ERROR LOADING HTML FROM SOURCE (http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu//design/skins/UFDC/html/header_item.html)

Writing the Animal

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004409/00001

Material Information

Title: Writing the Animal
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Miller, Ericka
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Literature
Animal Studies
Feminism
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In this thesis, I demonstrate the ways in which contemporary American fiction by women uses the animal as both a literal figure and a concept. Focusing on Amy Hempel, Alice Walker, and Octavia Butler, I examine how they link their portrayal of animals to the historical, current, and potential experiences of women: these writers depict cultures whose ideologies, social expectations, ethics, and hierarchies of value prove sexist and "speciesist." First I describe historical trends in the ways that representations of animals�and animality have been used in relation to women, often to justify oppression. The advent of evolutionary discourse in the nineteenth century set in motion a series of conceptual changes, from the women�s and animal rights movements of the early to mid-twentieth century to developments within the past three decades. In particular, I draw from the emergent approach of combined feminist and animal studies to analyze�how the portrayals of animals, animality, and gender intersect in three very different works, Hempel�s�Collected Stories,�Walker�s�The Temple of My Familiar,�and Butler�sClay�s Ark give years of publication for all.�By implicitly or explicitly linking sexism and speciesism, this approach reveals, revises, and even offers alternatives to cultural structures of oppression.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ericka Miller
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Dimino, Andrea

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 M6
System ID: NCFE004409:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004409/00001

Material Information

Title: Writing the Animal
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Miller, Ericka
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Literature
Animal Studies
Feminism
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In this thesis, I demonstrate the ways in which contemporary American fiction by women uses the animal as both a literal figure and a concept. Focusing on Amy Hempel, Alice Walker, and Octavia Butler, I examine how they link their portrayal of animals to the historical, current, and potential experiences of women: these writers depict cultures whose ideologies, social expectations, ethics, and hierarchies of value prove sexist and "speciesist." First I describe historical trends in the ways that representations of animals�and animality have been used in relation to women, often to justify oppression. The advent of evolutionary discourse in the nineteenth century set in motion a series of conceptual changes, from the women�s and animal rights movements of the early to mid-twentieth century to developments within the past three decades. In particular, I draw from the emergent approach of combined feminist and animal studies to analyze�how the portrayals of animals, animality, and gender intersect in three very different works, Hempel�s�Collected Stories,�Walker�s�The Temple of My Familiar,�and Butler�sClay�s Ark give years of publication for all.�By implicitly or explicitly linking sexism and speciesism, this approach reveals, revises, and even offers alternatives to cultural structures of oppression.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ericka Miller
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Dimino, Andrea

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 M6
System ID: NCFE004409:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

i W R I T I N G T H E A N I M A L : I nt e r s e c t i ng R e pr e s e nt a t i ons of G e nde r S e x, a nd A ni m a l s i n A m y H e m pe l s C ol l e c t e d St or i e s A l i c e W a l ke r s T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i a r a nd O c t a vi a B ut l e r s C l ay s A r k E r i ka R i kki M i l l e r A T he s i s S ubm i t t e d t o t he D i vi s i on o f H um a ni t i e s N e w C ol l e ge of F l o r i da i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f o r t he de gr e e B a c he l or of A r t s U nde r t he S pons or s hi p o f A ndr e a D i m i no S a r a s ot a F l or i da M a y 2011

PAGE 2

i i A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S F i r s t a nd f or e m os t I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk P r of e s s or A ndr e a D i m i no f or s pon s or i ng t hi s t he s i s H e r s i nc e r e i nt e r e s t i n t hi s pr oj e c t w a s t r u l y i ns pi r i ng, a s w a s he r w i l l i ngne s s t o e xpl or e a nd r e l a t e t he t opi c t o e v e r yt hi ng f r om r e a l i t y t e l e vi s i on t o c l a s s i c a l m yt hol ogy. T ha t t he r e a r e s o m a ny ot he r t h e s i s a c kno w l e dg e m e nt s l i ke t hi s i s a t e s t a m e nt t o he r pa r t i c ul a r m i x of ki ndne s s c om pe t e nc e s i nc e r i t y, a nd s ki l l I d a l s o l i ke t o t ha nk M i r i a m W a l l a c e w hos e a t t e nt i on t o m y w or k a l l ow e d m e t o bounc e ba c k w h e n I w a s s t r uggl i ng a c a d e m i c a l l y. T ha nks t oo, t o M a r i be t h C l a r k, w ho a gr e e d t o j oi n m y t he s i s c om m i t t e e on r e l a t i ve l y s hor t not i c e T ha nks a l s o t o M e g L ow m a n, w ho e nc our a ge d m e e a r l y on i n m y t i m e he r e t o c onne c t m y i nt e r e s t s i n l i t e r a t ur e c r e a t i ve w r i t i ng, a nd e c ol ogy, a nd w ho ha s w or ke d h a r d t o i ns pi r e a nd s uppor t young w om e n i n w ha t e ve r f i e l d t he y c hos e t o pu r s ue I d l i ke t o t ha nk m y pe e r s w hos e c a m a r a de r i e m a de t hi s e xpe r i e nc e s o m uc h l e s s s t r e s s f ul T ha nks e s p e c i a l l y t o S a r a h I a c obuc c i B r i t ne y C ha m pa gne D ol a n C oc hr a n, L uc y M a ddox, S a r a H oga n, a nd W ya t t K os t yga n, f or m a ki ng m e l a ugh, f or l i s t e ni ng, a nd f or c ha l l e ngi ng m y i de a s I d l i ke t o t ha nk m y f a m i l y; m y gr a ndm a f o r c a r i ng f or m e w he n I ne e de d i t m os t ; m y m om f or f i ght i ng t o gi ve a l l c hi l dr e n t he gi f t s he ga ve m e a l l t hos e ni ght s w he n I w a s s m a l l a nd s he r e a d t o m e ; m y, da d, f or i ns t i l l i ng i n m e a de e p l ove a nd r e s pe c t f or l i t e r a t ur e ; a nd m y br o t he r Z a k w hos e l oya l t y a nd ki ndne s s m a ke m e pr oud. F i na l l y, I d l i ke t o t ha nk a l l t he a ni m a l s w hos e pr e s e nc e i n m y l i f e s ha pe d m e a nd t a ught m e s o ve r y m uc h.

PAGE 3

i i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S i i A B S T R A C T i v I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 C H A P T E R 1: A M Y H E M P E L S P R E S E N T 17 C H A P T E R 2: A L I C E W A L K E R S P A S T 37 C H A P T E R 3: O C T A V I A B U T L E R S F U T U R E 5 5 C O N C L U S I O N 71 W O R K S C I T E D 76

PAGE 4

i v W R I T I N G T H E A N I M A L E r i ka R i kki M i l l e r N e w C ol l e ge of F l o r i da 2011 A B S T R A C T I n t hi s t he s i s I de m ons t r a t e t he w a ys i n w hi c h c on t e m por a r y A m e r i c a n f i c t i on by w om e n us e s t he a ni m a l a s bot h a l i t e r a l f i gur e a nd a c onc e pt F oc us i ng on A m y H e m pe l A l i c e W a l ke r a nd O c t a vi a B ut l e r I e xa m i ne how t he y l i nk t he i r por t r a ya l of a ni m a l s t o t he hi s t or i c a l c ur r e nt a nd pot e nt i a l e xpe r i e nc e s of w om e n: t he s e w r i t e r s de pi c t c ul t ur e s w hos e i de ol ogi e s s oc i a l e xpe c t a t i ons e t hi c s a nd hi e r a r c hi e s of va l ue p r ove s e xi s t a nd s pe c i e s i s t F i r s t I de s c r i be hi s t or i c a l t r e nds i n t he w a ys t ha t r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of a ni m a l s a nd a ni m a l i t y ha ve be e n us e d i n r e l a t i on t o w om e n, of t e n t o j us t i f y oppr e s s i on. T he a dve nt of e vol ut i ona r y di s c our s e i n t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y s e t i n m ot i on a s e r i e s of c onc e pt ua l c ha ng e s f r om t he w om e n s a nd a ni m a l r i ght s m ove m e nt s of t he e a r l y t o m i d t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y t o de ve l opm e nt s w i t hi n t he pa s t t hr e e de c a de s I n pa r t i c ul a r I dr a w f r om t he e m e r ge nt a ppr oa c h of c om bi ne d f e m i ni s t a nd a ni m a l s t udi e s t o a na l yz e how t he por t r a ya l s of a ni m a l s a ni m a l i t y, a nd ge nde r i nt e r s e c t i n t hr e e ve r y di f f e r e nt w or ks H e m pe l s C ol l e c t e d St or i e s W a l ke r s T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar a nd B ut l e r s C l ay s A r k [ gi v e y e ar s of publ i c at i on f or al l ] B y i m pl i c i t l y or e xpl i c i t l y l i nki ng s e xi s m a n d

PAGE 5

v s pe c i e s i s m t hi s a ppr oa c h r e ve a l s r e vi s e s a nd e ve n of f e r s a l t e r na t i ve s t o c ul t ur a l s t r uc t ur e s of oppr e s s i on. A ndr e a D i m i no D i vi s i on of H um a ni t i e s

PAGE 6

vi

PAGE 7

1 I N T R O D U C T I O N A ni m al s ar e good t o t hi nk w i t h C l aude L e v i St r aus s B i t c h, w ha l e c ow ; m a ny of t he m os t a bus i ve e pi t he t s of f e r e d by our l a ngua ge l i ke n w om e n t o a ni m a l s 1 E ve n t he f e w a ni m a l c om pl i m e nt s a va i l a bl e a r e m o s t of t e n e i t he r ge nde r ne ut r a l ( a s i n l i onhe a r t e d or ha w k e ye d) or obj e c t i f yi ng ( t hi nk f oxy or s e x ki t t e ns a nd P l a yboy bunni e s ) T he ve r y t e r m i nol ogy of s e xua l ha r a s s m e nt a nd vi ol e nc e of t e n r e f e r e nc e s a ni m a l s a s i s i n t he i de a of f e e l i n g t r e a t e d l i ke a pi e c e o f m e a t T he s e ki nds of di s t ur bi ng l i nks b e t w e e n ge nd e r a nd a ni m a l s a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y be t w e e n w om e n a nd a n i m a l s a s vi c t i m s a r e e vi de nt i n our vi s ua l m e di a a s w e l l A br i e f pe r us a l of S oc i ol ogi c a l I m a ge s a n onl i ne r e s our c e w hi c h c a t a l ogue s a nd a na l yz e s a dv e r t i s e m e nt s a nd ot he r popul a r i m a ge s yi e l ds a num be r of e x a m pl e s of w om e n l i ke ne d t o a ni m a l s i nc l udi ng a s e r i e s of di s m a l c a m pa i gn m a t e r i a l f r om ( of a l l pl a c e s ) P e opl e f o r t he E t hi c a l T r e a t m e nt of A ni m a l s ( P E T A ) f e a t ur i ng s e xua l i z e d, ne a r l y nude w om e n, s om e t i m e s c uddl i ng c hi c ks or l a m bs or m or e di s t r e s s i ngl y, i n c a ge s or di vi de d i nt o but c he r c ut s or s e a l e d unde r pl a s t i c w r a p ( qt d. i n W a de 2 007) M e n, c ont r a s t i ngl y, a ppe a r a s a ggr e s s or s hunt e r s ; f or i ns t a nc e a D os E qui s a d de pi c t i ng na t i ve s i n l oi nc l ot hs a nd s pe a r s f ol l ow i ng a w hi t e E ur ope a n m a n unde r t he c a pt i on a ppr oa c h w om e n l i ke you do w i l d a n i m a l s : w i t h c a ut i on a nd a s oot hi ng voi c e ( qt d. i n W a de 2011 ) ; M a xi m s gui de t o hunt i ng f or m e n f e a t ur i ng s t r a t e gi e s f or hunt i ng di f f e r e nt s pe c i e s of w om e n ( qt d. 1 A n u m b e r o f a n i m a l s t u d i e s s c h o l a r s h a v e n o t e d t h e p o t e n t i a l h a r m o f l a b e l i n g a n i m a l s a n i m a l s i n t h i s c o n t e x t p r e f e r r i n g t h e t e r m n o n h u m a n s p e c i e s a s o n e w h i c h m o r e o b v i o u s l y p l a c e s h u m a n s a m o n g r a t h e r t h a t s e p a r a t e f r o m a n d s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r a n i m a l s ; h o w e v e r m o s t o f t h e s e c r i t i c s a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f t h i s k i n d o f t e r m i n o l o g y a n d r e t u r n t o a n i m a l a n d h u m a n f o r t h e s a k e o f c l a r i t y A l t h o u g h I a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e p o t e n t i a l h a r m o f u s i n g t h e s e m o r e c o m m o n t e r m s I t o o w i l l b e u s i n g t h e m i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y

PAGE 8

2 i n W a de 2008) ; a nd a H e i ne ke n a d i m a gi ni ng w om e n a s a ni m a l s i n a j ungl e ne got i a t e d b y pr e da t or y m e n ( qt d i n S ha r p 2010) I t doe s n t t a ke m uc h di ggi ng t o f i nd a m pl e e vi de nc e of our c ul t ur a l t e nde nc y t o us e a ni m a l l i ke ne s s t o obj e c t i f y w om e n a nd gl or i f y m a s c ul i ni t y. G r ow i ng up i n N or t he r n M i c hi ga n, how e ve r I s t r uggl e d t o i de nt i f y w ha t i t w a s t ha t m a de m e s o unc om f or t a bl e w i t h be i ng i de nt i f i e d a s s om e one i nt e r e s t e d i n a nd c onc e r ne d f or a ni m a l s I be l i e ve I c a n t r a c e t hi s pa r t i c ul a r t he s i s ba c k t o w he n, f our ye a r s a go, a f a m i l y f r i e nd a s ke d m e w ha t i t w a s a s a w r i t e r i t w a s I w r ot e a bout I w a s unc e r t a i n how t o r e s pond, s o t he y a s ke d m e w he t he r I w r ot e a bout t he a ni m a l s I di dn t know t he n w hy I f ound t he s ugge s t i on s o i nf ur i a t i ng, s o pa t r oni z i ng a nd e m ba r r a s s i ng. I di dn t know w hy i t f e l t l i ke a n i n s ul t I do know t ha t da ys l a t e r w he n I r e c e i ve d A m y H e m pe l s C ol l e c t e d St o r i e s a s a gi f t I t ook one l ook a t t he c ove r a phot ogr a ph of H e m pe l a nd he r dogs a nd di s c a r de d i t F our ye a r s l a t e r I l i ke t o i m a gi ne I ve p r oduc e d a t he s i s w hi c h di s pr ove s s om e of m y f or m e r a nxi e t i e s a t he s i s w hi c h di s pr ove s t ha t dom i na nt c ul t ur a l vi e w o f t he a ni m a l a s e s s e nt i a l l y t r i vi a l ( B a ke r 8) I a l s o hope i t s o ne w hi c h e s t a bl i s he s t he s i gni f i c a nc e of l i t e r a r y i nt e r s e c t i ons be t w e e n s e x, ge nde r a nd a ni m a l s w hi c h a r e of t e n l i nke d i n c om pl i c a t e d a nd i m por t a nt w a ys i n l i t e r a r y r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of w om e n a nd of a ni m a l s T he s e c onne c t i ons a r e not w i t hout p r e c e de nt R a t he r t he y a r e pa r t o f a l ong, a nd of t e n ne ga t i ve W e s t e r n c ul t ur a l t r a di t i on of l i ke ni ng w om e n t o a ni m a l s I n t he i nt r oduc t i on t o A ni m a l s a nd W om e n, C a r ol A da m a nd J os e ph i ne D onova n pr opos e t ha t t he or i z i ng a bout a ni m a l s i s i ne vi t a bl e f or f e m i ni s m gi ve n t he t r a di t i on of c onc e pt ua l l y l i nki ng

PAGE 9

3 w om e n t o a ni m a l s a s a i nf e r i or a nd t hus a va i l a bl e f or oppr e s s i on a nd a bus e ( 1) A da m s a nd D onova n not e : H i s t or i c a l l y, t he i de ol ogi c a l j us t i f i c a t i on f or w om e n s a l l e ge d i nf e r i or i t y ha s be e n m a de by a ppr opr i a t i ng t he m t o a ni m a l s : f r om A r i s t ot l e on, w om e n s bodi e s ha ve be e n s e e n t o i nt r ude upon t he i r r a t i ona l i t y. S i nc e r a t i ona l i t y ha s be e n c ons t r uc t e d by m os t W e s t e r n t he or i s t s a s t he de f i ni ng r e qui r e m e nt f o r m e m be r s hi p i n t he m or a l c om m uni t y, w om e n a l ong w i t h nonw hi t e m e n a nd a ni m a l s w e r e l ong e xc l ude d. U nt i l t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y t hi s a ni m a l i t y pr e c l ude d w om e n s be i ng gr a nt e d t he r i ght s of publ i c c i t i z e ns hi p. ( 1) A da m s a nd D onova n s pr i m a r y f oc us he r e i s t he hi s t or i c a l l y de ni gr a t i ng t r a di t i on of i de nt i f yi ng w om e n a nd a ni m a l s f or e m os t i n t e r m s of t he c or por e a l I n c ont r a s t m a n i s c ons t r uc t e d a s di s t i nc t f r om a ni m a l s a nd s upe r i or t o t he m be c a us e of hi s c ont a c t w i t h a hi ghe r pow e r / know l e dge c a l l e d god, r e a s on, or c ont r ol c ont a c t w hi c h c ons t i t ut e s hi s t r a ns c e nde nt a l di vi ne na t ur e t he pa r t t ha t s e e m s unl i ke a ny pa r t ow ne d by a ni m a l s m i nd, s pi r i t or c ont r ol ( F r e nc h 341) A not he r w a y t o s um m a r i z e t he s e i m a gi ne d di f f e r e nc e s i s i n t e r m s o f c onc e pt ua l bi na r i e s w he r e i n t he f i r s t t e r m i s he l d s upe r i o r t o t he s e c ond. T he s e bi na r i e s i nc l ude hum a n/ a ni m a l c ul t ur e / na t ur e a nd m a s c ul i ne / f e m i ni ne T he c a t e gor i e s w i t hi n t he s e bi na r i e s a r e of t e n c onf l a t e d i n a W e s t e r n i nt e l l e c t ua l t r a di t i on of de va l ui ng w ha t e ve r i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h w om e n, e m ot i on, a ni m a l s na t ur e a nd t he body ( G a a r d 5) M e n a r e c ont r a s t i ngl y e l e va t e d by t he i r a s s oc i a t i on w i t h r e a s on, hum a ns c ul t ur e a nd t he m i nd ( G a a r d 5) T he s e

