s c hool s s how e d t ha t s c hool ga r de ns a r e not

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10 T ab l e 1: P e r c e n t age of i n t e r vi e w e d t e ac h e r s i n d i c at i n g t h at a s p e c i f i c f ac t or i s c r u c i al f or s c h ool gar d e n i n g s u c c e s s w h e n r e s p on d i n g t o t h e i n t e r vi e w q u e s t i on Wh at ar e t h e f i ve f ac t or s t h at ar e c r u c i al f or s c h ool gar d e n i n g s u c c e s s ?" ( N = 28) S ou r c e : D e M ar c o e t al ( 1999 ) a de f i ne d, s i ngl e i nt e r ve nt i on, but a di ve r s e r a nge of ga r de n p r of i l e s de t e r m i ne d by f a c t or s s uc h a s i ni t i a l a i m s f o r ga r de n i ni t i a t i on s c hool s i z e a nd c om m uni t y i nvol ve m e nt ( 200 9: 1491 ) T he s c hol a r s f ound t ha t 75% o f t he ga r de ns t he y s t udi e d w e r e l e s s t ha n t hr e e ye a r s ol d a nd a r a nge of pe da gogi c a c t i vi t i e s w e r e us e d, t he m os t not a bl e t o t he a ut ho r s be i ng t he c l a s s r oom a c t i vi t i e s w he r e s t ude nt s t a s t e d, pr e pa r e d,

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11 c ooke d a nd ot he r w i s e l e a r ne d a bout t he f oods t he y ha d pr oduc e d" ( 2009: 1491 ) T e a c he r s t e nde d t o c onne c t t he ga r de ni ng t o a l l s ubj e c t s a s t he ga r de ns ha d be e n s t a r t e d a s t e a c hi ng t ool s I n t he ne xt s e c t i on, w e t a ke a l ook a t t he s t udi e s t h a t i nve s t i ga t e how s c hool ga r de n s a r e c onne c t e d t o a c a de m i c s ubj e c t s W e a l s o l ook a t t he i r pe r c e i ve d a nd r e por t e d e f f e c t i ve ne s s a s a n a c a de m i c t ool A c ad e m i c C on n e c t i on s M a ny s c hool s c ur r e nt l y ha ve e di bl e ga r de ns T he r e f or e s t udyi ng t he i r us e s i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd t he i r e f f e c t s on a c a de m i c c om pr e he ns i on w i l l s he d l i ght i nt o t he ga r de ns pot e nt i a l a s a t e a c hi ng t oo l R e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t s c hool ga r de ns w e r e us e d t o a s s i s t i ns t r uc t i on m a i nl y i n t he s ubj e c t s of s c i e nc e m a t h, l a ngua ge a r t s a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l e duc a t i on. I n ge ne r a l t he f i ndi ngs s uppor t t he not i on t ha t s c hool ga r de ns c a n e nha nc e a c a de m i c c om pr e he ns i on a nd pe r f or m a nc e T he r e s e a r c h i s s um m a r i z e d be l ow a c c or di ng t o t he m e t hods of t he s t udy. R e s e a r c h on ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m c onne c t i ons t o a c a de m i c s t ook one of t he f ou r f o l l ow i ng f or m s : 1 ) t e a c he r a c c ount s of t he i r ow n p r ogr a m ; 2) c a s e s t udi e s ; 3) qua s i e xpe r i m e nt a l s t udi e s or 4) s ur ve ys / i nt e r vi e w s of s c hool ga r de n a dm i ni s t r a t or s T w o s t udi e s w e r e t e a c he r s a c c ount s of t he i r ow n e di bl e ga r de ni ng pr og r a m s T hi s r e s e a r c h pr ovi de s de t a i l on how s pe c i f i c ga r d e ni ng a c t i vi t i e s a r e c onne c t e d t o a c a de m i c c onc e pt s A l t hough t he f i ndi ng f r om t he s e s t udi e s a r e di f f i c ul t t o ge ne r a l i z e t o ot he r ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m s t he i nf o r m a t i on t he y pr e s e nt i s he l pf ul i s de m ons t r a t i ng how a w e l l t ho ught out ga r de n c a n be c onne c t e d t o a c a de m i c s ubj e c t s i n m a ny w a ys T he t e a c he r s f ound t he ga r de ns us e f ul a s a n e duc a t i ona l t ool

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12 C a na r i s s ( 2005) a c c ount of he r s t ude nt s ga r de n i n V e r m ont i l l us t r a t e d how s c hool ga r de ns c a n a s s i s t i n t he de ve l opm e nt a nd u nde r s t a ndi ng of a c a de m i c c onc e pt s t hr ough e xpe r i e nt i a l l e a r ni ng. H e r s t ude nt s ( gr a de s one t hr ough f our ) w or ke d w i t h a pa r e nt vol unt e e r t o c r e a t e a nd m a i nt a i n a s na c k ga r de n t ha t pr ovi de d a l l o f t he m w i t h a he a l t hy s na c k e ve r y s c hool da y. T he s t ude nt s p r a c t i c e d m a t h t hr ough ga r de n m a ppi ng m e a s ur i ng, a nd pl a nni ng T he y w o r ke d w i t h l i f e s c i e nc e a nd m e t e or ol ogy by obs e r vi ng a nd c a r i ng f o r t he i r pl a nt s S t ude nt s l e a r ne d a bout s oi l pH by ne e di ng t o f i nd t he be s t pl a c e f or t he i r bl ue be r r y bus he s T hi s s c ho ol ga r d e n w a s f ound t o be e f f e c t i ve a t a s s i s t i ng t he de ve l opm e nt of s t ude nt a c a de m i c c o m pr e he ns i on. G a r c i a R ui z ( 2009) p r ovi de s a n a c c ount of t he be n e f i t s of he r t hi r d gr a de c l a s s 's e s t a bl i s hm e nt a nd de ve l opm e nt of a s c hool ga r de n. S he a ppl i e d t he ga r de n t o a l m os t e ve r y a s pe c t of t he c u r r i c ul um i nc l ud i ng m a t h s c i e nc e a nd l a ngua ge a r t s M a t h c onc e pt s l i ke m e a s ur e m e nt s a nd gr a phi ng w e r e ut i l i z e d t o d oc um e nt pl a nt gr ow t h T he s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he ga r de n l e d t o be t t e r a nd m o r e na t ur a l c om pr e he ns i on of t he s c i e nt i f i c a s pe c t s of pl a nt s : T hr ough t he i r ga r de n, s t ude nt s l e a r ne d a bout pl a nt g r ow t h a nd s t r uc t ur e i n a m e a ni ngf ul w a y S t ude nt s obs e r ve d pl a nt s f r om ge r m i na t i on t h r ough f l ow e r i ng t o t he be a r i ng of f r ui t a nd ba c k t o ge r m i na t i on a ga i n" ( 2009: 4) T he i r ga r de n pr oj e c t w a s a n ongoi ng e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he gr ow t h of pl a nt s a nd t he i r ne e ds i n w hi c h s t ude nt s l e a r ne d t he s t a nda r ds by doi ng" ( 2009: 4 ) S i m i l a r t o pe r s ona l a c c ount s c a s e s t udi e s pr ovi de de t a i l e d i nf or m a t i on on how ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s a r e c onne c t e d t o s pe c i f i c a c a d e m i c s ubj e c t s T hi s i nf or m a t i on s he ds l i ght on t he pot e nt i a l a c a de m i c c onne c t i ons t ha t c o ul d be m a de i n a s c hool ga r de n T hr e e c a s e s t udi e s ( M i l l e r 2007; O z e r 2007; a nd W i nt e r R i ng, a nd B ur r i s s 2010) a r e

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13 s um m a r i z e d be l ow M i l l e r ( 2007) f ound t ha t 3 t o 6 ye a r ol ds de ve l op e d a n a r r a y o f a c a de m i c s ki l l s f r om t he i r s c hool ga r de n a c t i vi t i e s D a t a i nc l ude d doc um e nt a t i on f r om 19 t e a c he r s i n L i nc ol n, N e br a s ka on 169 c hi l d r e n ove r a t w o ye a r pe r i od. R e por t e d s ki l l s de ve l ope d t hr ough t he i r ga r de n a nd gr e e nhous e e xpe r i e nc e s i nc l ude vi s ua l s pa t i a l l a ngua ge / l i t e r a c y, s c i e nc e m a t he m a t i c s a nd ki ne s t he t i c / body a w a r e ne s s ( 2007: 56) T he a ut hor c onc l ude d t ha t t he obs e r ve d s t ude nt s w e r e l e a r ni ng ba s i c m a t h, s c i e nc e a nd l a ngua ge c onc e pt s t h r ough ga r de ni ng. T he y w i l l r e vi s i t t he s e c onc e pt s l a t e r i n s c hool a nd l e a r ni ng ne w i n f or m a t i on a bout t he m m a y be e a s i e r be c a us e t he y ha ve a l r e a dy i nt e r na l i z e d t hos e c onc e pt s t hr ough t he i r ha nds on e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h na t ur e ( 2007: 64) O z e r 's ( 2007) c a s e s t udi e s of s c hool ga r de ni ng pr o gr a m s f ound t ha t s c hool ga r de ns c a n m or e e a s i l y pr oduc e a c a de m i c r e s ul t s t ha n t he y c a n pr oduc e c ha nge s i n he a l t h a nd e a t i ng be ha vi or I nt e r vi e w s a nd o t he r a ne c dot a l i nf or m a t i on f r om a ppr oxi m a t e l y t w e nt y s c hool ga r de n c oor di na t or s pr ovi de d num e r ous obs e r va t i ons a nd t e s t i m oni a l s t ha t t he s e [ s c hool ga r de ni ng] pr ogr a m s m a ke a di f f e r e nc e f or s t ude nt s a nd s c hool s ( 2007: 851) T he a ut ho r c onc l ude d t ha t s c hool ga r de ns a r e a pr o m i s i ng a ppr oa c h i n pr om o t i ng t he i nt e l l e c t ua l de ve l op m e nt of s c hool a ge d c hi l d r e n. ( 2007: 861) W i nt e r s e t a l ( 2010) pe r f o r m e d a c a s e s t udy of ki n de r ga r t e ne r s l e a r ni ng a t a s c hool ga r de n a t t he H om e r P i t t a r d C a m pus S c hoo l i n M ur f r e e s bor o, T e nne s s e e T he he r b ga r de n not onl y p r ovi de s young c hi l d r e n t he oppor t uni t y t o s t udy a nnua l s pe r e nni a l s a nd he r bs a s w e l l a s i ns e c t s be e s a nd pol l i na t i on, i t a l s o r e p r e s e nt s a na t ur a l m e t hod f or m e a ni ngf ul l y a ppl yi ng s ki l l s l e a r ne d i n t he c l a s s r oom ( 2010: 3) R e ga r di ng

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14 m a t h, t he a ut ho r s r e por t e d t ha t s t ude nt s l e a r ne d a b out num be r a nd ope r a t i ons by c ount i ng a nd c om pa r i ng. S t ude nt s us e d t he ga r de n t o i de nt i f y ge om e t r i c s ha pe s a nd t o r e c ogni z e m e a s ur a bl e a t t r i but e s l i ke l e ngt h a nd w i dt h. S c i e nc e c onne c t i ons r e por t e d i n t he ga r de n i nc l ude a n unde r s t a ndi ng of s c i e nt i f i c i nqui r y, t he pr ope r t i e s of ob j e c t s a nd m a t e r i a l s t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of or ga ni s m s a nd t he l i f e c yc l e s of or ga ni s m s T he c hi l dr e n w e r e r e por t e d t o ha ve l e a r ne d t h r ough obs e r va t i ons a bout t he f ou r s e a s ons a nd t he i r e f f e c t on t he ga r de n. T hr e e r e c e nt s t udi e s ( M a bi e a nd B a ke r 1996; K l e m m e r W a l i c z e k, a nd K a j i c e k 2005; a nd D i r ks a nd O r vi s 2005) ut i l i z e d qua s i e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gns t o i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t of i nt e r ve nt i on ga r de ni ng pr og r a m s ( us ua l l y 8 12 w e e ks i n dur a t i on ) on s t ude nt s a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e T he s t udi e s f ound t ha t s t u de nt s w ho w e nt t hr ough a ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m pe r f or m e d be t t e r on a c a de m i c t e s t s t ha n s t ude nt s w ho di dn't go t hr ough s uc h a pr ogr a m A l t hough t hi s body of r e s e a r c h l e nds s uppor t t o t he not i on of t he s c hool ga r de n a s a n e f f e c t i ve e duc a t i ona l t ool t he s e f i ndi ngs c a n not r e a l i s t i c a l l y be a ppl i e d t o a l l s c hool ga r de ns T he s e i nt e r ve nt i on s t udi e s do not e xpl or e t he e f f e c t s o f e xi s t i ng ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s but i ns t e a d e xpl or e t he e f f e c t s of p r ogr a m s i nt r oduc e d i nt o t he s c hool e nvi r onm e n t w i t h s uppor t a nd r e s our c e s I t i s di f f i c ul t t o know how s i m i l a r t he s e pr ogr a m s a r e t o pr ogr a m s t ha t e xi s t f r om t he t e a c he r s ow n i ni t i a t i ve M a bi e a nd B a ke r s ( 1996) s t udy c onduc t e d i n L os A nge l e s s uppor t s t he vi e w t ha t ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s c a n i m pr ove s t ude nt s c om pr e he ns i on of a gr i c ul t ur a l s ys t e m s T he y s t udi e d f i f t h a nd s i xt h gr a de s t ude nt s a s s i gne d t o one of t h r e e gr oups f o r a 10 w e e k i ns t r uc t i ona l s c i e nc e uni t O ne gr oup pa r t i c i pa t e d i n out door ga r de ni ng a c t i vi t i e s a s pa r t of t he i r uni t one g r oup pa r t i c i pa t e d i n s hor t i n c l a s s pr oj e c t s ( br e a d ba ki ng, c hi c k

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15 r e a r i ng, a nd s e e d ge r m i na t i on) a nd a c ont r ol gr ou p pa r t i c i pa t e d i n ne i t he r T he a ut hor s c onduc t e d pr e a nd pos t t e s t s t o f i nd out how m uc h c hi l dr e n kne w a bout w he r e f ood c om e s f r om t he i r l e ve l of a w a r e ne s s of c a r e e r s i n a gr i c ul t ur e a nd t he i r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he s oc i a l e c onom i c a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l s i gni f i c a nc e of a gr i c ul t u r e ( 1996: 2) T he i r f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he ga r de ni ng gr oup a nd t he i n c l a s s a c t i vi t i e s gr ou p pe r f o r m e d be t t e r a nd i m p r ove d m o r e t ha n s t ude nt s i n t he c ont r ol gr oup on t he pr e a nd pos t t e s t s S t ude nt s i n t he ga r de n ba s e d pr ogr a m pe r f o r m e d be t t e r a nd i m pr ove d m or e t ha n t he i n c l a s s a c t i vi t i e s gr oup, b ut t hi s di f f e r e nc e w a s l e s s pr onounc e d. T he a ut hor s c onc l ude d t ha t i nt r oduc i ng ga r de ni ng, or i n c l a s s pr oj e c t s i f t i m e a nd r e s our c e s a r e l i m i t e d, i s a n e f f e c t i ve w a y t o ut i l i z e e xpe r i e nt i a l a c t i vi t i e s t o a s s i s t c hi l dr e n i n t he i r ba s i c unde r s t a ndi ng of a g r i c ul t ur a l s ys t e m s K l e m m e r e t a l ( 2005 ) s t udi e d t h i r d, f ou r t h, a nd f i f t h gr a de s t ude nt s i n T e m pe T e xa s a nd f ound t ha t s t ude nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n ha nds on ga r de ni ng a c t i vi t i e s ha d hi ghe r s c i e nc e a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s ve r s us t hos e w h o di d not ( 2005: 450) T he y us e d a pos t t e s t onl y de s i gn a nd a s s i gne d s t ude nt s t o e i t he r a n e xpe r i m e nt a l s c i e nc e i ns t r uc t i on gr oup t ha t i nc l ude d ga r de ni ng a c t i vi t i e s or t o a c on t r ol gr oup t ha t us e d t r a di t i ona l c l a s s r oom ba s e d m e t hods T he s t ude nt s a s s i gne d t o t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup s c or e d s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r on a s c i e nc e a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t c om pa r e d t o t he s t ude nt s i n t he c ont r o l gr oup. I nt e r e s t i ngl y, t he bi gge s t di f f e r e nt i a l i n s c i e nc e s c or e s oc c ur r e d w i t h f i f t h g r a de s t ude nt s T he r e s e a r c he r s hypot he s i z e d t ha t t hi s m a y ha ve be e n be c a us e t he s t ude nt s i n t he hi ghe r g r a de l e ve l w e r e m or e de ve l opm e nt a l l y a dva nc e d w i t h r e ga r d t o c ogni t i ve s ki l l s i n s c i e nc e a nd w e r e t he r e f or e be t t e r a bl e t o l e a r n, a ppl y a nd r e l a t e c onc e pt s t a ught dur i ng t he ha nds on ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m t o ge ne r a l s c i e nc e c onc e pt s be i ng t a ught a t t ha t

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16 gr a de l e ve l ( 2005: 450) D i r ks a nd O r vi s ( 2 005) e va l ua t e d a J uni or M a s t e r G a r de ne r P r ogr a m a t e l e ve n I ndi a na e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s a nd f ound i t t o i m p r ov e t he s c i e nc e know l e dge of pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s T he y ut i l i z e d a m i xe d m e t h ods a ppr oa c h t ha t i nc l ude d p r e a nd pos t t e s t i ng of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s a nd pos t pr ogr a m s ur ve ys of s t ude nt s a nd t e a c he r s T w o hundr e d s i xt y f i ve s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he 12 w e e k c our s e t ha t i nc l ude d ga r de ni ng a c t i vi t i e s T he a ut ho r s f ound t ha t s t ude nt s s how e d s i gni f i c a nt ga i ns i n s c i e nt i f i c know l e dge a f t e r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he p r og r a m F ur t he r m or e t he pos t p r ogr a m s ur ve ys r e ve a l e d t ha t s t ude nt s ha d f un w hi l e ga r de ni ng a nd l e a r ne d t ha t t he y c oul d not l i ve w i t hout pl a nt s ( 2005: 445) O ne f i na l m e t hod us e d by r e s e a r c he s t o ga uge how s c h ool ga r de ns a r e us e d a s a n e duc a t i ona l t ool w a s t o a s k t he a dm i ni s t r a t or s of c ur r e nt ga r de ns F our s t udi e s ( D e M a r c o e t a l 1999 ; S ke l l y a nd B r a dl e y 2000 ; G r a ha m a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2005; a nd S om e r s e t a nd B os s a r d 2009) ; s ur ve ye d a nd i nt e r v i e w e d t e a c he r s t ha t ut i l i z e d a n e di bl e s c hool ga r de n a s pa r t of t he i r c l a s s O ne ot he r s t ud y ( G r a ha m e t a l 2005) s ur ve ye d s c hool pr i nc i pa l s t o ge t t he i r pe r c e pt i on of t he us e a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s of s c hool ga r de ns O ve r a l l t he s e s t udi e s f ound t e a c he r s a nd p r i nc i pa l s t o pe r c e i ve s c hool ga r de ns a s us e f ul e duc a t i ona l t ool s D e M a r c o, R e l f a nd M c D a ni e l ( 1999) s how e d t ha t t e a c he r s w ho a r e e xpe r i e nc e d w i t h s c hool ga r de ns f i nd t he m t o be s uc c e s s f ul a s a n e duc a t i ona l t ool T he r e s e a r c he r s s ur ve ye d 236 ( a nd i nt e r vi e w e d 28) e l e m e nt a r y s c hool t e a c he r s f r om 42 s t a t e s t ha t ha d r e c e nt l y r e c e i ve d a Y out h G a r de ni ng G r a nt f r o m t he N a t i ona l G a r de ni ng A s s oc i a t i on. T he y f ound t ha t s c hool ga r de ni ng w a s i nc or po r a t e d i nt o m os t e duc a t i ona l s ubj e c t a r e a s ;

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17 de m ons t r a t i ng t he a bi l i t y of t e a c he r s t o us e ga r de ni ng a c r os s t he c ur r i c ul um 5% of t he s ur ve ye d t e a c he r s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y us e d ga r d e ni ng f or s t ude nt s a c a de m i c l e a r ni ng" ( 1999: 279) T he va s t m a j or i t y o f t e a c he r s ( 96 % ) f ound t he ga r de n t o be ve r y or s om e w ha t s uc c e s s f ul a s a t e a c hi ng t ool T hi s s t udy s how s t ha t a s c hool ga r de n f a c i l i t a t e d by a n e xpe r i e nc e d t e a c he r c a n be e f f e c t i ve a t e nc our a gi ng a c a de m i c c om pr e he ns i on. S ke l l y a nd B r a dl e y's ( 2000 ) s t udy o f 71 F l or i da e l e m e nt a r y s c hool t e a c he r s t ha t f a c i l i t a t e s c hool ga r de ns f ound t he s e t e a c h e r s t o pe r c e i ve t he i r s c hool 's ga r de n, a l t hough us e d r a r e l y, a s a n e f f e c t i ve a c a de m i c t ool T he r e s e a r c he r s s ur ve ye d a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s i n a 1997 s c hool ga r de n c om pe t i t i on hos t e d by t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da A l l pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s f i l l e d out a n 18 i t e m que s t i onna i r e a nd t h e a ut hor s c om pi l e d t he da t a O ve r t w o t hi r ds of t he ga r de ns ha d be e n i n e s t a bl i s hm e nt f or l e s s t ha n a ye a r a nd a ha l f T e a c he r s us e d s c hool ga r de ns i nf r e que nt l y, w i t h t he m a j or i t y us i ng t he ga r de n a s a n i ns t r uc t i ona l t ool no m o r e t ha n 10 % o f t he t i m e ( 2000: 229 ) Y e t [ e ] i ght y f our pe r c e nt o f t he t e a c he r s f e l t t ha t t he ga r de n he l pe d s t ude nt s l e a r n be t t e r ( 2000: 231) G r a ha m a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r s ( 2005) s t udy of 59 2 f our t h gr a de t e a c he r s i n C a l i f or ni a s c hool s w i t h ga r de ns l e nds l i m i t e d s uppor t t o t he pos i t i on t ha t s c hool ga r de ns a r e e f f e c t i ve a s a c a de m i c t ool s T he a ut hor s f ound t ha t a bout 70 % o f r e s pondi ng t e a c he r s us e d t he ga r de n f or t he e nha nc e m e nt o f a c a de m i c i ns t r uc t i on. O ne t hi r d of r e s pondi ng t e a c he r s pe r c e i ve d t he i r ga r de n a s ve r y e f f e c t i ve a t e nha nc i ng s c i e nc e a nd a not he r one t hi r d be l i e ve d i t t o be s om e w ha t or m ode r a t e l y e f f e c t i ve ( 2005: 1798) T he y a l s o r e por t e d t ha t l e s s t ha n ha l f o f t he r e s pondi ng t e a c he r s f ound t he ga r de n t o be e f f e c t i ve a t e nha nc i ng a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e O ve r t w o t hi r d s of t he r e s pondi ng t e a c he r s a gr e e d t ha t t e a c he r t r a i ni ng f or ga r de ni ng a nd i t s c onne c t i on t o c ur r i c ul um w oul d a s s i s t i n t he s c hool

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18 ga r de n be i ng us e d f or a c a de m i c i ns t r uc t i on ( 2005: 1799) S om e r s e t a nd B os s a r d s ( 2009) s t udy d i s pl a ys s i gni f i c a nt e vi de nc e i n s uppor t of s c hool ga r de ns a s e f f e c t i ve t e a c hi ng t ool s A l l t he s t a t e pr i m a r y s c hool s w e r e c ont a c t e d i n t hr e e e duc a t i on r e gi ons i n Q ue e ns l a nd, A us t r a l i a a nd 71% ( 181 ) o f t he s c hool s a gr e e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e T he a ut hor s us e d one t e l e phone s ur ve y t o c ol l e c t da t a f r om t e a c he r s t ha t i m pl e m e nt e d a s c hool ga r de n a nd a di f f e r e nt t e l e p hone s ur ve y f or pr i nc i pa l s a t s c hool s t ha t di d not ha ve a ga r de n O f t he s c hool s t ha t ha d ga r de ns m os t us e d t he m f or c l a s s a c t i vi t i e s a nd 92% c ons i de r e d t he i r ga r de n a s uc c e s s T he ga r de ns w e r e m os t of t e n us e d f or s c i e nc e l a ngua ge a r t s m a t h e nvi r onm e nt a l a n d nut r i t i on e duc a t i on. O f t he s c hool s t ha t di dn't ha ve ga r de ns ove r 80% pe r c e i ve d t he m a s he l pf ul a nd w oul d us e t he m f or a c a de m i c i ns t r uc t i on i f t he i r s c hool ha d one ( 2009: 1490) T he a ut hor s c onc l ude d i t m a y be m or e c ons t r uc t i ve t o vi e w s c hool ga r de ns a s a n e duc a t i ona l i ni t i a t i ve w i t h c ol l a t e r a l he a t h pr om ot i ng out c om e s ( 2009: 1492 ) G r a ha m e t a l ( 2005 ) c om pi l e d ne a r l y 4 200 s ur ve y s f r om C a l i f o r ni a s c hool pr i nc i pa l s a nd f ound 57% o f r e s ponde nt s t o ha ve a s c hool ga r de n. O f t he pr i nc i pa l s w i t h ga r de ns ove r t w o t hi r ds f ound t he ga r de n t o be m ode r a t e l y t o ve r y e f f e c t i ve a t e nha nc i ng s c i e nc e s ki l l s a nd s ubj e c t m a t t e r ( 2005: 149) T w o t hi r ds of t he ga r de ns w e r e l oc a t e d i n e l e m e nt a r y or m i ddl e s c hool s ( 2005: 148) M os t of t he ga r de ns ( 89 % ) w e r e us e d f or t he e nha nc e m e nt of a c a de m i c i ns t r uc t i on, m os t c om m onl y f or s c i e nc e e nvi r onm e nt a l s t udi e s a nd nut r i t i on T hi s s t udy l e nds s uppor t t o t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of s c hool ga r de ns a t e nha nc i ng a c a de m i c c om pr e he ns i on. R e c e nt r e s e a r c h pr ovi de s m a ny e xa m pl e s of how s c hool ga r de ns ha ve be e n c onne c t e d t o a c a de m i c s ubj e c t s P e r s ona l a c c ount s of t e a c he r s c l a s s r oom s a nd c a s e