PAGE 10

4 c a t e gor i e s a r e l i nke d t o t he s t r uc t ur e s of pa t r i a r c ha l oppr e s s i on. I n he r e s s a y, D i s m a nt l i ng O ppr e s s i on, L or i G r ue n a r gue s t ha t t he c a t e gor i e s w om a n a nd a ni m a l s e r ve t he s a m e s ym bol i c f unc t i on i n pa t r i a r c ha l s o c i e t y, a s t ha t dom i na t e d, s ubm i s s i ve ot he r w hi c h s us t a i ns hum a n m a l e dom i na nc e r e l a t i ona l l y ( 61) T he y a r e i n U r s ul a L e G ui n s w or ds t he obs c ur e m a t t e r upon w hi c h C i vi l i z a t i on e r e c t s i t s e l f pha l l ol ogi c a l l y ( 10) T he r e l a t e d c ons t r uc t i on of w om e n a nd a ni m a l s a s l e s s t ha n a nd ot he r i s e vi de nt i n s om e of t he m o s t f ounda t i ona l t e xt s of our c u l t ur e F or e xa m pl e A r i s t ot l e r e f e r s t o w om a n, w i t h he r ho r r i f yi ng r e pr oduc t i ve f unc t i ons a s a c r e a t ur e a de f o r m e d s or t o f m a n; a s m ot he r s w om e n s bodi e s w e r e t he s our c e of t he c or por e a l a nd of t he a ni m a l w hi l e s e m e n c ont a i ne d s oul ( B l a m i r e s 38 39) T hi s ki nd of de va l ui ng o f w om e n l i ke ne d t o a ni m a l s s e e m s t o ha ve b e e n e xt e nua t e d by t he r i s e of C hr i s t i a ni t y i n dom i na nt W e s t e r n c ul t ur e T he O l d T e s t a m e nt s a s s e r t i on t ha t m a n r ul e ove r a ni m a l s w a s a c c om pa ni e d by i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of m a s c ul i ne dom a i n ove r w om e n; f ur t he r w he r e a s e a r l y G r e e k r e l i gi on i m a gi ne d gods t a ki ng a ni m a l f or m s C hr i s t i a ns s a w not hi ng godl i ke i n a c t i ng l i ke a be a s t a nd c om m onl y a s s o c i a t e d a ni m a l s w i t h e vi l ( S he e ha n a nd S os na 28) R e c or ds of w i t c h hunt s pr ovi de e vi de nc e of t he a s s oc i a t i on of w i t c he s w i t h c a t s ba t s r a t s a nd c r ow s s om e of w hi c h w e r e t r i e d a nd br ut a l l y e xe c ut e d l i k e hum a n w i t c he s ( L or e nz 207) I n l i t e r a t ur e w e c a n s e e t hi s pa t t e r n a s w e l l f or i ns t a nc e a s S a ndr a G i l be r t not e s i n M i l t on s r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of E ve i n P ar adi s e L os t ( publ i s he d i n 1667) E ve G i l be r t not e s i s l i ke ne d t o t he S a t a ni c s e r pe nt bot h i n h e r r e be l l i ous t r a ns gr e s s i on a nd, G i l be r t a r gue s i n he r phys i c a l i t y, w hi c h s e r pe nt i m a ge r y s e r ve s t o e xa gge r a t e a nd pa r ody ( 373) T he s e ki nds of ne ga t i ve c onne c t i ons os t e ns i bl y s t r e ngt he ne d by t he s e s or t s of

PAGE 11

5 r e l i gi ous i nf l ue nc e s c om e up i n l e s s ove r t l y r e l i gi ous c ont e xt s a s w e l l ; f or i ns t a nc e i n A V i ndi c at i on of t he R i ght s of B r ut e s ( 1792) T hom a s T a yl or s s a t i r i c a l r e s pons e t o M a r y W ol l s t one c r a f t s A V i ndi c at i on of t he R i ght s of W om an ( 1792) T a yl o r us e d t he l ogi c of W ol l s t one c r a f t s a r gum e nt s f or w om e n s r i ght s t o m oc ki ngl y m a ke a c a s e f or t he r i ght s of a ni m a l s r e e nf or c i ng f or m a ny t he a bs ur di t y o f bot h. T he publ i c a t i on of C ha r l e s D a r w i n s O r i gi n of t he Spe c i e s a nd s ub s e que nt e s t a bl i s hm e nt of e vol ut i ona r y di s c our s e pr of oundl y c ha nge d t hi s c onc e pt of a ni m a l s a nd t he c ons t r uc t i on of ge nde r I n hi s e xpl or a t i on of p os t D a r w i ni a n l i t e r a t ur e B e r t B e nde r i s qui c k t o not e t he l i t e r a r y i nf l ue nc e of a va r i e t y of e vol ut i ona r y t e xt s t he m a j or i t y of w hi c h f a i l e d t o s e c ur e t he l onge vi t y of T he O r i gi n of Spe c i e s ( 3) B e nde r obs e r ve s t ha t i n t he w a ke of D a r w i ni s m : nove l i s t s w ho a s pi r e d t o be r e a l i s t s w e r e obl i ge d t o de m ons t r a t e t he i r a ut hor i t y i n i nt e r pr e t i ng t he D a r w i ni a n vi e w of l i f e I ne vi t a bl y, t he y e nga ge d i n t he s oc i a l de ba t e ove r s e xua l di f f e r e nc e a nd t he s uppos e d e vol ut i ona r y hi e r a r c hi e s of s e x, r a c e c l a s s a nd c ul t ur e ( 1) B e nde r de s c r i be s t he pos t D a r w i ni a n de ve l opm e nt of l i t e r a r y t r e a t m e nt s of s e xua l i t y, obs e r vi ng t ha t a t f i r s t i t w a s a m us i ng f or s om e of t he s e e a r l y w r i t e r s t o c r i t i que l ove a nd e v e n m ot he r hood by not i ng a ni m a l i s t i c a s pe c t s of hum a n c our t s hi p ( 1 2) T he s e xua l s t r uggl e of hum a ns be c a m e p r ob l e m a t i c be c a us e of i t s i nc r e a s i ngl y r e c ogni z a bl e s i m i l a r i t i e s t o a ni m a l be ha vi or i nc l u di ng t he r ol e of w om e n i n s e l e c t i ng t he i r m a t e s ( 2) T h i s e vol ut i ona r y r ol e i m pl i e d t he r e a l i t y of f e m a l e de s i r e a nd a ge nc y i n s e xua l r e l a t i ons hi ps a s p e c t s of hum a n na t ur e t r a di t i ona l l y c ons t r uc t e d a s unf e m i ni ne a nd e ve n unna t ur a l B e nde r l i nks t he s ub s e que nt r e e v a l ua t i on of w om e n s s e xua l i t y t o K a t e

PAGE 12

6 C hopi n a nd E di t h W ha r t on, w hos e da r ke r s t or i e s of s e xua l l ove w e r e i nf l ue nc e d by a nd i n pa r t f a c i l i t a t e d by t he e vo l ut i ona r y di s c our s e ( 2) E vol ut i ona r y t he or y a l s o c ha nge d c ul t ur a l vi e w s a nd by e xt e ns i on l i t e r a r y r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of a ni m a l s I n he r s t udy of a ni m a l s i n l i t e r a t ur e A ni m al V i c t i m s M a r i a n S c hol t m e i j e r m a r ks t he ye a r O r i gi n of t he Spe c i e s w a s publ i s he d ( 1 859) t o m a r k t he be gi nni ng of a m ode r n p e r i od of t hought a bout a ni m a l s a nd D a r w i n s t he or y a s a c r ys t a l l i z a t i on of pr e e xi s t i ng f or c e s i n t he hi s t or y of i de a s w hi c h i ns t i ga t e d a n i nc r e a s i ng c ul t ur a l a c c e pt a nc e of a ni m a l s a s pos s i bl e vi c t i m s a nd i m por t a nt be i ngs ( 7 8) L i t e r a t ur e S c hol t m e i j e r a r gue s ha s c a ught t he e f f e c t s of t he ne w s t a t us of a ni m a l s i n a dva nc e of ot he r f i e l ds of t hought ( 8) A ni m al V i c t i m s de s c r i be s t he l i t e r a r y m a ni f e s t a t i on of pos t D a r w i ni a n c onc e pt ua l i z a t i ons of t he a ni m a l i n t e r m s of t he ( pot e nt i a l l y r e s i s t a nt ) a ni m a l vi c t i m s i n t he w or k of a ut hor s l i ke J a c k L ondon, K a t he r i ne M a ns f i e l d, D H L a w r e nc e J ohn S t e i nbe c k a nd W i l l i a m F a ul kne r a m ong m a ny a ut hor s c i t i ng t he s e a ut hor s ym bol i c u s e of a ni m a l s i n t h e c ont e xt of c onf l i c t w i t h t he r e a l or l i t e r a l a ni m a l V e r a N or w ood r e l a t e s t he s e po s t D a r w i ni a n c ha ng e s i n r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of a ni m a l s a nd w om e n t o w om e n s l i t e r a t ur e t o t he 20 t h c e nt ur y e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd w om e n s r i ght s m ove m e nt s N or w ood i s a l s o pa r t i c ul a r l y a w a r e o f t he r ol e r a c e a nd e t hni c i t y pl a ye d i n l i t e r a r y c ons t r uc t i ons of a ni m a l s no t i ng t ha t : S i nc e t he V i c t or i a n pe r i od E ur o A m e r i c a n w om e n s c onf i ne m e nt t o t he l a nds c a pe of t he hom e ha s be e n s ym bol i c of t he i r na t ur e B i ol ogi c a l m ode l s of w om e n s r e pr oduc t i ve f unc t i ons ha ve be e n us e d t o t i e t he m m or e c l os e l y t o a ni m a l s a nd e xpl a i n t he i r

PAGE 13

7 pe r c e i ve d l a c k of r a t i ona l i t y a nd h e i ght e ne d e m ot i ona l i s m W om e n s da nge r ous l i nks t o na t ur e s e e m i ngl y j us t i f i e d boundi ng m i ddl e c l a s s f e m a l e s w i t hi n t he dom e s t i c s phe r e H om e pr o vi de d a s a f e ha ve n, pr ot e c t i ng w om e n f r om t he m s e l ve s a nd f r om na t ur e ( 172) T he i r i s s ue s i nc l ud e d how t o de s c r i be t he i r r e s pons i bi l i t y w i t hi n t he c om m uni t y of a l l a ni m a l l i f e a nd how t o c om e i nt o a ni m a l pr e s e n c e i n t he he a r t of t he i r be i ng ( 173) B y c ont r a s t ( a nd i n s t r i ki ng pa r a l l e l t o t he l a t e r c r i t i q ue s of t he f e m i ni s m of t he e a r l y t o m i d 20 t h c e nt ur y) i ne qua l i t i e s r oot e d i n c e nt ur i e s of r a c i s m ha ve m a de i t di f f i c ul t f or pe opl e of c ol or t o l ook a t na t ur e i n t he s a m e w a y a s E ur o A m e r i c a ns or E ur o A m e r i c a ns t o s e e r a c i a l m i nor i t i e s a s e qu a l l y s e n s i t i ve t o A m e r i c a s f l or a a nd f a una ( 172) T he dom e s t i c i t y of w hi t e w om e n w a s t hr e a t e ne d by t he w i l d ot he r e m bodi e d by w om e n of c ol or w ho, a t t he m os t e xt r e m e be c a m e t he m ode l i n t he m os t e xt r e m e r e a di ngs of t he i r a ni m a l na t ur e of de vi a nt s e xua l be ha vi or ( 175) S he a r gue s t ha t i n t he 20 t h c e nt ur y ( m os t l y i n t he 1960s a nd 1970s ) w om e n of c ol or us e d l i t e r a t ur e t o s ubve r t dom i na nt i de ol ogy a nd f i nd ne w w a ys of c onne c t i ng t he i r l i ve s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h a ni m a l l i f e ( 175) E u r o A m e r i c a n w om e n by c ont r a s t s t r uggl e d w i t h c onf l i c t i ng i de a s of t he t a m e d a ni m a l a nd i t s pot e nt i a l de s i r a bl e w i l d c ount e r pa r t ( 176) H ow e ve r m a ny 20 t h c e nt ur y f e m i ni s t s w ho r e c o gni z e d t he r ol e a ni m a l l i ke ne s s ha d pl a ye d i n w om e n s oppr e s s i on r e s i s t e d a s s oc i a t i ng w i t h a ni m a l c a us e s f or c om pa r a t i ve pur pos e s or ot he r w i s e T he y f e a r e d t ha t by e xt e ns i on t he y w oul d b e e nm e s he d m or e de e pl y i n t hos e a s s oc i a t e d c a t e gor i e s of na t ur e a nd i r r a t i ona l i t y c ons t r uc t e d i n oppos i t i on a nd i n f e r i or t o c ul t u r e a n d r e a s on. E l i z a be t h S pe l m a n de s c r i be d

PAGE 14

8 t hi s ki nd of f e a r a s s om a t ophobi a ( qt d. i n A da m s a nd D onova n 5) W e c a n a r gua bl y f i nd e vi de nc e of s om a t ophobi a i n S i m one de B e a uvoi r s T he Se c ond Se x ( 1949) a s w he n B e a uvoi r obs e r ve s : I n t h e m out h o f a m a n t he e pi t he t f e m a l e ha s t he s ound of a n i ns ul t ye t he i s not a s ha m e d of hi s a ni m a l na t u r e ; on t he c ont r a r y, he i s pr oud i f s om e one s a ys of hi m H e i s m a l e T h e t e r m f e m a l e i s de r oga t or y not be c a us e i t e m pha s i z e s w om a n s a ni m a l i t y, but b e c a us e i t i m pr i s ons he r i n he r s e x; a nd i f t hi s s e x s e e m s t o m a n t o be c ont e m pt i bl e a nd i ni m i c a l e ve n i n h a r m l e s s d um b a ni m a l s i t i s e vi de nt l y be c a us e of t he e a s y hos t i l i t y s t i r r e d up i n hi m by w om a n. ( 3) B e a uvoi r goe s on t o de s c r i be how i m a ge s of a ni m a l s m a t i ng ha ve be e n us e d a s e vi de nc e of t he e s s e nt i a l i nf e r i or i t y of w om e n, not i ng ho w e ve n t he f i e r c e s t pr e da t or s l i ke t h e l i on a nd t i gr e s s be nd s l a vi s hl y unde r w ha t s he f e e l s i s c om m onl y i nt e r pr e t e d a s m a s c ul i ne s e xua l dom i na n c e ( 4) H ow e ve r a s t he e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd a ni m a l r i ght s m ove m e nt s of t he 20 t h c e nt ur y be ga n t o m or e f ul l y de ve l op a l ong w i t h t he w om e n s r i ght s m ove m e nt c onne c t i ons be ga n t o de ve l op. T hi s i s m os t t r ue of t he l a t e r ha l f of t he c e nt ur y, i n t he w a ke of t e xt s l i ke R a c he l C a r s on s Si l e nt Spr i ng ( 1962) a nd P e t e r S i nge r s A ni m al L i be r at i on ( 1975) A l t hough w om e n w e r e di s pr opor t i ona t e l y i nvol ve d w i t h t he a ni m a l r i ght s a nd w e l f a r e m ove m e nt s f r om t he s t a r t t he i r i n t e r e s t w a s of t e n di s m i s s e d or t r i vi a l i z e d a s pa r t o f t he i r nu r t ur i ng m a t e r na l na t ur e ( P e e k e t a l 464 ) I n t he l a s t de c a d e s of t he c e nt ur y, c r i t i c s be ga n t o que s t i on a nd t he or i z e a bout t he a c t ua l na t ur e of t he s e l i nks I w a s i nt e r e s t e d i n e x a m i ni ng l i t e r a t ur e w r i t t e n be t w e e n t he

PAGE 15

9 1980 s t o pr e s e nt f or a nu m be r of r e a s ons t he t hr e e m os t s i gni f i c a nt of w hi c h i nc l ude 1) t he pos s i bl e i nf l ue nc e of t he a ni m a l a nd w om e n s m ove m e nt s of t he pr e vi ous de c a de s 2) t he ( hypot he t i c a l ) e m e r ge nt i nf l ue nc e of de ve l opi ng pos t f e m i ni s t s e nt i m e nt a nd 3 ) t he e m e r ge nc e of a va r i e t y o f i nnova t i ve c r os s di s c i pl i na r y c r i t i c a l a ppr oa c he s t o e xa m i ni ng a ni m a l s i n r e l a t i on t o ge nde r I ve not e d t hos e i nf l ue nc e s of t he f i r s t poi nt ; t he i nf l ue nc e of t he s e c ond i s a dm i t t e dl y, m or e a m bi guous P os t f e m i ni s m r e f e r s t o a ba c kl a s h r e s pons e t o e a r l i e r f e m i ni s t m ove m e nt s I nt e r e s t i ngl y, popul a r a nd c r i t i c a l s our c e s t e nd t o of f e r c onf l i c t i ng vi e w s of t hi s pos s i bl e ba c kl a s h. I n T he M yt h of P os t f e m i ni s m E l a i ne J H a l l a nd M a r ni e S a l upo R odr i gue z e s t a bl i s h f our pr i m a r y c l a i m s of t he po s t f e m i ni s t a r gum e nt a s s e r t e d by va r i ous c r i t i c s a nd j our na l i s t s T he s e c l a i m s i nc l ude 1) de c r e a s e d s uppor t f or a w om e n s m ove m e nt f r om 198 0 90; 2) i nc r e a s i ng a nt i f e m i ni s t s e nt i m e nt a m ong c e r t a i n gr oups i nc l udi ng e t hni c m i no r i t i e s ; 3) i r r e l e va nc e of t he f e m i ni s t m ove m e nt ; a nd/ or 4) t he r e l uc t a nc e of w om e n t o de f i ne t he m s e l ve s a s f e m i ni s t de s pi t e t he i r s uppor t of f e m i ni s t c a us e s ( 879) W hi l e r e c e nt pol l s do s uppor t t ha t f i na l c l a i m i n t he c ont e xt of t he e a r l y 21 s t c e nt ur y ( s e e A l f a no 2 005) H a l l a nd R odr i gue z f ound ove r a l l s uppor t f or a w om e n s m ove m e nt di d not de c r e a s e i n t he 1980 s 90 s ( 898) W ha t s e e m s t o ha ve c ha nge d a nd, by e xt e n s i on, a r gua bl y a f f e c t e d t he m o s t c ur r e nt s t a t us of f e m i ni s m i s t he popul a r c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on of f e m i ni s m i nt o w ha t J oa n B u s c hm a n a n d S i l vi o L e na r t p r opos e i s a ne ga t i ve c ogni t i ve f r a m e ( qt d. i n H a l l a nd R odr i gue z 898) a poi nt t he y, a l ong w i t h H a l l a nd R odr i gue z i s ge n e r a t e d by popul a r m e di a T he of t c i t e d 1998 T i m e c ove r s t or y I s F e m i ni s m D e a d? r e l a t e s t hi s t o a gr ow i ng s e nt i m e nt f r om t he l a t e 1 970 s onw a r d t ha t f e m i ni s m ha s be c om e e l i t i s t e xc l us i ona r y ( B e l l a f a nt e 1 )

PAGE 16

10 G i ve n t hi s l a s t popul a r a nd a c a de m i c c r i t i c i s m i t m a ke s s e ns e t ha t c r i t i c a l f e m i ni s m br a nc he d of f i n m o r e i nc l us i ve di r e c t i o ns i n t ha t s a m e t i m e f r a m e e ve n i f t h i s br a nc hi ng of f m a y no t ha ve be e n a s popul a r l y publ i c i z e d or va l ue d a s t ha t ne ga t i ve c ogni t i ve f r a m e vi e w T w o of t he s e br a nc he s m o s t s i gni f i c a nt t o m y t hi r d c l a i m a nd m y t he s i s ove r a l l a r e e c oc r i t i c i s m ( w hi c h be c om e s i n t hi s c ont e xt e c of e m i ni s m ) a nd, m or e r e c e nt l y, a ni m a l s t udi e s ( a l s o know a s hum a n a ni m a l or c r i t i c a l a ni m a l s t udi e s ) E c of e m i ni s t c r i t i c i s m dr a w s f r om e c r oc r i t i c i s m a n a ppr oa c h w hi c h C he r yl G l ot f e l y de s c r i be s a s t he s t udy of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n l i t e r a t ur e a nd t he phys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt ( qt d. i n B a r r y 249 ) a de f i ni t i on w hi c h doe s n t l ook e s pe c i a l l y pr om i s i ng t o t he s pe c i f i c s t udy of a ni m a l s a s l i vi ng b e i ngs E c of e m i ni s t t he or y r e l a t e s t hi s s t udy of t he na t ur a l t o f e m i ni s m pr ovi di ng a c r i t i que o f t he ont ol ogy o f dom i na t i on w he r e i n dom i na t or s a r e t hought t o be of a hi ghe r or de r of be i ng t ha n t he dom i na t e d ( D onova n 161) B y r e l a t i ng t he e xpl oi t a t i on, a bus e a nd op pr e s s i on of na t ur e t o t ha t of w om e n a s a s s oc i a t e d by l e ve l s of t he i r c ons t r uc t e d e xc l us i on f r om a nd i n f e r i or i t y t o m a s c ul i ne c ul t ur e e c of e m i ni s m pr ovi de s a di s c our s e i n w hi c h w e c a n di s c u s s t he a ni m a l s pe c i f i c a l l y. T o s om e e xt e nt how e ve r t he i nc l us i on of t he a ni m a l w i t hi n t hi s di s c our s e r e l i e s on a vi e w of t he a ni m a l a s 1) pa r t of na t ur e a nd 2) a s m e t a phor i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o w om e n v i a t he i r l i ke ne d c ons t r uc t e d s t a t us a nd t r e a t m e nt A ni m a l s t udi e s c r i t i c s i ns t e a d f oc u s s pe c i f i c a l l y on t he r ol e of t he a ni m a l T he y w or k, ge ne r a l l y, w i t h c e r t a i n pr e s uppos i t i ons of t he l i t e r a l a ni m a l a s a n i nde p e nde nt be i ng r a t he r t ha n pa r t of a c ons t r uc t e d na t ur e O s t e ns i bl y be c a u s e t hi s a ppr oa c h i s of t e n i de nt i f i e d a s r oot e d i n A ni m al L i be r at i on, a ni m a l s t udi e s c r i t i c s by a nd l a r ge t e nd t o be a ni m a l r i ght s a dvoc a t e s w ho a s s um e t he l i t e r a l a n i m a l s i nhe r e nt va l ue T hi s a s s um pt i on

PAGE 17

11 l e a ds t o s om e w i l dl y c r os s di s c i pl i na r y w or k i n t he f i e l d F o r i ns t a nc e t he r e i s J M C oe t z e e s s e m i na l T he L i v e s of A ni m al s a m i x of f i c t i ona l na r r a t i ve a nd a c a de m i c l e c t ur e s i n w hi c h w e c a n s e e c onne c t i on s be t w e e n t he c e nt r a l i z e d s ubj e c t of a ni m a l r i ght s a nd a s s o c i a t e d c onc e r ns w i t h a pa r t he i d a nd s e xi s m I n m or e c onve nt i ona l a c a de m i c f or m D a gm a r L or e nz s e s s a y M a n a nd A ni m a l : T he D i s c our s e of E xc l us i on i n a L i t e r a r y C ont e xt r e l a t e s t he s t a t us of a ni m a l s i n t he w or k of H ol oc a us t s ur vi vor s t o dom i na t i ve i de ol ogi c a l s t r u c t ur e s t ha t a ut hor i z e d vi ol e nc e a ga i ns t bot h. A ni m a l s t udi e s c r i t i c i s m m a y a l s o be c oupl e d w i t h f e m i ni s t c r i t i c i s m U s ua l l y, t he a s s oc i a t e d f e m i ni s t t he or e t i c a l a ppr oa c h i s a f or m of e c of e m i ni s m a c l a i m I m a ke b a s e d on a c r i t i c a l t e nde nc y a m ong f e m i ni s t a ni m a l s t udi e s c r i t i c i s m t o f oc us on t he c ons t r uc t e dne s s of a ni m a l s i n c onj unc t i on w i t h ge nde r B y e xt e ns i on, t hi s f oc us of t e n l e a ds t o a na l ys i s of how t h e c on s t r uc t i on of w om e n a nd of a ni m a l s l e a d s t o t he i r vi c t i m i z a t i on a nd i nf e r i or i z a t i on i n r e l a t i on t o m e n, t he hum a n s pe c i e s a nd c ul t ur e T he a nt hol ogy A ni m a l s a nd W om e n: F e m i ni s t T he or e t i c a l E xpl or a t i ons i s a n e xc e l l e nt e xa m pl e of t hi s ki nd of w or k. I t i nc l ude s f or i ns t a nc e a n e s s a y by J oa n D una y e r on t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s e xi s m a nd s pe c i e s i s m i n l a ngua ge t ha t ut i l i z e s a ni m a l be ha vi or s t udi e s i n i t s c r i t i que ( 17 18 ) ; a n e s s a y by L yn da B i r ke on t he s t a t us of w om e n a nd a ni m a l s i n s c i e nc e w hi c h a t one poi nt di s c us s e s t he r ol e of w om e n i n19 t h c e nt ur y a nt i vi vi s e c t i oni s t c a m pa i gn s ( 34) ; a nd R e gi na l d A bbot s a na l ys i s of V i r gi ni a W ool f s publ i c r e s pons e t o t he 1920 P l um a ge B i l l w hi c h s he s a w a s ge nde r bi a s e d i n i t s c onde m na t i on of t he f e m a l e c ons um e r r a t he r t ha n t he m a l e hunt e r ( 264) M y ow n t he or e t i c a l a ppr oa c h t o t hi s t he s i s i s ba s e d on t hi s e m e r ge n t hybr i di z e d f e m i ni s t c r i t i c a l a ni m a l s t udi e s a ppr oa c h. I t i s a ga i n, a r e l a t i ve l y r e c e nt a nd t hu s

PAGE 18

12 s om e w ha t va r i e d a ppr oa c h. 2 G e ne r a l l y, t he a i m s of t hi s a ppr oa c h i nc l ude 1) a c r i t i que o f t he c ons t r uc t i on of w om e n a nd a ni m a l s i n r e l a t i o n t o m e n, hum a ns a n d c ul t ur e ; 2 ) a n a na l ys i s of t he l i t e r a l a nd s ym bol i c i nt e r a c t i on s b e t w e e n a ni m a l s a nd w om e n; a nd 3) a f oc us on t he de ve l opm e nt of f e m a l e a nd a ni m a l s u bj e c t i vi t y i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r t r a di t i ona l c ul t ur a l ot he r ne s s C e nt r a l t o t hi s a ppr oa c h s e e m s t o be a r e c ur r i ng di l e m m a o f how t o a c know l e dge l i t e r a l hi s t or i c a l l y ot he r i ng s e x a nd s pe c i e s di f f e r e nc e w i t hout c om pr om i s i ng or de va l ui ng r e pr e s e nt e d w om e n a n d a ni m a l s A l t hough t he t hr e e w or ks I f oc us on i n m y c ha pt e r s w e r e publ i s he d be t w e e n t h e l a t e 1980s a nd e a r l y 2000s t he y a r e r e m a r ka bl y di ve r s e i n t e r m s of ge nr e a nd hi s t or i c a l s c ope ; not s ur pr i s i ngl y, t he a ut hor s of t he s e w or ks c om e f r om di f f e r e nt s oc i a l a nd e t hni c ba c kgr ounds a nd publ i c a l l y i de nt i f y ( or do not i de nt i f y) t o ve r y di f f e r e nt de gr e e s w i t h f e m i ni s m a nd/ or a ni m a l c a us e s M y f i r s t c ha pt e r f oc us e s on A m y H e m pe l s r e a l i s t s hor t f i c t i on i n C ol l e c t e d St or i e s H e r w or k i s t he m os t c ont e m por a r y, bot h i n s e t t i ng a nd publ i c a t i on da t e s ( m os t of he r w or k w a s publ i s he d i n t he l a t e 1990 s a n d e a r l y 21 s t c e nt ur y) S he i s a s t a unc h s uppor t e r of a ni m a l w e l f a r e w ho r a i s e s s e e i ng e ye dogs vol unt e e r s f or a ni m a l c a us e s a nd ha s s poke n a nd w r i t t e n e xpl i c i t l y a bout a ni m a l a dvoc a c y, but not t o m y know l e dge a bout f e m i ni s m S he i s w hi t e s ol i dl y m i ddl e t o up pe r c l a s s a nd f a i r l y l i be r a l M y s e c ond c ha pt e r f oc us e s on A l i c e W a l ke r s T he T e m pl e o f M y F am i l i ar a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y on t he c ha r a c t e r L i s s i e s a l t e r na t i ve hi s t or y of ot he r ne s s w he r e i n t he e vol vi ng c ul t ur a l s t a t us of s e x, r a c e a nd a ni m a l s a r e c l os e l y l i nke d. W a l k e r ha s w r i t t e n e xt e ns i ve l y a bout f e m i ni s m a nd r a c e a s w e l l a s a ni m a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l i s s u e s O c t a vi a B ut l e r w ho l i ke W a l ke r i s 2 S e e B i r k e s I n t i m a t e F a m i l i a r i t i e s ( 2 0 0 2 ) f o r a n i n d e p t h e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e a r g u m e n t f o r c o m b i n e d f e m i n i s t a n i m a l s t u d i e s

PAGE 19

13 of A f r i c a n de s c e nt i s t he a ut hor w hos e s c i e nc e f i c t i on nove l C l ay s A r k I e xpl or e i n m y f i na l c ha pt e r W he r e a s H e m pe l s w or k i s c ont e nt w i s e c ont e m por a r y, a nd W a l ke r s hi s t or i c a l B ut l e r s i s s pe c ul a t i ve a nd s e t i n a f ut u r e w e l l pa s t t he 21 s t c e nt ur y. B ut l e r a s e l f de s c r i be d f e m i ni s t a B l a c k, a pe s s i m i s t i f I m not c a r e f ul doe s not s e e m publ i c a l l y, a t l e a s t t o ha ve a ny pa r t i c ul a r i nt e r e s t i n a ni m a l r i ght s o r w e l f a r e H ow e ve r he r w or k ( l i ke m uc h s c i e n c e f i c t i on) of t e n i nvol ve s c om pl e x r e w or ki ng of t he c onc e pt of t he a ni m a l or a ni m a l i t y I de a l l y, I hope t hi s t he s i s of f e r s s e ve r a l t hi ngs T he f i r s t i s a r e e va l ua t i on of t he pa r t i c ul a r va l ue of a ni m a l s t udi e s i n r e l a t i on t o f e m i ni s m I ve f ound i t e xt r a or di na r i l y di f f i c ul t t o f i nd l i t e r a r y e xa m pl e of c ha r a c t e r s r e l a t i ng t o a ni m a l s i n a w a y t ha t di d not i nvol ve d s om e ki nd of ge nde r s pe c i f i c f a c e t M os t pr om i ne nt l y c om pa s s i on or c onc e r n t ow a r d l i t e r a l a ni m a l s i s r out i ne l y c ons t r uc t e d a s f e m i ni ne w hi l e vi ol e nc e t ow a r d a ni m a l s i s m a s c ul i ne I n pa r t i c ul a r m ot he r s b i r t hi ng a nd m a t e r na l i ns t i nc t a r e c om m onl y r e l a t e d t o t r e a t m e nt of a ni m a l s a nd not ne c e s s a r i l y i n pos i t i ve w a ys O f t e n, dr e a d of m ot he r hood i s de s c r i be d a s dr e a m of be c om i ng a br e e di ng a ni m a l A bi l i t y o r t e nde nc y t o c a r e f or a ni m a l s s e e m s t o be a m e a ns of e s t a bl i s hi ng or r e c onc i l i ng w i t h t hi s f e a r of m ot he r hood a s a pot e nt i a l l y e xpl oi t a t i ve r e pr oduc t i ve f unc t i on a nd m ot he r hood i n t e r m s of pot e nt i a l i nc a pa c i t y t o nur t u r e c hi l dr e n. M e n s vi ol e nc e f e a r or d i s m i s s a l of a ni m a l s i s by c ont r a s t a s s oc i a t e d by l i ke a t t i t ude s t ow a r d w om e n. B e c a us e a t t i t ude s t ow a r d a ni m a l s a r e s o s t r ongl y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h ge nde r a ni m a l s a l s o of t e n be c om e s our c e s f or e m pow e r i ng, hom os oc i a l bonds b e t w e e n w om e n. W hi l e w e do s e e t he oc c a s i ona l m a n a f f or di ng a ni m a l s w i t h r e s pe c t or ki ndne s s i t i s

PAGE 20

14 ove r w he l m i ngl y w om e n w ho bond ove r a ni m a l s a s r ol e m ode l s of c om pa s s i on or a s vi c t i m s w hos e vi c t i m i z a t i on pr om ot e s w om e n s s o l i da r i t y a s pr ot e c t o r s I f i nd t hi s r ol e t o be s i ngul a r l y pr obl e m a t i c a s i t c a n l e a d t o a pa r t i c ul a r ki nd of e s s e nt i a l i s m m or e s o c ons i de r i ng t he c ul t ur a l c onc e pt ua l t r a di t i on of l i ke ni ng w om e n t o a ni m a l s a nd by e xt e ns i on P e t e r B a r r y s c l a i m t ha t a pr i m a r y goa l of f e m i ni s t c r i t i c i s m a nd l i t e r a t ur e i s t o c ha l l e nge r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of w om e n a s O t he r a s l a c k, a s pa r t of na t ur e ( 134) I n he r e s s a y, T he R ol e of A ni m a l s i n W om e n s F i c t i on, M a r i a n S c hol t m e i j e r pr opos e s a t he or y f or t he w a y t he c om m on i de nt i f i c a t i on of w om e n w i t h a ni m a l s w i t hi n l i t e r a t ur e w or ks one w hi c h I t hi nk pot e nt i a l l y doe s a l l ow us t o s e e t he s e f e m i ni ne c ons t r uc t e d r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h a ni m a l s a s a m e a ns of a s s e r t i ng a nd va l i da t i ng t he s ubj e c t i v i t y of w om e n a nd a ni m a l s : T he i nj us t i c e s s uf f e r e d by w om e n t he s uppr e s s i on, s i l e nc i ng, a nd vi ol e nc e a r e a r gua bl y a n e xt e ns i on of t he m o r e e a s i l y i de nt i f i e d a bus e of a ni m a l s T he ot he r ne s s of a ni m a l s f r o m a n a ndr oc e nt r i c pe r s pe c t i ve f i nds a c or r e l a t e i n t he m or e r a di c a l ot he r ne s s of t he a ni m a l f r om a n a nt hr opoc e nt r i c pe r s pe c t i ve O n bot h s c or e s t he m a gni t ude of a bus e a nd t he e xt e nt of a l i e na t i on t he a na l ogue of a ni m a l ot he r ne s s i s a n i d e a t ha t c a n s e r ve t o f r e e w om e n f r om t he e qui voc a t i on t ha t m i ght l e a d t he m t o c ol l ude w i t h t he i r a bus e r s I f t he obj e c t of f e m i ni s m i s t o de f e a t a ndr oc e nt r i c c ul t ur e t he n a ni m a l s of f e r a n i de a t i ona l m ode l f or ont ol ogi c a l de f i a nc e ( 232) I n t ur n, I d l i ke t o r e l a t e t hi s t o a t he r e c e nt i de a s p r opos e d by D e r r i da i n t he 2003 i nt e r vi e w E a t i ng W e l l a bout how w e e s t a bl i s h our s e l ve s a s c ul t ur a l s ubj e c t s D e r r i da