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19 s t udi e s pr ovi de t he m os t de t a i l s of t he s e c onne c t i ons w hi l e qua s i e xpe r i m e nt a l s t udi e s s how t ha t w e l l s uppor t e d ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s c a n a f f e c t s t ude nt s s c hol a s t i c pe r f or m a nc e M e a nw hi l e s ur ve ys a nd i nt e r vi e w s of t e a c he r s a nd pr i nc i pa l s s how t ha t t he s e a dm i ni s t r a t or s pe r c e i ve t he ga r de ns t o be e f f e c t i v e a s e duc a t i ona l t ool s T he ha nds on a ppr oa c h o f t he ga r de n ha s be e n f ou nd t o s uppor t l e a r ni ng not onl y a bout a c a de m i c c onc e pt s but a l s o a bout nut r i t i on a nd e a t i ng ha bi t s R e c e nt f i ndi ngs r e ga r di ng t he e f f e c t of s c hool ga r de n on nut r i t i on a nd e a t i ng ha bi t s a r e s um m a r i z e d i n t he ne xt s e c t i on. N u t r i t i on al F i n d i n gs R e c e nt r e s e a r c h ha s l ooke d i nt o t he e f f e c t s of s c ho ol ga r de ns on t he e a t i ng ha bi t s a nd a t t i t ude s of pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s W i t h m uc h f oc us on t he r e c e nt c hi l dhood obe s i t y e pi de m i c s c hool g a r de ns a ppe a r t o m a ny a s a hop e f ul a ve nue f or nut r i t i on e duc a t i on ( G r a ha m a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2005 a nd G r a ha m e t a l 2004) S c hol a r s s t udi e d how pa r t i c i pa t i on i n a ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m s a f f e c t e d di f f e r e nt a s pe c t s of e a t i ng be ha vi or s a m ong t he s t ude nt s B e l o w t he s e a ut hor s f i ndi ng s a r e s um m a r i z e d ba s e d on how s c hool ga r de ni ng i s r e por t e d t o a f f e c t s t ude nt s a ) nut r i t i o na l know l e dge a nd ve ge t a bl e pr e f e r e nc e ; b) w i l l i ngne s s t o t a s t e f r ui t s a nd ve ge t a bl e s ; a nd c ) nut r i t i ona l i n t a ke O ne s t udy ( M or r i s a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2002) i nv e s t i ga t e d how a s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m a f f e c t s nut r i t i ona l know l e dge a nd ve ge t a bl e pr e f e r e nc e T he a ut hor s s t udi e d 205 f our t h gr a de r s w ho w e nt t hr ough e i t he r 1) a ga r de n ba s e d nut r i t i on p r ogr a m 2) a c l a s s r oom ba s e d nut r i t i on pr og r a m o r 3 ) no f or m a l nut r i t i on o r ga r de ni ng e duc a t i on. T he y f ound t ha t s t ude nt s i n t he ga r de n ba s e d gr ou p s i gni f i c a nt l y i nc r e a s e d t he i r pr e f e r e nc e s f or s om e ve ge t a bl e s ( c a r r ot s b r oc c ol i s now pe a s a nd z uc c hi ni ) R e s ul t s a l s o

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20 i ndi c a t e d t ha t ga r de ni ng s t ude nt s pr e f e r r e d ve ge t a b l e s m or e t ha n s t ude nt s f r om t he ot he r gr oups e s pe c i a l l y br oc c ol i s now pe a s a nd z uc c hi ni M or r i s a nd Z i de r be r g C he r r c onc l ude d t ha t ga r de n e nha nc e d nut r i t i on e duc a t i on c ur r i c ul um i s a n e f f e c t i ve t ool f or i m pr ovi ng t he nut r i t i on know l e dge a nd ve ge t a bl e pr e f e r e nc e of s c hool a ge d c hi l d r e n" ( 2002: 93) T hr e e s t udi e s ( C a s on 1999; M or r i s B r i ggs a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2000; a nd M or r i s N e us t a dt e r a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2001 ) f o und t ha t a s c hool ga r de ni ng pr og r a m c a n l e a d t o a n i nc r e a s e d w i l l i ngne s s t o t a s t e f r ui t s a nd ve ge t a bl e s a m ong pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s C a s on's ( 1999) s t udi e d a s c hool ga r de n a t a W a l ha l l a E l e m e nt a r y S c hool i n S out h C a r ol i na w he r e t hr e e ki nde r ga r t e n c l a s s e s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n a w e e kl y ga r de n ba s e d nut r i t i on p r ogr a m S he u t i l i z e d pr e a nd pos t t e s t da t a f r om s t ude nt s t o de t e r m i ne a 69% i nc r e a s e i n s t ude nt s w i l l i ngne s s t o t a s t e f r ui t s a nd ve ge t a bl e s a f t e r t a ki ng pa r t i n t he pr ogr a m C a s on ( 1999) di d not i nc l ude a ny ki nd o f c ont r ol gr oups s o i t i s di f f i c ul t t o know w ha t pa r t of t he ga r de n ba s e d nut r i t i on pr og r a m l e a d t o t he s t ude nt s i nc r e a s e d w i l l i ngne s s t o e a t f r ui t s a nd ve ge t a bl e s S c hol a r s r e por t e d t ha t f i r s t gr a de r s t ha t pa r t i c i pa t e d i n a ga r de n e nha nc e d nut r i t i on e duc a t i on p r ogr a m w e r e m or e w i l l i ng t o t a s t e ve ge t a bl e s t ha n s t ude nt s i n a c ont r ol gr oup ( M or r i s e t a l 2000 a nd M or r i s e t a l 2001) I t i s e xc i t i ng t o not e t ha t onl y s om e of t he ve ge t a bl e s w e r e gr ow n i n t he ga r de ns a t t he i nt e r ve nt i on s c hool a nd i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he i n c l a s s e duc a t i on l e s s ons ye t t he ga r de ni ng i nc r e a s e d t he c hi l dr e n's a w a r e ne s s a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o t a s t e s e ve r a l ve ge t a bl e s ( 2001: 45) T hr e e s t udi e s ( C a na r i s 1995; M c A l e e s e a nd R a nki n 2007; a nd G r a ha m a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2005) e xpl o r e d t he e f f e c t s c hool ga r de ns ha d on t he nut r i t i ona l i nt a ke of

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21 pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s A s e l f r e po r t e d a c c ount of a s c hool ga r de n ( C a na r i s 1995) a nd a s t udy w i t h a qua s i e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gn ( M c A l e e s e a nd R a nki n 2007) s how e d t ha t ga r de ns c oul d pos i t i ve l y e f f e c t t he di e t s of pa r t i c i p a t i ng s t ude nt s w hi l e a s ur ve y of t e a c he r s i n C a l i f or ni a ( G r a ha m a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2005 ) s how t ha t m os t t e a c he r s do not pe r c e i ve t he ga r de n t o ha ve m uc h of a n i m pa c t on t he s t ude nt 's nut r i t i ona l i n t a ke I n C a na r i s 's c a s e a c c ount ( 1995) o f he r s c hool 's s na c k ga r de n, a w e l l a dm i ni s t e r e d a nd s uppor t e d pr oj e c t f e d t he s t ude nt s a nd t e a c he r s f or 180 da ys of t he s c hool ye a r C hi l d r e n l e a r ne d t o pl a n, s ow a nd e v e n pr e s e r ve a nd s t or e ga r de n pr oduc e i nc l udi ng c uc um be r s pot a t oe s c or n, a nd t om a t oe s E ve r yda y s t ude nt s a t e a he a l t hy s na c k f r om t h e ga r de n, e ns ur i ng t ha t t he ga r de n's p r e s e nc e l e d t o he a l t hy e a t i ng ha bi t s A l t hough t hi s ga r de n m a de a n i m pa c t on t he s e s t ude nt s da i l y di e t m os t ga r de ns do not ha ve s uc h a dr a s t i c i m pa c t a nd t he f i ndi ngs o f t hi s s t udy a r e di f f i c ul t t o e xt e nd t o ot he r g a r de ns N e ve r t he l e s s C a na r i s ( 1995) pr ovi de s a w onde r f ul e xa m pl e o f how pow e r f ul a nd nut r i t i ona l a s c hool ga r de n c oul d be M c A l e e s e a nd R a nki n ( 2007) p r ovi de e m pi r i c a l e v i de nc e of t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of s c hool ga r de ns t o pos i t i ve l y a f f e c t s t ude nt s nut r i t i ona l i nt a ke T he a ut hor s s t udi e d 122 s i xt h gr a de s t ude nt s i n I da ho S i m i l a r l y t o M or r i s a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r ( 2002 ) s t ude nt s w e r e a s s i gne d t o one of t hr e e gr oups : 1) a c l a s s r oom onl y nut r i t i on e duc a t i on pr ogr a m 2 ) a c l a s s r oom a nd ga r de n ba s e d nut r i t i on pr og r a m or 3) a c ont r ol gr oup w i t h no f o r m a l nut r i t i on e duc a t i on. S t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he nut r i t i on e duc a t i on c u r r i c ul um a l ong w i t h ga r de n ba s e d a c t i vi t i e s i nc r e a s e d t he i r num be r s of f r ui t s e r vi ngs ve ge t a bl e s e r vi ngs vi t a m i n A i nt a ke vi t a m i n C i nt a ke a nd f i be r i nt a k e m or e t ha n t hos e s t ude nt s a t t e ndi ng t he c ont r ol s c hool a nd m or e t ha n t hos e s t ude nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he nut r i t i on

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22 e duc a t i on c ur r i c ul um w i t hou t ga r de n a c t i vi t i e s ( M c A l e e s e a nd R a nki n, 2007: 663) G r a ha m a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r 's ( 2 005 ) s t udy b r i ng s i nt o que s t i on a s c hool ga r de n's a bi l i t y t o a f f e c t t he e a t i ng ha bi t s of c hi l dr e n. T he y s ur ve ye d 592 f ou r t h g r a de t e a c he r s a t s c hool s w i t h ga r de ns i n C a l i f or ni a a nd r e por t e d t ha t 47 % o f t he t e a c he r s us e d t he ga r de n f o r nut r i t i on e duc a t i on L e s s t ha n ha l f of t he r e s ponde nt s ( 43% ) pe r c e i ve d t he ga r de n t o be e f f e c t i ve a t e nha nc i ng he a l t hf ul e a t i n g ha bi t s O nl y one f i f t h ( 22% ) o f s ur ve ye d t e a c he r s be l i e ve d t he ga r de n t o be e f f e c t i ve t o a ny e xt e nt a t a f f e c t i ng t he s c hool m e a l pr ogr a m w h i l e 38% be l i e ve d i t t o be non e f f e c t i ve ( 40% di dn't r e s pond t o t ha t que s t i on) T w o t hi r ds of r e s pondi ng t e a c he r s not e d t ha t t he g r e a t e s t ba r r i e r s t o us i ng t he ga r de n f or a c a de m i c i ns t r uc t i on w e r e t i m e l a c k of t e a c he r i nt e r e s t / e xpe r i e nc e a nd l a c k of c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s O ve r a l l t he r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s c a n l e a d t o i nc r e a s e d nut r i t i ona l know l e dge i nc r e a s e d w i l l i ngne s s t o t a s t e f r ui t s a nd ve ge t a bl e s a nd i nc r e a s e d nut r i t i ona l i n t a ke a m ong s t ude nt s I t i s i nt e r e s t i n g t o not e t ha t l e s s t ha n ha l f of t he s ur ve ye d f ou r t h g r a de t e a c he r s a t s c hool s w i t h ga r de ns pe r c e i ve d t he m t o be e f f e c t i ve a t e nha nc i ng he a l t hy e a t i ng ha bi t s ( G r a ha m a nd Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2005) T he r e s e a r c h on nut r i t i ona l e f f e c t s of s c hoo l ga r de ns doe s not a ddr e s s w ha t a s pe c t s of t he ga r de ni ng pr og r a m s a r e l e a di ng t o t h e i m pr ove d be ha vi or s W hy a r e s om e pr ogr a m s pe r c e i ve d a s e f f e c t i ve a s nut r i t i ona l t ool s w hi l e ot he r s a r e not ? S i m i l a r l y, m uc h o f t he r e s e a r c h on t he a c a de m i c i m pa c t of s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s doe s not l ook a t how pr ogr a m di f f e r e nc e s m i ght a f f e c t l e a r ni ng out c om e s T he pe r s ona l a nd c a s e a c c ount s of t e n pr ovi de de t a i l on how l e s s ons a r e c onne c t e d t o t he ga r de n but do not o f f e r c om pa r i s ons be t w e e n pr og r a m s O n t he ot he r s i de of t he

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23 m e t hodol og y s pe c t r um s ur ve y a nd i n t e r vi e w ba s e d r e s e a r c h hi ghl i ght s t he di f f e r e nc e s a m ong t he pr og r a m s but o f t e n l a c ks t he de t a i l of h ow t he ga r de n i s s pe c i f i c a l l y c onne c t e d t o a c a de m i c c onc e pt s Q ua s i e xpe r i m e nt a l r e s e a r c h s t udi e s s how e d t ha t s pe c i f i c pr ogr a m s c oul d ha ve e duc a t i ona l e f f e c t s but di d n ot pr ovi de m uc h i nf o r m a t i on on w ha t t he s e pr ogr a m s c ons i s t e d of how t he y w e r e f unde d, or how s i m i l a r t he y w e r e t o e xi s t i ng s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s I m por t a nt f a c t or s f o r ga r de n s uc c e s s w e r e i de nt i f i e d but not r e l a t e d t o s pe c i f i c out c om e s ( D e M a r c o e t a l 1999) T he a i m o f m y l oc a l r e s e a r c h i s t o s he d l i ght on ho w s c hool ga r de ni ng pr og r a m di f f e r e nc e s c a n l e a d t o d i f f e r e nt e duc a t i ona l out c o m e s T o do t hi s I a s ke d t he que s t i on: W ha t a r e t he c om pone nt s of pub l i c e l e m e nt a r y e d i bl e s c hool ga r de ns i n a c ount y i n s out hw e s t F l or i da ? T he f ol l ow i ng c ha pt e r r e vi e w s t he m e t hods I u t i l i z e d t o ga t he r i nf or m a t i on t o a ns w e r t hi s que s t i on. A l t houg h l i m i t e d i n m y a bi l i t y t o r e s e a r c h t he e duc a t i ona l out c om e s of t he ga r de ns I s t udi e d, m y w or k pr ovi de s va l ua bl e i n f or m a t i on r e ga r di ng t he c om pone nt s o f s c hool s ga r de ns a nd he l ps poi nt t he w a y f or f ur t he r r e l e va nt r e s e a r c h.

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24 C h a p t e r 3 : M e t h od s A s no t e d i n t h e pr e v i o us c h a p t e r t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h t h a t e xp l o r e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c hoo l g a r d e n i ng pr og r a m s a nd t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s T o b e g i n n a r r o w i ng t h i s ga p I e xp l or e W ha t a r e t h e c o m pon e n t s of e d i b l e s c hool g a r d e n i ng pr og r a m s i n a c oun t y i n s out h w e s t F l or i d a ? I n or d e r t o r e s pond t o t h i s r e s e a r c h qu e s t i on I u s e d qua l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h m e t hods I c ondu c t e d s e m i s t r u c t ur e d i n t e r v i e w s of s c hoo l g a r d e n f a c i l i t a t or s a s w e l l a s ob s e r v a t i ons of i n c l a s s ga r d e n i ng p r ogr a m s M y I n t e r v i e w a nd O b s e r v a t i on G ui d e s ( pl e a s e s e e A p p e nd i x e s A & B ) s e r v e d a s m y i ns t r u m e n t s f or g a t h e r i ng d a t a a nd w e r e l oos e l y b a s e d on O z e r s ( 2007) a nd S om e r s e t a nd B os s a r d s ( 2009) r e s e a r c h. T h e s e m i s t r u c t ur e d i n t e r v i e w s I i n c l ud e d a s ur v e y s t y l e b a t t e r y o f qu e s t i on s e x a m i n i ng t h e pos s i bl e c o m pon e n t s of i n c l ud e d i n e a c h g a r d e n i ng p r ogr a m T h i s qua l i t a t i v e a ppr o a c h a l l o w e d m e t o g a t h e r t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f or m a t i on t o g a i n a b e t t e r unde r s t a nd i ng o f t h e m a k e up of t h e s e d i f f e r e n t pr og r a m s T o c on t r o l f or t h e e f f e c t s of g e ogr a ph i c a l a r e a d i f f e r e n c e s i n e du c a t i on a l e xp e r i e n c e be t w e e n s c hoo l d i s t r i c t s a nd d i f f e r e n c e s be t w e e n p ub l i c a nd p r i v a t e s c hoo l i ng I s t ud i e d pub l i c s c hoo l t e a c h e r s a nd g a r d e n pr og r a m s f r o m t h e s a m e c oun t y. T h i s e ns ur e s t h a t a l l t h e t e a c h e r s s t udi e d a r e us i ng r ough l y t h e s a m e c ur r i c u l u m a nd op e r a t e und e r a l l t h e s a m e d i s t r i c t w i d e r u l e s a nd po l i c i e s D ue t o pr ox i m i t y a nd i n i t i a l a c c e s s I c hos e a c oun t y i n s out h w e s t F l or i d a T o f u r t h e r c on t r o l f o r d i f f e r e n c e s be t w e e n t e a c h e r s s t ud i e d I d e c i d e d t o ha v e a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s b e e l e m e n t a r y s c hoo l t e a c h e r s B ut t e r f l y g a r d e ns w e r e e x c l ud e d

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25 f r o m t h e s t udy b e c a us e I w a n t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e t e a c h e r s por t r a y a l of f ood p r odu c t i on. T h e g a r d e n i ng p r ogr a m h a d t o c u l t i v a t e e d i b l e p l a n t s t o b e i n c l ud e d i n t h e s t udy I n or d e r t o ob t a i n a m e a n i ngf u l a m oun t of d a t a i n a l i m i t e d a m oun t o f t i m e I s e t a s m y t a r g e t e i gh t r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s a nd pr og r a m s T h e e i gh t pr ogr a m s I s t ud i e d c ons i s t e d of f ou r i n gr ound g a r d e n i ng p r ogr a m s t w o e a r t h bo x pr ogr a m s a nd t w o hydr opon i c ga r d e n i ng pr ogr a m s A s w i l l b e d i s c us s e d l a t e r s i x of t h e s e p r ogr a m s a r e s t i l l r unn i ng w h i l e t w o h a v e r e c e n t l y b e e n c a n c e l e d. T o g a t h e r i nf or m a t i on on t h e v a r i ous c o m pon e n t s of t h e g a r d e n i ng p r ogr a m s I br ok e up m y i n t e r v i e w i n t o t hr e e s e c t i ons : 1) H or t i c u l t ur a l a s pe c t s ; 2) A c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons ; a nd 3 ) C onn e c t i ons t o ho m e l i f e a nd c o m m un i t y ( p l e a s e s e e A pp e nd i x A ) Q ue s t i ons a bou t t h e hor t i c u l t u r a l a s pe c t s of t h e g a r d e n i ng p r ogr a m s s ol i c i t e d d i r e c t i nf or m a t i on a bou t ho w f ood pr odu c t i on s ki l l s w e r e por t r a y e d a nd e n c our a g e d. T h e a c a d e m i c po r t i on g a t h e r e d i nf or m a t i on a bo u t ho w t h e g a r d e n w a s c onn e c t e d t o o t h e r s ubj e c t s t a ugh t i n s c hoo l O f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t w e r e t h e c onn e c t i ons t o c o r e s ubj e c t s i n c l ud i ng s c i e n c e l a ngu a g e a r t s a nd m a t h e m a t i c s I a s ke d qu e s t i ons a bou t ho w t h e g a r d e n c onn e c t s t o t h e s t ud e n t s ho m e l i f e a nd t h e l a r g e r c o m m un i t y t o g a t h e r d a t a on w h a t r e s our c e s ou t s i de of t h e s c hoo l w e r e u t i l i z e d by t h e pr ogr a m T h e s e qu e s t i ons a l s o pr o v i d e d a w a y t o c o l l e c t t e a c h e r s pe r c e p t i ons on h o w t h e i r g a r d e n i ng pr og r a m a f f e c t e d t h e s e s t ude n t s l i v e s ou t s i d e of s c hoo l T o i d e n t i f y p a r t i c i p a n t s f or t h i s s t udy I c a l l e d t h e f r on t of f i c e of e v e r y pub l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c hoo l i n on e c oun t y i n s out h w e s t F l o r i da i n D e c e m b e r 2010 I n t o t a l 31

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26 e l e m e n t a r y s c hoo l s w e r e c on t a c t e d I a s ke d t h e f r on t of f i c e s t a f f w h e t h e r t h e i r s c hoo l h a d a n e d i b l e s c hoo l g a r d e n a nd i f s o i f i t w a s i n t h e gr ound or i f i t w a s i n c on t a i n e r s I a l s o a s ke d t h e m t o i d e n t i f y t h e t e a c h e r o r t h e p e r s on i n c ha r g e o f f a c i l i t a t i ng t h e g a r d e n I n t o t a l f our t e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c hoo l s r e por t e d e i t h e r h a v i n g or c ons i d e r i ng a n e d i b l e g a r d e n I s ought p e r m i s s i on f r o m t h e c oun t y's S c hool B o a r d t o c ondu c t m y r e s e a r c h a nd s uc h pe r m i s s i on w a s gr a n t e d on J a nua r y 11 2011 W he n i t c a m e t i m e t o s e l e c t m y r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i p a n t s s i x o f t h e s c hoo l s t h a t w e r e t h i nk i ng a b ou t h a v i n g a g a r d e n i n D e c e m b e r 2010 e nd e d up no t h a v i ng on e T h a t l e f t e x a c t l y e i gh t po t e n t i a l p r ogr a m s t o s t udy T h e r e w e r e m a ny s t e ps I h a d t o c o m p l e t e b e f or e b e i ng a b l e t o e n t e r a pub l i c s c hoo l c l a s s r oom t o c ondu c t r e s e a r c h i n t h i s c oun t y A f t e r ge t t i ng t h e S c hoo l B o a r d s pe r m i s s i on I n e e d e d t o g e t t h e a u t hor i z a t i on f r o m t h e p r i n c i p a l of e a c h s c hoo l I c on t a c t e d e a c h pr i n c i p a l f i r s t by e m a i l t h e n by d r opp i ng of f a l e t t e r i n p e r s on a nd f i n a l l y by c a l l i ng t o f o l l o w up i f I d i d no t h e a r b a c k. I r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i on t o c ondu c t r e s e a r c h f r o m e v e r y pr i n c i p a l I a s ke d by l a t e J a nu a r y 2011 E i gh t pr i n c i pa l s w e r e c on t a c t e d a nd e i gh t s c hoo l ga r d e n i ng pr ogr a m s w e r e a u t ho r i z e d f o r m e t o r e s e a r c h. F r om t h e r e I c on t a c t e d t h e i nd i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t or s or o t h e r t e a c h e r s t o b e t h e f a c i l i t a t or s of e d i b l e g a r d e ns a nd a s ke d t h e m i f t h e y w ou l d l i k e t o pa r t i c i p a t e i n m y s t udy. I d i d t h i s by s e nd i ng e m a i l s d r opp i ng of f l e t t e r s i n p e r s on a nd m a k i ng phon e c a l l s t o t h e t e a c h e r s A l l t e a c h e r s c on t a c t e d a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t udy a nd I s c he du l e d a ppo i n t m e n t s f or i n t e r v i e w s a nd ob s e r v a t i on s e s s i on s I i n t e r v i e w e d a l l e i gh t t e a c h e r s a nd w a s a b l e t o obs e r v e s i x of t h e e d i b l e s c hoo l

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27 ga r d e n i ng pr ogr a m s e a c h on t w o o c c a s i ons T w o o f t h e g a r d e n i ng pr ogr a m s t h a t I s t ud i e d w e r e r e c e n t l y d i s c on t i nu e d O ne of t h e t e a c h e r s c a n no l ong e r f i t t h e g a r d e n i n t o t h e s c hoo l da y a f t e r a c o m pu t e r l a b t i m e r e qu i r e m e n t w a s i n c r e a s e d a nd t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r n e v e r r e c e i v e d t h e p l a n t e d e a r t h box e s f r o m a f e l l o w t e a c h e r a s s he ha d t h e pr i or y e a r S i n c e t h e i n i t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t popu l a t i on f o r t h i s s t udy i n c l ud e d on l y t e a c h e r s t h a t c u r r e n t l y f a c i l i t a t e a s c hoo l g a r d e n I n e e d e d t o e xp a nd t h i s popu l a t i on t o a l s o i n c l ud e t e a c h e r s t h a t r e c e n t l y ( w i t h i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s ) f a c i l i t a t e d a n e d i b l e s c hoo l g a r d e n t o b e a b l e t o h a v e a s uf f i c i e n t l y l a r g e popu l a t i on f or m y t h e s i s T w o of t h e t e a c h e r s ha d t h e e xp e r i e n c e of f a c i l i t a t i ng a n e d i b l e g a r d e n t h e pr i or s pr i ng t h e r e f or e t h e i r e xp e r i e n c e a l s o s hi n e s a pa r t i c u l a r l i gh t on t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s of c on t i nu i ng t o r u n a ho r t i c u l t ur a l p r ogr a m w i t h t h e c oun t y's c u r r i c u l u m a nd t e s t i ng. I n F e br u a r y 2011 I r e c e i v e d I R B a pp r o v a l f o r t h i s c h a ng e i n t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i gn T h e i n t e r v i e w s o c c ur r e d m os t l y i n t h e t e a c h e r s c l a s s r oom s O ne i n t e r v i e w t ook p l a c e i n t h e ho m e of on e o f t h e t e a c h e r s B e f or e t h e i n t e r v i e w s b e g a n I d i s c us s e d t h e s t udy w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a nd a ns w e r e d a ny qu e s t i ons t h e y h a d. I h a d e a c h of t h e m r e v i e w a nd s i gn a c ons e n t f or m A l l t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e r e c or d e d us i ng a n a ud i o c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r M o s t i n t e r v i e w s l a s t e d a bou t f or t y m i nu t e s r a ng i ng f r o m t h i r t y m i nu t e s t o a n hour a nd a qua r t e r i n l e ng t h T h e obs e r v a t i on s e s s i on s w e r e a l m os t a l w a ys a c o m b i n a t i on o f i ndoor a nd ou t door ob s e r v a t i ons T h e G ui d e f o r O b s e r v a t i ons w h i c h s t r u c t ur e d m y f i e l d no t e s a nd d e b r i e f i ngs i s i n c l ud e d a s A pp e nd i x B E a c h obs e r v a t i on s e s s i o n w a s a bou t a n hour i n dur a t i on