PAGE 21

15 w hos e i nt e r e s t s ha ve l a t e l y t ur ne d t o t he e t hi c a l s t a t us of a ni m a l s a r gue s t ha t w e c ont i nue ( a s a c ul t ur e ) t o de vour m e a t a nd r e l a t e i t t o m a s c ul i ni t y a s a l i t e r a l e xpr e s s i on of our s ubj e c t i ve de vour i ng of ot he r ne s s ( 114) A s ubj e c t doe s not w a nt j u s t t o m a s t e r a nd pos s e s s na t ur e a c t i ve l y. I n our c ul t ur e s he a c c e pt s s a c r i f i c e a nd e a t s f l e s h l i t e r a l l y, a s a n e xpr e s s i on of he t e r os e xua l vi r i l i t y a nd f i gur a t i v e l y, i n t he f o r m o f ot he r s ( i nc l udi ng hum a n ot he r s ) a s s ubs t a n c e f or e r e c t i ng t he s e l f ( 114) T hi s f i gur a t i ve a nt hr opopha gy a nd c a r ni vor y i s a m e a ns by w hi c h a n i ndi vi dua l a nd a c ul t ur e c on s t r uc t s t he i r m o s t e l e va t e d s oc i us i nde e d t he s ubl i m i t y of t he i r m o r a l i t y, t h e i r pol i t i c s a nd t he i r r i ght by c ons um i ng t he ot he r a s a m e a ns of d e ne ga t i on of t ha t ot he r s pot e nt i a l l y a ut onom ous di f f e r e nt s ubj e c t i vi t y ( 114 15) V e ge t a r i a ns t oo, pa r t a ke of a ni m a l s e ve n of m e n he not e s s ugge s t i ng t he i r a s s e r t i on of e t hi c a l s u pe r i or i t y i s i n i t s e l f a de ne ga t i on ( 115) D e r r i da of f e r s a s ol ut i on t o c a r no pha l l ogoc e nt r i s m ; e a t i ng w e l l w hi c h he i m a gi ne s a s a n i nt e r a c t i on w he r e i n one i s l e a r ni ng t o gi ve t h e ot he r t o e a t a nd i nt e r a c t i on w hi c h i s m ut ua l l y be ne f i c i a l ( 115) O ne bi g pr obl e m w i t h S c hol t m e i j e r s m ode l i s t ha t w om e n i n i t pot e nt i a l l y do not e a t w e l l a s s ubj e c t s but i ns t e a d u s e t he s ym bol i c a ni m a l i n a w a y m os t c onv e ni e nt t o t he i r ow n de ve l opi ng s ubj e c t i vi t y. I f w om e n w e r e t o e a t w e l l of a ni m a l ot he r ne s s w om e n w oul d t he or e t i c a l l y be gi vi ng t he m or e l i t e r a l a ni m a l s om e t hi ng; os t e ns i bl y, t he e t hi c a l s t a t u s w e a s hum a ns e nj oy. I t hi nk t he s e w or ks s how a m i x of bot h ki nd s of r e pr e s e nt a t i ons r e pr e s e nt a t i ons w hi c h a r e c l os e l y t i e d t o t he t ype of a ni m a l ( e g dom e s t i c w i l d) ut i l i z e d. W he n t he a ni m a l i s a l r e a dy i nt e gr a t e d i nt o t he hum a n s oc i a l s phe r e a nd s e e m s t o c ol l ude w i t h i t by oc c upyi ng a hum a n l i ke pl a c e i t s r e pr e s e nt e d vi c t i m i z a t i on t e nds t o f a i l t o c ha nge t he s ubj e c t s t a t us of w om e n or a ni m a l s W he n t he

PAGE 22

16 a ni m a l i s c on s t r uc t e d a s s om e t hi ng out s i de of but w i t h a n a l t e r na t i ve va l ue t o c ul t ur e i t t e nds t o ga i n va l ue a nd w om e n t e nd t o be c om e e m pow e r e d; i de a s I l l e xpl o r e m or e f ul l y i n m y a na l ys i s i n t he f ol l ow i ng c ha pt e r s

PAGE 23

17 C H A P T E R 1: A M Y H E M P E L S P R E S E N T B e yond A l l i n t he S e nt e nc e s : G e nde r A ni m a l s a nd C ul t ur e i n C ol l e c t e d S t or i e s W he n I pr opos e d w r i t i ng a bout A m y H e m pe l one of t he m os t c om m on r e s pon s e s I he a r d f r om t hos e f a m i l i a r w i t h he r w or k w a s w hy s o m a ny dogs ? I t i s a que s t i on w h i c h i ne vi t a bl y c om e s up dur i ng i nt e r vi e w s w i t h H e m pe l w hos e ow n r e s pons e s r a nge f r om t he m a udl i n ( t he y a r e j us t s uc h pur e be i ngs ) t o t he bl unt f a c t of t he i r be i ng i n he r da y t o da y l i f e ( H e m pe l r a i s e s s e e i ng e ye dogs ) ( W a gn e r 1) H ow e ve r ove r s i m pl i f i e d t ha t l a t e r a ns w e r m i ght s e e m i t s one w hi c h of t e n s e e m s t o e s c a pe c r i t i c a l not i c e i n a va r i e t y of c ul t ur a l di s c our s e s I n hi s book S om e W e L ove S om e W e H a t e S om e W e E a t H a l H e r z og not e s t ha t a l t hough a bout t w o out of t hr e e A m e r i c a ns l i ve w i t h a ni m a l s w i t h w hom t he y of t e n ha ve de e p pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi ps t he na t ur e of t he s e hum a n a ni m a l i nt e r a c t i ons i s of t e n i gnor e d by m or e s e r i ous a c a d e m i c or s c i e nt i f i c di s c our s e s a s t r i vi a l ( 17) H e r z og s obs e r va t i on i s c e r t a i nl y c ons i s t e nt w i t h c r i t i c a l r e c e pt i on of H e m pe l s w or k, de s pi t e a ga i n, t he e xt r a or di na r y pr e va l e n c e of dom e s t i c pe t a ni m a l s i n h e r s t or i e s F ur t he r a num be r of w i l d or non dom e s t i c a t e d, a ni m a l s pe c i e s a r e r e f e r e nc e d t hr oughout C ol l e c t e d St or i e s T he s e s pe c i e s t oo, l oom l a r ge i n t he m i nds of s oc i a l l y a l i e na t e d, ( pr e dom i na nt l y ) f e m a l e p r ot a goni s t s s t r uggl i ng t o e s t a bl i s h t he i r s oc i a l r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h ot he r pe opl e a s w e l l a s t he i r i ndi vi dua l a ut onom y. I a r gue t ha t t he s e t w o ki nds of a ni m a l pr e s e nc e pe t a nd w i l d, pl a y di f f e r e nt a n d s i gni f i c a nt r ol e s i n s ha pi ng w om e n s i de nt i t y, of t e n i n r e l a t i on t o a c ul t ur e r e pe a t e dl y r e f e r e nc e d a s m a s c ul i ne a nd e m ot i ona l l y r e m ot e

PAGE 24

18 I w oul d l i ke t o f oc us t hi s di s c us s i on on t he e pi s t ol a r y nove l l a T um bl e H om e T um bl e H om e i nvol ve s m a ny of t he m os t c om m on t r ope s of H e m pe l s f i c t i on, i nc l udi ng a s oc i a l l y a l i e na t e d f e m a l e of t e n ( a s he r e ) ps yc hol ogi c a l l y uns t a bl e pr ot a goni s t a n a bs e nt m ot he r f i gur e 3 a nd a n e m o t i ona l l y di s t a nt pos s i bl y m i s ogyni s t i c m a l e l ove r T um bl e H om e i s f r a m e d a s a s e r i e s of l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by a young w om a n i n a ps yc hi a t r i c r e ha bi l i t a t i on c e nt e r t o a f a m ous pa i nt e r T he pa i nt e r s r om a nt i c o r s e xua l r e j e c t i on of t he obs e s s i ve na r r a t or i s t he m os t i m m e di a t e c a us e of t he ps yc hol ogi c a l br e a kdow n a nd s ub s e que nt s ui c i de a t t e m pt w hi c h or i gi na l l y l a nde d t he na r r a t or i n t he c e nt e r ; how e ve r a s t he na r r a t i ve pr ogr e s s e s t he na r r a t or s m e nt a l a nd e m ot i ona l i ns t a bi l i t y i s i nc r e a s i ngl y r e l a t e d t o h e r m ot he r s s ui c i de T he m ot he r w e l e a r n, w e nt t o a r t s c hool w i t h t he pa i nt e r but w a s de t e r r e d f r om o r a ba ndone d he r ow n a r t i s t i c pu r s ui t s a de c i s i on w hi c h s e e m s t o ha ve e m bi t t e r e d he r t o t h e dom e s t i c l i f e s ha r e d w i t h t he na r r a t or w ho w a s f a i r l y young ( pos s i bl y a t e e na ge r ) w he n he r m ot he r ove r dos e d on t he na r r a t or s m e di c a t i on. B e c a us e he i s t he na r r a t or s pr i m a r y l i nk t o t he out s i de nor m a t i ve w or l d a nd be c a us e he i s s o r e ve r e nt l y s i t ua t e d a s a f i gur e of ul t i m a t e a r t i s t i c a ut hor i t y a nd m e r i t t he pa i nt e r be c om e s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of c ul t ur e w hi c h w e s e e pr om ot i ng m e n a nd di s pr opor t i ona t e l y d i s m i s s i ng, a ba ndoni ng, a nd a l i e na t i ng w om e n. W om e n a r e r out i ne l y 3 W h i l e t h e a b s e n t m o t h e r a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s u i c i d a l m o t h e r i s a r e c u r r e n t t r o p e t h r o u g h o u t C o l l e c t e d S t o r i e s T o m R o c k T h r o u g h T h e E e l s a r g u a b l y p r e s e n t s u s w i t h b o t h t h i s q u i n t e s s e n t i a l a b s e n t m o t h e r a n d i t s o p p o s i t e t h e l o n g e d f o r i d e a l m o t h e r A y o u n g f e m a l e n a r r a t o r p r e p a r e s t o v i s i t h e r g r a n d m o t h e r w h o w a n t s t o r e m i n i s c e a b o u t t h e g o o d t i m e s w i t h y o u r m o t h e r ( 1 8 4 ) T h e c h a r a c t e r s m e m o r i e s o f h e r a c t u a l m o t h e r w h o c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e a r e s o n e g a t i v e s h e t r i e s i n s t e a d t o l i s t a n d u s e t h e e x a m p l e s o f h e r f r i e n d s m o t h e r s T h e e i g h t e e n a n e c d o t e s s h e c o m p i l e s f o r m a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i d e a l m o t h e r a s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f r i e n d a n d d e f e n d e r T h e i d e a l m o t h e r i s i r r e v e r e n t p r o t e c t i v e a n d c o n s i d e r a t e S h e i s a l s o a p o s i t i v e a n d i m p o r t a n t f o r c e i n t e a c h i n g h e r d a u g h t e r a b o u t m e n i n i t i a t i n g t h e d a u g h t e r i n t o t h e r i t u a l s o f s e x u a l i t y ( M R S R O S S l e t S u s a n k e e p h e r u n d e r w e a r i n a f o n d u e p o t s p r a y e d w i t h E s t e e L a u d e r ) a n d g e n t l y p r o t e c t i n g t h e m ( M R S S M I T H w h e n o u r s l i p s w e r e s h o w i n g s a i d i t s s n o w i n g d o w n S o u t h ) ( 1 8 6 ) I n c o n t r a s t t h e n a r r a t o r r e m e m b e r s t h e a b s e n t m o t h e r t e l l i n g h e r t h a t w h e n a m a n p r o p o s e d w h a t h e m e a n t w a s y o u l o o k e d n i c e i n t h a t d r e s s o r t h e y l i k e d y o u r h a i r t h a t w a y ( 1 8 5 ) W h i l e t h e g o o d m o t h e r l i s t e n s t h e a b s e n t m o t h e r i s u l t i m a t e l y r e m e m b e r e d f o r s i l e n c i n g h e r d a u g h t e r

PAGE 25

19 r e f e r e nc e d a s t he obj e c t s of a r t T he pa i nt e r s pe c i a l i z e s i n f e m a l e nude s w ho t he na r r a t or s us pe c t s he m a y ha ve m i s ogyni s t i c s e xua l r e l a t i on s hi ps w i t h a nd w ho he m a y di s m i s s a s de va s t a t i ngl y a nd c ol dl y a s he h a s he r T he onl y o t he r w om a n w e s e e i nvol ve d i n t hi s a r t c ul t ur e i s t he na r r a t or s m ot he r w ho i s de t e r r e d by i t a nd r e l e ga t e d t o t he r ol e of a doc e nt a t a m us e um O nl y one m a l e pa t i e nt i s m e nt i one d i n t he na r r a t or s de s c r i pt i ons of t he c e nt e r s ugge s t i ng t ha t f or w ha t e ve r r e a s on, w o m e n a r e m or e l i ke l y t o f e e l or t o be pe r c e i ve d a s una bl e t o f unc t i on or f i t i nt o t hi s c ul t u r e T he i m pl i c i t t e ns i on be t w e e n t he f e m a l e na r r a t or a nd c ul t ur e a s e pi t om i z e d by t he pa i nt e r s e e m s t o s h a pe he r n a r r a t i ve f or m T um bl e H om e ope n s w i t h a n a t t e m pt t o e s t a bl i s h t he na t ur e of l e t t e r s a nd t he j us t i f i c a t i on f or w r i t i ng t he m T he na r r a t o r w r i t e s : I ha ve w r i t t e n l e t t e r s t ha t a r e f a i l ur e s but I ha ve w r i t t e n f e w I t hi nk t ha t a r e l i e s T r yi ng t o r e a c h a pe r s on m e a ns a s ki ng t he s a m e que s t i on ove r a nd ove r a ga i n: I s t hi s t he t r ut h, or not ? I be gi n t hi s l e t t e r t o you, t he n, i n t he w e s t e r n t r a di t i on. I f I unde r s t a nd i t t he w e s t e r n t r a di t i on i s : P ut you r c a r ds on t he t a bl e ( 2 33) T hi s e s t a bl i s he s t e ns i on be t w e e n t he pe r c e i ve d r e a l i t y of t he na r r a t or a nd t ha t o f t he a r t i s t T he t r ut h c oul d be r e a d a s bot h t he m os t ba s i c f a c t s of t he a r t i s t s c ont a c t i nf or m a t i on a nd a s w hi c h pe r s pe c t i ve t he w r i t e r or t he i nt e nde d r e c i pi e nt i s va l i d, i s t r ue W e c a n s e e t he na r r a t or s t r uggl i ng t o e s t a bl i s h a ut hor i a l a ut hor i t y by s i t ua t i ng he r l e t t e r w i t hi n t he w e s t e r n t r a di t i on, i t s e l f a puz z l i ng d e t a i l ; t he l e t t e r a s a hi s t or i c a l f or m i s a r gua bl y a s of t e n a s our c e o f c onc e a l m e nt or m a ni pul a t i on a s one of t r ut h H a vi ng t r i e d t o a s s e r t he r de f i ni t i on o f he r c hos e n f or m t he na r r a t or t r i e s t o j us t i f y i t a s e a s i e r w he n your l i f e ha s be e n t i ppe d ove r a nd pul l e d out a n a l l us i on t o h e r m e nt a l br e a kdow n,

PAGE 26

20 f ol l ow i ng w hi c h w e c a n s a y a nyt hi ng ( 233) S he m us e s a l t hough m a ybe no t c om pa r i ng he r s i t ua t i on t o f i s hi ng; t he l i ght e r t h e l i ne t he e a s i e r i t i s t o ge t your l ur e dow n de e p ( 233) H a vi ng de l i ve r e d m ys e l f of t hi s m a nl y a na l ogy, s he c ont i nue s I s e e i t not a s a f a i l ur e but a s a l i e s ugge s t i ng t h a t m a s c ul i ne a na l ogy i s i na ppl i c a bl e t o he r na r r a t i ve ( 233) T he na r r a t or s e t t l e s f or now on t he f ol l ow i ng j us t i f i c a t i on: H ow c a n I pos s i bl y put a n e nd t o t hi s w he n i t f e e l s s o good t o pul l s ounds f r om m y body a n d s how t he m t o you? ( 233) T he i m pl i c a t i on t ha t t he l e t t e r i s a w a y of s e e ki ng va l i da t i on f r om hi m i s s e xua l i z e d i n t he s ubs e qu e nt l i ne s w hi c h r e f e r t o he r na r r a t i ve a s m y l i ps t i c k, m y l i nge r i e m y hi gh he e l s ( 244) S upe r f i c i a l l y, i t s c l e a r t ha t pr i m a r i l y t he na r r a t or s obs e s s i on w i t h t he pa i nt e r ke e ps he r ps y c hi c a l l y i m pr i s one d, e ve n a f t e r s h e i s c l e a r e d t o l e a ve t h e c e nt e r i t s e l f A ga i n, t he t r a um a of he r m ot he r s s ui c i de i s a l s o a n obvi ous f a c t or i n t he n a r r a t or s i na bi l i t y t o l e a ve t he c e nt e r H ow e ve r i n s t a r k c ont r a s t t o he r f i xa t i on w i t h t he pa i nt e r t h e na r r a t or r e f us e s t o r e c onc i l e w i t h t he m e m or y of he r m ot he r w ho i s i ni t i a l l y de hum a ni z e d a nd di s m i s s e d a s e vi l a s ba d. T he na r r a t or s unde r l yi ng dr e a d o f t he m o t he r i s c or r e l a t e d by he r dr e a d a nd r e pugna nc e t ow a r d m ot he r hood i n ge ne r a l T he na r r a t or s a ba ndonm e nt by t he s e e m ot i ona l l y m a ni pul a t i ve hum a n r e l a t i ons i s c ont r a s t e d by h e r i nt e r a c t i ons l i t e r a l a nd i m a gi ne d, w i t h a ni m a l s W he r e t he pa i nt e r a n d m ot he r s e e m c r ue l l y di s i nt e r e s t e d i n t he na r r a t or a s a pe r s on, a ni m a l s pa y a t t e nt i on. T he f i r s t m a j or a ni m a l pr e s e nc e w e s e e i s t he t a l ki ng g or i l l a w ho s he r e m e m be r s e nc ount e r i ng s hor t l y be f or e m e e t i ng t he a r t i s t f or t e a T he n a r r a t or r e c a l l s t he e xpe r i e nc e a s s h e de s c r i be d i t pr e vi ous l y t o t he e xpe r i e nc e t o t he a r t i s t A t t he gor i l l a s r e que s t t he n a r r a t or s how s h e r t he c ont e nt s of he r pur s e T he gor i l l a l i ke s t he l i ps t i c k a nd gr e e n r i m m e d