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28 A l l o f t h e e i gh t i n t e r v i e w s a s w e l l a s t h e d e br i e f i ng n o t e s f r o m t h e s i x g a r d e n i ng pr ogr a m s I obs e r v e d w e r e c od e d us i ng t h e s of t w a r e H ype r R e s e a r c h. T h e do c u m e n t s w e r e c od e d p a r a gr a ph by p a r a gr a ph a nd a n a l ys e s w e r e c o nduc t e d b a s e d on r e o c c ur r i ng t h e m e s S om e of t h e c o m pon e n t s r e v e a l e d i n t h e c od i ng pr o c e s s w e r e no t i n c l ud e d i n t h e I n t e r v i e w or O b s e r v a t i on G ui d e W he n t h e s e t op i c s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i ng c h a p t e r I i d e n t i f y t h e m a s be i ng of f e r e d by t h e t e a c h e r s a s oppo s e d t o b e i ng p a r t o f t h e i n i t i a l d a t a c o l l e c t i on i ns t r u m e n t s A l t hough t h i s r e s e a r c h m e t hodo l ogy h a s i t s l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t s houl d b e c ons i d e r e d i n f ur t h e r r e s e a r c h i t c e r t a i n l y p r o v i d e d t h e s t r u c t ur e f or t h e c o l l e c t i on of a n a bund a n t a m oun t of v a l u a b l e a nd r e c e n t qu a l i t a t i v e d a t a r e g a r d i ng t h e u s e of e d i b l e s c hoo l g a r d e ns i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c hoo l s i n s out h w e s t F l or i d a T h e l i m i t a t i ons of t h i s s t udy i n c l ud e a ) a s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e b ) a s m a l l nu m b e r of obs e r v a t i ons f or e a c h pr og r a m a nd c ) a f o c us on t h e t e a c h e r s pe r s pe c t i v e of t h e g a r d e n i ng p r ogr a m s I f po s s i bl e f ur t h e r r e s e a r c h w ou l d b e s t r e ng t h e n e d by s t udy i ng m o r e s c hoo l s on m or e o c c a s i ons a s w e l l a s a l s o i n c l ud i ng ob s e r v a t i ons a nd i n t e r v i e w s of p a r t i c i p a t i ng s t ud e n t s t o g e t t h e i r p e r s pe c t i v e of t h e pr ogr a m s N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e m e t hods unde r t a k e n p r o v i d e d f or t h e c o l l e c t i on of m e a n i ng f u l i nf or m a t i on. T h e n e x t c h a p t e r pr e s e n t s t h e r e s ul t s of m y l o c a l r e s e a r c h

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29 C h a p t e r 4: R e s u l t s T he e i g ht i n t e r v i e w s a nd t w e l v e p r o g r a m obs e r v a t i on s p r ovi d e d a w e a l t h of i nf or m a t i on on t he v a r i ous c o m p one n t s of p ubl i c e l e m e nt a r y s c hool g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s i n s ou t h w e s t F l or i d a E a c h i nt e r v i e w w a s r e c or d e d a nd t r a n s c r i b e d t o t a l i n g ov e r s e ve n hour s of t a p e a nd 150 pa g e s E a c h obs e r v a t i on s e s s i on p r oduc e d e xt e ns i v e f i e l d not e s a nd t w e l v e d e b r i e f i n g r e p or t s t o t a l i n g r ou g h l y 50 p a g e s of a dd i t i ona l r e s e a r c h do c u m e n t a t i on. T he f o l l ow i n g i s a s um m a r y of t hi s c o l l e c t i on o f qu a l i t a t i v e d a t a T hi s c h a p t e r di s c us s e s t he a s p e c t s t ha t s ha pe t he p r o g r a m s a nd pr e s e n t s t he m a s 1) H or t i c u l t ur a l C o m p one n t s 2) E n t hu s i a s m 3) A c a d e m i c C o m p one n t s 4) A dm i n i s t r a t i ve C o m p one n t s a nd 5) C onne c t i ons t o S t ude n t L i f e B e f o r e m ov i n g f o r w a r d i t i s he l p f ul t o de f i n e s e ve r a l t e r m s W h e n r e f e r r i n g t o g a r d e n t y p e s t he t e r m s e a r t h bo x e s a nd h y dr o p on i c a r e us e d. A n e a r t h bo x i s a s p e c i a l k i nd of c on t a i n e r us e d t o g r ow pl a n t s T he e a r t h bo x d e s i g n h a s t he s oi l i ns i d e t he c ont a i n e r s i t on a r i s e r a bov e a r e s e r vo i r of w a t e r a l l ow i n g t he s oi l a nd pl a n t t o w i c k t he w a t e r u p T hi s m e a ns t ha t t he e a r t h bo x do e s no t ne e d a s f r e qu e n t w a t e r i n g a s a r e g u l a r p o t t e d pl a n t A l s o, e a r t h bo x e s u s ua l l y c o m e w i t h a n e l a s t i c pl a s t i c c ov e r t ha t g o e s ove r t he t o p of t he bo x a nd ov e r t he d i r t C u t s a r e m a d e i n t he t o p of t hi s pl a s t i c w he r e t he p l a n t s a r e t o be pl a n t e d, a nd t he r e m a i n i n g un c u t c ove r i n g pl a s t i c k e e p s m o i s t ur e i n t he s oi l a nd w e e d s e e ds ou t A h y d r o p o ni c g a r d e n i s a s oi l l e s s g a r d e n w he r e t he s e e ds or pl a n t s a r e pl a n t e d i n a pl a n t i n g m e d i u m w hi c h c ons i s t s of a m i xt ur e of v e r m i c u l i t e a nd pe r l i t e B e c a us e t he p l a n t i n g m e d i u m c a nno t hol d s oi l nu t r i e nt s f e r t i l i z e r i s m i x e d i n w i t h t he w a t e r t ha t i s

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30 u s e d dur i n g i r r i g a t i on U s ua l l y w i t h h y dr o p o ni c s y s t e m s t he i r r i g a t i on s y s t e m s a r e a ut om a t i c a nd s e t t o a t i m e r d e l i v e r i n g w a t e r a nd n u t r i e nt s t hr e e t i m e s a d a y H y dr o p o ni c s y s t e m s a r e v e r y w a t e r e f f i c i e n t H o r t i c u l t u r a l C om p on e n t s E a c h of t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s h a d t he i r ow n s p e c t r um of g a r d e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s B o t h t he t y p e s of c o m pone n t s a s w e l l a s t he w a y i n w hi c h e a c h c o m pone n t w a s i n t e g r a t e d v a r i e d f r o m p r o g r a m t o p r o g r a m T a bl e 2 p r ovi d e s a c h a r t of t he i n c l ud e d c o m pone n t s f or e a c h of t he e i g ht g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s s t udi e d B e l ow i s a d i s c us s i on a bout ho w t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s p r e s e n t e d e a c h of f ou r t e e n i d e nt i f i e d a g r i c u l t ur a l c o m pone n t s a nd a n a n a l y s i s of t he s e f i nd i n gs T he s e c om pone nt s or s t e ps o f t he a gr i c ul t ur a l pr o c e s s a r e i m por t a nt be c a us e t he y a r e a l l c om m onl y pr a c t i c e d i n t he gr ow i ng a nd c on s um i ng of f ood B y be i ng i nvol ve d f i r s t ha nd, s t ude nt s c a n us e a l l of t he i r s e ns e s t o ga t he r i nf o r m a t i on a bout e a c h c om pone nt a nd unde r s t a nd m or e f ul l y how t he s t e ps r e l a t e t o e a c h ot he r a nd t o f ood pr oduc t i on a s a w hol e p r oc e s s T he m or e s t e ps t he s t ude nt s a r e i nvol ve d i n t he m or e c om pl e t e t he i r unde r s t a ndi ng o f f ood pr oduc t i on. A l l of t he hor t i c ul t ur a l c om pone nt s w e r e i de nt i f i e d i n m y I nt e r vi e w G ui de T he pl a nn i n g of a g a r d e n i s a n e s s e n t i a l s t e p a nd i n vo l v e s a n und e r s t a ndi n g o f m e a s ur e m e nt s w e a t he r pa t t e r n s a nd t he l i f e c yc l e s a nd p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of pl a n t s H a l f of t he p r o g r a m s r e p or t e d ha v i n g s t ude n t s c hoo s e t he s e e ds t he y w a n t e d t o g r ow T w o of t he pr o g r a m s h a d t he i r s t ude n t s m a k e a s k e t c h of a g a r d e n pl a n b e f or e pl a n t i n g O ne t e a c h e r h a d h i s s t ude n t s m e a s ur e a nd l a you t t he b e ds a s t he g a r d e n w a s c r e a t e d.

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31 T w o t e a c h e r s a l s o ha d t he i r s t ude n t s de c i d e f r o m a s e l e c t i on of don a t e d pl a n t s w hi c h on e s t o t r a n s p l a n t i n t o a n e a r t h bo x o r a g a r d e n pl o t r e s p e c t i ve l y M o s t f ood pl a n t s s t a r t f r om s e e ds a nd b e g i n n i n g s e e d l i n gs f r o m s e e ds i s a k e y p a r t t o t he a g r i c u l t ur a l p r oc e s s S i x pr o g r a m s ha d s t ude n t s g e r m i n a t i n g s e e ds t ha t w oul d be pa r t of t he g a r d e n. T hr e e o f t he t e a c h e r s ha d t he i r s t ude n t s di r e c t s e e d, w hi c h m e a ns t he y p l a n t e d t he s e e d r i g ht w he r e i t w i l l g r ow t o m a t ur i t y w hi l e t he t hr e e ot he r s u s ua l l y r a i s e d s e e d l i n gs i n c ont a i n e r s f or l a t e r t r a ns p l a n t T he t e a c h e r s t ha t di d no t g e r m i n a t e s e e ds a s p a r t of t he i r g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s e xpl a i n e d t ha t t he y g e r m i n a t e d s e e ds a s p a r t of a not he r s c i e n c e l e s s on no t r e l a t e d t o t he g a r d e n t ha t e nd s w i t h t he s t ude n t t a ki n g ho m e a p l a n t T he s e t w o p r o g r a m s us e d e i t he r don a t e d or p u r c h a s e d pl a n t s f or t r a n s p l a n t i n g i n t o t he i r s c hoo l g a r d e n T r a n s pl a n t i n g pl a n t s f r om on e c ont a i n e r t o e i t he r t he g r ound or a no t he r c ont a i n e r i s a c o m m on pr a c t i c e i n r a i s i n g f ood pl a n t s H a l f o f t he t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d ha v i n g s t ude n t s t r a n s p l a n t s e e d l i n gs i nt o t he i r f i n a l g r ow i n g pl a c e D i r e c t s e e d i n g i s s i m pl e r a nd r e qu i r e s l e s s m a t e r i a l bu t a l s o r e qu i r e s f r e q u e n t w a t e r i n g of t he w hol e g a r d e n un t i l t he s e e ds ha v e g e r m i n a t e d. T r a n s pl a n t i n g e n a b l e s m a n y s e e d l i n gs t o be c a r e d f o r i n a s m a l l s p a c e w hi l e t he y a r e i n t he s m a l l s t a r t e r c ont a i n e r s T w o t e a c he r s no t e d t ha t t r a ns pl a n t i n g w a s a g o od o p p or t uni t y t o s ho w t he r oo t s of t he pl a n t s t o t he s t ude n t s S t ude n t s i n on e p r o g r a m r e c e i v e d t he i r e a r t h bo x e s a l r e a d y p l a n t e d s o t he r e w a s no ne e d t o t r a ns p l a n t ( or d i r e c t s e e d) P r e pa r i n g t he g r ound or t he s oi l i s a n i m por t a n t p a r t of t he hor t i c u l t ur a l p r oc e s s e s p e c i a l l y i n s a nd y s oi l s a s f ound i n s ou t h w e s t F l or i d a T he g r ound i s l oos e ne d f or t he

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33 p l a n t s r oo t s t o e x pa nd a nd nu t r i e n t s a r e a dd e d t o t he s oi l t o be a bs or be d l a t e r b y t he p l a n t s r oo t s S i x of t he pr o g r a m s h a d t he i r s t ude nt s p r e p a r e t he s oi l or pl a n t i n g m e d i u m O ne p r o g r a m h a d e a c h c l a s s f e r t i l i z e t he i r t w o e a r t h bo x e s a nd pl a n t t he m d i v i d i n g t he t a s k s a m on gs t di f f e r e n t m e m b e r s of t he c l a s s T hr e e t e a c h e r s a l l w i t h i n g r ound g a r d e ns ha d t he i r s t ude n t s di g a nd t ur n t he g r ound a nd a dd c o m po s t T he h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e ns di d no t u s e s oi l but a v e r m i c u l i t e / pe r l i t e m i xt ur e i n t he c ont a i n e r s I n t he s e s e t u p s f e r t i l i z e r w a s de l i v e r e d t o t he pl a n t s vi a w a t e r t hr ou g h t he i r r i g a t i on s y s t e m s S t ude n t s i n bo t h t he h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e ns w oul d p r e pa r e t he pl a n t i n g m i x t ur e a nd, w he n n e c e s s a r y, p ul l out ol d p l a n t s f r om t he pl a n t e r s a nd a dd m or e m i xt ur e b e f or e pl a n t i n g a not he r s e e d S t ude n t s i n one of t he h y dr o p oni c p r o g r a m s w e r e a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f or p r e pa r i n g t he l i qu i d f e r t i l i z e r s ol u t i on i n t he i r ho l d i n g t a nk s S t ude nt s t ha t pa r t i c i pa t e d i n ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s t ha t ut i l i z e d a hyd r oponi c s ys t e m w e r e pr i vy t o l e s s ons a bout t he be ne f i t s a nd d i s a dva nt a ge s of s uc h a s ys t e m T he y l e a r ne d t ha t pl a nt s gr ow n hydr oponi c a l l y r e qui r e m uc h l e s s w a t e r a nd gr ow f a s t e r t ha n pl a nt s gr ow n i n t he s oi l S t ude nt s a l s o l e a r ne d t ha t hydr oponi c s ys t e m s c a n e a s i l y ge t t oo m uc h w a t e r dur i ng r a i ny t i m e s of t he ye a r T hi s r e s ul t s i n w a t e r y a nd l ow qua l i t y pr oduc e S t ude nt s of ot he r ga r de ni ng pr og r a m s di d not l e a r n t he s e l e s s ons a bout hydr oponi c gr ow i ng t e c hni que s A s f or t he t w o t e a c h e r s t ha t di dn't ha ve t he i r s t ude n t s p r e p a r e t he s oi l or t he p l a n t i n g m i xt ur e vo l un t e e r s a t one s c hoo l p r e pa r e d t he b e ds ; a nd a t t he o t he r s c hoo l on e c l a s s p r e pa r e d t he c ont a i n e r s f or t he e a r t h bo x pr o g r a m t o be u s e d b y o t he r s t ude n t s T he s t ude n t s a t t he s e p r o g r a m s s i m pl y w e r e no t a pa r t of t hi s p r oc e s s a nd s o ha ve t o r e l y on

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34 s e c ond h a nd a c c ount s t o unde r s t a nd t hi s c o m p one n t of hor t i c u l t ur e R e l a t e d t o g a r d e n b e d pr e pa r a t i on i s t ool us e T oo l us e i s a n i m por t a n t p a r t of i n g r o und g a r d e n i n g f o r i t a l l ow s t he us e r t o a m pl i f y t he a m ount of w or k s he or h e c a n g e t done A l l t he s t ude n t s i n pr o g r a m s w i t h i n g r ound g a r d e ns a l s o h a d t he c h a n c e t o w or k w i t h t ool s S t ude n t s u s e d ha nd t r o w e l s i n t w o of t he i n g r ound pr o g r a m s w hi l e s t ude n t s i n t he o t he r t w o w e r e m or e l i k e l y t o u s e b i g g e r t ool s l i k e s hove l s a nd r a k e s C on t a i n e r g a r d e n i n g a s w i t h t he e a r t h bo x e s a nd h y dr o p o ni c s y s t e m s us ua l l y di d no t r e qu i r e t he u s e of s uc h t ool s O ne t e a c h e r w ho u s e d e a r t h bo x e s di d h a v e h i s s t ude n t s u s e t r o w e l s m i n i m a l l y i n t he pr e pa r a t i on of t he s oi l W a t e r i n g i s a n e s s e n t i a l pa r t of g a r d e n i n g b e c a us e p l a n t s ne e d w a t e r t o s ur vi v e a nd g r ow F i v e of t he pr o g r a m s h a d t he i r s t ude n t s w a t e r t he g a r d e n. T hr e e t e a c h e r s ha d a c ou pl e o f s t ude n t s w a t e r t he e n t i r e g a r d e n, r o t a t i n g w hi c h s t ude n t s w e r e a s s i g n e d t he t a s k. O ne pr o g r a m h a d e a c h c h i l d us e a l i t t l e w a t e r i n g c a n t o w a t e r h e r / h i s i nd i v i du a l g a r d e n s pa c e O ne o t he r p r o g r a m h a d t he s t ude n t s a s a g r ou p w a t e r a l l t he pl a n t s t a ki n g t ur n s a t f i l l i n g a nd p our i n g w a t e r f r o m t he w a t e r i n g c a n. O ne of t he pr o g r a m s w i t h a n i n g r o und g a r d e n d i d not ha v e t he s t ude n t s w a t e r bu t i ns t e a d h a d a r oo m m o t he r i n c h a r g e of w a t e r i n g t he pl o t T he t e a c h e r f a c i l i t a t i n g t hi s p r o g r a m w a s t hi nk i n g a bout c ha n g i n g t ha t a r r a n g e m e n t S h e us e d t o ha v e h e r s t ude n t s w a t e r t he g a r d e n, bu t c h a n g e d i t t o a vo l un t e e r t a s k a f t e r t he g a r d e n w a s e n l a r g e d S i n c e s e ve n m or e c l a s s r oom s ha v e r e c e nt l y be c o m e i nvo l v e d i n t he g a r d e n pr oj e c t a t t hi s s c hool i t s c a r e h a s be c o m e m o r e m a n a g e a b l e A s a r e s ul t t he f a c i l i t a t i n g t e a c h e r w a s t hi nk i n g t ha t i t w oul d b e g o od f or h e r s t ude n t s t o w a t e r a nd c a r e f or t he i r ow n pl a n t s a g a i n. T he t w o o t he r p r o g r a m s t ha t di d

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35 no t ha ve t he s t ude n t s w a t e r t he pl a n t s w e r e t he h y dr o p oni c g a r d e ns a nd w e r e on a ut om a t i c t i m e r s f or t he i r r i g a t i on P e s t c on t r ol i s i m p or t a n t i n f ood pr oduc t i on be c a u s e pe s t s c a n s om e t i m e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t he h e a l t h of t he c r o p s be i n g r a i s e d. H a l f of t he p r o g r a m s i nvo l v e d t he i r s t ude n t s i n pe s t i de nt i f i c a t i on, r e p or t i n g e x pe r i e n c e s i n w hi c h t he i r s t ude n t s ob s e r v e d a nd i d e n t i f i e d bu gs a s pe s t s I n on e pr o g r a m t he k i ds p r a c t i c e t he s i m pl e s t m e t hod of pe s t c on t r ol : I f w e f i nd pe s t s w e j us t p i c k t he m of f N o pe s t c on t r ol b e s i d e s t ha t I n t he o t he r c a s e s t e a c h e r s or v o l un t e e r s bu t ne ve r s t ude n t s w e r e r e p or t e d t o ha nd l e t he pe s t c on t r ol t r e a t m e nt s A l l r e p or t e d t r e a t m e nt s w e r e m i l d i n n a t ur e a nd w e r e u s ua l l y done w i t h or g a n i c m e t hod s N o c r o p pe s t s w e r e r e p or t e d a t t hr e e s c hoo l s a nd one t e a c h e r t ook c a r e of t he pe s t s hi m s e l f a nd d i d no t i nvo l v e d t he s t ude n t s i n t he p r oc e s s W e e d i n g t he g a r d e n i s a n i m por t a n t hor t i c u l t ur a l s t e p. W e e ds i n t he g a r d e n c a n c o m pe t e w i t h f ood pl a n t s f or r e s our c e s l i k e l i g ht w a t e r a nd nut r i e n t s a nd c a n n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t f ood p r oduc t i v i t y i f no t ke p t unde r c ont r ol S t ude n t s a t s i x o f t he s c hoo l s p a r t i c i pa t e d i n w e e d i n g t he g a r d e n. T he t w o t e a c h e r s t ha t u s e d e a r t h bo x e s r e p or t e d no w e e ds T he t w o t e a c h e r s f a c i l i t a t i n g h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e ns r e p or t e d ha v i n g v e r y f e w w e e ds i n t he i r g a r d e ns O ne of t he s e t e a c h e r s s a i d t ha t w he n a w e e d d i d p o p u p i t p r ovi d e d a g o od l e a r n i n g o p p o r t uni t y f or t he c l a s s S h e s a i d : V e r y r a r e l y di d w e g e t w e e ds bu t w he n w e d i d w e r e c o g n i z e d t he m T ha t w a s ki nd of a n i c e l i t t l e s c i e n t i f i c t hi n g b e c a us e w e r e c o g n i z e d t he pl a n t t ha t w e w e r e t r yi n g t o g r o w a nd t he on e s w e w e r e t r y i n g no t t o g r ow I nv e r s e l y, dur i n g a n obs e r v a t i on a t one o f t he s c hoo l s bo t h t he t e a c h e r a nd

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36 s t ude n t s i de nt i f i e d vo l unt e e r r a d i s he s a nd c i l a n t r o t ha t ha d s p r un g u p i n a r e a s t ha t w e r e no t p l a n t e d w i t h s uc h t hi n gs a s t he y w e r e c l e a r i n g t he a r e a o f w e e ds T he e xpe r i e n c e w a s s ur p r i s i n g a nd e x c i t i n g f or a l l t ho s e i nvo l v e d a nd p r ov i d e d a n i m pr om p t u l e s s on f r o m t he t e a c h e r on t he l i f e c yc l e of pl a n t s H a r ve s t i n g pr oduc e i s a n i m por t a n t a g r i c u l t ur a l s t e p S t ude n t s ha r v e s t e d t he p r oduc e a t s i x o f t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s T hi s w a s of t e n r e p or t e d t o be t he f a vor i t e a c t i v i t y of t he s t ude n t s C ol l a r ds br o c c o l i z uc c h i n i a nd pe a s w e r e a l l c o m m on c r o p s a s w e r e l e t t uc e s c a r r o t s a nd g r e e n b e a ns T h e t e a c h e r s of t w o p r o g r a m s ha r v e s t e d t he p r oduc e A t one s c hoo l t he t e a c h e r us e d a kn i f e t o g e t a c l e a n h a r v e s t of t he pr oduc e a nd s ho w e d t he k i ds w ha t he w a s doi n g bu t w a s t he o n l y one t o ha nd l e i t A t a no t he r s c hoo l t he r e w a s onl y a l i t t l e b i t of pa r s l e y ha r v e s t e d a nd t ha t w a s done b y t he t e a c h e r I n t hi s t he s i s f ood pr e pa r a t i on i s c ons i d e r e d a hor t i c u l t ur a l s t e p I t i s he r e w he r e t he f ood i s p r e pa r e d t o e a t I n s i x of t he pr o g r a m s t he s t ude n t s w e r e i nvo l v e d i n f ood p r e p a r a t i on. S t ude n t s w oul d t e a r t he l e t t uc e a nd h e l p m a k e s a l a ds i n t hr e e pr o g r a m s I n t he o t he r t hr e e p r o g r a m s s t ude n t s w e r e r e p or t e d t o h a v e c u t f r u i t s or ve g e t a b l e s i nt o bi t e s i z e pi e c e s w i t h pl a s t i c kn i v e s O ne t e a c h e r s a i d : W h a t w e d o i s m o d el f o r t h e m h o w t o cu t i t A n d t h e y g o a h e ad a n d t h e y j u s t g o a n d d o i t t h e ms el v es I m e a n f r o m k i n d e rg a r t e n al l t h e w ay u p t o t h e fi f t h g r ad e I n k i n d e rg ar t e n I d o k n o w t h a t t h e t e a c h e rs s t a n d p r e t t y cl o s e t o t h e m a n d h a v e t w o o r t h r e e ad u l t s h e l p i n g N o w w i t h m y cl as s t h e s e c o n d g r ad e rs t h e y t ru l y a r e r es p o n s i b l e e n o u g h i n t h a t t h e y k n o w w h a t t o d o a n d t h e y g o a h e ad a n d d o i t S t ud e n t s u s ua l l y w oul d t he n s ha r e e a t a nd e n j o y t he f ood f r o m t he g a r d e n A no t he r t e a c h e r r e c a l l e d t he t i m e h e r c l a s s ha d a F a r m e r s M a r ke t : O n e t i m e w e c al l i t T h e F a r m e rs M a r k e t I g a v e t h e m al l l i t t l e p l as t i c k n i v es a n d t h e y w e r e al l cu t t i n g w h a t t h e y h a d i n t o s m al l