PAGE 27

21 gl a s s e s i t e m s w hi c h c ont e xt ua l l y c om e of f l e s s a s m a ni f e s t a t i on s of c ons t r uc t e d f e m i ni ni t y a nd m or e l i ke t he na r r a t or s m os t pe r s ona l a nd i ndi vi dua l i t e m s of a dor n m e nt T he na r r a t or s how s t he gor i l l a a n i nvi t a t i on t o a n ope ni ng a t a ga l l e r y, t o w hi c h t he gor i l l a r e s ponds l ous y pa i nt i ng B e c a us e s he [ t he gor i l l a ] pa i n t s t oo I w i s h I c oul d t e l l pe opl e he r e w ha t you [ t he a r t i s t ] s a i d t o t ha t T he y a l l do ( 241 ) A s t he go r i l l a a ppr e c i a t e s t he n a r r a t or s i t e m s of s e l f a dor nm e nt t he na r r a t or a ppr e c i a t e s t he gor i l l a s a r t a nd r e a di l y i de nt i f i e s t he gor i l l a a s a f e l l ow pa i nt e r ; t he m a l e a r t i s t c ont r a s t i ngl y, m oc ks a nd di s m i s s e s t he gor i l l a s a r t T hi s i m pl i e s a n e m e r ge nt s ol i da r i t y be t w e e n na r r a t or a nd a ni m a l one pe r ha ps f ur t he r e d by t he e xc l ude d t one of t he a r t i s t s ne xt c om m e nt I e nvy you your gor i l l a ( 241) T he n a r r a t or s e a s y di s m i s s a l of t he a ni m a l s e xpr e s s i on pa r a l l e l s hi s di s m i s s a l of w om e n, i nc l udi ng t he na r r a t or t he na r r a t or s m ot he r a nd t he f e m a l e nude s he pa i nt s L a t e r t he na r r a t or br i ngs up t he gor i l l a a ga i n, r e l a t i ng t he gor i l l a s s pur ne d s e xu a l a dva nc e s t ow a r d a not he r gor i l l a t o he r ow n a dva nc e s t ow a r d t he a r t i s t ; t he di f f e r e nc e be i ng t he r e l a t i ve ut i l i t a r i a n pa s s i onl e s s ne s s of t he gor i l l a s a c t i on ( s he a l ong w i t h t he m a l e gor i l l a a r e be i ng pr e s s ur e d t o m a t e by t he i r ke e pe r s ) a nd t he unde r l yi ng obs e s s i on of t he na r r a t or ( 275) T he f i r s t m e m or y of t he gor i l l a gi ve s u s e a r l y e vi de nc e of t he n a r r a t or s s e l f pe r c e i ve d a l i gnm e nt w i t h a ni m a l s a s w e l l a s pos s i bl e c onne c t i ons be t w e e n t he i r s t a t us i n t he vi e w of t he a r t i s t w hos e vi e w i n t u r n r e pr e s e nt s t ha t of dom i na nt m a s c ul i ne c ul t ur e I m m e di a t e l y a f t e r t ha t f i r s t m e m or y, w e a r e i nt r o duc e d t o t he a ni m a l s he l t e r dogs T he dogs a r e br ought i n a s t he r a py e a r l y on i n t he pa t i e nt r e c ove r y pr oc e s s A s t he y be c om e m or e f unc t i ona l pa t i e nt s ha ve t he oppor t uni t y t o l e a ve t he i r s a n c t ua r y f or t he a ni m a l s a nc t ua r y, w he r e t he y m a y vol unt e e r t o w a l k a nd c a r e f or t he dogs T he na r r a t or r e c ount s :

PAGE 28

22 T he f i r s t t i m e I w a l ke d one of t he ne a r by s h e l t e r dogs I br oke i nt o f ut i l e t e a r s I s a i d t o one of t he c ouns e l or s T he r e a r e t w e l ve m i l l i on ot he r s i n t hi s c ount r y a l one t ha t I a m no t a bl e t o he l p! A nd s he s a i d, I t doe s n t ha ve t o be c om pl e t e your he l p. T he goa l i s not t o e r a s e t he pr obl e m Y ou do i t t o m a ke t he c hoi c e t o gi ve a nd ge t j oy i n t hi s l i f e A nd I s a i d t o he r s t i l l i n t e a r s B ut i t i s not e nou gh! A nd t he n I a s ke d he r W ha t i s e nough? E nough e ne r gy, a t t e nt i on, e f f o r t e t c e t e r a S he s a i d, T he a ns w e r l i e s i n t he pr a c t i c e I n ba l a nc e w i t h w ha t c om e s na t ur a l l y. I s a d, H ow c a n I a s i x, 4 he l p a nyone e l s e unt i l I a m be t t e r ? A nd s he s a i d, H e l pi ng s om e one e l s e c a n m ak e you be t t e r ( 265) T hi s s e e m s l i ke a n e a s y, he a r t w a r m i ng c ons e n s us on he a l i ng; how e ve r w e s e e t hi s s e nt i m e nt c om pl i c a t e d a s t he l e t t e r s pr ogr e s s T he a ni m a l s he l t e r t he or e t i c a l l y a l l ow s pa t i e nt s t o gr a dua l l y a c c e pt a nd c ope w i t h r e s pon s i bi l i t y i n a w a y t ha t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t he i r r e i nt e gr a t i on i nt o hum a n s oc i e t y. I ns t e a d, w e s e e c ha r a c t e r s w hos e pr e f e r e nc e f or a ni m a l s s upe r s e de s t he i r i nt e r e s t i n hum a ns a nd f ur t he r w hos e c onc e r n f or a ni m a l s g e t s i n t he w a y of t he i r a bi l i t y t o f unc t i on s oc i a l l y. K a r e n, t he pa t i e nt m os t ve s t e d i n t he dogs de s c r i be s s ki ppi ng a n i m por t a nt j ob i nt e r vi e w t o r e s c ue a n i nj ur e d pi ge on, a d e c i s i on w hi c h t he na r r a t or r e a l i z e s K a r e n doe s not r e gr e t T hi s be ha vi or l i ke K a r e n s i ns i s t e nc e on a t t e ndi ng c hur c h s e r vi c e s s ol e l y t o pr a y f or d ogs m i ght a ppe a r ha r m l e s s l y e c c e nt r i c w e r e i t not c or r e l a t e d w i t h he r f a i l ur e t o ove r c o m e he r c r i ppl i ng s oc i a l a nxi e t y a r ound e ve n t he f e w f e l l ow pa t i e nt s w i t h w ho m s he l i ve s 4 R e f e r e n c e d e a r l i e r a s h e r r a n k i n g o n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s 1 1 0 s c a l e o f m e n t a l h e a l t h ( H e m p e l 2 3 4 )

PAGE 29

23 T he na r r a t or s a s s oc i a t i ons be t w e e n dogs a nd he r m e m or i e s or i de a s a bout m ot he r s m e n, a nd t he pa i nt e r a r e a l s o c onf l i c t e d, a s e vi de nc e d i n t he t e xt s ur r oundi ng he r de s c r i pt i ons of a dog na m e d S ha una S ha una i s a r e c e nt m ot he r w hos e t e n puppi e s ha d t o be w e a ne d e a r l y be c a us e he r body c oul dn t s u ppor t t he m W he n t he na r r a t or t a ke s S ha una f or a w a l k, s he not e s t he pa i nf ul a nd gr ot e s que w ounds of m a s t i t i s S ha una s be l l y s a gge d, a nd w a s c ove r e d i n l ong s c a bs ( 270) T he na r r a t o r a l s o i s ove r w he l m e d by t he puppi e s T he y c r y a nd t r y t o nur s e f r o m h e r c l i ngi ng a nd m ovi ng i n a s i ngl e m a s s ( 270) T ha t ne e di ne s s a nd t h e s c a r s a r e e m bl e m a t i c of t he na r r a t or s a nxi e t y a nd gui l t c onc e r ni ng he r m ot he r s s ui c i de e m ot i ons w hi c h s he a voi d s by i ns t e a d m a ki ng he r m ot he r a s c a pe goa t S ha una r a t he r t ha n pr ovi de a m ode l of i de a l m ot he r hood, s e e m s t o c onf i r m i t s bur de ns a nd f or c e t he na r r a t or t o f ur t he r s uppr e s s t he m e m or y of he r m ot he r s dom e s t i c de pr e s s i on. I nt e r e s t i ngl y, f o r a l l i t s i m pl i c a t i ons t he na r r a t o r e xpl i c i t l y l i nks t hi s de s c r i pt i on of S ha una t o t he a r t i s t be f or e t he m ot he r S he j um ps f r om f r a m i ng S ha una s c om pa ni ons hi p a s he r c on s ol a t i on t o a s ki ng w he t he r t he a r t i s t s c on s ol a t i on w a s a w om a n. T hi s l i nk s t r e ngt he ns t he pa r a l l e l s be t w e e n t he unr e qui t e d, une qua l he t e r os e xua l r e l a t i ons hi p a nd t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n w om e n a nd pe t s T he c ont r a s t s be t w e e n t he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps i e t he f or m e r a s a bus i ve a nd t he l a t t e r a s r e de m pt i ve a r e m a de e ve n c l e a r e r i n t he ne xt a s s oc i a t i on, w he r e i n t he na r r a t or r e l a t e s a n e pi s ode of hum i l i a t i on f ol l ow i ng a one ni ght s t a nd onl y t o f r a m e t hi s hu m i l i a t i on a s pos s i bl e c ons ol a t i on f or t h e a r t i s t a s r e a de r ( 271) T hough i t s t e m pt i ng t o r e a d t he na r r a t o r s r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h S ha una a s pot e nt i a l l y a l l ow i ng t he na r r a t or t o e m pa t hi z e w i t h a nd hum a ni z e m ot he r hood, t he f oc u s

PAGE 30

24 on phys i c a l da m a ge f ol l ow e d by a n i ns i s t e nt c e nt r a l i z a t i on of a nd s ub j uga t i on t o t he a r t i s t pr ove s i t i s pr obl e m a t i c I nde e d, t he ne xt t i m e m ot he r hood a nd t he na r r a t or s s pe c i f i c m ot he r i s br ough t up i s w he n t he na r r a t or r e c ount s : C ha t t y t ol d K a r e n one t hi ng s f o r s ur e w he n you ha ve a c hi l d, your dog be c om e s a p e t T ha t w ou l d not ha pp e n t o m e I c a n t s t a nd t h e s ound of a pe r s on e a t i ng, bu t I l ove t he s ound o f a dog c r unc hi ng dow n on ki bbl e I l o ve a dog s a ppe t i t e T he a ppe t i t e of a ba by i s a f r i ght e ni ng t hi ng t o m e I w a t c h a m ot he r s poon f ood i nt o he r ba by s m out h, t he n s poon ba c k i n w ha t t he ba by s pi t s o ut ; t o m e i t i s t he j ob of s pa c kl i ng. I f I ha d a ba by, I w oul d c ha nge ove r ni ght f r om a w om a n w ho w or r i e s a bout t he c a l or i e s i n t he gl ue of a n e nve l ope t o s om e one w ho goe s t o t he c or ne r f or c of f e e a ni ght gow n s how i ng be ne a t h m y c oa t t he he m o f t ha t gow n c l a w e d t o s hr e ds by a c a t M y m ot he r ga ve a w a y m y dogs ; w he n s he di e d, s he di e d w i t h c a t s A c a l i c o c a t s a t t uc ke d l i ke a he n on h e r c he s t a s t hough i t w e r e ha t c hi ng he r de a t h ( 273) M ot he r hood a nd t he i ndi vi dua l m ot he r i s c ons t r uc t e d, a ga i n, a s r e s pe c t i ve l y de hum a ni z i ng a nd de hum a ni z e d. T he de t a i l a bout t he c a t he r e i s pa r t i c ul a r l y i nt e r e s t i ng. C a t s a r e ge ne r a l l y c ons t r uc t e d a s f e m i ni ne w hi l e dogs a r e m a s c ul i ne a n a s s oc i a t i on w hi c h s ugge s t s w e r e a d t he c a t a s s ym bol i c a l l y s t r e ngt he ni ng t he m ot he r s a s s oc i a t i on w i t h t he f e m i ni ne I t a l s o a f f i r m s t he c om m onne s s of bonds s pe c i f i c a l l y be t w e e n w om e n a nd a ni m a l s bonds w hi c h w e don t s e e m e n ha vi ng w i t h a ni m a l s i n T um bl e H om e a nd s e e onl y r a r e l y i n C ol l e c t e d St or i e s a s a w hol e T he a r t i s t t he na r r a t or not e s doe s not

PAGE 31

25 s e e m t o ha v e a pe t a nd W a r r e n, t he onl y ot he r m a l e pa t i e nt de s c r i be d e xt e ns i ve l y, ha s no i nt e r e s t i n t he s he l t e r dog s a nd i s f i r s t s e e n i n t he l e t t e r s s e t t i ng a c a t a dr i f t on a c hunk of i c e T he ot he r m a n w e s e e a t t h e a s yl um a ga r de ne r r e pe a t e dl y s t r uggl e s t o ki l l t he r e s i de nt m ol e s T ha t t he m ot he r ga ve a w a y t he na r r a t or s ow n dog i s a l s o i m por t a nt i n t e r m s of t he na r r a t or s c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on ( a nd v i l i f i c a t i on) of t he m ot he r a s c ont r ol l i ng. G i vi ng a w a y t he dog a s s e r t s he r c ont r ol bot h obvi ous l y i n r e l a t i on t o t he na r r a t or a nd, l e s s obvi ous l y, a s a w a y of di s e m pow e r i ng t he na r r a t or by e l i m i na t i ng t ha t pa r t i c ul a r hum a n pe t r e l a t i ons hi p w hi c h w e s e e pl a c e s t he hum a n i n a b e ne vol e nt but dom i na nt r o l e S pi t e f ul l y t he na r r a t or not e s t ha t s he c r i e d w h e n he r dog di e d but not w he n he r m ot he r di d. T hough s he br i e f l y t r i e s t o m us t e r s om e gui l t s he j us t i f i e s t ha t he r m ot he r ne ve r s l e pt w i t h he r he a d on m y s t om a c h, or l i c ke d m y f a c e a w a ke a s t he dog di d ( 281) T he r o l e of t he pe t a ni m a l he r e a s pa r t of a hum a n s oc i a l s phe r e a nd a s a pa r t i c i pa nt i n s oc i a l r e l a t i ons hi ps of de pe nde n c y a nd dom i na nc e obvi ous l y l i m i t s t he c ons t r uc t i ve pot e nt i a l of hum a n pe t r e l a t i on s hi ps E nm e s he d i n c ul t ur e a nd i nt e r a c t e d w i t h pr i m a r i l y be c a us e of t he i r de pe nde nc y on a nd ne e d of hum a n c a r e dogs of f e r a t be s t c ons ol a t i on. A t w or s t t he i r i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h w om e n onl y a c c e nt ua t e s t he r e a l or pe r c e i ve d vul ne r a bi l i t y a nd vi c t i m i z a t i on o f bot h T he onl y a l t e r na t i ve t he y of f e r t o t he c ul t ur a l a nd s e xua l pr obl e m s r e pr e s e nt e d by t he a r t i s t i s a not he r r e ha bi l i t a t i on c e nt e r w he r e c l oi s t e r e d a w a y, w om e n m a y r e w a r d t he d og s goodne s s w i t h t he va l i da t i on a nd l ove t he y e xpe c t e d f r o m i n t he na r r a t or s c a s e t he a r t i s t a nd m o t he r P e r ha ps t hi s i s w hy, ne a r t he c l o s e of t h e l e t t e r s t he na r r a t or r e t ur ns t o w i l d a ni m a l s S i gni f i c a nt t o t he t he m e s of m ot he r hoo d i s t he dol phi n a n e c dot e w hi c h t he

PAGE 32

26 na r r a t or he a r d f r om a w om a n a t a ba r ye a r s be f or e I t i s de s c r i be d a s t he good ba by s t or y, s ugge s t i ng i t s s i gni f i c a nc e a s a m or e pos i t i ve pe r s pe c t i ve on m ot he r hood ( 284) I n t he s t or y, a pr e gna nt w om a n goe s i nt o l a bor a f t e r he r hus ba nd s boa t s i nks a nd he ha s be e n pul l e d a w a y by t he c ur r e nt A pod of dol ph i ns a s s i s t s t he w om a n, s a vi ng t he ba by, c ha t t e r i ng l i ke c hi l dr e n ( 285) I n gr a t i t ude t he w om a n na m e s he r da ught e r D ol phi na e f f e c t i ve l y m e r gi ng w ha t t o t he na r r a t or s m i nd i s t he i de a l i z e d a ni m a l ( w hi c h bot h ne e ds a nd pr ovi de s a f f e c t i on) a nd ba by ( w hi c h onl y t a ke s ) T he na r r a t o r r e c a l l s t ha t a f t e r t e l l i ng he r t he s t or y t he ot he r w om a n: l e f t t he ba r be f or e I di d; a dr unke n m a n t ook he r pl a c e H e l e a ne d i nt o m e a nd s a i d, I s e e i n your da r k e ye s t ha t you ha ve s uf f e r e d, a nd you ha ve c om pa s s i on, a nd I ha ve s uf f e r e d, a nd I ha ve c om pa s s i on, a nd I s e e i n you r e ye s t ha t I c a n s ay t hi ngs t o you M y e ye s a r e bl ue I s a i d. ( 285 ) G i ve n t he na r r a t o r s r e pe a t e dl y de s c r i be d t e nde nc y t ow a r ds s ubm i s s i ve be ha vi or pa r t i c ul a r l y t ow a r d m e n, he r s pe c i f i c r e c ol l e c t i on a nd r e l a t i on t o t he a r t i s t of t hi s r e s i s t a nc e t o t he dr unk i s s i gni f i c a nt T he i m pos i t i on of t he d r unk s vi s i on r e c a l l s a n e a r l i e r poi nt i n w hi c h t he na r r a t o r que s t i ons t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he a r t i s t i m pos e s hi m s e l f on t he w om e n he pa i nt s T he r e a r e a f e w s ubs e que nt s ugge s t i ons t he na r r a t or s de ve l opi ng r e s i s t a nc e t o t he a r t i s t a s i n w he n be t w e e n i nt e r l a c e d m e m or i e s o f he r m ot he r a nd t he s ui c i de of one of t he a r t i s t s r e j e c t e d m ode l s t he na r r a t or w r i t e s : O ne of t he c ouns e l or s he r e a s ke d a s i ngl e l oa de d que s t i on. S he a s ke d i f a nyone de s e r ve d t ha t ki nd of l oya l t y T he l oya l t y t ha t w oul d