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37 e n o u g h p i e c es a n d p u t t i n g t h e m o n p l a t es o n t h e i r d e s k A n d t h e n e v e r y b o d y g o t t o h a v e a p l a t e a n d g o a r o u n d a n d s h o p a n d t a k e t h i n g s t h e y w a n t ed f r o m t h ei r F a r m e rs M a r k e t A n d t h e n t h e y g o t t o e a t E v e r y b o d y g o t t o p r e p a r e a l i t t l e b i t T he s e e a t i n g e v e n t s w e r e of t e n t he h i g h l i g ht of t he g a r d e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s E a t i n g f ood i s a l s o a n a g r i c u l t ur a l c o m pone n t W e nde l l B e r r y, a f a m ous A m e r i c a n w r i t e r on c e s a i d E a t i n g i s a n a g r i c u l t ur a l a c t ( B e r r y 1990) S t ude n t s a t e f ood f r o m t he g a r d e n i n a l l e i g ht p r o g r a m s but t he a m oun t a nd f r e qu e n c y va r i e d I n on e i ns t a nc e i t w a s ba r e l y a n y t hi n g j us t a s m a l l b i t e of pa r s l e y f or e a c h i n t e r e s t e d s t ude n t I n t he o t he r s e a t i n g t he f ood w a s of t e n t he m os t e x c i t i n g a nd e n j o ya bl e pa r t of t he w hol e g a r d e n p r oj e c t D ur i n g on e of m y ob s e r va t i on s e s s i on s I w i t ne s s e d a j o y ou s ha r v e s t i n g pa r t y t ha t s t ude n t s i n on e p r o g r a m w e r e on l y a b l e t o e n j o y a bou t onc e e v e r y 10 w e e ks I t w a s t he i r c l a s s s t ur n t o ha r v e s t f r om t he h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e n a nd t he s t ude n t s a nd t e a c h e r s p e n t a bou t 20 m i nu t e s i n t he g a r d e n obs e r v i n g a n d h a r v e s t i n g f r o m a bou t a do z e n d i f f e r e n t ve g e t a b l e pl a n t s T he s t ude n t s t he n w e n t t o a S pe c i a l s c l a s s w hi l e a r oo m m o t he r c l e a n e d t he pr oduc e a nd p r e pa r e d t he v e g e t a b l e s a nd s t r a w be r r i e s f or t he k i ds t o s e r ve t he m s e l v e s S a l a d d r e s s i n g w a s p r ovi d e d, i f t he k i ds w a n t e d, a nd t he s t ude n t s e a c h a t e a s m a l l pl a t e f u l of t he f r e s h p r oduc e t he y h e l pe d g r ow S t or i n g pr oduc e i s a c o m p one n t t ha t c oul d b e i n c or p o r a t e d i n t o s c hoo l g a r d e n i n g p r o g r a m s P r oduc e h a s t o be k e p t unde r c e r t a i n c o nd i t i ons i n or d e r t o r e t a i n i t s f l a vor a nd nu t r i e nt s I n on e p r o g r a m s t ude n t s w oul d s t or e s o m e o f t he p r oduc e T he y w oul d w a s h a nd b a g l e t t uc e h a r v e s t e d f r o m t he i r h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e n a nd p u t i t i n a r e f r i g e r a t or t o w hi c h o t he r t e a c h e r s a t t he s c hoo l h a d a c c e s s T he c l a s s p u t a no t e a nd a don a t i on j a r on a t a b l e n e xt t o t he r e f r i g e r a t or a nd t he t e a c h e r s e n t ou t a n e m a i l l e t t i n g t e a c h e r s kno w t ha t

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38 ve g g i e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n t he f r i d g e a nd i f t he y w a nt e d t o m a k e a don a t i on, i t w oul d b e a p p r e c i a t e d. T he m on e y r a i s e d w a s u s e d t o p ur c ha s e m or e f e r t i l i z e r f or t he g a r d e n S a v i n g s e e ds i s ne c e s s a r y i n t he a g r i c u l t ur a l p r oc e s s t o ke e p c r o p va r i e t i e s a l i v e a nd s e e ds a v a i l a b l e f or p r oduc t i on i n f u t ur e ye a r s T hr e e of t he p r o g r a m s r e p or t e d t ha t s e e ds ha d b e e n s a ve d f r o m pl a n t s i n t he g a r d e n. T w o of t he s e p r o g r a m s r e p or t e d r e pl a n t i n g t he s e e ds t o de m ons t r a t e t he c yc l e of pl a nt l i f e O ne s c hoo l us e d b a s i l s e e ds be c a us e b a s i l i s a f a vor i t e of m a n y p e o pl e a nd i t g o e s t o s e e d qu i c k l y. A no t he r p r o g r a m 's l e s s on on s a v i n g s e e ds w a s i n i t i a t e d b y a s t ude n t w ho ha r v e s t e d a g r e e n b e l l pe p p e r f r om t he s c hoo l g a r d e n a nd a s ke d t he t e a c h e r i f h e c ou l d r e pl a n t t he s e e ds T he t e a c h e r w e l c o m e d t he i d e a d e l i g ht e d t ha t t he s t ude n t c a m e u p w i t h i t W h e n I v i s i t e d, t he y ha d j us t pl a n t e d t he s a v e d pe p p e r s e e ds O ne o t he r t e a c h e r 's l e s s on on s a v i n g s e e ds ha p p e ne d b y a c c i d e nt w he n a b a s i l pl a n t w e n t t o s e e d a f t e r b e i n g i n t he pl a n t e r f o r a l i t t l e w hi l e T he e v e n t s ur p r i s e d t he t e a c h e r a nd p r ovi d e d a d e m ons t r a t i on t o he r a nd t he c l a s s on t he l i f e c yc l e of pl a n t s C om p o s t i n g i s t he p r oc e s s b y w hi c h o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l i s r e c yc l e d a nd r e t ur ne d t o t h e s oi l I t i s ne c e s s a r y i n or g a n i c m e t hod s of f ood pr oduc t i on. T hr e e of t he s t udi e d p r o g r a m s h a d c o m p o s t pi l e s a nd t he t e a c h e r s ha d t he i r s t ude n t s a dd g a r d e n d e b r i s t o t he p i l e s O ne p r o g r a m a l s o r e c e i v e d a nd c o m p o s t e d k i t c he n s c r a p s f r om t he c a f e t e r i a s t a f f on t he d a y s t ha t t he y p r oc e s s e d r a w pr oduc e A l l of t he c o m p o s t pi l e s w e r e l o c a t e d a t s c hool s w i t h i n g r ound g a r d e ns G a r de ni ng pr ogr a m s t ha t i nc or por a t e d m a ki ng a nd us i ng c om pos t a f f o r d s t ude nt s w i t h a ha nds on l e s s on i n s oi l c om pos i t i on. T he s e a c t i vi t i e s pr ovi de a vi vi d e xpe r i e nc e

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39 t ha t s oi l i s pa r t i a l l y m a de up of de c om pos e d or ga n i c m a t e r i a l T hr ough m a ki ng a nd a ppl yi ng c om pos t pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s c a n be a di r e c t pa r t o f a r e c yc l i ng p r oc e s s t ha t c ons e r ve s r e s our c e s a nd e ne r gy. T he i n c l us i on of c e r t a i n a g r i c u l t ur a l c o m p one n t s s e e m s t o c or r e l a t e w i t h t he t y p e of g a r d e n a p r o g r a m u t i l i z e d. A s y o u c a n s e e i n T a b l e 2 t he h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e ns di d no t r e qu i r e t he s t ude n t s t o w a t e r t he i n g r ound g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s of t e n p r ovi d e d t he s t ude n t s w i t h c o m p o s t i n g o p p or t uni t i e s a nd t he e a r t h bo x g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s e x c l ud e d t he g e r m i n a t i on o f s e e ds E a c h t e a c h e r i n c l ud e d a n i nd i v i du a l i z e d s e t of hor t i c u l t ur a l c o m p one n t s t o va r yi n g de g r e e s i n h e r or h i s g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m D e pe ndi n g o n w ha t c o m p one n t s w e r e i n c l ud e d a nd how t he y w e r e ut i l i z e d, g a r d e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s p r ov i d e d d i f f e r e n t o p p o r t uni t i e s f or s t ude n t s t o unde r s t a nd f ood p r oduc t i on p r oc e s s e s a nd und e r l yi n g s c i e n t i f i c c on c e p t s W h a t e ve r t he c o m b i n a t i on, g a r d e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w e r e r e p or t e d b y t he t e a c h e r s t o c r e a t e a n e nt hu s i a s t i c a nd i nt e r e s t e d s t ude n t bod y L e t u s n ow t ur n our a t t e n t i on t o t hi s r e p or t e d e nt hu s i a s m a nd i t s i m pl i c a t i ons E n t h u s i a s m O ne of t he a s p e c t s of t he g a r d e n m e nt i one d m os t o f t e n b y t he t e a c h e r s w a s t he e nt hu s i a s m i t c r e a t e d i n t he s t ude n t s I t i s i m por t a n t t o no t e t ha t t he r e w e r e no qu e s t i on s on t he I n t e r v i e w G ui d e r e l a t e d t o s t ude n t e n t hu s i a s m ye t e ve r y t e a c h e r r e p or t e d t ha t t he s c hool g a r d e n s p a r ke d e x c i t e m e n t D ur i n g m y ob s e r v a t i ons s e s s i on s t he c h i l dr e n s e e m e d t o e n j o y t he i r t i m e ou t door s a nd m a n y of t he c h i l d r e n w e r e e x c i t e d t o t a l k a bout t he p l a n t s a nd t he g a r d e ns t ha t t he y ha d a t hom e w i t h t he i r f a m i l i e s

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40 T he t e a c h e r s m e n t i on e d t he e x c i t e m e n t of t he c h i l d r e n a t di f f e r e n t s t a g e s of t he a g r i c u l t ur a l p r oc e s s W i t h r e g a r d s t o e a t i n g on e t e a c h e r s a i d : W h e n y ou s e e k i ds c l e a n t he i r pl a t e s of s a l a d t ha t p r oba b l y o t he r w i s e w oul dn' t do t ha t a nd k i ds s c r e a m i n g out f or m or e [ t ] he r e 's no s ub s t i t u t e f or t ha t A no t he r t e a c h e r d i s c us s e d how t he s m e l l a nd t a s t e of t he pe s t o t he c l a s s m a d e f r o m t he ba s i l i n t he g a r d e n w a s s o w onde r f u l f or s om e of h i s s t ude n t s : T he y t r i e d i t a nd t he y j us t l ove d i t O ne o t he r t e a c h e r m e n t i on e d how he r f i r s t g r a d e s t ude n t s a r e s o a n x i ous t o t r y t hi n g s a nd t a s t e t he m O ne t e a c h e r w ho f a c i l i t a t e s a s oi l l e s s h y d r o p o ni c g a r d e n, m e n t i on e d t ha t he r s t ude n t s t hor ou g h l y e n j o ye d p r e pa r i n g t he m i xt ur e : A nd t he y l ove o f c ou r s e g e t t i n g t he i r h a nds di r t y bu t a l l i t i s i s ve r m i c u l i t e a nd pe r l i t e A no t he r t e a c h e r m e n t i on e d how he r k i nd e r g a r t e ne r s l ov e d c h e c k i n g u p on t he t om a t o pl a n t s a nd l e a r n i n g m or e a bou t t he m : A nd t he c h i l d r e n w i l l a bs ol u t e l y l ov e e v e n m y k i ds t he y a b s ol u t e l y l ove s i t t i n g out t he r e a nd t a l k i n g a bou t i t a nd w e r e s e a r c h e d i t on t he i nt e r ne t a bou t R om a t om a t oe s T he y w e r e j us t a m a z e d. Y e t a no t he r t e a c h e r r e p or t e d t ha t he r s t ude n t s e n j o y t he g a r d e n w or k : S o t he y l ov e t o ha r v e s t a nd t he y l i k e w e e d i n g O ne ot he r t e a c h e r w ho no l on g e r f a c i l i t a t e s he r h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e n w he n a s ke d b y m e i f h e r s t ude n t s w oul d ha r v e s t t he p r oduc e r e s p o nde d : O h g os h y e s t he y l ove d t ha t p a r t T hi s t e a c h e r a l s o m e n t i on e d how w onde r f u l i t w a s w he n t he y w e r e g r ow i n g m a r i g o l ds : A nd t ha t be c a m e a s our c e o f a bs ol u t e j o y be c a us e t he m or e y ou c u t t he m o r e t he y g r ow A nd t he k i ds w he n w e 'd g o ou t t he r e t o t a ke c a r e o f t he g a r d e n a nd l ook a r ound t he y w oul d c u t t he i r f l ow e r s a nd p u t t he m i n t he i r e a r s a nd t he i r h a i r A c ou pl e t e a c h e r s s a i d t ha t t he e n t hu s i a s m o f t he s t u de n t s i s one o f t he i r m e a s ur e s

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41 of t he s uc c e s s of t he g a r d e n : T he s uc c e s s j us t w i t h m y ki ds t hou g h I don t m e a s ur e t ha t t hr ou g h t e s t s bu t j us t t he i r e n t hu s i a s m I t i s one o f t he i r f a vo r i t e t hi n gs a bou t s c hoo l T he y l ov e t he i r g a r d e n T he y'r e p r oud of i t T he i r i n t e r e s t a nd t he i r e n t hu s i a s m T he g a r d e n, b e c a us e i t w a s s o t hor ou g h l y e n j o ye d, w a s s om e t i m e s u s e d a s a r e w a r d f or t he s t ude n t s g e t t i n g t he i r a c a d e m i c w or k don e or f o r o t he r g o od b e h a v i or A t e a c h e r not e d: I t s k i n d o f a n i n c e n t i v e t o o I f w e g e t o u r j o b s d o n e t h e n w e c a n g o o u t i n t h e g a rd e n A n d i t k i n d o f h el p s as a n i n c e n t i v e s o y o u d o n t h a v e a l o t o f d i s ci p l i n e i s s u e s W e n e ed t o w o r k o u r t a i l s o f f f o r 4 d a y s s o w e c a n g o o u t t h e r e a n d g ard e n o n F ri d a y I f w e d o n t g e t t h e w o r k d o n e y o u k n o w w h a t I m g o i n g t o h a v e t o cu t T hi s u s e of t he g a r d e n a s a r e w a r d w a s de m ons t r a t e d b y t w o of t he t e a c h e r s B e c a us e s a t i s f a c t i on w i t h a n a c t i v i t y i nc r e a s e s t he p e r s ona l e n g a g e m e nt f or p a r t i c i pa t i n g s t ude n t s i t i s i m p or t a n t t o no t e t ha t t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d s t ude n t s c ons i s t e n t l y e n j o ye d t he i r t i m e i n t he g a r d e n. I n a s m u c h a s s uc h e xpe r i e n c e s a l s o r e l a t e t o o t he r e l e m e n t s of t he c ur r i c u l u m t he l e a r n i n g e xpe r i e n c e be c o m e s a p o s i t i ve on e f o r t he s t ude n t s no t onl y f or t he f un of t he g a r d e n, bu t t o e nt i c e a d e s i r e t o l e a r n a m on g t he s t ude n t s I f t he e n j o ym e n t i n t he g a r d e n i s d i r e c t e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h e n g a g i n g l e s s on s t he e d i b l e s c hoo l g a r d e n c a n b e a p o w e r f ul e du c a t i ona l t ool T he r e f o r e e xpl or i n g how t he t e a c h e r s c onn e c t e d t he s c hool g a r d e n t o a c a d e m i c s ub j e c t s be c o m e s r e l e v a n t A c a d e m i c C om p on e n t s T he t e a c h e r s va r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on ho w t he y c onne c t e d t he g a r d e n t o a c a d e m i c s ubj e c t s W i t h no ove r r i d i n g g u i d i n g c ur r i c u l u m a v a i l a b l e t o t he t e a c h e r s i n c or p or a t i n g t he g a r d e n i n t o o t he r a c a d e m i c s ubj e c t s i s l a r g e l y a r e f l e c t i on of t he t e a c h e r s c ho i c e s a v a i l a b l e r e s o ur c e s c r e a t i v i t y a nd e x pe r i e n c e N e ve r t he l e s s i t a p p e a r s t ha t i n g r ound

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42 g a r d e ns m a y of f e r t he m os t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e c onn e c t i on s t o a c a d e m i c s ub j e c t s w hi l e t he h y dr o p o ni c s y s t e m s w e r e pa r t i c u l a r l y u s e f ul i n h i g h l i g ht i n g w a t e r c yc l e a nd w e a t he r c on c e p t s A s i nd i c a t e d a bov e t he i n c l us i on of s om e ho r t i c u l t ur a l c o m p one n t s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons S i m i l a r l y, a s w i l l b e d i s c us s e d be l ow d i f f e r e nt t y p e s of g a r d e ns s e e m e d t o be c or r e l a t e d w i t h c on ne c t i on s t o di f f e r e n t s c hool s ubj e c t s T he f o l l ow i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i on of how t he t e a c h e r s c onn e c t e d g a r d e n i n g t o 1) S c i e n c e ; 2 ) L a n g u a g e A r t s ; 3) M a t he m a t i c s ; 4) S o c i a l S t udi e s ; a nd 5) A r t a nd T e c hno l o gy. I a l s o i n c l ud e a d i s c us s i on on how c onn e c t i ons c or r e l a t e w i t h t y p e of g a r d e n M o s t of t he a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons w e r e i t e m s i n t he I n t e r v i e w G ui de but s e ve r a l w e r e of f e r e d b y t he t e a c h e r w he n a s ke d i f t he r e w e r e a n y o t he r c onn e c t i ons m a d e T a b l e 3 p r e s e n t s t he c onn e c t i ons r e p or t e d i n e a c h g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s t ud i e d. R e g a r d i n g t he s ubj e c t of s c i e n c e a l l t e a c h e r s c onn e c t e d t he g a r d e n t o pl a n t s c i e n c e c on c e p t s bu t s om e t e a c h e r s a l s o c onn e c t e d i t t o t h e s c i e n t i f i c i nqu i r y, l i f e s c i e n c e a nd t o e a r t h s c i e n c e T w o t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d u s i n g t he g a r de n t o a s s i s t i n s or t i n g a nd c l a s s i f yi n g ob j e c t s B e l ow w e l l t a k e a l ook a t ho w t he g a r d e n w a s c onn e c t e d t o s c i e n t i f i c c on c e p t s A l l t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d c onn e c t e d t he g a r d e n t o t h r e e pl a n t s c i e n c e c on c e p t s : t he l i f e c yc l e pa r t s a nd n e e ds of pl a n t s O b s e r va t i ons i n t he g a r d e n r e a d i l y l e n t t he m s e l v e s t o de m ons t r a t i ons of pl a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s O b s e r vi n g t he g a r d e n i n g r e g u l a r l y a nd ov e r t i m e p r ovi d e d f or r e a l l i f e r e a l t i m e e du c a t i on a l e x p e r i e n c e s O ne t e a c h e r g a v e a v i b r a n t de s c r i p t i on of h e r f i r s t e x pe r i e n c e of t he l i f e c yc l e o f a br o c c o l i pl a nt : I f o u n d t h a t w i t h t h e b r o c c o l i t h e f i rs t t i m e w e g re w i t a n d w e j u s t w a s h ed i t o f f I t h o u g h t t o m y s el f t h i s i s b r o c c o l i ? I t w as s o s w ee t T h e n w h e n w e d i d n t p i c k i t a l l a n d w e s a w i t t u r n i n t o y el l o w fl o w ers I d n e v e r s e e n b e f o r e I k n ew t h e y w er e f l o w er b u d s b u t j u s t

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43

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44 a cad e mi c al l y N o w t h e k i d s k n o w t h a t t h e b u d s i f y o u d o n t p i c k t h e m t h e y t u r n i n t o y e l l o w fl o w e rs I obs e r v e d a t e a c h e r a t a d i f f e r e nt s c hool t a ke t he o p p o r t uni t y w hi l e t r a ns p l a n t i n g a p e p p e r pl a n t w i t h a s t ude n t t o ha v e t he s t ude n t i d e nt i f y t he f our m a i n pa r t s of t he pl a n t : t he r oo t s s t e m l e a v e s a nd f l ow e r s T he s t ude n t n a m e d t he m a l l c or r e c t l y a nd t he t e a c h e r p oi n t e d ou t t ha t t r a ns pl a n t i n g i s a g r e a t t i m e t o t a l k a bou t pl a n t p a r t s be c a us e t he r oo t s a r e e x po s e d. T hr ou g h t h e i r c a r e of t he pl a n t s t he s t ude n t s a t a l l pr o g r a m s h a d h a nds on e xpe r i e n c e w i t h t he n e e ds of pl a n t s A n a s p e c t t ha t w a s r e p or t e d b y ha l f of t he t e a c h e r s bu t w a s no t i n c l ud e d i n t he que s t i onna i r e w a s t he p r e s e n t a t i on of g a r d e n i n g a s a s our c e of i nqu i r y ba s e d e du c a t i on. T hr e e t e a c h e r s u s e t he i r g a r d e n a s a pl a c e t o c ondu c t s c i e n t i f i c e xpe r i m e nt s T w o of t he s e t e a c h e r s u s e d i t f or g r ou p p r oj e c t s O ne of t he t e a c h e r s r e c o l l e c t s : I know one t i m e w e p u t one [ pl a n t ] i n w i t hou t w a t e r t o s e e w ha t w oul d h a p p e n or w e d i dn't g i v e i t s un or s om e s un or pa r t i a l s un. [ M y s t u de n t s ] l i k e t o do t ha t s o t he y c a n s e e w ha t t he y ne e d a nd w ha t t he y r e a l l y l i k e W e do t ha t qui t e a b i t T he o t he r t e a c h e r r e c oun t e d a s i m i l a r c l a s s e xpe r i m e n t : T ha t w a s our s c i e n c e p r oj e c t l a s t y e a r W e w e r e s e e i n g w h a t w oul d ha p p e n w i t h di f f e r e nt p l a n t s O ne pl a n t l i k e on e g ot no t m u c h w a t e r on e g ot no l i g ht bu t one w a s g e t t i n g no a i r w e t hou g ht a nd t ha t s w h y w e s e a l e d i t of f i n t hi s pl a s t i c b a g I n t hi s e xpe r i m e nt t he k i ds a c t u a l l y i n a dv e r t e n t l y d i s c ove r e d t he bo t a n i c a l pr oc e s s of t r a n s p i r a t i on. I n on e o t he r g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s e v e r a l s t ude n t s u s e d t he g a r d e n a s a s c i e n c e t e s t i n g g r ound" f or t he i r i nd i v i du a l p r oj e c t s : W e h a v e h ad s e v e r a l k i d s d o a s ci e n c e e x p e ri m e n t u s i n g t h e g a rd e n as

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45 t h e i r b as es A n d s o m e o f t h e m w el l a f ew o f t h e m p l a n t i n g i n t h e s o i l v e rs u s t h e h y d r o p o n i c A n d s o t h e y u s e d i t as a s ci e n c e t es t i n g g r o u n d y o u mi g h t s a y f o r t h e i r s ci e n c e e x p e r i m e n t t h a t i s r eq u i red f o r al l g i f t ed k i d s So a f ew o f t h e m u s e t h e g a rd e n w i t h t h e i rs T hr e e t e a c h e r s m e n t i on e d t he i m por t a nc e of t he g a r d e n i n s p a r ki n g i nqu i r y T w o of t he t e a c h e r s m e n t i on e d how t hi s w oul d l e a d c l a s s a c t i v i t y O ne t e a c h e r r e c oun t e d a p ol l i n a t i on l e s s on c o m i n g u p b y s uc h a m e a ns : Y e a h a nd t he p ol l i n a t i on w a s n' t e v e n r e a l l y, t ha t s no t s om e t hi n g t ha t s a f i r s t g r a d e s t a n da r d. W e l l w h e n y ou g e t i n t o i t s om e t hi n gs j us t c o m e u p. S o i f t he y'r e r e a d y f or i t I g i v e i t t o t he m T hi s t e a c h e r e m pha s i z e s t hi s a p p r oa c h w he n s he s a y s : I f y o u d o t h es e t h i n g s a n d l e t t h e i r q u e s t i o n s t h e n l e a d y o u t h e n t h e y r e al l y l e a r n I t o l d t h e k i d s t h e b es t t h i n g i t s n o t t h e b es t a n s w ers i t s t h e b es t q u es t i o n s A n d t h e m o r e q u e s t i o n s w e h a v e t h e b e t t e r I w a n t q u e s t i o n s I w a n t y o u as k i n g q u e s t i o n s n o t j u s t h a v i n g a n s w ers So I l o v e i t w h e n t h e y as k t h e i r l i t t l e q u e s t i o n s A no t he r t e a c h e r e xpr e s s e d hi s e n j o ym e n t w i t h ho w t he g a r d e n a s a n i nqu i r y ba s e d e nv i r on m e n t he l p s ke e p hi m e n t hu s i a s t i c a bou t hi s t e a c h i n g j ob H e s a y s : Y o u k n o w i t m a k es i t m o r e i n t e r es t i n g t o m e w h e n s o m e t h i n g c o m es u p i t m a k es i t m o r e e x ci t i n g t o m e t o k i n d o f p r o b l e m s o l v e a n d fi g u re o u t o k a y y o u k n o w w h a t a r e w e g o i n g t o d o t o f i g u r e [ t h i s ] o u t T h a t s t h e w a y i t w o r k s f o r m e w h a t c o m es u p I k i n d o f w o r k f r o m t h a t T hi s t e a c h e r 's e x c i t e m e n t c r e a t e d b y i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t he g a r d e n s e e m e d t o s p r e a d t o hi s k i ds D ur i n g m y ob s e r va t i ons hi s s t ude n t s w e r e v e r y a c t i ve a nd m os t w e r e v e r y e x c i t e d t o be w or ki n g i n t he g a r d e n M o s t of t he t e a c h e r s m a d e c onn e c t i ons t o a dd i t i on a l l i f e s c i e n c e c on c e p t s S i x of t he p r o g r a m s i n c l ud e d l e s s on s or di s c u s s i o n s on e c o s y s t e m s or ha b i t a t w i t h t w o f o c us i n g on p ol l i n a t i on b y i n s e c t s F our t e a c h e r s none of w hi c h us e d h y dr o p o ni c s y s t e m s d i s c u s s e d w i t h t he i r s t ude n t s t he w a s t e s t r e a m a nd t r i e d t o g e t c h i l dr e n t o be

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46 c ons c i e nt i ou s of t he t r a s h t he y c r e a t e O ne of t he s e t e a c h e r s r i ns e s a nd r e us e s ol d m i l k c ont a i n e r s f r o m s t ude n t l unc h e s t o u s e a s g e r m i n a t i on c u p s t o s t a r t ba b y pl a n t s f r om s e e ds T w o t e a c h e r s di s c us s e d i s s ue s r e l a t i n g t o a n i m a l s a nd t he f ood c h a i n. C onne c t i ons t o e a r t h s c i e n c e a p p e a r e d t o c or r e l a t e w i t h t y p e s of g a r d e ns I n t e r e s t i n g l y, h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e ns s e e m e d t o c onne c t m os t t o e a r t h s c i e n c e c on c e p t s w i t h d i s c u s s i on s a bou t s oi l c o m po s i t i on, m e t e or o l o gy, s e a s on s a nd t he w a t e r c yc l e i n c l ud e d i n bo t h p r o g r a m s E a r t h bo x pr o g r a m s s e e m e d t o ha v e no a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons t o e a r t h s c i e n c e e x c e p t f or t he c onn e c t i on m a d e t o F l or i d a g e o l o gy. I n g r ound p r o g r a m s h a d m o r e va r i a n c e s e e m i n g l y de pe nde n t on t e a c h e r c ho i c e b u t w e r e f r e qu e n t l y r e l a t e d t o e a r t h s c i e n c e c on c e p t s e s p e c i a l l y s e a s on s C onne c t i ons t o l a n g u a g e a r t s w e r e a l s o r e l a t e d t o g a r d e n t y p e T he i n g r ound g a r d e n i n g t e a c h e r s f r e qu e n t l y c onn e c t e d t he g a r d e n t o ve r b a l c o m m un i c a t i on a nd bo t h c r e a t i v e a nd non f i c t i on w r i t i n g V e r b a l c o m m un i c a t i on w a s no t on t he que s t i onna i r e bu t w a s of f e r e d b y t e a c h e r s i n t he i n t e r v i e w a s a c onn e c t i on t he y m a d e t o t he g a r d e n S t ud e n t s w e r e obs e r v e d g i v i n g s hor t p r e s e n t a t i on s i n f r on t of t he c l a s s on t he pa r t s of t he p l a n t or t he l i f e c yc l e of a bu t t e r f l y M o s t of t he t e a c h e r s c onn e c t e d t he g a r d e n t o s om e t y p e of w r i t i n g O ne t e a c h e r de s c r i b e d h i s s t ude n t s w r i t i n g u p g a r d e n i n g pr oc e d ur e s : W e do a l ot of s e que n c i n g of p r oc e s s e s m or e of a n e x po s i t or y w r i t i n g t o w he r e i t w oul d b e l i k e ok a y i f y ou w e r e p l a n t i n g s e que n c e t ha t f or m e L e t s m a k e a n i ns t r uc t i on m a nu a l how w oul d y ou do t ha t ? A no t he r t e a c h e r r e c a l l e d : I f I h a v e a l e s s o n t ha t ha s l i t t l e b i t of t i m e l e f t a t t he e nd of i t I s a y t a ke y our j our n a l s a nd g o ou t i n t he g a r d e n a nd f i nd s om e t hi n g t o w r i t e

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47 a bout '" T e a c h e r s u t i l i z i n g e a r t h bo x e s d i d no t r e p or t a n y c onne c t i on s t o t he l a n g u a g e a r t s T he h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e ns w e r e c onn e c t e d t o w r i t i n g bu t no t t o ve r b a l c o m m un i c a t i on. S t ude n t s i n t ho s e p r o g r a m s w r o t e t ha nk y ou no t e s a nd p oe t r y r e l a t e d t o t he g a r d e n. O nl y one pr o g r a m c onn e c t e d t he g a r d e n t o r e a d i n g b y i nc l ud i n g a l e s s on on r e a d i n g t he i n f or m a t i on on t he b a c k o f a s e e d pa c ke t T he f a c t t ha t t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s u s ua l l y di d n o t i n c or p or a t e a r e a d i n g c o m pone n t m a y p r e s e n t p r obl e m s f or f i t t i n g g a r d e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t he s c hoo l 's c u r r i c u l u m M a n y c oun t i e s i n s ou t h w e s t F l or i d a i nc l ud i n g t he on e i n w hi c h t he s t udi e d s c hool s w e r e l o c a t e d, u t i l i z e a c ur r i c u l u m t ha t i s he a v i l y f oc us e d on r e a d i n g a nd w r i t i n g i n a n e f f or t t o p r e pa r e s t ude n t s f or t he F l or i d a C o m p r e h e ns i v e A s s e s s m e n t T e s t G a r d e n i n g p r o g r a m s t ha t do no t i nc l ud e m a n y o p p or t uni t i e s f or s t ude n t s t o p r a c t i c e r e a d i n g a nd w r i t i n g s k i l l s m a y be a t r i s k of be i n g c u t a s t e s t s c o r e s be c o m e t o p p r i or i t y f or m a n y p u bl i c s c hool s T w o t e a c h e r s i n c o r p or a t e d t he g a r d e n i n t o t he i r r e a d i n g a nd w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s b y ha v i n g t he i r s t ude n t s w or k on m a r k e t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s O ne t e a c h e r 's a s s i g n m e nt w a s t o ha v e t he s t ude n t s c r e a t e a t r a v e l br o c hur e t o g e t pe o pl e t o w a n t t o vi s i t t he i r g a r d e n. A no t he r t e a c h e r h a d h e r s t ude n t s c r e a t e a dr i nk pa c k a g e a nd l a b e l t o he l p ki d s c hos e a he a l t h y dr i nk. M a r ke t i n g w a s no t c on t a i n e d a s a q ue s t i on i n t he I n t e r v i e w G ui d e but w a s vo l un t e e r e d b y t he t e a c h e r s dur i n g t he i n t e r v i e w s I n g r ound g a r d e ns w e r e c onn e c t e d t o m a t h m o r e o f t e n t ha n e a r t h bo x p r o g r a m s or h y dr o p o ni c s e t u p s A l l of t he i n g r ound pr o g r a m s m a d e c onn e c t i ons t o g e o m e t r y w hi l e none of t he o t he r p r o g r a m s d i d S i x of t he p r o g r a m s i n c l ud i n g a l l o f t he i n g r ound

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48 p r o g r a m s h a d t he i r s t ude n t s c oun t t hi n gs i n t he g a r d e n. O ne t e a c h e r r e p or t e d: T he s t ude n t s m on i t or e d t he i r pl a n t s a nd m e a s ur e d t he m a nd c oun t e d how m a n y l e a v e s a nd how m a n y f l ow e r s e a c h t i m e w e w e n t ou t f or t he f i r s t s i x w e e ks O t he r m a t h c on c e p t s w e r e i n c l ud e d m or e e qu a l l y a m on g t he p r o g r a m t y p e s A l l of t he t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d u s i n g t he g a r d e n t o ha ve s t ude nt s m a k e m e a s ur e m e n t s e v e n t h ou g h t hi s c onn e c t i on w a s l e f t ou t of t he I n t e r v i e w G ui de I n s i x of t he p r o g r a m s t he t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d p r a c t i c i n g e s t i m a t i ons T hr e e of t he pr o g r a m s c onn e c t e d t he g a r d e n t o r a t i o or pe r c e nt a g e ( no t i n I nt e r v i e w G ui d e ) ; t w o c onne c t e d i t t o g r a p hi n g ( no t i n I n t e r i e w G ui de ) ; t w o c onn e c t e d i t t o m on e y ( no t i n I n t e r v i e w G ui de ) ; t w o c onn e c t e d i t t o s qua r e f oo t a g e ; a nd on e t o m e a s ur i n g w e i g ht ( no t i n I n t e r vi e w G ui d e ) I n g r ound g a r d e n i n g t e a c h e r s w e r e m or e l i k e l y t o r e p o r t t ha t t he i r g a r d e n w a s c onn e c t e d t o s oc i a l s t udi e s t o pi c s A l t hou g h s e ve n t he pr o g r a m s h a d t he i r s t ude n t s w or k i n t e a m s t e a m w or k s ki l l s w e r e no t e m p ha s i z e d i n t he i n t e r v i e w s or dur i n g t he ob s e r v a t i on s e s s i on s T hr e e of t he i n g r ound pr o g r a m s w e r e r e p or t e d t o c onn e c t t he g a r d e n t o e i t he r n a t i ve c u l t ur e or t he h i s t or y of pi one e r s a nd s e t t l e r s O ne s ubj e c t t ha t w a s no t i n t he I n t e r v i e w G ui d e b u t w a s br ou g h t u p b y s e ve r a l t e a c h e r s w a s a r t O ne t e a c h e r h a d s e v e r a l l e s s on s i nvo l v i n g a r t w hi c h i n c l ud e d on e l e s s on c a l l e d S e e d M o s a i c s a nd a not he r f o c us i n g on s p i r a l s i n n a t ur e T hi s t e a c h e r a l s o d i s c u s s e d a bor i g i n a l a r t a nd d i d g e r i doos w i t h t he s t ude nt s dur i n g t he i r l e s s on on ba m boo T he k i nd e r g a r t e ns i nvo l v e d w i t h one pr o g r a m m a d e w e e k l y dr a w i n gs of t he i r g a r d e n T he a r t t e a c h e r a t one s c hoo l w or ke d w i t h s om e s t ude n t s t o pa i n t a n e w r a i n c i s t e r n t ha t i s be i n g i ns t a l l e d f or i r r i g a t i n g t he s c hoo l 's e d i b l e g a r d e n C onn e c t i ons t o a r t w e r e r e p or t e d

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49 b y s e ve r a l o f t he t e a c h e r s none o f w hom f a c i l i t a t e d a h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e n L i nks t o t e c hno l o gy w e r e not a s ke d a bout i n t he i n t e r vi e w ye t t w o t e a c h e r s m a d e s t r on g c onn e c t i ons be t w e e n t he s c hool g a r d e n a nd t e c hnol o gy. S t ude n t s i n on e p r o g r a m w e r e r e p or t e d t o w or k w i t h a r oo m d a d t o m a k e a P o w e r P oi n t p r e s e n t a t i on a bou t t he i r p l a n t s i n t he g a r d e n T he y a l s o l e a r n e d t o u s e M i c r os of t W or d t o t y p e u p a s a l s a r e c i pe I n a d i f f e r e nt p r o g r a m I obs e r v e d s t ude n t s i n t e r a c t c o m f or t a b l y a nd s m oo t hl y w i t h t he g i a n t A c t i v B oa r d t ha t i s s t a nda r d i n e v e r y c l a s s r o o m i n t he c ount y T he y w e r e us i n g t he e l e c t r oni c pe n t o g r a b a nd s l i d e i m a g e s of pl a n t s a n d f r u i t i n t o c a t e g or i e s a nd g r ou p s dur i n g a l e s s on on c l a s s i f i c a t i on. B o t h of t he s e t e a c h e r s a l s o m e nt i one d t he f un t he s t ude n t s ha ve t a k i n g t e s t s or vo t i n g dur i n g c l a s s E a c h s t ude n t ha d a c c e s s t o t he i r ow n r e m o t e c ont r ol w i t h s e ve r a l bu t t on s on i t l a b e l e d A t hr ou g h D D ur i n g a t e s t t he s t ude n t s w oul d p r e s s one of t he bu t t on s a f t e r b e i n g a s ke d a t e s t que s t i on b y t he t e a c h e r T hi s s y s t e m i s c a l l e d A c t i v V ot e a nd i s l i nk e d w i t h t he A c t i v B oa r d. T he t e a c h e r i s a b l e t o g e t a n i ns t a n t r e a d ou t on h i s / h e r c o m p u t e r of e v e r y s t u de n t s r e s p o n s e B o t h t e a c h e r s r e p or t i n g t o c onne c t t he g a r d e n t o t e c hno l o gy a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d i n g r ound g a r d e ns F or m a l t e s t s on g a r d e n i n g c on c e p t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t hr e e of t he g a r d e n i n g p r o g r a m s T w o of t he s e p r o g r a m s u t i l i z e d i n g r ou nd g a r d e ns a nd w e r e o f f e r e d a s a H or t i c u l t ur e S pe c i a l T he o t he r p r o g r a m h a d a h y d r o p oni c g a r d e n a nd t he f a c i l i t a t i n g t e a c h e r a d m i n i s t e r e d a p r e a nd p o s t t e s t t ha t f oc u s e d on r a t i o, f e r t i l i z a t i on, a nd w a t e r c yc l e c on c e p t s S t ud e n t s i n pr o g r a m s no t a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t s m a y be m o r e l i k e l y t o p e r c e i v e g a r d e n i n g a s a f un a c t i v i t y t ha n t o pe r c e i v e i t a s a s e r i ous s ubj e c t l i k e m a t h or r e a d i n g

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50 W i t hou t a s s e s s i n g t he s t ude n t s t he r o l e of t he g a r d e n w i t hi n t he e du c a t i on a l s y s t e m i s no t f or m a l i z e d a nd t he i nf o r m a t i on g a i n e d f r o m g a r de n i n g a c t i v i t i e s m a y no t be pe r c e i v e d a s i m por t a n t t o t he s t ude n t s be c a us e t he y a r e n e v e r t e s t e d on i t I f t he t e a c h e r s a r e no t g a u g i n g w he r e t he s t ude n t s a r e w i t h t he i r g a r d e n i n g s ki l l s a nd know l e d g e w h y w oul d t he s t ude n t s c a r e t o de v e l o p t he m ? T o t he s e s t ude n t s t he r e i s no s y s t e m a t i c r e w a r d f or be c o m i n g m or e know l e d g e a b l e a bou t g a r d e ns T he f a c t t ha t t i m e i n t he g a r d e n i s s om e t i m e s t r e a t e d a s a r e w a r d f or g e t t i n g t he r e a l s c hoo l w or k don e r e i n f or c e s t he c on c e p t of g a r d e n a s f un a nd no t s e r i ous G a r d e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s p a i r e d w i t h f or m a l t e s t i n g s ol i d i f y t he i r i m por t a nc e i nt o t he c u r r i c u l u m w i t h t he a s s e s s m e n t p r oc e dur e a nd m a y be p e r c e i v e d b y s t ude n t s a s m o r e i m por t a n t t ha n g a r d e n a c t i v i t i e s no t c o m b i n e d w i t h t e s t i n g T he t e a c h e r s c onn e c t e d t he s c hoo l g a r d e n t o a v a r i e t y of a c a d e m i c t o pi c s A l t hou g h m u c h i s l e f t t o t e a c h e r c ho i c e c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n g a r d e n t y p e a nd k i nds of a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons w e r e i d e n t i f i e d. H y dr o p o ni c g a r d e ns s e e m t o l e nd t he m s e l v e s t o e a r t h s c i e n c e l e s s on s T he w a t e r c yc l e i s hi g h l i g ht e d w i t h t he s e s y s t e m s be c a us e t he y a r e e xt r e m e l y w a t e r e f f i c i e n t T he y a r e a l s o v e r y s e n s i t i ve t o e x c e s s i v e r a i ns a nd s o e xpe r i e n c e s of t e n l e d t o a d ho c l e s s on s on w e a t he r a nd s e a s on s F ur t he r m or e t he s oi l l e s s pl a n t i n g m e d i u m i n i t i a t e d l e s s on s on w ha t i s s o i l a nd how t he m e d i u m i s s i m i l a r t o, bu t no t s oi l I n g r ound g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s c on t a i n e d m or e c onn e c t i on s t o l i f e s c i e n c e m a t h, a nd s oc i a l s t udi e s O f t e n t i m e s i n g r ound g a r d e ns p r ovi d e d m u c h m or e s p a c e a nd pl a n t s t ha t s u p p or t s l i f e o t he r t ha n c r o p s r a i s e d i n t he g a r de n P r o g r a m s us i n g i n g r ound g a r d e ns w e r e a l s o m or e l i k e l y t o c r e a t e a nd us e c o m p o s t c r e a t i n g e xpe r i e n c e s r e a d i l y c onn e c t e d t o

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51 e a r t h s c i e n c e B y p r ovi d i n g m or e of a s e t t i n g t o ob s e r ve i n g r ound g a r d e ns m a y be m o r e l i k e l y t o e n c ou r a g e obs e r va t i on s a nd c onn e c t i ons t o w r i t i n g c oun t i n g e c o s y s t e m s a s w e l l a s h i s t or y T he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s s t udi e d r e p o r t e d c onn e c t i on s t o s c i e n c e l a n g u a g e a r t s m a t h, s oc i a l s t udi e s a r t a nd t e c hno l o gy. T he s t r uc t ur e of t he p r o g r a m s i n t e r m s of g a r d e n t y p e w a s c or r e l a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons or l a c k of c onn e c t i on s I n t he f o l l ow i n g s e c t i on, w e t a ke a d e e pe r l ook a t t he i n f r a s t r uc t ur e o f t he g a r d e n i n g p r o g r a m s a nd s e e how t he y f ur t he r r e l a t e d t o hor t i c u l t ur a l c o m p one n t s a nd a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons A d m i n i s t r at i ve C om p on e n t s T he l o c a l g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s s t udi e d w e r e c o m p o s e d of d i f f e r e nt a d m i n i s t r a t i ve e l e m e n t s t ha t c on t r i bu t e d t o t he e x i s t e n c e o f t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m I pr e s e n t t he s e e l e m e n t s a s s t r uc t ur a l a nd s u p p o r t c o m p one n t s S t r u c t ur a l c o m p one n t s r e f e r t o ho w t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m i s s e t w i t hi n e a c h pa r t i c u l a r s c h oo l a nd t he s u p p o r t c om p one n t s s h o w how t he p r o g r a m s i s s u p p l i e d w i t h a l l t he l a bor a n d m a t e r i a l s t he y ne e d t o o p e r a t e T hi s s e c t i on d e s c r i b e s t he s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g t he i n c l us i on o f t he s e e l e m e n t s a m on g t he r e s e a r c h e d g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s P l e a s e s e e T a bl e 4 f or a dd i t i ona l i nf or m a t i on. S t r uc t ur al C om pone nt s F our s t r uc t ur a l c o m p one n t s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d i n t he c ou r s e of t hi s s t ud y: 1) g a r d e n t y p e ; 2) t e a c h e r p o s i t i on; 3 ) g r a d e l e v e l ; a nd 4 ) ot h e r t e a c h e r i nvo l v e m e n t B e l ow i s a de s c r i p t i on of how t he v a r i ous p r o g r a m s h a d d i f f e r e nt s t r uc t ur a l c o m p one n t s a nd how t he

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53 c o m pone n t s a r e r e l a t e d t o e a c h o t he r T he t e a c h e r s f a c i l i t a t i n g e d i b l e s c hoo l g a r d e ns u t i l i z e d on e o f t hr e e t y p e s of g a r d e ns : i n g r ound, e a r t h bo x e s or h y dr o p oni c F our p r o g r a m s u t i l i z e d i n g r ound g a r d e ns t w o of w hi c h a l s o h a d g r e e nhous e s O ne of t he i n g r o und g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s a l s o pl a n t e d a nd t e nde d s e ve r a l e a r t h bo x e s i n a dd i t i on t o t he i n g r ound b e ds T w o o t he r t e a c h e r s ha d g a r d e ns c o m p o s e d s ol e l y of e a r t h bo x e s T he f i n a l t w o t e a c h e r s f a c i l i t a t e d h y dr o p o ni c g a r d e ns A s ha s be e n d i s c us s e d, t he t y p e of g a r d e n i s c or r e l a t e d w i t h w ha t ki nd s of a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons a r e m a d e t o t he g a r d e n. T he t e a c h e r s he l d d i f f e r e nt p o s i t i on s w i t hi n t he s c hoo l s F i v e o f t he t e a c h e r s w e r e m a i n c l a s s r oom t e a c h e r s w hi l e t hr e e t e a c h e r s w e r e S pe c i a l s t e a c h e r s S pe c i a l s a r e c l a s s e s s uc h a s M u s i c a nd P E t ha t s t u de n t s a r e r o t a t e d t hr ou g h a bout onc e a w e e k f o r a pe r i od of 55 m i nut e s S pe c i a l s t e a c h e r s s a w m a n y m or e s t u de n t s t ha n t he m a i n c l a s s r oom t e a c h e r s O f t he S pe c i a l s t e a c h e r s t w o s p e c i a l i z e d i n H or t i c u l t ur e a nd t he t hi r d s p e c i a l i z e d i n S c i e n c e S t ude n t s w ho g a r d e n e d a s p a r t of t he i r m a i n c l a s s or a s pa r t of a H or t i c u l t ur e S pe c i a l s c l a s s ha d s i m i l a r e x pe r i e n c e s A l l t he s e s t ude n t s vi s i t e d t he g a r d e ns a bout onc e a w e e k f o r j us t unde r a n hou r S t ude n t s t ha t g a r d e n e d a s p a r t of t he i r S c i e n c e S pe c i a l h a d l e s s g a r d e n i n g e xpo s ur e t a k i n g pa r t i n g a r d e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s onl y a f e w t i m e s ove r t he c ou r s e of a w hol e s c hool ye a r S e v e r a l of t he m a i n c l a s s r oom t e a c h e r s m e n t i on e d how t he y w oul d us e t he g a r d e n a s a r e f e r e n c e t ool O ne t e a c h e r c o m m e n t e d : T he g a r d e n i s a l w a y s p a r t of our l i f e s o i f w e 'r e r e a d i n g s o m e t hi n g a nd i t c o m e s u p i t s s om e t h i n g w e c a n j us t r e f e r b a c k t o. W h e n w e r e a d a s t or y a bou t s om e bod y pl o w i n g t he f i e l d, w e t a l k e d a bou t ho w w e h a d t o di g t o

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54 p u t i n our pl a n t s A no t he r r e m a r k e d t ha t w e di d r e f e r b a c k t o [ t he g a r d e n ] w i t h s c i e n c e T he r e a r e c e r t a i n c on c e p t s a bou t t he g r o w i n g t hi n gs t he l i v i n g t hi n gs l i k e p h o t o s y n t he s i s t he w a t e r c yc l e W e a l w a y s r e f e r r e d t o our l i t t l e g a r d e n A l t hou g h t he S pe c i a l s t e a c h e r s s a w m or e s t ude n t s m a i n c l a s s r oo m t e a c h e r s s a w t he i r s t ude n t s m or e of t e n a nd c ou l d r e f e r b a c k t o t he g a r d e n w he n a c o nne c t i on w a s m a d e i n a no t he r s ubj e c t T he t e a c h e r s s t udi e d t a u g ht di f f e r e nt g r a d e l e v e l s O f t he m a i n c l a s s r oom t e a c h e r s t he r e w a s one t e a c h e r f r o m e a c h of t he k i nd e r g a r t e n, f i r s t g r a d e s e c ond g r a d e f our t h g r a d e a nd f i f t h g r a d e l e v e l s S pe c i a l s t e a c h e r s t a u g h t va r i ous g r a d e l e v e l s G r a d e l e v e l s e e m e d t o be r e l e v a n t t o s u p p o r t c o m p one n t s a nd, t o a l e s s e r e xt e n t t o a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons T he y oun g e r s t ude n t s ha d no t de v e l o p e d t he s t r e n gt h or c oor d i n a t i on t o do m a n y of t he g a r d e n i n g t a s k s on t he i r ow n. T he y r e qu i r e d m or e s u p e r vi s i on a nd a s s i s t a nc e a s t he y w or ke d a nd l e a r n e d i n t he g a r d e n. S i m i l a r l y m a n y of t he i d e nt i f i e d a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons e s p e c i a l l y one s r e g a r d i n g w r i t i n g a nd m a t h, a r e t oo a dva n c e d f or k i nd e r g a r t e n s a nd h e n c e c ou l d no t be i n c or p or a t e d i n t o t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m S i n c e t he k i nd e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r a l s o ha d a n e a r t h bo x s om e o f t he c or r e l a t i on b e t w e e n g a r d e n t y p e a nd a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons m a y be a t t r i bu t e d t o t he y o un g e r a g e of m a n y of t he e a r t h bo x p r o g r a m s pa r t i c i pa n t s I n m os t of t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s t he t e a c h e r I i n t e r v i e w e d w a s one o f s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s a t t he s c hoo l i nvo l v e d w i t h t he g a r d e n ; s u c h t ha t a n i n g r ound g a r d e n i s s ha r e d b y e i g ht f i r s t g r a d e c l a s s e s a t t he s c hoo l a h y dr o p oni c g a r d e n i s s ha r e d b y t e n c l a s s r oom s w i t h c l a s s e s r o t a t i n g h a r v e s t i n g a nd a n e a r t h bo x p r o g r a m i s c a r e d f or b y f i v e t e a c h e r s I n t w o e a r t h bo x g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s t he t e a c h e r s f a c i l i t a t i n g t he pl a n t i n g of t he

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55 bo x e s w a s di f f e r e nt t ha n t he t e a c h e r f a c i l i t a t i n g t he c a r e of t he bo x e s T hi s di s c on t i nu i t y of i ns t r uc t or s m a y m a k e i t m or e d i f f i c u l t t o c onn e c t t he g a r d e n i n g e xpe r i e n c e s t o e a c h o t he r a nd t o a c a d e m i c s ubj e c t s S o m e o f t he c o r r e l a t i on b e t w e e n e a r t h bo x g a r d e n i n g p r o g r a m s a nd a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons m a y be a r e s ul t of t hi s a d m i n i s t r a t i ve s e t u p a s o p p o s e d t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e a r t h bo x e s T he t o p i c o f v a r i e d i ns t r uc t or s a nd e du c a t i on a l e f f e c t i ve n e s s ne e ds f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. S t r u c t ur a l c o m p one n t s i n c l ud i n g g a r d e n t y p e g r a d e l e v e l t e a c h e r p o s i t i on a nd o t he r t e a c h e r i nvo l v e m e n t w e r e k e y a s p e c t s of l o c a l g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s R e l a t e d t o s t r uc t ur a l c o m p one n t s w e r e s u p p o r t c o m p one n t s T he s e a r e t he w a y s i n w hi c h t he t e a c h e r s a c qu i r e d t he m a t e r i a l s a nd l a bor n e e d e d t o ke e p t he g a r d e ns f unc t i on a l Suppo r t C om pone n t s S u p p o r t f or t he e d i b l e g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s c a m e f r o m a v a r i e t y of s our c e s T he ne e d e d r e s our c e s c a m e f r o m t he pa r e n t s of s t ude n t s g r a n t s l o c a l bus i n e s s e s t he l o c a l vo l un t e e r c o m m un i t y a s w e l l a s f r o m t he s c hool i t s e l f T he f o l l ow i n g i s a d i s c us s i on on how t he e i g ht l o c a l g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s r e c e i v e d t h e r e s our c e s t he y ne e d e d S u p p or t c o m pone n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d a s 1) don a t e d m a t e r i a l s ; 2) don a t e d ( vo l un t e e r ) l a bo r ; 3) I n s c hool s u p p or t ; a nd 4) g r a n t f und i n g D ona t i on s pl a ye d a b i g pa r t i n s u p p l yi n g t he s c hoo l g a r d e ns w i t h t he m a t e r i a l s t he y ne e d e d A l l bu t one o f t he s c hoo l s r e p or t e d g e t t i n g i n k i nd don a t i ons O ne t e a c h e r r e p or t e d t ha t t he w a y a l ot of t he e a r t h bo x e s w e r e p ur c ha s e d w a s w i t h dona t i on s f r o m p a r e n t s a t t he s c hool or g r a nd pa r e n t s S e e ds w e r e don a t e d t o ha l f of t he p r o g r a m s a s w e r e pl a n t s S o i l w a s dona t e d t o one s c hoo l T ool s w e r e don a t e d t o a d i f f e r e n t p r o g r a m