PAGE 33

27 r e qui r e t he e nd of m y l i f e a s w e l l I t w a s t he f i r s t t i m e I be l i e ve d t he c l a i m t ha t you c a n he l p a pe r s on m or e by a s ki ng t he r i ght que s t i on t ha n by gi vi ng t he m t he a ns w e r ( 288 ) T hi s que s t i oni ng, w hi c h s e e m s c ont e xt ua l l y t o be a bout he r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he pa i nt e r i s f ol l ow e d by s e c t i ons w hi c h pr ogr e s s i ve l y c e nt r a l i z e he r m ot he r he r s e l f a nd t he i r a r t i s t i c i de nt i t i e s T he na r r a t or r e c a l l s how he r m ot he r w ho w e nt t o s c hool w i t h t he pa i nt e r m a r r i e d w hi l e t he pa i nt e r w e nt on t o f a m e H e r m ot he r s e e m e d t o ha v e i nt e r na l i z e d a s e ns e of hope l e s s i nf e r i or i t y. T he n a r r a t or r e c a l l s t ha t Y ou r e good m y m ot he r s e e m e d t o s a y t o he r s e l f i n f a c t you r e v e r y good. Y ou r e j us t not good e nough ( 289) W ha t w a s l e f t of he r gi f t t he na r r a t or go e s on, m a ni f e s t e d i t s e l f i n a n a r gum e nt w i t h a hous e pa i nt e r w ho t he m o t he r i ns i s t e d w a s una bl e t o m i x he r bl ue ( 289) B e c a us e t he nove l l a i s s t r uc t ur a l l y de pe nde nt on t he a r t i s t a s t he r e a de r i t i s f unda m e nt a l l y c ha l l e ngi ng, i f not i m pos s i bl e t o i m a gi ne a n e ndi ng w h e r e t he na r r a t or i s f ul l y a ut onom ous f r om hi m S he doe s not l e a ve t he a s yl um but s he doe s f or t he f i r s t t i m e r e f e r t o he r s e l f a s t he l e t t e r w r i t e r a t i t l e I r e a d c ont e xt ua l l y a s a m ove t ow a r d e s t a bl i s hi ng he r ow n a r t i s t i c i de nt i t y ( 300) T he f i na l s c e ne s he d e s c r i be s i s s e t i n a s e a s i de s a nc t ua r y f or bi r ds I t i s s e t up a s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o t he c ons t r uc t e d s a nc t ua r y of t h e r e ha bi l i t a t i on c e nt e r one w he r e s h e pr e vi ous l y s o unw or t hy of t he pa i nt e r s c onc e r n, i s he r s e l f a m ong e gr e t s w or t hy of your br us h a nd not e s t he s t a r f i s h s t r a nde d on t he be a c h be c om e a s a ndy ga l a xy w i t hi n r e a c h r e i n f or c i ng t he i de a of a n a l t e r na t e w o r l d ( 301 ) W e c a n s e e i n T um bl e H om e t he e m e r ge nc e of c e r t a i n pa t t e r ns i n t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ons a nd r e l a t i ons of w om e n a nd a ni m a l s T he pe t a ni m a l s m os t l y t he dogs f unc t i on t o pr ovi de t he na r r a t or w i t h a r e l a t i ona l r ol e s t r uc t ur a l l y s i m i l a r t o he r r ol e i n

PAGE 34

28 r e l a t i on t o t he a r t i s t a r e l a t i on of r e a l or pe r c e i ve d de pe nde nc y, on one s i de a nd pow e r o n t he ot he r B e c a us e pe t s a r e s o pr om i ne nt i n H e m pe l s w or k, I d l i ke t o l ook b r i e f l y a t how t he y ope r a t e i n a f e w ot he r s pi e c e s w he r e t he i r r e pr e s e nt a t i on i n r e l a t i on t o w om e n i s f oc us e d di f f e r e nt l y, i e on t he i r r e l a t e d vi c t i m i z a t i on vi a a ba ndonm e nt o n t h e oppos i t i ona l f or c e of t he m a s c ul i ne dom i na nc e a nd i n t he s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s oc i a l s t a t us i n r e l a t i on t o m e n. I n A t t he A ni m a l S he l t e r w om e n w hos e l ove r s ha ve l e f t t he m r e e na c t t he i r a ba ndonm e nt vi a a ni m a l s w hi c h t he y vi s i t t o c oddl e a nd c l a i m ( c a l l i ng t he m f o r i ns t a nc e M a m a s ba by ) onl y t o l e a ve t he m a t t he s he l t e r ( 157) T he s t or y s na r r a t o r r e l a t e s t he vi c t i m i z a t i on of t he w om e n t o t he a ni m a l s but s ugge s t s a dopt i ng a ni m a l s a s a pot e nt i a l s ol ut i on, or e nd t o t he c yc l e I n A t t he G a t e s of t he A ni m a l K i ngdom a na nny, M r s C a r l i n, i s ha unt e d by i m a ge s of a ni m a l e xpl oi t a t i on a nd a bus e S he s e e s t he boys s he c a r e s f or s oc i a l i z e d i nt o c om pl i a nc e w i t h t hi s a bus e W he n s he c a t c he s t h e younge s t c a l l i ng a c a t by a s t r i ng of e nde a r m e nt s s he s e e s he i s e m ba r r a s s e d. A s t he boy t r i e s t o r e c ove r by t e l l i ng M r s C a r l i n t ha t hi s f a t he r c a l l s t he c a t t he c oc kr oa c h, M r s C a r l i n obs e r ve s t ha t t he boy s l ook s ugge s t s t ha t s om e one e l s e h a s c a ught hi m l i ke t hi s a nd w i l l not l e t hi m f or ge t i t hi s br ot h e r M r s C a r l i n f e e l s c e r t a i n ( 164) U l t i m a t e l y, t he pe r va s i ve ne s s of t hi s c ul t ur a l a c c e pt a nc e a nd e ve n pr om ot i on of a ni m a l de ni gr a t i on, a nd by e xt e ns i on a bus e ove r w he l m s M r s C a r l i n, w ho c ol l a ps e s f a t a l l y, i t s e e m s unde r a de l uge of vi s ua l i z a t i ons of vi c t i m i z e d a ni m a l s T he a m bi guous l y a nt hr opom or phi c s t a t us of pe t s m a ke s t he m pot e nt i a l c om pe t i t or s I n N a s hvi l l e G one T o A s he s t he na r r a t or a r e c e nt w i dow s t r uggl e s t o r e c onc i l e w i t h t he m e m or y of he r l a t e hus ba nd ( F or e s t E L e e ni c kna m e d F l e a ) T he

PAGE 35

29 na r r a t or i s f i xa t e d on F l e a s f a i l ur e t o e xpr e s s a n y di f f e r e nc e i n hi s l ove f or t he i r m a ny pe t s a nd hi s l ove f or he r F l e a l ove d t he a ni m a l s no m a t t e r w ha t t he y di d. I t s w ha t I got t oo. I w a nt e d c ondi t i ons ( 23) F l e a s f a vor i t e dog, N a s hvi l l e i s r e m e m be r e d by t he na r r a t or i n t e r m s w hi c h s ugge s t he r a s a s ym bol i c m i s t r e s s t o F l e a N a s hvi l l e w a s w or s hi ppe d by F l e a ( 19) I n t he c oupl e s l a t e r y e a r s w he n t he y de c i de t o ke e p s e pa r a t e be dr oom s N a s hvi l l e e v e n r e pl a c e s t he na r r a t or i n F l e a s be d. W h e n F l e a di e s N a s hvi l l e de l i be r a t e l y s t a r ve s he r s e l f T he na r r a t or i m a gi ne s t ha t N a s hvi l l e di e d of a br oke n he a r t w hi c h i n t ur n c a us e s t he na r r a t or t o f e e l ups t a ge d ( H e m pe l 23) T he s t or y e nd s w i t h t he na r r a t or s r e a l i z a t i on t ha t s he he r s e l f ha s f a i l e d t o d i f f e r e nt i a t e be t w e e n hum a n a nd a ni m a l a nd ha s gi ve n a be gga r f ood f or hi s do g but l e f t not hi ng f or t he be gga r t o e a t t hus s i t ua t i ng t he be gga r a nd dog a s c om pe t i t o r s ( 2 5) I n N a s hvi l l e a nd A t t he A ni m a l S he l t e r w o m e n a r e ps yc hi c a l l y t r a ppe d by t he i r de s i r e f or s e xua l va l i da t i on f r om m e n. T he y c ope w i t h m e n s f a i l ur e s t o pr ovi de t hi s va l i da t i on vi a t he a ni m a l s w hi c h a r e a nt a gon i z e d a nd vi c t i m i z e d i n w a ys w hi c h f unc t i ona l l y a i m t o e s t a bl i s h hum a n dom i na nc e a nd s upe r i or i t y. T he pr opos e d r e s ol ut i on t o t he s e s t or i e s s e e m s t o be r e a l i z i ng t he goodne s s of pe t s or t ha t t he y c a n of f e r l oya l l y t he ki nd of c ons i s t e nt de vot i on t he s e w om e n t r y t o of f e r t o m e n w i t hout w ha t t he w om e n f e e l t o be de s e r ve d r e c i pr oc a t i on. W hi l e t hi s r e s ol ut i on, pa r t i c ul a r l y i n N a s hvi l l e s u gge s t s ki nde r m or e e m ot i ona l l y s ym bi ot i c r e l a t i ons hi ps e m br a c i ng t he i de a l i z e d p e t a ni m a l doe s n t c ha l l e nge or r e s i s t t he c ul t ur a l i s s ue s w hi c h gi ve w om e n t he ki nds of e xpe c t a t i ons a nd s e l f i m a ge s t ha t gr a nt m e n t he dom i na t i ve c ont r ol t he y h a ve i n t he m i nds of w om e n. A huge f a c t or i n t hi s i s t he i s s ue of c on s t r uc t e d r ol e s T o pe r f or m f e m i ni ni t y, f or t he s e w om e n, of t e n m e a ns t o s how

PAGE 36

30 s ubm i s s i ve a c qui e s c e nc e s om e t hi ng br ought up e xpl i c i t l y i n T um bl e H om e I t s a n a c qui e s c e nc e t o t he w i l l a nd d e s i r e a nd vi e w s of ge ne r a l l y, t he i r he t e r os e xua l pa r t ne r s w ho t he y a r e e xpe c t e d or f e e l t he y a r e e xpe c t e d t o t a ke c a r e of i n w a y s w e don t s e e r e c i pr oc a t e d e m ot i ona l l y or m or e t a ngi bl y ( i n N a s hvi l l e t he na r r a t or pa i d f or t he hus ba nd s ve t e r i na r y pr a c t i c e ) S i m i l a r l y, e ve n w h e n t he y do not c a r e f o r pe t s t he ge ne r a l e xpe c t a t i on i s t ha t t he y s houl d j us t a s i n T um bl e H om e t he na r r a t or f e e l s e xpe c t e d t o c a r e f or c hi l dr e n. E m br a c i ng t he pe t t he n c oul d be r e a d a s a m e a ns by w hi c h w om e n c a n s uc c e s s f ul l y pe r f or m a c ons t r uc t e d r o l e t he y f e e l f a i l e d a t i n r e l a t i on t o hum a ns W i l d a ni m a l s a r e c ont r a s t i ngl y r e f e r e nc e d i n w a y s w hi c h de l i ne a t e f r om c ul t ur a l or s oc i a l c onve nt i on s T he y a l l ow pr ot a goni s t s t o e xpr e s s s e nt i m e nt s w hi c h go a ga i ns t nor m a t i ve vi e w s or w ha t V e r na N or w ood m i ght c a l l t he dom e s t i c a t i on of w om e n ( 176) W hi l e r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he s e w i l d a ni m a l s a r e r e l a t i ve l y s c a r c e t he y do c om e up, i nc l udi ng i n H e m pe l s m os t c e l e br a t e d s t or y, I n t he C e m e t e r y W he r e A l J ol s on i s B ur i e d, w he r e w e s e e a not he r t a l ki ng gor i l l a L i ke T um bl e H om e I n t he C e m e t e r y W he r e A l J ol s on i s B ur i e d i s a s t or y pr e oc c upi e d w i t h c onf l i c t s of na r r a t i ve I n I n t he C e m e t e r y W he r e A l J ol s on i s B ur i e d, t he f e m a l e na r r a t or de s c r i be s he r f i na l vi s i t t o a hos pi t a l bound, t e r m i na l l y i l l f r i e nd. I t i s a m e m or y a s pa i nf ul a nd pot e nt i a l l y de va s t a t i ng a s t he na r r a t or e xpl a i ns s e e i ng one s l i m b t or n of f a nd dyi ng of f e a r s o I ha dn t da r e d t o l ook a ny c l os e r B ut now I m doi ng i t a nd hopi ng t ha t I w i l l l i ve t hr ough i t ( H e m pe l 31) T he na r r a t i ve of t e l l i ng t he s t or y a s i t a c t ua l l y ha ppe ne d i s a t c onf l i c t w i t h a r e c ogni z a bl e s oc i a l na r r a t i ve of how w e s houl d r e a c t i n t he na r r a t or s s i t ua t i on; how w e s houl d f e e l how w e s houl d a c t a nd how w e s hou l d i nt e r pr e t t he e xpe r i e nc e O s t e ns i bl y, t hi s nor m a l na r r a t i ve w oul d r e qui r e t he na r r a t or t o f e e l s ym pa t hy f or he r f r i e nd t o s t a y

PAGE 37

31 w i t h he r a nd t o m our n s e l f l e s s l y. I ns t e a d, t he na r r a t or f e a r s he r f r i e nd s i l l ne s s W he n t he na r r a t or s e e s t ha t he r f r i e nd ha s pr e pa r e d a n e xt r a be d i n he r hos pi t a l r oom s he f e e l s i r r a t i ona l l y t hr e a t e ne d, r e c a l l i ng i t hi t m e l i ke a n ope n c of f i n. S he w a nt s e ve r y m i nut e I t hought S he w a nt s m y l i f e ( 36 ) B e f or e t he ni ght i s ove r t he na r r a t or f l e e s I w a s s uppos e d t o of f e r s om e t hi ng. T he B e s t F r i e nd I c oul d not e ve n of f e r t o c om e ba c k. I f e l t w e a k a nd s m a l l a nd f a i l e d. A l s o, s he c onf e s s e s e xhi l a r a t e d ( 38) T he na r r a t or r e c ogni z e s t he s oc i a l l y s c r i pt e d na r r a t i ve s he ha s f a i l e d t o c onf o r m t o f a nt a s i z i ng how s he c oul d r e t e l l t he s t or y i nve nt or e xa gge r a t e a f f e c t i ona t e de t a i l s l i ke a ki s s t hr ough s ur gi c a l ga uz e or s a y t ha t s he s t a ye d t he ni ght ( 39 ) H e r f r i e nd s de a t h ha s f a i l e d t o of f e r c l os ur e how e ve r a nd t o r m e nt e d by gui l t a nd dr e a d of de a t h, t he na r r a t or ha s be e n l e d t o r e c onf r ont he r a c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e vi a t he na r r a t i ve w hi c h i s t he s t or y. T he na r r a t or s a s s e r t i on of he r ow n e xpe r i e nc e ove r a n a c know l e dge d s oc i a l s c r i pt i s pa r a l l e l e d by t he a ni m a l s t or i e s s he c oul d t e l l onl y pa r t i a l l y t o he r dyi ng f r i e nd. I n t he C e m e t e r y W he r e A l J ol s on i s B ur i e d op e ns w i t h t he dyi ng f r i e nd a s ki ng t he na r r a t or t o t e l l m e t hi ngs I w on t m i nd f or g e t t i ng ( 29) T he na r r a t or de s pi t e he r obvi ous une a s e a c qui e s c e s f oc us i ng on c ut e s y o r odd a ni m a l s t or i e s w hi c h t he f r i e nd pr e f e r s a s l ong a s t he y r e not t he s i c k ki nd T he na r r a t or be gi ns t o t e l l he r a bout a gor i l l a s t a r t i ng w i t h t ha t w he n t he y t a ught t he f i r s t c hi m p t o t a l k, i t l i e d a ddi ng but s he w a s a m ot he r s o I gue s s s he ha d he r r e a s ons ( 30) A t t e m pt i ng t o s e gue i nt o a m or e s e r i ous di s c u s s i on, t he na r r a t or goe s on; t he r e s m or e but i t w i l l br e a k your he a r t ( 30) T he f r i e nd s t i l l i n de ni a l of he r di s e a s e r e f us e s t o he a r i t a s s he s ubs e que nt l y r e f us e s t o a l l ow t he na r r a t or t o c om pl e t e ot he r a ni m a l s t or i e s a nd c or r e s pondi ngl y t o ope nl y di s c u s s