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56 T he on e p r o g r a m t ha t di d not r e c e i v e d don a t e d m a t e r i a l s p ur c h a s e d a l l n e e d e d s u p p l i e s w i t h g r a n t m on e y T he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s r e qu i r e d m u c h don a t e d l a b or t o g e t s t a r t e d a nd m a n y p r o g r a m s c ont i nue d t o g e t r e g u l a r vo l unt e e r h e l p. I t c a n b e a pa r t i c u l a r l y l a bor i n t e ns i ve e nd e a vor t o s t a r t a g a r d e n. T he pr o g r a m s h a d s i g n i f i c a nt di f f e r e n c e s i n w ho s u p p l i e d t he dona t e d l a bor n e e d e d t o g e t t he g a r d e n w or k don e I n a p r o g r a m w i t h f our t h g r a d e r s t he s t ude n t s w e r e a b l e t o do t he v a s t m a j o r i t y of t he g a r d e n w or k a nd vo l un t e e r s w e r e no t r e g u l a r bu t dona t e d l a bo r f r o m t he c o m m un i t y w a s s t i l l n e e d e d t o i n i t i a l l y e s t a bl i s h t he g a r d e n. B e l ow w e l ook a t ho w t he p r o g r a m s dr e w d i f f e r e n t l y f r om t he c o m m un i t y t o c o m e u p w i t h t he l a bo r t he y ne e d e d t o s e t u p t he i r pr o g r a m s a nd t o c on t i nue t o o pe r a t e t he m T w o of t he f a c i l i t i e s ha d b e e n i n pl a c e f or ov e r 10 y e a r s s uc h t ha t g a r d e n s e t u p ha d no t be e n m u c h of a r e c e n t i s s ue w i t h t he s e pr o g r a m s B u t f or t he r e s t s e t t i n g u p t he g a r d e n pr o g r a m w a s f r e s h i n t he f a c i l i t a t or s m i nd w i t h m os t p r o g r a m s b e i n g 2 3 ye a r s o l d. T w o t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e d t ha t dona t e d l a bor f r o m l o c a l nur s e r i e s w a s ve r y he l p f ul i n g a r d e n s e t u p O ne of t he s e t e a c h e r s no t e d: W e a c t ua l l y w e n t t hr e e S a t ur da y s a nd w e p u t t he f e n c e u p W e f e n c e d i n a bou t 2, 700 s qua r e f e e t W e h a d a vo l un t e e r c r e w f r o m a l o c a l nur s e r y a nd w e p r oba b l y ha d t e n pa r e n t s ou t he r e t o he l p g e t t he f e n c e i n O t he r e x a m pl e s of t he r o l e of vo l un t e e r s i n s e t t i n g u p t he g a r d e n i n c l ud e t he e n g a g e m e nt of a n a r e a c hur c h g r ou p t ha t he l pe d s e t u p t he e a r t h bo x g a r d e n a nd a t a no t he r s c hool vo l unt e e r s he l pe d t r a n s p o r t t hi n gs m ov e t hi n gs a nd pe r f or m o t he r s uc h h e a v y l i f t i n g A c c e s s t o vol unt e e r w or k, how e ve r w a s une ve n H a l f of t he t e a c h e r s di d no t ha v e

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57 r e g u l a r vo l un t e e r h e l p, w hi l e t he o t he r h a l f d i d A H or t i c u l t ur e t e a c h e r s a i d : I h a v e a r e al l y g o o d v o l u n t e e r c o r e T h e r e mu s t b e a b o u t 1 2 o r 1 4 o f t h e m t h a t a r e c o m i n g i n W e h a v e a m as t e r g a rd e n e r a t l e as t e v e r y d a y a n d s o m e t i m es t w o o r t h r e e Y o u k n o w w h a t t h e m a s t e r g a rd e n e r p r o g r a m i s ? I t s t h e C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n t h e y r e t r a i n ed a n d t h e y h a v e t o d o s o m e k i n d o f o u t r e a c h h o u rs as v o l u n t e e r w o r k i n a n o n p r o f i t s e t t i n g s o t h i s i s o n e So t h e y r e u s i n g t h ei r s k i l l s t o h el p t e a c h t h e c h i l d re n h e r e W e h a v e v o l u n t e e rs t h a t a r e n o t m as t e r g a rd e n e rs al s o O t he r t e a c h e r s w i t h c on t i nu e d vo l un t e e r s u p p or t u s ua l l y dr a w on t he pa r e n t s a nd r e l a t i ve s of t he i r s t ude n t s O ne of t he m e xpl a i n e d : L a s t t i m e I pl a n t e d, I h a d a pa r e n t f or e v e r y c l a s s O ne m o m j us t w a s t he r e a l m os t e ve r y da y w hi c h w a s f a bu l ous a nd t he n a c ou pl e o t he r pa r e n t s s t e p p e d i n w he n s he w a s n' t a b l e t o be t he r e T hi s w a s a t a s c hoo l t ha t m a k e s g r e a t e f f o r t s t o e n c our a g e pa r e n t s t o vol un t e e r A no t he r t e a c h e r d i s c us s e d how s he a c h i e v e d bu y i n f r o m t he pa r e n t s e a r l y t hi s s c hool ye a r : S o I w a s n t s u r e w h e r e t h e g a rd e n w a s g o i n g t o g o b u t I g o t a w h o l e n ew c r o p o f p a r e n t s t h i s y e a r t h a t w e r e v e r y i n t e r es t ed e n o u g h s o t h a t w e h ad a m e e t i n g w i t h p a r e n t s f r o m e v e r y fi rs t g r ad e cl a s s t h a t m i g h t b e i n t e r e s t ed A n d s o w e j u s t r e al l y g o t a l o t o f i n t e r es t p a r e n t w i d e g o i n g o n t h e f r o n t e n d a n d d i d n t t el l t h e m w h a t w e n e ed e d t h e m t o d o b u t as k ed t h e m f o r t h e i r i d eas a n d t h a t k i n d o f h ad a l o t m o r e b u y i n b eca u s e w e' r e n o t s a y i n g t h i s i s h o w w e' v e d o n e i t a n d w h a t w e w a n t y o u t o d o t o h e l p u s e x e cu t e Bu t w e' r e k i n d o f s t a r t i n g a g a i n f r o m s c r a t c h a n d w e w a n t t o i n v o l v e a l l ei g h t fi rs t g r ad e s n o t o n e a n d w h a t s h o u l d w e d o o r c o u l d w e d o T hi s s c hoo l i s l o c a t e d i n a w e a l t h y p a r t of t o w n w he r e pa r e n t vol u n t e e r s a r e qu i t e c o m m on S o m e t i m e s t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m h a d a pa r e n t t ha t r e a l l y he a d e d u p t he g a r d e n. T hi s w a s t he c a s e a t t w o s c hoo l s O ne t e a c h e r p r o v i d e d a n e x a m pl e of how i ns t r um e n t a l j us t one vo l un t e e r c a n b e : A n d s o I h ad o n e m o m w h o w a s v e r y i n t e r es t ed a n d j u s t r a n w i t h i t A n d s h e w e n t t o n u rs e ri es a n d g o t p l a n t s d o n a t ed A n d s h e w e n t t o t h e e x t e n s i o n o f f i ce a n d l e a r n ed t h i n g s A n d s h e f o u n d d i r t d o n a t ed f r o m s o m ew h e r e e l s e A n d s h e j u s t r e al l y m ad e i t h a p p e n k i n d o f o n

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58 h e r o w n A n d s h e w o u l d c o m e i n a n d t a k e g r o u p s o f k i d s o u t f o u r a t a t i m e a n d j u s t r e al l y w o r k t h e m So i t h el p ed m e i n t e g ra t e i t b ec au s e I c o u l d s t i l l b e t e a c h i n g a n d s h e w o u l d j u s t t a k e k i d s k i n d o f as o n e o f m y l ea r n i n g c e n t e rs I nv e r s e l y one t e a c h e r r e p or t e d no vo l un t e e r h e l p a nd t w o t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d l ow l e v e l s of vo l unt e e r s u p p o r t T he t e a c h e r r e p or t i n g no vo l un t e e r s u p p or t w a s a H or t i c u l t ur e t e a c h e r w or ki n g w i t h s pe c i a l n e e ds s t ude nt s T he r e c e nt p r o g r a m w a s s t a r t e d be c a us e of t he t he r a pe u t i c e f f e c t s of g a r d e n i n g e du c a t i on. I t w a s t hi s t e a c h e r s j ob t o t e a c h ho r t i c u l t ur e a nd h e of t e n h a d s m a l l e r c l a s s e s w i t h o t he r a du l t s t o he l p m a n a g e t he c h i l d r e n. T he t w o t e a c h e r s w ho r e p or t e d l ow vo l un t e e r s u p p o r t r a n t he g a r d e n i n g p r o g r a m s t ha t a r e now di s c on t i nue d T hi s m a y be a n i nd i c a t i on o f t he i m p or t a nc e of vo l un t e e r s u p p o r t f or t he l on g e v i t y of a s c hoo l g a r de n i n g pr o g r a m S c hoo l s t he m s e l v e s pl a y a r o l e i n s u p p o r t i n g t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s I t i s i m por t a n t t o no t e a l l of t he g a r d e ns w e r e i r r i g a t e d m os t l y w i t h s c h oo l s u p p l i e d w a t e r w hi c h i s a hu g e s u p p or t e s p e c i a l l y dur i n g dr y s p e l l s I n on e i ns t a nc e b e s i d e s w a t e r s c hool a d m i n i s t r a t i on a l s o pa i d f or a t ool s he d a nd s e ve r a l l o a ds of c o m po s t A no t he r w a y a s c hool s ho w e d s u p p o r t f or a g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m w a s f or i t s f a c u l t y a nd s t a f f t o p ur c ha s e p r oduc t s f r om t he g a r d e n. T h i s ha p p e ne d w i t h t w o of t he g a r d e n i n g p r o g r a m s s t udi e d O ne t e a c h e r r e p or t e d ha v i n g t he s t ude n t s ha r v e s t p r oduc e r i ns e i t w e l l b a g i t a nd p u t i t i n a f r i d g e w i t h a don a t i on j a r a nd a not e on a t a bl e n e xt t o t he f r i d g e T he f a c i l i t a t i n g t e a c h e r s e n t a n e m a i l t o a l l t he t e a c h e r s l e t t i n g t he m know i f t he y w oul d l i k e t o t a ke a b a g of f r e s h p r oduc e ho m e pl e a s e do a nd pl e a s e l e a v e a don a t i on. T he m on e y r a i s e d w a s u s e d t o p u r c h a s e m or e f e r t i l i z e r A no t he r s c hoo l r e l i e d e xt e ns i v e l y on s a l e s a s i t s m a i n s our c e of f und i n g h a v i n g a t l e a s t t hr e e pl a n t s a l e s pl a nne d f or on e

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59 s e m e s t e r T he y ne ve r s ol d p r oduc e b e c a us e i t w a s c ons um e d e nt i r e l y b y t he s t ude n t s T he y s ol d s m a l l pl a nt s a nd c u t f l ow e r s t o o t he r t e a c h e r s a t t he s c hool T he i r g a r d e n p r oduc e d bo t h e d i b l e a nd o r n a m e n t a l pl a n t s T he y s ol d t he or n a m e n t a l pl a n t s or c u t f l ow e r s a n d h a v e r a i s e d a s i g n i f i c a n t a m oun t of m o ne y t ha t i s r e us e d f or g a r d e n i n g s u p p l i e s T he s a l e s w e r e a l s o r e p or t e d t o p r ovi d e a n o p p or t uni t y f or s t ude n t s t o p r a c t i c e t he i r m a t h s ki l l s a s t he y a dd e d u p t he pr i c e s of t he i t e m s a nd m a d e c or r e c t c h a n g e f o r p u r c h a s e s O ne t e a c h e r a l s o h a d a t r a d e w or ke d ou t w he r e h i s s t ude n t s t ook c a r e of p o t t e d p l a n t s f or a l o c a l nu r s e r y i n e x c h a n g e f o r s oi l T hi s t e a c h e r e xpl a i ns : W e h a v e a Fl o ri d a c e r t i fi c a t i o n f o r p r o d u c t i o n o f f o o d a n u rs e r y c e r t i f i c a t i o n a t t h i s s c h o o l b e c a u s e o n e o f t h e p r o g r a ms w e d o i s t h r o u g h a l o c al n u rs e r y a n d t h i s n u rs e r y w i l l b ri n g u s o u t p l u g s o r l i n e rs d ep e n d i n g o n h o w y o u w a n t t o u s e t h e t e r m a n d w e' l l p o t t h e m u p i n t o 6 i n c h c o n t ai n e rs a n d t h e n w e' l l p o t t h e m u p i n t o 3 g a l l o n c o n t a i n e rs a n d t h e n t h e y l l t a k e t h e m b ac k b e f o r e s u m m e r a n d o u r t r ad e o f f f o r g ro w i n g i s n u mb e r o n e t h e k i d s l ea r n p r o d u c t i o n a n d n u mb e r t w o t h e l o c al n u rs e r y p r o v i d es u s w i t h f r e e s o i l w h i c h i s s t a r t i n g t o g e t r e a l l y e x p e n s i v e t o h a v e a g o o d q u al i t y s o i l So w e w o r k b a c k a n d f o r t h w i t h t h i s n u rs e r y So r i g h t n o w t h e c r o p t h a t w e' r e g r o w i n g i s L u g u s t ru m W e h a v e 3 g al l o n s a n d w e h a v e t h e p l u g s w e d i d ri g h t b e f o r e C h r i s t m as a n d t h o s e a r e i n s i x i n c h T hi s t e a c h e r w a s c r e a t i v e i n g e t t i n g t he r e s our c e s he n e e d e d t o o pe r a t e t he g a r d e n i n g p r o g r a m I t i s t he ne w e s t p r o g r a m w i t h t he f a c i l i t a t i n g t e a c h e r h a v i n g on l y he l d h i s p o s i t i on f or l e s s t ha n t w o ye a r s F i v e of t he t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d t he y r e c e i v e d g r a n t s t o h e l p f und t he i r g a r d e n ( pl e a s e s e e T a bl e 4) i n c l ud i n g t he t w o e a r t h bo x p r o g r a m s a nd t he t w o h y d r o p o ni c s y s t e m s one t e a c h e r r e c a l l e d : W e w e n t t hr ou g h t he S pl a s h M i ni G r a n t A nd t ha t i s p r ovi d e d b y S W F W M D [ S ou t h w e s t F l or i d a W a t e r M a na g e m e n t D i s t r i c t ] I f ound out be c a us e I do

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60 w r i t e g r a n t s e ve r y y e a r a nd I f ound out a bou t t hi s g r a n t t hr ou g h a f r i e nd. A no t he r s a i d : I ha d a l w a y s be e n i n t e r e s t e d i n h y dr o p o ni c s a nd I w a n t e d t o br i n g s om e t hi n g t o our g i f t e d p r o g r a m t ha t w e 'v e n e v e r don e b e f or e S o I w r o t e a g r a nt t o S W F W M D a nd g ot t e n of t ho s e s t a c ke r s a nd t ha t s w ha t w e s t a r t e d of f w i t h. S c hoo l g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s dr e w on a n a r r a y of s ou r c e s f or t he s u p p or t ne e d e d t o o pe r a t e D ona t e d m a t e r i a l s g r a n t s i n s c hoo l s u p p or t a nd e s pe c i a l l y vol un t e e r l a bor w e r e e s s e n t i a l c o m p one n t s i n e s t a bl i s hi n g a nd m a i n t a i n i n g a n e d i b l e s c hoo l g a r d e n. V o l unt e e r l a bo r a p p e a r s t o be m os t c r i t i c a l dur i n g t he i n i t i a l s e t u p of t he g a r d e n. T he ne c e s s i t y of vol unt e e r l a bor a nd of don a t e d l a bor m a k e s t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt a nd s uc c e s s of g a r d e ns di f f i c u l t i n s c hoo l s w he r e r e s our c e s a r e l i m i t e d. I t w oul d a p p e a r t ha t s c hool s i n w or ki n g c l a s s ne i g h bo r hoods m a y ha v e d i f f i c u l t i e s a c c e s s i n g t he l a bor a nd m a t e r i a l s ne e d e d. L ow i n c o m e s t ude n t s a c c e s s t o s c hool g a r d e ns i s a w or t h y s ubj e c t f or f ur t he r i nv e s t i g a t i on t o i d e n t i f y s om e of t he l i m i t a t i on s of s c hool g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s R e l a t e d t o a c c e s s t o r e s our c e s a r e t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s c onn e c t i o ns t o s t ude n t l i f e ou t s i de of s c hool I 'v e a l r e a d y m e n t i on e d how i m por t a n t pa r e n t vol un t e e r h e l p c a n b e i n t he s uc c e s s of a g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m I n t he n e xt s e c t i on I w i l l s um m a r i z e a nd d i s c us s s om e o f t he o t he r c onn e c t i ons t o s t ude n t l i f e m e n t i one d b y t he t e a c h e r s i n t he i n t e r v i e w s a nd w i t ne s s e d dur i n g m y ob s e r va t i on s e s s i on s C o n n e c t i o n s t o S t u d e n t L i f e T he m a i n c onn e c t i ons m a d e t o s t ude n t l i f e r e p or t e d b y t he t e a c h e r s i n t he i n t e r v i e w w e r e t hr ou g h nu t r i t i on a nd nut r i t i on e du c a t i on a s w e l l a s t hr ou g h s e n d i n g t hi n g s ho m e w i t h s t ude n t s I n t hi s s e c t i on w e l ook a t ho w t he g a r d e n w a s r e l a t e d t o s t ude n t

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61 nu t r i t i on a s w e l l a s s t ude n t hom e l i f e T he s e c onn e c t i on s w e r e e m p ha s i z e d a s i m p or t a n t p r o g r a m c o m p one n t s b y t he t e a c h e r s a nd a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a bl e 5 A l l t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d t ha t t he y hi g h l i g ht e d t he h e a l t h a nd nu t r i t i on a l b e n e f i t s of t he g a r d e n w i t h t he i r s t ude n t s a nd t ha t t he i r s t ude nt s a t e p r oduc e out of t he g a r d e n. S o m e t e a c h e r s l e d t he s t ude n t s i n d i s c us s i on s or r e s e a r c h on t he nu t r i t i ona l v a l u e a nd v i t a m i ns of t he f oods t he y w e r e g r ow i n g i n t he i r g a r d e n O t he r t e a c h e r s i n c l ud e d d i s c us s i on s a bou t he a l t h y s na c k c ho i c e s i n t he i r g a r d e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s A l l t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d t ha t t he i r s t ude n t s a t e p r oduc e ou t of t he g a r d e n w i t h m os t o f t he t e a c h e r s a l s o no t i n g t ha t t he s t ude n t s e nj o ye d e a t i n g t he f r e s h f ood. T he nu t r i t i on a l v a l u e s a nd v i t a m i ns of t he f oods g r ow n i n t he g a r d e n w e r e i m por t a n t t o s e ve r a l t e a c h e r s O ne t e a c h e r m a y ha ve p u t i t be s t w he n h e s a i d : N u t r i t i on's a b i g pa r t of t he p r o g r a m b e c a us e I w a n t t he m t o unde r s t a nd t he i m por t a nc e of t he nu t r i t i on a l v a l u e o f w ha t t he y'r e p r oduc i n g W e a l w a y s s e nd hom e t he nu t r i t i on a l va l u e I c o p y of f t he nu t r i t i on a l v a l u e s of br o c c o l i s c a bb a g e s a l l t he s t uf f w e 'r e e a t i n g a nd t he k i ds t a ke t ha t hom e A no t he r t e a c h e r r e p or t e d t ha t w e t a l k e d a bou t t he nu t r i t i ou s va l u e t he v i t a m i ns t ha t c om e of f of c e r t a i n v e g e t a b l e s S i m i l a r l y, a no t he r t e a c h e r s a i d : N u t r i t i on. D e f i n i t e l y nu t r i t i on. A nd w ha t w e 've don e i s w e 'v e a c t ua l l y r e s e a r c h e d w ha t ki nds of v i t a m i ns a nd m i n e r a l s a r e i n t he d i f f e r e nt [ f ood s ] l i k e a r e i n t he l e t t uc e s a nd i n s t r a w be r r i e s S o w e p u t t ha t t o g e t h e r T he g a r d e n a nd t he f ood h a r v e s t e d f r o m i t w e r e a l s o us e d a s a r e f e r e n c e t ool t o he l p s t ude n t s m a k e h e a l t h y f ood c ho i c e s F or i ns t a n c e on e t e a c h e r s a i d : W e c r o s s r e f e r e n c e i t t h e n u t r i t i o n w i t h w h a t i f y o u e a t w h i t e b r e ad

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63 a n d p e a n u t b u t t e r c au s e I w a n t t h e m t o k n o w t h a t t h e r e a r e c h o i c es t h e y c a n m a k e i n n u t ri t i o n A n d y o u c a n c h o o s e t h e p e a n u t b u t t e r o n w h i t e t h e b re ad a n d t h e r e s n o t h i n g w r o n g w i t h i t Y o u l i k e i t I t s g o t a g o o d p r o t ei n Bu t y o u c a n a l s o c h o o s e s t r ai g h t u p b ro c c o l i a n d m a y b e c h o o s e s t r ai g h t u p p e a n u t b u t t e r I n a s i m i l a r f a s hi on, a no t he r t e a c h e r s a i d : I h ad t h e k i d s d e s i g n a ci t ru s c o n t a i n e r t h a t w o u l d a p p e al t o c h i l d r e n t h e i r ag e t o t r y t o h e l p t h e m m a k e c h o i c es b e t w ee n s o m e t h i n g g o o d t o d ri n k t o c h o o s e a n d s o m e t h i n g t h a t w o u l d n t b e s o g o o d t o d ri n k So t h e y w e re r e al l y s u p p o s ed t o t a rg e t k i d s i n g e t t i n g t h e m t o w a n t t o d ri n k s o m e t h i n g h e al t h y Bu t o f c o u rs e t h e y h ad t h e n u t ri t i o n l ab el s a n d t h i n g s l i k e t h a t t h a t w e r e o n i t s o w e w er e l o o k i n g a t t h a t s o r t o f s t u f f t o o M o s t t e a c h e r s no t e d t ha t t he i r s t ude n t s t hor ou g h l y e nj o ye d e a t i n g t he f ood out of g a r d e n. S e v e r a l t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d t he i r s t ude n t s e x c i t e m e n t ove r t r yi n g n e w v e g e t a b l e s t he y ha d g r ow n t he m s e l v e s M a n y no t e d t ha t ha r ve s t i n g a nd e a t i n g w a s t he s t ude n t s f a vor i t e pa r t of t he g a r d e n O ne t e a c h e r h i g h l i g ht e d a v e g g i e t a s t e t e s t t ha t s he c ondu c t e d w i t h he r c l a s s S h e us e d t he A c t i V ot e s y s t e m w i t h h e r f i r s t g r a d e r s t o de c i d e t he c l a s s s f a vor i t e g r e e n of t he d a y: A n d t h e y l o v ed t h e f r es h s p i n a c h A l o t o f t h e m k n o w s p i n a c h as i n t h e c a n o r t h i s f r o z e n s t u f f a n d i t s al l mu s h y W e h a d a h u g e h a r v es t o f t h a t o f s p i n a c h a n d r ed l e a f a n d a n o t h e r g r e e n t h e s a m e d a y A n d s o t h e y r e t as t i n g al l t h r e e o f t h e m a n d w e' r e v o t i n g w h i ch o n es w e l i k e t h e b es t a n d s p i n a c h w o n o u t T h e y r e al l y l i k ed t h e s p i n a c h A no t he r t e a c h e r r e p or t e d t ha t he h a d s e v e r a l s t ude n t s e a t t w o or t hr e e pl a t e f u l s of s a l a d a nd s c r e a m ou t f or m o r e I n m y ob s e r va t i ons a s w e l l t he s t ude n t s s e e m e d t o be e n j o yi n g t he m s e l v e s a nd t he f ood a s t he y a t e t he i r h a r v e s t f r o m t he g a r d e n. T he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s pr ovi de d v a r i ous c on t e xt s f or t he s t ude n t s t o c ons um e t he p r oduc e t he y g r e w i n t he s c hool g a r d e n. M a n y of t he pr o g r a m s h a d t he s t ude n t s t a s t e t he f ood r a w i n t he g a r d e n S e v e r a l of t he pr o g r a m s w oul d p r e pa r e t he f ood i n c l a s s of t e n t i m e s a s s a l a d or c o l e s l a w a nd t he s t ude n t s w oul d e a t i t t o g e t he r a s a g r ou p F i v e

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64 of t he t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d t ha t t he y oc c a s i on a l l y s e nt t he f ood ho m e w i t h s t ude n t s O ne t e a c h e r w oul d h a v e t he s t ude n t s ha r e s om e o f h e r / h i s pl a n t s f ood w i t h t he c l a s s s o e v e r y bod y c a n h a v e a t a s t e a nd t he n t a k e t he r e s t ho m e t o be c ook e d w i t h di nn e r I n on e i ns t a nc e t he on l y f ood p r oduc e d i n t he s c hoo l g a r d e n b e f o r e t he s c hoo l ye a r e nd e d w a s a s m a l l a m oun t of pa r s l e y A l t hou g h t he pa r s l e y w a s t a s t e d b y m o s t of t he s t ude n t s t hi s w a s t he on l y e x pe r i e n c e o f e a t i n g or t a s t i n g s c hoo l g a r d e n pr oduc e t ha t t he s e pa r t i c i pa t i n g s t ude n t s ha d. T he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s s t udi e d s e e m e d t o ha v e l i m i t e d e f f e c t on t he e a t i n g h a b i t s a nd nu t r i t i on a l i nt a ke of t he pa r t i c i pa t i n g s t ude n t s A l t hou g h t he p r o g r a m s e n c ou r a g e d he a l t h y e a t i n g h a b i t s b y p or t r a yi n g e a t i n g v e g e t a b l e s a s f un a nd t a s t y t he s c hoo l g a r d e ns i n g e n e r a l d i d no t p r oduc e a l o t of f ood. T he g a r d e n us ua l l y p r ovi d e s onl y s a m pl e s of i t e m s no t w hol e d i s he s or m e a l s T he b i g g e s t e f f e c t on t he e a t i n g h a b i t s of t he c h i l dr e n r e p or t e d i n t he i nt e r v i e w s w a s a w e e k l y s na c k w hi c h w he n c o m pa r e d t o t he s t ude n t s w e e k l y di e t i s a s m a l l c h a n g e I t m a y be a c c u r a t e t o v i e w t he e d i b l e s c hoo l g a r d e n a s a he a l t h y i nf l u e n c e on t he s t ude n t s e a t i n g h a b i t s e n c ou r a g i n g h e a l t h y c hoi c e s bu t no t c ons i d e r t he g a r d e n t o be a pa r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e t o o l a t a ddr e s s i n g c h i l dhood ob e s i t y or o t he r d i e t r e l a t e d c h i l dhood d i s e a s e s A n e x c e p t i on t o t hi s m a y oc c ur i f t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m i s c o m b i n e d w i t h p h y s i c a l e du c a t i on r e qu i r e m e n t s w hi c h i s done w i t h one of t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s ob s e r v e d. T hi s c o m b i n a t i on s e e m e d t o l e a d t o t w o t hi n gs : 1 ) i n c r e a s e f ood p r oduc t i on a nd 2) i n c r e a s e d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y a m on g t he s t ude n t s T hi s r e l a t i ons hi p i s s om e t hi n g t ha t c ou l d b e l ook e d i n t o w i t h f ur t he r r e s e a r c h

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65 A l t hou g h no t di r e c t l y a pa r t of t he s c hoo l e x pe r i e n c e m os t of t he t e a c h e r s m e n t i on e d i n t e r a c t i ons be t w e e n t he g a r d e n a nd t he s t ude n t s hom e l i f e A s di s c us s e d a bov e m a n y of t he vo l un t e e r s w e r e e i t he r pa r e n t s or r e l a t i v e s of s t ude n t s i n t he s c hoo l bu t t he g a r d e n w a s r e p or t e d t o ha ve e f f e c t s on t he ho m e l i v e s of s om e o f t he s t ude n t s S t ud e n t s i n m os t of t he p r o g r a m s t ook f ood, pl a n t s or r e c i pe s hom e C h a n g e s i n e a t i n g a nd g a r d e n i n g b e h a v i or i n s om e s t ude n t s w e r e a l s o r e p or t e d b y m a n y of t he t e a c h e r s F i v e of t he g a r d e n i n g t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d t o ha v e s e n t f ood hom e w i t h s om e of t he s t ude n t s T hi s w a s u s ua l l y done w he n a s t ude n t r e qu e s t e d t o t a ke s om e p r oduc e ho m e R e c i pe s w e r e s e n t hom e b y f our of t he t e a c h e r s P l a n t s w e r e s e n t hom e a s p a r t of f our g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s a l l of t he m i n g r ound p r o g r a m s T e a c h e r s vol un t e e r e d t hi s i nf or m a t i on a s i t w a s no t p a r t of t he I n t e r v i e w G ui de O ne of t he t e a c h e r s de s c r i b e d a pr o g r a m t h a t m a n y of he r s t ude n t s a r e p a r t i c i pa t i n g i n w he r e t he y t a ke ho m e a don a t e d c a bba g e pl a n t f r o m s c hoo l a nd pl a n t i t a t ho m e s om e w he r e : S o m eb o d y s e n t o u r s c h o o l a w h o l e b u n c h o f c ab b a g e s p a r t o f s o m e G r o w a C ab b a g e p r o g r a m I t w as s o m e t h i n g w h e r e t h e y g i v e y o u c a b b a g e p l a n t s a n d y o u t a k e t h i s cab b a g e h o m e a n d y o u g r o w i t A n d w h e n i t g e t s r e al l y b i g y o u t a k e a p i c t u r e o f y o u rs el f w i t h t h e c ab b a g e a n d fi l l o u t t h i s f o r m a n d m o m a n d d a d h a v e t o s i g n i t t o o A n d t h e n y o u t a k e i t t o y o u r t e a c h e r a n d t h e n s h e s e n d s t h e m i n t o t h e s t a t e a n d t h e r e s a s t a t e d r a w i n g a n d a n a t i o n w i d e d r a w i n g A n d y o u g e t t h i s s ch o l a rs h i p i f y o u r p i c t u r e i s c h o s e n I t s al l ab o u t j u s t g r o w i n g a c a b b a g e W el l t h e y al l t o o k o n e h o m e I t s t h e B o n n i e s T h i rd G rad e Ca b b a g e Fa r m P r o g r a m f r o m a c o m p a n y i n A l a b a m a T h e k i d s w o u l d b ri n g i n t h ei r p h o t o a n d I w o u l d s e n d t h e m al l i n A n d I d o n t k n o w i f a n y o n e w i l l o r n o t b u t w e j u s t s e n t t h e m h o m e ab o u t t w o w ee k s a g o S o m e o f [ t h e k i d s ] a r e g r o w i n g t h e m T hr e e t e a c h e r s r e p or t e d he a r i n g pa r e n t s t e l l t he m t ha nk y ou f or g a r d e n i n g w i t h t he i r k i ds be c a us e now t he y e a t ve g e t a b l e s a nd t he y w oul dn' t e a t t he m b e f or e I t e m s

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66 r e g a r d i n g c h a n g e s i n s t ude n t s e a t i n g b e h a v i or w e r e no t i n c l ud e d i n t he I n t e r v i e w G ui d e ; t he s e t e a c h e r s vol un t e e r e d t hi s i nf or m a t i on du r i n g t he i n t e r v i e w s O ne t e a c h e r r e c oun t s : A t t he l a s t P T O m e e t i n g a m o m t ha t I 'd n e v e r m e t be f or e c a m e u p a nd s a i d 'T ha nk y ou s o m u c h f o r do i n g t hi s M y s on l ov e s s a l a d now a nd h e w oul d n e v e r e a t i t be f or e I t w a s s o g r a t i f yi n g t o he a r t ha t ki ds a r e b e g i nn i n g t o r e a l i z e t ha t t hi s s t uf f i s n' t s o ba d. A l t hou g h no t i n c l ud e d a s i t e m s on t he I n t e r v i e w G u i d e t hr e e t e a c h e r s a l s o r e p or t e d t ha t s om e o f t he i r s t ude n t s ha ve r e c e nt l y s t a r t e d t he i r ow n g a r d e ns O ne t e a c h e r s a i d : A l o t o f m y s t u d en t s s a y t h a t t h e y a r e g r o w i n g a t h o m e n o w A n d a l o t o f p a r e n t s c o m e a n d s a y t h a t t h e i r k i d s w an t t o h a v e a g ar d e n a t h o m e n o w I h a v e g i v e n o u t t h i n g s l i k e a t o p e n h o u s e, o n h o w t o d o a r ai s e d b e d g ar d e n a s i m p l e r a i s e d b e d g a rd e n T h i n g s l i k e t h a t j u s t l i k e a b l o c k g ar d e n I t s p r e t t y s i m p l e Y o u d o n t h a v e t o g o a n d d i g u p t h e g r o u n d o r a n y t h i n g J u s t p u t a l i t t l e n ew s p a p e r d o w n a n d s o m e c o m p o s t d o w n j u s t s i m p l e w ay s t o g e t i n t o d o i n g a l i t t l e b i t o f g a rd e n i n g a t h o m e A n d y es I h a v e p e o p l e s a y t h a t t h e y r e d o i n g i t al l t h e t i m e P e r c e i v e d e f f e c t s on t he ho m e l i f e of s om e s t ude n t s i n c l ud i n g c h a n g e s i n e a t i n g ha b i t s a nd s t ude n t g a r d e n i n g w e r e no t e d b y m a n y of t he t e a c h e r s I t i s i m p or t a n t t o no t e t ha t t hi s e f f e c t w a s r e p or t e d t o oc c ur w i t h s om e of t he s t ude n t s u s ua l l y j us t s e ve r a l s t ude n t s i n e a c h p r o g r a m M a n y of t he s t ude n t s m a y no t ha v e h a d a c c e s s t o t he r e s our c e s ne c e s s a r y t o s uc c e s s f ul l y r a i s e c a bb a g e p l a n t s or s t a r t t he i r ow n g a r d e ns S o m e s t ude n t s m a y l i v e i n a pa r t m e n t bui l d i n g s a nd s om e pa r e n t s m a y no t ha ve t i m e t o he l p k i ds w i t h a n e w g a r d e n i n g pr oj e c t S t ude n t s w ho s e pa r e n t s c a n't a f f or d or don't kno w how t o c ook v e g e t a b l e s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o be n e f i t f r o m a n y i nc r e a s e d w i l l i n g n e s s t o t r y ne w ve g e t a b l e s W i t h t ha t i n m i nd t he s c hool g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s a t l e a s t e x po s e t he s e c h i l d r e n t o he a l t h y e x pe r i e n c e s a nd w a y s of l i f e e v e n i f on l y i n a l i m i t e d c a pa c i t y D o w n

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67 t he l i n e t he s e c h i l dr e n w i l l h a v e m or e h e a l t h y e x pe r i e n c e s f r o m w hi c h t o dr a w a nd w i l l b e i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i on t o m a k e c e r t a i n d e c i s i ons t ha n i f t he y w e r e n e v e r e xpo s e d t o s uc h he a l t h y a c t i v i t i e s T he t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s a nd p r o g r a m obs e r v a t i ons s he d l i g ht on t he que s t i on: W h a t a r e t he c o m p one n t s of p ubl i c e d i b l e e l e m e n t a r y s c hool g a r d e ns i n a s ou t h w e s t F l or i d a c oun t y ? E a c h g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m c ons i s t e d on a n i nd i v i du a l i z e d s p e c t r um of c o m pone n t s T he i n c l us i on of v a r i ou s hor t i c u l t ur a l s t e p s p r ovi d e d f o r d i f f e r e n t a c a d e m i c c onn e c t i ons I n g r ound g a r d e ns a p p e a r t o be c onn e c t e d t o t he m os t a c a d e m i c t o pi c s w hi l e e a r t h bo x g a r d e ns a p p e a r t o be c onn e c t e d t o t he l e a s t T he g a r d e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s s p a r ke d e nt hu s i a s m i n t he l e a r n i n g e nv i r on m e n t A dm i n i s t r a t i ve c o m p one n t s i n c l ud i n g s t r uc t ur a l a nd s u p p o r t a l s o a f f e c t e d t he s ha pe of t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m s T he p o s i t i on of t he t e a c h e r a nd c on t i nu i t y of p r o g r a m f a c i l i t a t i on m i g h t ha ve b e e n a f a c t or i n t he s t r e n gt h of t he e du c a t i on a l us e f u l n e s s of t he g a r d e n V o l un t e e r l a bor a nd don a t e d m a t e r i a l s w e r e e s s e n t i a l f or a s c hool g a r d e n's s uc c e s s a nd w e r e no t e qu a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l s c hoo l s S i m i l a r l y, t he p o s i t i ve ho m e l i f e e f f e c t s of t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m r e p or t e d b y m a n y of t he t e a c h e r s on l y ha p p e ne d w i t h c h i l dr e n w ho s e hom e s a nd f a m i l i e s h a v e t he r e s our c e s ne e d e d t o be n e f i t f r o m a d e s i r e t o g a r d e n o r e a t or g a n i c v e g e t a b l e s T he r o l e of t he e d i b l e s c hoo l g a r d e n i n t he pa r t i c i p a t i n g c h i l dr e n 's e du c a t i on w a s l a r g e l y i nf or m a l bu t c ou l d b e s i g n i f i c a nt f or s om e i f no t m os t of t he pa r t i c i pa t i n g k i ds W i t hou t r e g u l a r t e s t s a dm i n i s t e r e d a nd g r a d e s g i v e n, t he l e s s on s l e a r n e d i n t he g a r d e n i n g p r o g r a m w e r e no t f or m a l l y l e g i t i m i z e d b y m os t of t he t e a c h e r s or s c hoo l s N e ve r t he l e s s t he g a r d e n pr o vi de d a h a nds on e nv i r on m e nt t o a s s i s t i n t he t e a c h i n g of s c i e nt i f i c

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68 p r i nc i pl e s a nd w a s u s e d t o r e i n f or c e t o p i c s f r om m a n y o t he r a c a d e m i c s ubj e c t s I n t he s c hool s w he r e t he g a r d e n i n g pr o g r a m w a s p a r t of a S pe c i a l s c l a s s s om e s t ude n t s w i l l g o t hr ou g h t he pr o g r a m m u l t i pl e t i m e s be f or e m ov i n g on t o t he n e xt s c hool a nd t hi s c ou l d r e s ul t i n a m o r e l a s t i n g i m pa c t f or t he s e c h i l d r e n. I n t he f o l l ow i n g c h a p t e r w e w i l l r e l a t e t he s e f i nd i n g b a c k t o t he l i t e r a t ur e pr e vi ous l y r e v i e w e d a nd d i s c us s t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t hi s r e s e a r c h i n t he c on t e xt of t he l a r g e r s oc i e t y

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69 C h ap t e r 5: C on c l u s i on T hi s r e s e a r c h s uppor t s a nd e l a bor a t e s on t he w or k of O z e r ( 2007: 860 ) by a ns w e r i ng he r c a l l f o r f ur t he r s t udi e s t o doc um e nt t he s pe c i f i c c om pone nt s of ga r de n pr ogr a m s a nd t he w a ys i n w hi c h t he s e pr og r a m e l e m e nt s a r e i m pl e m e nt e d a nd i nt e gr a t e d i nt o t he s c hool I nt e r vi e w s w i t h l oc a l t e a c he r s a n d obs e r va t i ons of t he i r ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s pr ovi de d t he da t a ne c e s s a r y t o gi ve a s e ns e of t he s ha pe of t he s e pr ogr a m s M y f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e f ou r m a i n c onc l us i ons : 1) t he s t r u c t ur a l a nd s uppor t c om pone nt s a r e e s s e nt i a l t o t he e xi s t e nc e of s c hool ga r de ni ng p r og r a m s 2) t he pos i t i on of t he t e a c he r f a c i l i t a t i ng t he ga r de n ha s s t r ong i m p l i c a t i ons f or h ow t he pr og r a m i s pr e s e nt e d, 3) i n gr ound ga r de ns a ppe a r t o be t he m os t ve r s a t i l e e du c a t i ona l t ool s a nd 4 ) t he he a l t h be ne f i t s of t he ga r de n s e e m t o be c or r e l a t e d w i t h i n gr ound ga r de ns A l l of t he pr og r a m s s t udi e d r e l i e d on e xt r a s uppor t f r om t he s c hool o r f r om vol unt e e r s a nd t he l oc a l bus i ne s s c om m uni t y. T h e s e f i ndi ngs s uppor t t hos e of O z e r ( 2007) w ho i de nt i f i e d s c hool c om m uni t y buy i n" a s e s s e nt i a l t o ga r de n s uc c e s s T w o of t he t e a c he r s w e r e H or t i c ul t ur e S pe c i a l t e a c he r s w hi c h m e a ns t hos e t w o s c hool s a r e pr ovi de d s t a f f s uppor t f o r t he ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m a r e s our c e t o w hi c h t he ot he r s i x pr ogr a m s di d not ha ve a c c e s s T he ot he r p r ogr a m s w e r e s uppor t e d by dona t i ons g r a nt s a nd vol unt e e r l a bor E a c h p r ogr a m a l s o ha d a ve r y de di c a t e d t e a c he r t ha t w a s w i l l i ng t o do e xt r a w or k f o r t h e s uc c e s s of t he ga r de n T hi s a l s o s uppor t s t he f i ndi ngs of D e M a r c o e t a l ( 1999) w ho f ound a pe r s on w i t h r e s pons i bi l i t y f or s c hool ga r de ni ng a c t i vi t i e s t o be one of t he f i ve m os t c r uc i a l f a c t o r s t o ga r de ni ng s uc c e s s T he ne e d f o r e xt r a s uppor t f r om t he s c hool c om m u ni t y f or a s c hool ga r de n pr e s e nt s di f f i c ul t i e s i n e s t a bl i s hi ng ga r de ns a t s c ho ol s w i t h l i m i t e d r e s our c e s S c hool

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70 ga r de ns ne e d f or e xt r a s uppor t t o ope r a t e m a y pa r t i a l l y e xpl a i n w hy on l y a f r a c t i on o f s c hool s ha ve e di bl e ga r de ni ng. S om e r s e t a nd B os s a r d ( 2009) f ound onl y 23 % o f s ur ve ye d publ i c pr i m a r y s c hool s i n A us t r a l i a ha ve f ood ga r de ns S i m i l a r l y i n t hi s r e s e a r c h, 19% o f publ i c e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s w e r e f ound t o ha ve a n e di bl e ga r de n. M a ny s c hool s m a y not ha ve e nough m one y t o pa y f or f e r t i l i z e r or e xt r a w a t e r l e t a l one a hor t i c ul t ur e t e a c he r T he pa r e nt s i n m a ny l ow i nc om e ne i ghbor hoods m a y not ha ve t i m e t o vol unt e e r o r m one y t o dona t e f or a ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m F ur t he r r e s e a r c h c oul d l ook i nt o l ow i nc om e s t ude nt s a c c e s s t o s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s a nd t e c hni que s us e d by s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s i n l ow i nc om e a r e a s t o m i t i ga t e t he i r l a c k o f f i na nc i a l a nd vol unt e e r r e s our c e s I n t w o s c hool s H o r t i c ul t ur e t e a c he r s w e r e i n a pos i t i on t o p r e s e nt t he ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m a s a r e gul a r a nd f or m a l pa r t of s c hool H or t i c ul t ur e t e a c he r s w e r e a l s o a bl e t o r e a c h m a ny m or e c hi l dr e n t ha n t he m a i n c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s T he hor t i c ul t ur e t e a c he r s m a i n f oc us w a s ga r de ni ng e duc a t i on, w he r e a s t he ot he r t e a c he r s ha d t o w o r k ve r y ha r d t o f i t ga r de ni ng a c t i vi t i e s i nt o t he i r a l r e a dy bus y s c he dul e s O f t e n t i m e s f o r m a i n c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s i f t i m e i n t he da y w a s r unni ng s hor t ga r d e ni ng a c t i vi t i e s w e r e one of t he f i r s t t hi ngs t o be c ut T hi s w a s ne c e s s a r y f or t he t e a c he r s t o be a bl e t o do t he i r j obs w e l l but f or t h e c hi l dr e n t h i s pr e s e nt s ga r de ni ng a s a f un a c t i vi t y t ha t i s s e c onda r y t o m or e i m por t a nt s ubj e c t s a t s c hool r a t he r t ha n pr e s e nt i ng i t a s i nt e gr a t i ve of t he i r e duc a t i on. B y a dm i ni s t e r i ng t e s t s on ga r de ni ng c onc e pt s hor t i c ul t ur e t e a c he r s w e r e a bl e t o i nt r o duc e ga r de ni ng i n t o t he s c hool 's c ur r i c ul um T he hor t i c ul t u r e s t ude nt s not onl y r e c e i ve d i nt r i ns i c r e w a r ds f o r t he ga r de ni ng w o r k, i nc l udi ng t he f un of w a t c hi ng t he i r pl a nt s gr ow a nd t he j oy o f t a s t i ng t he f r e s h ve ge t a b l e s but t he y r e c e i ve d e xt r i ns i c

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71 r e w a r ds i n t he f or m of g r a de s f or a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e T he s e s t ude nt s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o t a ke ga r de ni ng a s a s e r i ous s ubj e c t f o r i t i s f o r m a l i z e d l i ke t he ot he r a c a de m i c c our s e s B ot h H or t i c ul t ur e t e a c he r s ut i l i z e d i n g r ound ga r d e ns w hi c h a ppe a r t o be t he ga r de n t ype m os t r e a di l y c onne c t e d t o a c a de m i c t o pi c s C om pa r e d t o e a r t h boxe s a nd hydr oponi c s i n g r ound ga r de ns s e e m t o m or e r e a di l y l i nk ho r t i c ul t ur a l c om pone nt s a nd a c a de m i c c ont e nt I n gr ound ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o i nc l ude t he i r s t u de nt s i n t ool us e t r a ns pl a nt i ng, pe s t i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd c om pos t i ng a c t i vi t i e s P os s i bl y be c a us e of t he s e a c t i vi t i e s i n gr ound ga r de ns w e r e c onne c t e d t o m or e a c a de m i c s ubj e c t s I n pa r t i c ul a r i n gr ound ga r de ns w e r e c onne c t e d t o l e s s ons on e c o s ys t e m s t he w a s t e s t r e a m a ni m a l l i f e s c i e nc e m one y, s qua r e f oot a ge a nd hi s t or y m or e of t e n t ha n ot he r ga r de n t ype s I t i s w or t h no t i ng, how e ve r t ha t hyd r oponi c ga r de ns w i t h t he i r f oc us on w a t e r c ons e r va t i on, w e r e c onne c t e d t o e a r t h s c i e nc e c onc e pt s m or e t ha n i n gr ound ga r de ns T he e a r t h box pr og r a m s s t udi e d m a de t he l e a s t a c a de m i c c onne c t i ons of a ny ga r de n t ype I n gr ound ga r de ns a l s o s e e m t o l e a d t o t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt a l be i t s t i l l m i no r he a l t h i m pa c t s f or pa r t i c i pa t i ng c hi l d r e n. T he onl y t e a c he r t ha t u s e d t he ga r de n t o f ul f i l l phys i c a l e duc a t i on ut i l i z e d a l a r ge i n gr ound ga r d e n. T e a c he r s f a c i l i t a t i ng i n gr ound ga r de ns w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o r e por t t ha t pl a nt s a nd r e c i pe s w e nt hom e a nd w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o r e por t s t ude nt s ga r de ni ng a t hom e a s a r e s ul t of t he ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m M or e pl a nt s goi ng hom e m i ght ha ve l e d t o m o r e s t ude nt s ga r de ni ng a t hom e T he s e f i ndi ngs l e a d t o t hr e e i m p l i c a t i ons f or t e a c he r s or s c hool s i nt e r e s t e d i n s t a r t i ng ga r de n e duc a t i on p r ogr a m s : a ) i n gr ound g a r de ns m a y a l l ow f o r t he m o s t hor t i c ul t ur a l s t e ps a nd a c a de m i c c onne c t i ons b ) a r r a ngi ng s uppor t f r om t he l oc a l

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72 c om m uni t y i s e s s e nt i a l f or s uc c e s s a nd c ) i f s c hoo l s ha ve t he r e s our c e s hi r i ng a hor t i c ul t ur e t e a c he r m a y be t he be s t a ppr oa c h. A l t hough i n gr ound ga r de ns r e qui r e a l o t of i ni t i a l l a bor t o di g t he f i r s t be ds t he y of t e n r e qu i r e t he l e a s t m a t e r i a l a nd a r e t he l e a s t e xpe ns i ve t o be gi n. O nc e e s t a bl i s he d, t he i n g r oun d ga r de n e nvi r onm e nt pr ovi de s a r i c h c ont e xt f or hor t i c ul t u r a l a nd a c a de m i c l e s s ons T h e a m ount of w or k t o e s t a bl i s h a nd m a i nt a i n a ny ga r de n i s s i gni f i c a nt a nd a s O z e r ( 2 007) i ndi c a t e d, a r r a ngi ng s uppor t f r om t he l oc a l s c hool c om m uni t y i s e s s e nt i a l t o ga r de n s uc c e s s I f pos s i bl e ha vi ng a de di c a t e d hor t i c ul t ur e t e a c he r pr ovi de s f o r a f or m a l pr e s e nt a t i on of ga r de ni ng a c t i vi t i e s a nd a l l ow s f or m a ny c hi l dr e n t o be r e a c he d. T he t e a c he r s us e d t he ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m s t o f a c i l i t a t e l e a r ni ng t h r ough e xpe r i e nc e L i ke R ous s e a u ( 1979) e m pha s i z e d, t h e s e s t ude nt s w e r e ge t t i ng t o us e a l l o f t he i r s e ns e s t o l e a r n a bout t h e w or l d a r ound t he m S t ude nt s w e r e ge t t i ng t o t a s t e t he s pi na c h, f e e l t he w e i ght o f a t e n pound ba g o f b r o c c ol i a nd s m e l l f r e s hl y c ut ba s i l T hi s ha nds on a ppr oa c h e nga ge d t he s t ude nt s a nd pr ovi de d e xe r c i s e T he c onc r e t e e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he ga r de n he l p e d t he s t ude nt s unde r s t a nd a bs t r a c t a c a de m i c t opi c s pa r t i c ul a r l y c onc e pt s r e l a t e d t o pl a nt bi o l ogy. D e w e y i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s l e a r ni ng s c i e nc e f r o m e ve r yda y s i t ua t i ons a r e i n a be t t e r pos i t i on t o be gi n t o unde r s t a nd e c onom i c a n d s oc i a l i s s ue s H e w r o t e : It i s a s o u n d ed u cat i o n al p ri n ci p l e t h at s t u d en t s s h o u l d b e i n t ro d u ced t o s ci en t i fi c s u b j ect m at t er an d b e i n i t i at ed i n t o i t s fact s a n d l aw s t h ro u g h acq u ai n t an ce w i t h ev ery d ay s o ci al ap p l i cat i o n s A d h e r en ce t o t h i s met h o d i s n o t o n l y t h e mo s t d i re ct a v en u e t o u n d ers t an d i n g o f s ci en ce i t s el f b u t as t h e p u p i l s g ro w mo r e mat u re i t i s al s o t h e s u res t ro ad t o t h e u n d ers t an d i n g o f t h e e co n o mi c an d i n d u s t ri al p ro b l e ms o f p res en t s o ci et y (1 9 3 8 : 8 0 ). F ol l ow i ng D e w e y s r a t i ona l e e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he g a r de n m a y b e one of t he be s t w a ys t o he l p c hi l dr e n unde r s t a nd s om e o f t he a gr i c ul t ur a l l y r e l a t e d s oc i a l pr obl e m s w e f a c e