PAGE 38

32 t he i r s i t ua t i on. I n he r f i na l a t t e m p t t o f i nd c l os ur e t he na r r a t or e nds t he pi e c e by r e t ur n i ng t o t he gor i l l a a nd t ha t m or e w hi c h w i l l br e a k your he a r t ( 30) W he n t he c hi m p s ba by di e d, t he na r r a t or r e c a l l s t he c hi m p s t ood ov e r t he body: H e r w r i n kl e d ha nds m ovi ng w i t h a ni m a l gr a c e f or m i ng a ga i n a nd a ga i n t he w or ds : B a by, c om e hug B a by, c om e h ug, f l ue nt now i n t he l a ngua ge of g r i e f ( 40) T he a ni m a l he r e f unc t i ons s ym bol i c a l l y t o i l l us t r a t e t he unde r l yi ng gr i e f of t he na r r a t or a gr i e f t he na r r a t or w a s una bl e t o e xpr e s s i n he r s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h t he f r i e nd. W he r e a s t he di a l ogue be t w e e n na r r a t or a n d f r i e nd i s s o pa i nf ul l y c on s t r uc t e d, s o s a ni t i z e d, t he gor i l l a s i s e xpr e s s i ve bot h of he r l ongi ng f or i nt i m a c y s t ol e n a nd t he i na bi l i t y of l a ngua ge t o a dd r e s s di r e c t l y t he e nor m i t y a nd m e a ni ng o f l os s J us t a s t he n a r r a t or r e pe a t e dl y f i nds l a ngua ge a n d s oc i a l l y a c c e pt a bl e na r r a t i ve t o be a ba r r i e r t o unde r s t a ndi ng, r e l a t i ng a nd e xpr e s s i n g di r e c t l y he r ow n gr i e f t he gor i l l a s gr i e f i s vi s i bl e onl y t hr ough l a ngua ge w hi c h f a i l s t o l i t e r a l l y r e c ogni z e l os s ( t he gor i l l a i s s i gni ng a s i f t he ba by w e r e s t i l l a l i ve ) T he s oc i a l s c r i pt t he na r r a t o r f e e l s s o de va s t a t i ngl y gui l t y f o r not f ol l ow i ng s e e m s ge nde r e d. S he r e pe a t e dl y not e s t he f e m a l e nur s e s w ho ha d be c om e t he dyi ng w om a n s f r i e nds a nd t he na r r a t or e nvi e s t he i r i nt i m a c y, t h e i r e a s e H e r ow n dr e a d s e e m s s e l f i s h a nd unf or gi va bl e i n c ont r a s t ( a ga i n, t he l i t e r a l e xc ha nge of t a ngi bl e s t ha t t he nur s e s a r e pa i d, i s n t a c know l e dge d) T he one m a l e r e a l l y p r e s e nt i n t he m e m or y, t he doc t or ha s t he s ym bol i c a bi l i t y t o gi ve l i f e by t e l l i ng t he f r i e nd s he ha s e xt r a m ont hs t o l i ve t he na r r a t or c a nnot i m a gi ne t he f r i e nd ha vi ng ( 26) T he m a l e doc t or c a n va l i da t e t he dyi ng w om a n s e xua l l y ( t hr ough t he i r f l i r t a t i ons ) a nd v a l i da t e he r f ut ur e e xi s t e nc e w hi l e t he

PAGE 39

33 f e m a l e nur s e s c a n r e l a t e t o t he dyi ng w om a n a s c a r e gi ve r s nur t ur e r s c om f o r t e r s T he na r r a t or c a n t pr ovi de he r f r i e nd w i t h t he hope / va l i da t i on of hope t he doc t or c a n a s a f i gur e w i t h pow e r N or c a n s he c ons ol e t he f r i e nd, or e ve n r e l a t e t o he r a s e qua l s be c a us e t he f r i e nd ha s be c om e s o t e r r i f yi ngl y ot he r t o t he n a r r a t or T he gor i l l a i m a ge t he n be c om e s e ve n m or e i n t e r e s t i ng be c a us e i t s ym bol i c a l l y i de nt i f i e s t he na r r a t or a s a m ot he r T hi s i s a not h e r m a ni f e s t a t i on of t ha t a b s e nt hum a n m ot he r j uxt a pos e d by a m a t e r na l a ni m a l m ot i f w e ve s e e n be f or e ( f or e xa m pl e w i t h S ha una i n T um bl e H om e ) F ur t he r i t s ugge s t s t he na r r a t or s ow n s e ns e of he r a ppr opr i a t e pl a c e i n r e l a t i on t o t he f r i e nd, a pl a c e w hi c h, l i ke t he a bs e nt hum a n m ot he r s he f a i l e d t o f ul f i l l be c a us e of he r c onf l i c t i ng obl i ga t i ons t o he r s e l f a s a n i ndi vi dua l w ho w a nt s t o l i ve t hr ough i t ( 31) R a t he r t ha n gi ve t h e na r r a t or a w a y t o f ul f i l l t ha t r ol e t he gor i l l a r e m a i ns s e pa r a t e r e m ove d f r om t he s oc i a l s phe r e i n w hi c h ot he r c ha r a c t e r s ha ve r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h pe t s T he gor i l l a s ym bol i c a l l y of f e r s c or r e l a t e f or t he n a r r a t or s s t r uggl e t o e xpr e s s he r e xpe r i e nc e of gr i e f i n a c ul t ur e w hos e l a ngua ge a nd s oc i a l s t r i c t ur e s f a i l t o a c know l e dge i t s c om pl e x i t y. I t a l s o of f e r s a m e t a phor t ha t a l l o w s t he na r r a t or t o s ho w us he r gr i e f i n a w a y w hi c h i s s om e how r a w e r a nd m or e i m m e di a t e l y s ym pa t he t i c t ha n he r de s c r i be d hum a n e xpe r i e nc e P e r ha ps t he gor i l l a s gr i e f s e e m s i nt e ns i f i e d be c a us e i t i s l e s s e xpe c t e d a nd l e s s s c r i pt e d t ha n hum a n gr i e f w hi c h w e f l a t t e r our s e l ve s by i m a gi ni ng a s m or e s i m pl i f i e d a nd s e l f l e s s t ha n i n t he na r r a t or s e xpe r i e nc e C om pa r e t hi s t o t he na r r a t or s pe r c e pt i on of N a s hvi l l e s gr i e f i n N a s hvi l l e G one t o A s he s a nd w e c a n s e e f ur t he r e vi de nc e of how t he pe t a ni m a l s c ul t u r a l s t a t us pot e nt i a l l y m a ke s t he pe t a s oc i a l c om pe t i t or r a t he r t ha n s ym bol

PAGE 40

34 B ot h i ns t a nc e s of t he t a l ki ng gor i l l a a r e s om e w ha t pr obl e m a t i c be c a us e of t he na r r a t or s t e nde nc y t o pr oj e c t t he i r hum a n c ul t ur e i nt o r e a di ng a ni m a l be ha vi or H ow e ve r be c a us e t he gor i l l a s t hough not f ul l y w i l d, a r e bound t o a s phe r e s e pa r a t e f r om t he s oc i a l ( a nd m os t i m por t a nt l y t he dom e s t i c ) one of t he s e hum a n c ha r a c t e r s t he y c a n be r e f e r e nc e d i n di f f e r e nt w a ys A s p a r t of he r a r gum e nt t ha t ge nde r s t udi e s a nd a ni m a l s t udi e s a r e i m por t a nt l y r e l a t e d, L i nda B i r ke a s s e r t s t ha t dom e s t i c a t i on, i nde e d, c oul d be a hi s t or i c a l pr oc e s s of pe r f or m a nc e s of t he r ol e s of c om pa ni on a ni m a l a nd hum a n c a r e t a ke r de e pl y i nt e r t w i ne d ( I nt i m a t e F a m i l i a r i t i e s 432) T he gor i l l a s pe r f or m a nc e i s s t i l l e vol vi ng, a s one hope s a r e t he ge nde r e d pe r f or m a nc e s of t he s e na r r a t or s ; i n c ont r a s t t he pe r f or m a nc e s of pe t a ni m a l s a nd c h a r a c t e r s a r e i nt e r t w i ne d a nd f e e d of f e a c h ot he r i n w a y s t ha t t e nd t o a c c or d w i t h t he s ha r e d s oc i a l e xp e c t a t i on of bot h t o be unc ondi t i ona l l y l ovi ng a nd l oya l I n ot he r w or ds t he i de a l i z e d pe t i s good i n t h e w a ys t he s e w om e n f e e l t he y s houl d a nd w a nt t o a ppe a r t o be w hi l e t he gor i l l a i s pe r c e i ve d a s be i ng f l a w e d a nd c ont r a di c t or y l i ke t he w om e n unde r s t a nd, of t e n gui l t i l y, t he m s e l ve s t o be a s pe opl e T he pa s s i ng m e nt i on s of ot he r w i l d a ni m a l s l i ke t hos e a t t he c onc l us i on of T um bl e H om e a r e m or e r e m ove d f r om t he s e ki nds o f m o r a l j udgm e nt s I n c onc l us i on, t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n w om e n a nd a ni m a l s i n H e m pe l s w or k pr ove s i nc ons i s t e nt w i t h S c hol t m e i j e r s a ni m a l a na l ogue a s a ppl i e d t o t h e pe t a ni m a l R a t he r t ha n of f e r a n i de a t i ona l m ode l f or de f i a nc e or r e s i s t a nc e t o c ol l us i on w i t h oppr e s s i ve c ul t ur a l c ons t r uc t s t he pe t doe s s e e m t o c ol l ude w i t h c ul t ur e a nd t he r e f or e a l l ow s i t s ow n vi c t i m i z a t i on. I n t ur n i t i s a n i ne f f e c t i ve m ode l f o r e m pow e r m e nt T he w i l d a ni m a l c om e s c l os e r t o de f i a nc e / r e s i s t a nc e or a s i n I n t he C e m e t e r y W he r e A l

PAGE 41

35 J ol s on i s B ur i e d, m e t a phor i c a l l y s ugge s t s s h or t c om i ngs or f a l l a c i e s of c ul t ur a l l y c ons t r uc t e d nor m s f or e m ot i on a nd e xpr e s s i on. T he di f f e r e nt r ol e s w hi c h di f f e r e nt t ype s of a ni m a l s c a n pl a y a r e i m por t a nt t o t hi nki ng a bout t he di s qui e t i ng a t m os phe r e ( W a gne r 1) a s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of our pr e s e nt T he y s u gge s t our c ont e m por a r y, c onf l i c t i ng vi e w of a ni m a l s T he pr om ot i on of i de a l i z e d pe t s i n t he hum a n s oc i a l s phe r e a ppe a r s po s i t i ve be c a us e i t pr e s uppos e s t he i r va l ue a nd w or t h a s l i ke t ha t of hum a ns H ow e ve r i t s e vi de nt t he s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d a nd os t e ns i bl y pe r f or m e d r ol e pe t s pl a y i s pr obl e m a t i c T he i r l i t e r a l de pe nde nc y on hum a n s ( f or f ood s he l t e r ) i s r e l a t e d t o t he de pe nde nc y w om e n f e e l us ua l l y t ow a r d m e n, f or e xt e r na l va l i da t i on. I n D e r r i da s t e r m s w e c a n i m a gi ne pe t a ni m a l s a s c a r no pha l l ogoc e nt r i c a l l y c ons um e d he r e a s w om e n a s s e r t t he i r a ge nc y a nd s ubj e c t i vi t y i n r e l a t i on t o pe t a ni m a l s T hi s of t e n ha ppe ns f i r s t t hr ough i de nt i f i c a t i on, w he n w om e n i de nt i f y w i t h unj us t l y a ba ndone d, v i c t i m i z e d pe t w hos e goodne s s va l i da t e s t he i nj us t i c e of t he w om a n s e xp e r i e nc e S e c ond, t he w om a n s ow n goodne s s pa r t i c ul a r l y he r c a pa c i t y t o nu r t ur e i s pr ove d t hr ough he r c a r e f or t he pe t T hi s i s os t e ns i bl y a f or m of f ai l i ng t o e a t w e l l i n t ha t i t of t e n ove r s i m pl i f i e s or a nt hr opom or phi z e s t he pe t f or t he s a ke of e s t a bl i s hi ng t he m or a l s upe r i or i t y of t he f e m a l e s ubj e c t a m ong ot he r hum a ns W e r a r e l y, w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of N a s hvi l l e s e e t he di f f e r e nc e of pe t s a c know l e dge d, a nd a b s e nc e w hi c h s ugge s t s onl y t he i r l i ke ne s s i s va l ue d. T he gor i l l a i s us e d i n a s o m e w ha t be t t e r w a y; how e ve r e ve n i t s di f f e r e nc e f r om hum a ns i s l a r ge l y i gnor e d T he s e ki nds of pa t t e r ns w i l l be i m por t a nt t o t he f ol l ow i ng c ha pt e r s F ur t he r I w oul d a r gue f e m i ni s t a ni m a l s t udi e s r e a di ng s of H e m pe l s w or k ha v e i nt e r t e xt ua l

PAGE 42

36 s i gni f i c a nc e i n r e e va l ua t i ng he r f i c t i on i n r e l a t i on t o ot he r l i t e r a t ur e H e m pe l a s a not e d pr e vi ous l y, s e e m s m os t t o be c om m onl y r e a d i n t he c ont e xt of m i ni m a l i s m a nd i s ve r y of t e n r e l a t e d t o R a ym ond C a r ve r W hi l e i n m a ny w a ys t hi s i s a pos i t i ve pos i t i oni ng, I f e e l t ha t s t a t e m e nt s l i ke R i c k M oody s i t s a l l a bou t t he s e nt e nc e s ( M oody xvi i ) t e nd t o ove r s ha dow r e a di ngs of t he c ont e nt of C ol l e c t e d St or i e s L ooki ng a t t hi s f r om a f e m i ni s t a nd a ni m a l s t udi e s pe r s pe c t i ve a l l ow s us t o s e e f or e xa m pl e how H e m pe l s c onf l i c t e d por t r a ya l s of dom e s t i c a t e d m i ddl e c l a s s w om e n ( w hos e r a c e or e t hni c i t y a r e ne v e r m e nt i one d) a nd dom e s t i c a t e d ve r s us w i l d a ni m a l s m i ght r e l a t e d t o N or w ood s a r gum e nt t ha t f or E ur o A m e r i c a n w r i t e r s V i c t or i a n dom e s t i c i t y s a ni t i z e d w om e n s s e xu a l i t y a nd t a m e d t he a ni m a l s ( hum a n a nd nonhum a n) of hom e c a us i ng t he m t o w or k pr ogr e s s i ve l y t hr oughout t he 20 t h c e nt ur y t o r e i nve s t t he m s e l ve s a nd t he i r a ni m a l f a m i l i a r s w i t h a w i l dne s s a t t he c e nt e r of na t ur e ( 176) I n C ol l e c t e d St or i e s t ha t w i l dne s s i s a r gua bl y f ound i n t he e m ot i ons opi ni ons a nd de s i r e s w om e n r e pr e s s i n or de r t o a c t i n a s o c i a l l y a c c e pt a bl e w a y; dom e s t i c i t y, i n c ont r a s t i s t he f o r c e s ha pi ng w ha t i n B i r ke s c l a i m a r e t he pe r f or m a nc e s of bot h w om e n a nd a ni m a l s W e c oul d us e t hi s r e l a t i on of H e m p e l t o t he t h e or i e s pr opos e d by c r i t i c s l i ke N or w ood a nd B i r ke t o r e s i t ua t e i t w i t hi n a s pa r t of a gynoc e nt r i c l i t e r a r y t r a di t i on, a t r a di t i on w hi c h s e e m s t o h a ve a pa r t i c ul a r t r a j e c t or y of e vol vi ng por t r a ya l s of a ni m a l s T hi s c oul d be pa r t i c ul a r l y va l ua bl e i n a ge ne r i c c ont e xt I n t he i nt r oduc t i on t o A m e r i c an W om e n Shor t St or y W r i t e r s J ul i e B r ow n out l i ne s how f e m i ni s t c r i t i c a l e va l ua t i ons of s hor t s t or i e s a r e r e l a t i ve l y l i m i t e d ( B r ow n xvi xx) T hi s pot e nt i a l us e of a f e m i ni s t a ni m a l s t udi e s r e a di ng of he r w or k i s ye t a not he r r e a s on a m ong m a ny w hi c h de m ons t r a t e i t s pot e nt i a l be yond s i m pl y a l l i n t he s e nt e nc e s

PAGE 43

37 C H A P T E R 2: A L I C E W A L K E R S P A S T H i s t or i e s of A ni m a l a nd H um a n O t he r ne s s i n T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar V e r na N or w ood a r gue s t ha t i n t he 2 0 t h c e nt ur y, f or m a ny w om e n of c ol or t he i r s pe c i f i c c hoi c e t o w r i t e a bout f a m i l i a r a ni m a l s br i ngs t o t he s ur f a c e pr obl e m a t i c vi s i ons of unc ont r ol l e d s e xua l i t y, a p r obl e m w hi c h s he a r gue s t he s e w om e n c onf r ont w i t h s ubve r s i ons of dom i na nt i de ol ogy a nd i nn ov a t i ve ki nds of c onne c t i ons be t w e e n t he m s e l ve s a nd a ni m a l s ( N or w ood 175) A l i c e W a l ke r s T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar i s i n m a ny w a ys e xe m pl a r y of t hi s t r e nd, m os t pa r t i c ul a r l y t ha t s ubve r s i on pa r t T he nove l r e pe a t e dl y a l l i e s w om e n a nd a ni m a l s ( a nd r a c i a l m i nor i t i e s ) onl y t o a s s e r t t h e e s s e nt i a l ne s s of t hi s a l l i a nc e i n r e l a t i on t o a n i nf e r i or pa t r i a r c ha l s oc i a l s t r uc t ur e a nd c ul t ur e I t e s t a bl i s he s t hi s a l l i a nc e a s hi s t or i c a l ; i nde e d, a s f ounda t i ona l t o hum a n s oc i a l e vol ut i on. U nl i ke C ol l e c t e d St or i e s T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar ha s r e c e i ve d s e r i ous c r i t i c a l c ons i de r a t i on w i t hi n t he f i e l d of a ni m a l s t udi e s ( i nc l udi ng by S c hol t m e i j e r i n T he R ol e of t he A ni m a l i n W om e n s F i c t i on, 1995) G i ve n t he e xi s t e nc e of m or e ge ne r a l a ni m a l s t udi e s a nd f e m i ni s t ( or w om a ni s t ) t r e a t m e nt s of t he nove l I w oul d l i ke t o f oc us m y a na l ys i s on t he r ol e of t he a ni m a l i n r e l a t i on t o t he c ha r a c t e r of L i s s i e L i s s i e ha s m e m or i e s of pr e vi ous l i ve s s pa nni ng ba c k m i l l e nn i a T oge t he r t he s e m e m or i e s pr ovi de a hi s t or i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve w hi c h c e nt r a l i z e s ot he r ne s s a nd c r e a t e s s ol i da r i t y be t w e e n w om e n, r a c i a l m i nor i t i e s a nd a ni m a l s I t s a hi s t or i c a l na r r a t i ve w hi c h de l i be r a t e l y de f i e s c om pa r a bl e dom i na nt W e s t e r n a nt hr opol ogi c a l r e l i gi ous a nd a c a de m i c di s c our s e s a nd