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73 t oda y. T he ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m s s t udi e d w e r e obs e r ve d t o be gi n t o a ddr e s s s om e of t he he a l t h, s oc i a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l p r obl e m s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h our f ood s ys t e m s F or i ns t a nc e w i t h t he c hi l d r e n's ha nds i n t he d i r t s om e t e a c he r s a ddr e s s e d t he i m por t a nc e of s a f e or ga ni c s oi l t ha t i s f r e e of da nge r ous c he m i c a l s S t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e d how m uc h w or k i t t a ke s t o r a i s e ve ge t a bl e s i ndi r e c t l y i nf o r m i ng t h e m of t he ha r d w or k a gr i c ul t ur a l w or ke r s e ndur e T he s e e xpe r i e nc e s t he r e f or e p r ovi de t he ba s i s t o unde r s t a nd t he c ha l l e nge s a nd c om pl e xi t i e s of t he p r oduc t i on s ys t e m W he n t he y a t e f ood out o f t he ga r de n, s t ude nt s a t e l oc a l l y a nd nut r i t i ous l y, a nd ga i ne d a n a ppr e c i a t i on f o r he a l t hy f ood. W he n ga r de ni ng, t he c hi l d r e n e xe r c i s e d t he i r bodi e s l e a r ni ng t ha t e xe r c i s e c a n ha ppe n w hi l e doi ng ot he r f un a nd p r oduc t i ve a c t i vi t i e s w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y w or ki ng t ow a r ds r e duc i ng o be s i t y. B e c a us e t he ga r de n pr odu c e w a s f r e s hl y ha r ve s t e d, e a c h s na c k w a s pa c ke d w i t h vi t a m i ns a nd ot he r nut r i e nt s F ur t he r m or e pr oduc e f r om t he s c hool ga r de ns di d not r e qui r e f os s i l f ue l s f o r t r a ns por t T he r e f or e w he n s t ude nt s a t e f r om t he s c hool ga r d e ns t he y c ont r i but e d t o r e duc t i o ns i n C O 2 e m i s s i ons a nd a i r pol l ut i on. F i na l l y, c om pa r a bl e or ga ni c pr oduc e i n t he s upe r m a r ke t ha s be c om e qui t e e xpe ns i ve a nd m a n y c hi l dr e n m a y not ha ve a c c e s s t o t hi s qua l i t y of f ood a t hom e B y p r ovi di ng f r e e o r ga ni c pr oduc e t o s t ude nt s s c hool ga r de ns m a y be a bl e t o of f s e t s om e o f t he c os t s of he a l t hy f ood. I n s hor t t he s c hool ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s e nc our a ge d w a ys t hr ough w hi c h w e a s a s oc i e t y, c a n pa r t i a l l y ove r c om e t he pr obl e m of hi gh c a l or i c i nt a ke s a nd c ons e que nt he a l t h pr obl e m s G i ve n t he e duc a t i ona l he a l t h e nvi r on m e nt a l a nd s oc i a l be ne f i t s of s c hool ga r de ns i t i s d i s a ppoi nt i ng t ha t t e a c he r s a r e f or c e d t o l i m i t t he i r s t ude nt s t i m e i n t he

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74 ga r de n a nd t ha t s o m a ny i nt e r e s t e d t e a c he r s a r e un a bl e t o f i nd t i m e t o c r e a t e a nd ut i l i z e a n e di bl e s c hool ga r de n. W i t h t he c ount y c ur r i c ul um 's f oc us on s t a t e a s s e s s m e nt t e s t s a nd r e l a t e d be nc hm a r k c r i t e r i a t e a c he r s s c he dul e s a r e i nc r e a s i ngl y c ons t r i c t e d t o f oc us on t e s t pr e pa r a t i on. T he r i gi di t y i n l e a r ni ng a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c ons t a nt s t a nda r di z e d t e s t pr e pa r a t i on r obs t he e duc a t i ona l e nvi r onm e nt of t h e f l e xi bi l i t y ne e de d t o e nc our a ge s t ude nt s t o i nt e gr a t e a c a de m i c c onc e pt s i nt o r e a l w or l d e xpe r i e nc e s T he r e f o r e S t a t e a nd C ount y l e gi s l a t or s s houl d r e c ons i de r s t a nda r di z e d t e s t i ng a s t he m a i n m e t hod t o a s s e s s t e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd i ns t e a d a l l ow f o r m o r e c r e a t i ve a nd pos s i bl y e f f e c t i ve w a ys t o e duc a t e our c hi l dr e n. M e a nw hi l e I w oul d l i ke t o e nc our a ge i nt e r e s t e d s c hool t e a c he r s t o us e t he f i ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy t o a s s i s t t he m i n i m pl e m e nt i ng s uc c e s s f ul ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m s t ha t e f f e c t i ve l y r e i n f or c e c ur r i c ul a r c onc e pt s

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75 R e f e r e n c e s B e r r y, W e nde l l 1990. W hat A r e P e opl e F or ? S a n F r a nc i s c o: N or t h P oi n t P r e s s B l a i r D or ot hy 2009 T he C hi l d i n t he G a r de n: A n E va l ua t i ve R e vi e w of t he B e ne f i t s of S c hool G a r de ni ng T he J our nal of E n v i r onm e nt al E duc at i on 40( 2) : 15 38 B r onne r Y L 1996. N ut r i t i ona l S t a t us O ut c om e s f or C hi l dr e n: E t hni c C ul t ur a l a nd E nvi r onm e nt a l C ont e xt s T he J our nal of A m e r i c an D i e t e t i c A s s oc i at i on 96( 9) : 900 902 B ut t e r f i e l d, B r uc e 2009 T he I m pa c t of H om e a n d C om m uni t y G a r de ni ng i n A m e r i c a S out h B ur l i ngt on V T : N a t i ona l G a r de ni ng A s s oc i a t i on. R e t r i e ve d D e c e m be r 5 2010 ( ht t p: / / w w w ga r de nr e s e a r c h. c om / i nde x. php? q= s how & i d= 3126) C a na r i s I 1995. G r ow i ng F oods f or G r ow i ng M i nds : I nt e gr a t i ng G a r de ni ng i nt o t he T ot a l C ur r i c ul u m C hi l dr e n' s E nv i r onm e nt s 12( 2) : 134 142. C a s on, K 1999. C hi l dr e n a r e 'G r ow i ng H e a l t hy' i n S out h C a r ol i na J our nal N ut r i t i on E duc at i on 31: 235 236. C i vi l M a r t a a nd L e s l i e H K a hn. 2001 U ne a r t h i n g t he M a t he m a t i c s of a C l a s s r oom G a r de n. C l as s r oom D i v e r s i t y pp. 37 50 C ue l l a r A m a nda D a nd M i c ha e l E W e bbe r 2010 W a s t e d F ood, W a s t e d E ne r gy: T he E m be dde d E ne r gy i n F ood W a s t e i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s E nv i r onm e nt al Sc i e nc e T e c hnol ogy 44( 16) : 6464 6469 D e M a r c o, L W D R e l f a nd A M c D a ni e l 1999 I nt e gr a t i ng G a r de ni ng i nt o t he E l e m e nt a r y S c hool C ur r i c ul um H or t T e c hnol ogy 9: 276 281. D e w e y, J ohn. 1938 E x pe r i e nc e & E duc at i on N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n P ub l i s hi ng

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76 C om pa ny. D i r ks A E a nd K O r vi s 2005 A n E va l ua t i on o f t he J uni or M a s t e r G a r de ne r P r ogr a m i n T hi r d G r a de C l a s s r oom s H or t T e c hnol ogy 15: 4 43 447. F l a na ga n, C a i t l i n. 2010. C ul t i va t i ng F a i l ur e : H ow S c hool G a r de ns a r e C he a t i ng O ur M os t V ul ne r a bl e S t ude nt s T he A l t ant i c J a nua r y/ F e br ua r y pp. 7819. R e t r i e ve d F e br ua r y 18 2011 ( ht t p: / / w w w t he a t l a nt i c c om ) F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. O f f i c e of A s s e s s m e nt 2010 D r a f t : F C A T 2 0 S c i e nc e T e s t I t e m S pe c i f i c a t i ons G r a de 5. T a l l a ha s s e e F L : R e t r i e ve d D e c e m be r 12, 2010. ( ht t p: / / f c a t f l doe o r g / f c a t 2/ pdf / F L 09G 5S c i p df ) G a r c i a R ui z F r a nc i s c a 2009 C r e a t i ng a S c hool y a r d M i ni ga r de n: T hi r d G r a de r s T a ke T he i r P l a nt U ni t f r om C l a s s r oom G r e e nhous e t o G a r de n. Sc i e nc e and C hi l dr e n 46( 6) : 34. G r a ha m H e a t he r G a i l F e e ns t r a A nn M E va ns a nd S he r i Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2004. D a vi s S c hool P r ogr a m S uppor t s L i f e l ong H e a l t h y E a t i ng H a bi t s i n C hi l dr e n C al i f or ni a A gr i c ul t ur e 58( 4) : 200 205 G r a ha m H e a t he r D e bor a h L a ne B e a l l M a r y L us s i e r P e ggy M c L a ughl i n, a nd S he r i Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2005 U s e of S c hool G a r de ns i n A c a de m i c I ns t r uc t i on. J our nal of N ut r i t i on E duc at i on and B e hav i or 73( 2 ) : 147 151. G r a ha m H e a t he r a nd S he r i Z i de nbe r g C he r r 2005 C a l i f or ni a T e a c he r s P e r c e i ve S c hool G a r de ns a s a n E f f e c t i ve N ut r i t i ona l T ool t o P r om ot e H e a l t hf ul E a t i ng H a bi t s J our nal of t he A m e r i c an D i e t e t i c A s s oc i at i on 105( 11) : 1797 1800. H a ns e n, E r i c a nd M a r t i n D onohoe 2003. H e a l t h I s s ue s of M i gr a nt a nd S e a s ona l F a r m w or ke r s J our nal of H e al t h C ar e f or t he P oo r and U nde r s e r v e d 14( 2) : 153

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77 164. H e be r D a vi d. 2010. A n I nt e g r a t i ve V i e w of O be s i t y. A m e r i c an J our nal of C l i ni c al N ut r i t i on 91( S upp) : 280S 283S K l e m m e r C D T M W a l i c z e k a nd J M Z a j i c e k 2005 T he E f f e c t of a S c hool G a r de ni ng P r ogr a m on t he S c i e nc e A c hi e ve m e nt o f E l e m e nt a r y S t ude nt s H or t T e c hnol ogy 15: 4 48 552. L i e be r m a n, G A a nd L L H oody. 1998 C l os i n g t he A c hi e v e m e nt G ap: U s i ng t he E nv i r onm e nt as an I nt e gr at i ng C ont e x t f or L e ar ni ng. P a pe r p r e s e nt e d a t t he S t a t e E duc a t i on a nd E nvi r onm e nt a l R oundt a bl e S a n D i e go, C A L ohr V a nd C H P e r s on M i m s 2005 C hi l dr e n's A c t i ve a nd P a s s i ve I nt e r a c t i ons w i t h P l a nt s I nf l ue nc e T he i r A t t i t ude s a nd A c t i ons a s A d ul t s H or t T e c hnol ogy 15: 472 476. M a bi e R a c he l a nd M a t t B a ke r 1996 T he I nf l ue n c e of E xpe r i e nt i a l I ns t r uc t i on on U r ba n E l e m e nt a r y S t ude nt s K n ow l e dge of t he F oo d a nd F i be r S ys t e m J our nal of E x t e ns i on 34( 6 ) : 1 4 M c A l e e s e J e s s i c a D a nd L i nda L R a nki n. 2007 G a r de n B a s e d N ut r i t i on E duc a t i on A f f e c t s F r ui t a nd V e ge t a bl e C ons um pt i on i n S i xt h G r a de A dol e s c e nt s J our nal of t he A m e r i c an D i e t e t i c A s s oc i at i on 107( 4) : 662 6 64. M i l l e r D a na L 2007 T he S e e ds of L e a r ni ng: Y oung C hi l dr e n D e ve l op I m por t a nt S ki l l s T hr ough T he i r G a r de ni ng A c t i vi t i e s a t a M i dw e s t e r n E a r l y E duc a t i on P r ogr a m A ppl i e d E nv i r onm e nt al E duc at i on & C om m uni c at i on 6( 1) : 49 66. M on s i va i s P a bl o a nd A da m D r e w now s ki 20 07. T he R i s i ng C os t of L ow E ne r gy D e ns i t y F oods J our nal of t he A m e r i c an D i e t e t i c A s s oc i at i on 107: 2071 2076.

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78 M or r i s J e nni f e r M a r i l yn B r i ggs a nd S he r i Z i de nb e r g C he r r 2000. S c hool ba s e d G a r de ns C a n T e a c h K i ds H e a l t hi e r E a t i ng H a bi t s C al i f or ni a A gr i c ul t ur e 54( 5) : 40 46 M or r i s J e nni f e r L A nn N e us t a dt e r a nd S he r i Z i d e nbe r g C he r r 2001. F i r s t G r a de G a r de ne r s M or e L i ke l y t o T a s t e V e ge t a bl e s C al i f or ni a A gr i c ul t ur e 55( 1) : 43 46 M or r i s J e nni f e r L a nd S he r i Z i de n be r g C he r r 20 02. G a r de n E n ha nc e d N ut r i t i on C ur r i c ul um I m p r ove s F our t h G r a de S c hool C hi l dr e n s K now l e dge of N ut r i t i on a nd P r e f e r e nc e s f or S om e V e ge t a bl e s J our nal of t he A m e r i c an D i e t e t i c A s s oc i at i on. 102( 1) : 91 93. O z e r E m i l y J 2007. T he E f f e c t s o f S c hool G a r de ns on S t ude nt s a nd S c hool s : C onc e pt ua l i z a t i on a nd C ons i de r a t i ons f or M a xi m i z i ng H e a l t hy D e ve l opm e nt H e al t h, E duc at i on and B e hav i or 34 ( 6) : 846 863 R e ga nol d, J ohn P P r e s t on K A ndr e w s J e nni f e r R R e e ve L ynne C a r pe nt e r B oggs C hr i s t ophe r W S c ha dt J R i c ha r d A l l dr e dge C a r o l yn F R os s N e a l M D a vi e s a nd J i z hong Z hou. 2010. F r ui t a nd S oi l Q ua l i t y of O r ga ni c a nd C onve nt i ona l S t r a w be r r y A g r oe c os ys t e m s P L oS O N E 5 ( 9) : 1 1 4. R obi ns on, C W a nd J M Z a j i c e k. 2005 G r ow i n g M i nds : T he E f f e c t s of a O ne Y e a r G a r de n P r ogr a m on S i x C ons t r uc t s of L i f e S ki l l s o f E l e m e nt a r y S c hool C hi l dr e n. H or t T e c hnol ogy 15: 453 457. R obi ns on O B r i e n, R a m ona M a r y S t or y a nd S t e p ha ni e H e i m 2009 I m pa c t of G a r de n B a s e d Y out h N ut r i t i on I nt e r ve nt i on P r ogr a m s : A R e v i e w J our nal of t he A m e r i c an D i e t e t i c A s s oc i at i on 109( 2) : 273 280. R ous s e a u, J e a n J a c que s 1979. E m i l e or O n E duc a t i on. N e w Y o r k: B a s i c B ooks I nc

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79 S ke l l y, S M a nd J C B r a dl e y. 2000 T he I m por t a nc e of S c hool G a r de ns a s P e r c e i ve d by F l or i da E l e m e nt a r y S c hool T e a c he r s H or t T e c hnol ogy 10: 229 331 S om e r s e t S ha w n a nd A nt oi ne B os s a r d. 2009 V a r i a t i ons i n P r e va l e nc e a nd C onduc t o f S c hool F ood G a r de ns i n T r opi c a l a nd S ubt r opi c a l R e gi ons of N or t h e a s t e r n A us t r a l i a P ubl i c H e al t h N ut r i t i on. 12( 9) : 1485 14 93 W i nt e r s J e r e m y, T r a c e y R i ng, a nd K a t hy B ur r i s s 2010. C ul t i va t i ng M a t h a nd S c i e nc e i n a S c hool G a r de n. C hi l dhood E duc at i on 86 ( 4) : 248 252.

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80 A p p e n d i x A : I n t e r v i e w G u i d e f o r L o c a l G a r d e n i n g P r o g r a m T e a c h e r s H i s t or y of P r ogr a m 1) W he n d i d t he s c hool ga r de ni ng pr og r a m s t a r t ? 2) H ow di d i t s t a r t ? I nc or por a t e d E l e m e nt s of F ood P r oduc t i on 3) I n w ha t s t e ps of t he ga r de ni ng pr oc e s s do you h a ve your s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e ? F or e xa m pl e do you ha ve t he m ge r m i na t e s e e ds t r a ns pl a nt s e e dl i ngs w a t e r t he pl a nt s ha r ve s t e t c e t c ? I a m goi ng t o r e a d you a l i s t c ont a i ni ng s om e s t e ps t ha t you m a y ha ve m e nt i one d P l e a s e pa r don a ny r e dunda nc y. D o you ha ve you r s t ude nt s : S t e p Y e s N o I f Y e s H ow ? I f N o, Wh y n o t ? P l a n t he ga r de n? M a ke c om pos t ? G e r m i na t e s e e ds ? P r e pa r e be ds or boxe s ? W a t e r / i r r i ga t e pl a nt s ? T r a ns pl a nt s e e dl i ngs ? C ont r ol pe s t s ? W e e d t he G a r de n? H a r ve s t pr oduc e ? S t or e pr oduc e ? S a ve s e e ds ? T ur n be ds ? A n y ot he r s t e ps ? 4) D o you di s c us s a ny of t he s e a gr i c ul t ur a l p r oc e s s e s ? a ) H ow s o? 5) H ow do you di vi de ga r de n w or k a m ong t he s t u de nt s your s e l f a nd o t he r a dul t s ?

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81 6) H ow i s t he p r oduc e f r o m t he ga r de n pr e pa r e d a nd c ons um e d? a I s a ny e a t e n r a w i n t he ga r de n? b. I s a ny o f i t pr e pa r e d a nd e a t e n by s t ude nt s i n a c l a s s r oom ki t c he n? i I s a ny o f i t pr e pa r e d a nd e a t e n i n t he s c hool s c a f e t e r i a ? i i A r e t he r e r e gul a t i ons p r e ve nt i ng ga r de n p r oduc e pr e pa r a t i on a t t he s c hool ? c I s a ny of t he f o od s e nt hom e w i t h r e c i pe s ? i I f s o, ha ve you r e c e i ve d f e e dba c k a s t o i f t he f o od w a s pr e pa r e d, e a t e n a nd/ or e nj oye d? C onne c t i ons t o A c a de m i c s a nd O t he r S c hool A c t i v i t i e s 7) I s t he ga r de ni ng pr og r a m a c l a s s a s e c t i on o f a c l a s s or a n a f t e r s c hool pr ogr a m ? a I f none of t he s e how i s i t o f f e r e d t o s t ude nt s ? 8) A bout how m a ny s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he ga r de ni ng pr ogr a m ? 9) D oe s s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he ga r de ni ng pr o gr a m f ul f i l l a ny phys i c a l e duc a t i on or e xe r c i s e r e qui r e m e nt you r s c hool m a y ha ve ? a H ow s o? 10) I s a gr i c ul t ur e or ga r de ni ng s t udi e d a s a n a c a de m i c s ubj e c t by a ny s t ude nt s ? 11) I n w ha t w a ys do you i nc o r por a t e t he ga r de ni n g pr ogr a m i nt o ot he r a c a de m i c s ubj e c t s or s c hool a c t i vi t i e s ? F o r i ns t a nc e do you c onne c t i t t o m a t he m a t i c s o r l i f e s c i e nc e or he a l t h or m e t e or o l ogy? I a m goi ng t o a s k you a l i s t of pos s i bl e c onne c t i on s t o ot he r s c hool a c t i vi t i e s a nd s ubj e c t s P l e a s e pa r don a ny r e dunda nc y. D o you i nc or po r a t e t he s c hool ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m i nt o s t udi e s on: S u b j e c t T op i c Y e s N o I f Y e s H ow ? H e al t h N ut r i t i on? P hys i c a l f i t ne s s ? L i f e S c i e n c e P l a nt bi ol ogy? I ns e c t / a ni m a l bi ol ogy? E c os ys t e m s a nd ha bi t a t s ? E ar t h S c i e n c e T he w a t e r c yc l e ? M e t e or ol ogy? S e a s ons ? S oi l S c i e nc e ?

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82 C om pos t i ng? M at h e m at i c s C ount i ng? A ddi ng/ s ub t r a c t i ng? M ul t i pl i c a t i o n/ D i vi s i on? A l ge br a ? G e om e t r y? E s t i m a t i ons ? S oc i al S t u d i e s N a t i ve C ul t ur e s ? P i one e r s a nd s e t t l e r s ? A gr i c ul t ur a l i ndus t r i e s ? W or ki ng i n t e a m s ? L an gu age A r t s C r e a t i ve W r i t i ng N on f i c t i on W r i t i ng F A C S c i e n c e C ooki ng? F ood S t or a ge ? N ut r i t i on? A n y ot h e r S u b j e c t s ? 12) A r e t e s t s a dm i ni s t e r e d t ha t i nc l ude a n y c onc e pt s f r om t he ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m ? a I f s o i n w ha t s ubj e c t s ? 13) I n w ha t w a ys do you c onne c t a c t i vi t i e s i n t he s c hool ga r de n t o a c a de m i c s ubj e c t s ? a D o you f i nd t he s c hool ga r de n t o be he l pf ul i n t e a c hi ng t he s e s ubj e c t s ? 14) D o you know of a n y ot he r t e a c he r s t ha t ut i l i z e your s c hool 's ga r de n t o he l p t e a c h a c a de m i c l e s s ons ? C onne c t i ons t o H om e L i f e a nd L a r ge r C om m uni t y 15) D oe s t he ga r de n pr og r a m e ve r m a ke c onne c t i ons w i t h t he s t ude nt s pa r e nt s o r

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83 f a m i l y? a T h r ough a f a m i l y ga r de n? b. T h r ough c ul t u r e a nd di e t ? c D o f a m i l y m e m be r s vo l unt e e r i n t he ga r de n? 16) H a ve a ny s t ude nt s t ha t ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t h e s c hool ga r de n pr ogr a m ha d p r i or ga r de ni ng e xpe r i e nc e ? 17) I s t he ga r de n a va i l a bl e t o t ou r du r i ng s c hoo l o pe n hous e s ? 18) I s t he ga r de ni ng pr og r a m c onne c t e d t o t he c o m m uni t y out s i de of t he s c hool i n a ny ot he r w a y? a D o c om m uni t y m e m be r s vol unt e e r t o he l p? b. I s t he ga r de n s how n t o o t he r pe opl e i n t he c om m uni t y? F i na l Q ue s t i ons 19) H ow do you a nd t he s c hool m e a s ur e t he s uc c e s s of t he ga r de ni ng p r ogr a m ? 20) W ha t i s t he pl a n f or t he ga r de ni ng pr og r a m f o r t he ne xt 3 5 ye a r s ? a A ny pl a nne d s hr i nki ng or e xpa ns i on i n phys i c a l s i z e ? b. A ny ne w a c a de m i c c ur r i c ul um or s pe c i a l pr oj e c t s pl a nne d? 21 ) I s t he r e a nyt hi ng e l s e you w oul d l i ke t o c om m e nt on or a dd be f o r e w e c onc l ude t he i nt e r vi e w ?

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84 A p p e n d i x B : O b s e r v a t i o n G u i d e f o r G a r d e n i n g P r o g r a m O b s e r v a t i o n s I n G a r de n: 1) W ha t ki nd o f a c t i vi t i e s a r e of f e r e d by t he t e a c he r ? 2) W ha t ki nd o f di r e c t i on i s t he t e a c he r gi vi ng t o t he s t ude nt s ? a ) H ow i s t he ga r de n w or k or ga ni z e d a nd a c c om pl i s he d? 3) A r e vol unt e e r s o r ot he r a dul t s he l pi ng? 4) W ha t t ool s a r e ne e de d a nd a va i l a bl e ? 5) A r e t he r e a ny a c a de m i c ( i nc l udi ng nut r i t i ona l a nd c ul i na r y) di s c us s i ons ? 6) I s a ny f ood be i ng ha r ve s t e d? a ) H ow a nd by w hom ? 7) I s a ny f ood be i ng t a s t e d o r e a t e n r a w ? a ) D o t a s t e r s s e e m t o e nj oy t he pr oduc e ? I n C l a s s r oom : 8) W ha t s ubj e c t i s be i ng r e l a t e d t o t he ga r de n? 9) W ha t i f a ny, c ur r i c ul u m i s be i ng us e d? 10) H ow i s ga r de ni ng be i ng c onne c t e d t o t h i s s ubj e c t ? 11) A r e a ny t e s t s a dm i ni s t e r e d r e ga r di ng t hi s m a t e r i a l ? 12) I f e a t e n, doe s f ood f r o m t he ga r de n a ppe a r t o be e nj oye d?


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