PAGE 44

38 one w hi c h s e r ve s t o v a l i da t e a nd e xpl or e he r ow n s ubj e c t i vi t y a s a bl a c k w om a n l i vi ng t he l a s t ye a r s of he r c ur r e nt i nc a r na t i on i n c ont e m p or a r y A m e r i c a T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar i s a s pr a w l i ng, t hi r d pe r s on na r r a t i ve w hi c h f ol l ow s pr i m a r i l y t he e xpe r i e nc e of f our a dul t c o upl e s C a r l ot t a a nd A r ve yda a nd S uw e l o a n d F a nny, l i vi ng i n c ont e m por a r y A m e r i c a 5 T he i r r e s pe c t i ve m a r r i a ge s de t e r i or a t i ng t he s e c ha r a c t e r s s t r uggl e t o f i nd t he i r i de nt i t i e s a s m e n or w om e n a nd a s r a c i a l or e t hni c m i nor i t i e s e s t r a nge d f r om t he i r c ul t u r a l he r i t a ge Z e de ( C a r l ot t a s m ot he r ) F a nny s m ot he r a nd L i s s i e ( S uw e l o s l a t e gr e a t unc l e s f r i e nd a nd f or m e r l ove r ) f unc t i on a s pow e r f ul m a t r i a r c hs w i t h t he know l e dge e xpe r i e nc e a nd a ut hor i t y t o gi ve t hi s younge r ge ne r a t i on t he unde r s t a ndi ng ne c e s s a r y f or t he m t o de ve l op a s i ndi vi dua l s a nd r e e s t a bl i s h t he i r r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h e a c h ot he r W e e nc ount e r t he s e m a t r i a r c ha l f i gu r e s t hr ough C a r l ot t a A r ve yda S uw e l o, a nd F a nny s i n t e r a c t i ons w i t h t he m 6 O f t he s e t hr e e m a t r i a r c ha l f i gur e s L i s s i e m e r i t s t h e m os t t e xt vi a h e r s poke n or r e c or de d s t or i e s a nd t o ot he r c ha r a c t e r s r e s pons e s t o he r W e i nt e r a c t w i t h L i s s i e t hr ough t he na r r a t i ve l e ns of S uw e l o, a n a c a de m i c w ho s t udi e s a nd t e a c he s A m e r i c a n hi s t or y a t a n unna m e d uni ve r s i t y. I n t he w a ke of hi s r e c e nt br e a k up w i t h F a nny, S uw e l o i s pr e oc c upi e d by i s s ue s of s e xua l pol i t i c s a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of s e xua l i ne qua l i t y. W e f i r s t f i nd hi m di s gus t e dl y r e vi e w i ng a c ol l e a gue s ne w nove l A f t e r r e a di ng s c e ne a f t e r s c e ne of di s t ur bi ng m i s ogyny a nd s e xua l vi c t i m i z a t i on, S uw e l o m us e s t ha t hi s ge ne r a t i on of m e n ha d f a i l e d w om e n a nd t he m s e l ve s ( W a l k e r 28 29) F or a l l t he i r a c t i vi s m a nd pol i t i c a l de ve l opm e nt dur i ng t he s i xt i e s a l l t he i r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he pe r va s i ve ne s s of 5 T h e n o v e l s p r e s e n t s e e m s t o b e t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 s a n d 1 9 8 0 s ; C a r l o t t a m e e t s A r v e y d a i n t h e 1 9 6 0 s a n d s e e m s t o h a v e c h i l d r e n i n t h a t p e r i o d w h o a r e a d u l t s b y t h e n o v e l s p r e s e n t 6 W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f Z e d e w h o s e c h i l d h o o d i s d e s c r i b e d i n d e p e n d e n t o f a n y t e x t u a l l y p r e s e n t a u d i e n c e

PAGE 45

39 oppr e s s i on, S uw e l o obs e r ve s m e n s t i l l pr e f e r w om e n t o be s ubor di na t e s upi ne ( 29) A s he r e f l e c t s of t he book, S uw e l o c om e s t o c onde m n t he pr ot a goni s t w ho r e f e r s t o ha vi ng t he l ove i nt e r e s t a s hi s w om a n ( 29) S e l f r e f l e xi ve l y he a dm oni s he s hi s ow n f a i l e d a t t e m pt s t o m a ke hi s w om a n of F a nny, a t t e m pt s w hi c h i t s e e m s l e d t o he r l e a vi ng ( 29) A r gua bl y, i t i s t hi s i nt e ns i f i e d i n t e r e s t i n r e l a t i o ns be t w e e n t he s e xe s ( a nd by e xt e ns i on, t he di f f e r e nc e S uw e l o pe r c e i ve s be t w e e n r e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd l i t e r a l s e xua l pol i t i c s ) t ha t l e a ds hi m ul t i m a t e l y t o L i s s i e A s he s or t s t hr ough t he pos s e s s i ons of hi s l a t e gr e a t unc l e R a f e S uw e l l o i s i nt r i gue d by a l l us i ons t o L i s s i e H e a s ks M r H a l a f r i e nd o f R a f e s a bout he r a nd i s s oon i nt r oduc e d t o L i s s i e T he m e m or i e s s he s ubs e que nt l y r e l a t e s t o S uw e l o be gi n i n t he yout h of he r c ur r e nt i nc a r na t i on I n he r de s c r i pt i ons of l i f e i n a m a j or i t y A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, i s l a nd c om m uni t y, t he r e a r e a l r e a dy s ugge s t i ons of t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n t hos e m a r gi na l i z e d by r a c i a l a nd s e xua l dom i na t i on a nd a ni m a l s T h e m os t i m por t a nt of t he s e c ont e xt ua l l y a r e t he r e f e r e nc e s t o di e t a nd t he m e t a phor o f t he z oo. L i s s i e s ugge s t s he r e t ha t poor di e t i s a c om pone nt of r a c i a l oppr e s s i on, a nd s t r e s s e s t he i m por t a nc e of ve ge t a bl e e a t i ng t o t he phys i c a l a nd i de a t i ona l de v e l opm e nt of he r c om m uni t y, r e l a t i ng t he e c onom i c e xpl oi t a t i on of t he m a j or i t y bl a c k i s l a nde r s t o t he c ons um pt i on of t he i r pr oduc e by m a i nl a nd w hi t e s S he i m a gi ne s t he s e w hi t e pe opl e s e e he r c om m uni t y a s a z oo ( 59) a ni m a l i z e d by t he i r phys i c a l di f f e r e nc e T he ne xt i nc a r na t i on s he di s c us s e s i s h e r e xpe r i e n c e a s a n A f r i c a n w om a n s ol d by he r unc l e i nt o s l a ve r y i n c ol oni a l A m e r i c a I n A f r i c a s he r e m e m be r s be i ng oppr e s s e d by t he M oha m e t a ns w ho s e r e l i gi ous be l i e f s w e r e a t odds w i t h a pr e e xi s t i ng t r a di t i on of

PAGE 46

40 m ot he r w or s hi p. T he r e l i gi on of t he M oha m e t a ns i s de s c r i be d a s one w hi c h f a l s e l y oppr e s s e d w om e n i n c onj unc t i on w i t h a ni m a l s a s pr ope r t y. A M oha m e t a n c oul d ow n m a ny w om e n, a s he o w ne d m a ny c a t t l e or hunt i ng dogs ( 64) T he M ot he r w or s hi pe r s a r e f ur t he r a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a ni m a l s by t he i r l i z a r d l i ke c ha m e l e on s t r a t e gi e s f or r e l i gi ous a nd s oc i a l r e s i s t a nc e M uc h, ve r y m uc h w e ha ve l e a r ne d, ove r t i m e f r om l i z a r ds r e c a l l s L i s s i e be f or e de s c r i bi ng how t he y w e r e f i na l l y br oke n by t he m i ddl e pa s s a ge ( w hi c h l i t e r a l l y t ook he r ow n m ot he r s l i f e ) ( 64) I n s om e t hi ng of a pa r a dox, L i s s i e a l s o a ni m a l i z e s he r w hi t e oppr e s s or s t o a ni m a l s T he s l a ve r s of t he s hi p a r e br ut e s ( 65) w hi l e a w hi t e pl a nt a t i on ow ne r i s s w i ni s h ( 66) T hi s ne ga t i ve a ni m a l i z i ng, r e c ur r e nt t hr oughout t he t e xt s e e m s t o a s s oc i a t e dom e s t i c a t e d a ni m a l s w i t h oppr e s s i on, e xc l udi ng t he m f or t he va l or i z a t i on a nd s ol i da r i t y e xt e nde d t o t he i r w i l d c ount e r pa r t s W e s e e t he i de a l i z a t i on of w i l d c ount e r pa r t s m or e c om pl e t e l y i n t he n e xt i nc a r na t i on de s c r i be d by L i s s i e T hi s dr e a m m e m or y i s s e t a t t he da w n of hum a ni t y a nd i s i t s pe a c e f ul f ounda t i on ( 82) I t i nvol ve s t h e e vol ut i on a nd s e pa r a t i on of hum a ns f r om p r i m a t e s w ho L i s s i e c a l l s c ous i ns I n t he m e m or y: W e a r e ve r y s m a l l pe opl e a l l o f us not j us t t he c hi l dr e n, w ho a r e r e a l l y s m a l l a nd t he c hi l dr e n l i ve w i t h t he m ot he r s a nd t he a unt s ; our f a t he r s a nd unc l e s l i ve n e a r by, a nd w e vi s i t a nd a r e vi s i t e d by t he m but w e l i ve w i t h t he w om e n ( 83 ) T he c ous i ns by c ont r a s t : w e r e bi g a s bi g a s w e w e r e s m a l l a nd bl a c k a nd ha i r y, w i t h bi g t e e t h, bi g f l a t f a c e s a nd pi e r c i ngl y i nt e l l i ge n t a nd ge nt l e e ye s

PAGE 47

41 T he y s e e m e d s t r a nge t o us be c a us e t he y l i ve d a s a f a m i l y; t ha t i s t he f a t he r s a nd t he unc l e s l i ve d w i t h t he m o t he r s a nd t he a unt s a nd a l l of t he m pl a ye d w i t h a nd l ooke d a f t e r t he c hi l d r e n. ( 83) L i s s i e r e m e m be r s t he c ous i ns a s r e m a r ka bl y pe a c e f ul ve ge t a r i a ns ( unl i ke he r pe opl e ) w ho ki l l e d onl y i n s e l f de f e ns e or de f e ns e of t he hum a ns S he s a y s t he r e w a s no vi ol e nc e i n t he m t ha t i s t o s a y, t he y di d not i ni t i a t e i t e ve r onl y t hought f ul ne s s ( 85) S he c om pa r e s he r e a r l y r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he m a s t ha t of c hi l d t o gr a ndpa r e nt ; s he a nd ot he r young pe opl e w e r e s e nt t o t he c ous i ns w h e n t he i r f e m a l e r e l a t i ve s gr e w s i c k of t he m E ve n a s a n a d ul t s he r e a l i z e s t ha t i n our s m a l l ne s s w e w e r e l i ke pe r pe t ua l c hi l dr e n t o t he m ( 83 ) T r oubl e s t i r s w he n s he a nd he r c ho s e n m a t e de t e r m i ne t ha t t he y w a nt t o l i ve t oge t he r a nd not i n s e pa r a t e t r e e s a s i s t r a di t i ona l f or t he i r pe opl e upon r e a c hi ng s e x ua l m a t ur i t y. W he n t he hum a ns r e f us e t o a l l ow t hi s t he y r un a w a y t o l i ve w i t h t he c ous i ns O t he r l a r ge r hum a ns s t a r t t o s how up, a nd hunt a nd ki l l t he c ous i n s f or c l ot hi ng a nd f ood. T he l i t t l e pe opl e be gi n t o m a nuf a c t ur e w e a pons a s w e l l a nd: T he t r us t t ha t ha d be e n be t w e e n us di s a ppe a r e d. W e w e r e pe r c e i ve d a s c ut e a nd h e l pl e s s no l onge r a nd, f or our pa r t t he r e w e r e t hos e a m ong us w ho gl or i e d i n a t l a s t ha vi ng t he m e a ns t o m a ke our gi a nt c ous i ns f e a r ( 86) I t s a pa t t e r n w i t h obvi ous a l l us i ons t o h um a nk i nd s pr e s e nt r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h nonhum a n s pe c i e s T he e m e r ge nc e of t hi s a nt a goni s m i s c oupl e d by a not he r ; t he e m e r ge nc e of m i s ogyny. L i s s i e not e s t ha t s he a nd he r m a t e s t a ye d t oge t he r unt i l de a t h,

PAGE 48

42 j us t a s our c ous i ns di d, a w a y of l i vi ng t ha t gr a dua l l y t ook hol d i n a l l t he gr oups of pe opl e ( 86) I t l a s t e d, a nd w or ke d, unt i l t he i de a of ow ne r s hi p w hi c h gr e w out of t he w a y t he f or e s t now be ga n t o be vi e w e d i n pi e c e s w hi c h b e l onge d t o t hi s t r i be or t ha t c a m e i nt o hum a n a r r a nge m e nt s T he n i t w a s t h a t m e n, be c a us e t he y w e r e s t r onge r a t l e a s t dur i ng t hos e pe r i ods w he n w om e n w e r e w e a k f r om c hi l dbe a r i ng, be ga n t o t hi nk of ow ni ng w om e n a nd c hi l dr e n. ( 86 ) S he goe s on t o not e t ha t t hi s ha d ha ppe ne d be f or e w hi c h w a s w hy t he l i t t l e pe opl e ha d l i ve d a s t he y di d, a nd f ur t he r t ha t e v e n i n t he pr e s e nt m ot he r s a nd f a t he r s s e e m t o be r e t ur ni ng t o s e p a r a t i on. S he c onc l ude s t ha t t hi s i s t he pa t t e r n of f r e e dom unt i l m a n no l onge r w i s he s t o dom i na t e w om e n o r c hi l dr e n or a l w a ys ha v e t o pr ove hi s c ont r ol ( 86) I t s t i e d, bot h e xpl i c i t l y a nd i m pl i c i t l y, t o a n e c ol ogi c a l pa t t e r n, one i n w hi c h nonhum a n s pe c i e s a nd hum a ns c a n t be a t pe a c e w i t h e a c h ot he r a nd, t he r e f or e t he m s e l ve s L i s s i e de s c r i be s he r m e m or i e s of t i m e w i t h t he c ous i n s a s t he onl y pe a c e f ul one s he ha s e ve r know n. F ur t he r obvi ous l y t he r e w a s m uc h t o l e a r n a nd ga i n f r om i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he s e nonhum a ns a s e nt i m e nt e c h oi ng he r p r e vi ous r e f e r e nc e t o l i z a r ds I n t hi s m e m or y, t he r e doe s n t i ni t i a l l y s e e m t o be a ny c l e a r hi e r a r c hy of t h e hum a n s e xe s ; e a c h, i s s e e m s i s ot he r t o one a not he r W e a r e a l l ow e d t o s e e t he s pe c i f i c a l l y m a l e a s ot he r a s i n w he n t he w om e n w or r y t ha t t he i nt r oduc t i on of a m a n i nt o t he i r l i vi ng s pa c e w i l l i nt e r f e r e w i t h t he i r m e ns t r ua l c yc l e s T hi s de t a i l pr e s e nt s w om e n s bodi e s nor m a t i ve a nd t he m a s c ul i ne a s di s r upt i ve A r gua bl y, t he m or e obvi ous ot he r i s i ni t i a l l y hum a nki nd i t s e l f w hi c h i s s e c on da r y t o a nd de pe nde nt on t he c ou s i ns

PAGE 49

43 M a n a nd hum a n m a n e s t a bl i s he s hi m s e l f a s e s s e nt i a l a n ot he r s w om e n a nd t he c ous i ns a s l e s s va l ua bl e a nd l e s s hum a n by e xpl oi t i ng w om a n s bi ol ogi c a l di f f e r e nc e a nd w ha t c oul d be c a l l e d t he c ul t ur a l di f f e r e nc e of t he c ous i ns t ha t i s t he c ous i ns r e f us a l t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he v i ol e nc e a nd ow ne r s hi p t he hu m a n m a l e i nt r ude r s ( w ho a r e l i ke t he M oha m e t a ns ) gl or i f y. T he s t or y c a u s e s S uw e l o t o c ont e m pl a t e t he pr e s e nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n hum a n s a nd a ni m a l s a s e a c h da y he f ound hi m s e l f m or e c ons c i ous of hi s ow n nonhum a n r e l a t i ve s i n t hi s w or l d ( 88) L i s s i e i nt e r r up t s hi m t o s ha r e w i t h hi m a c ol l e c t i on of phot ogr a phs e a c h of w hi c h s ho w a n a l m o s t unr e c ogni z a bl y di f f e r e nt i m a ge of L i s s i e T he ha ppi e s t of t he s e i s t he on e w hi c h s he s a ys s how s he r a s s he w a s i n he r t i m e w i t h t he c ous i ns ( 92) H e r r e s e m bl a nc e t o a pygm y i n i t c a us e s S uw e l o t o f ur t he r a na l yz e t he s uppos e d bounda r y be t w e e n pe opl e a nd a ni m a l s a s he que s t i ons w he t he r t he gna w e d bone s a nd s kul l s t r a di t i ona l l y i nt e r pr e t e d a s e vi de nc e of c a nni ba l i s m w e r e i n f a c t t he bone s of t he c ous i ns ( 93) M r H a l i nt e r r upt s hi m a ga i n t o t e l l hi m a b out hi s ow n f or m e r r om a nt i c r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h L i s s i e w hi c h w a s de s t r oye d ( s e x ua l l y) w he n c i r c um s t a nc e s ne c e s s i t a t e d he he l p bi r t h t he i r c hi l d. T he e xpe r i e nc e pr ove d a l i e na t i ng a nd t r a um a t i c a nd l e f t hi m a ps yc hi c e unuc h w ho w oul d n e ve r be a bl e t o de a l w i t h m a ki ng l ove t o a w om a n a ga i n ( 107) T he s t or y i s w or t h not i ng a s pa r t of a pe r va s i v e pr obl e m a t i c c ons t r uc t i on of s e xua l di f f e r e nc e f ound t hr oughout t he nove l W hi l e M r H a l s a bi l i t y t o e m pa t hi z e s o f ul l y w i t h L i s s i e s pa i n i s t o s om e e xt e nt hum a ni z i ng, i t a l s o s ugge s t s t ha t t hr e a t of f e m a l e ot he r ne s s one w hi c h i s de s c r i be d e a r l i e r by Z e de i n he r c r e a t i on m yt h ( w he r e i n

PAGE 50

44 m e n s de s pe r a t i on t o b e l i ke w om e n l e a ds t he m f i r s t t o c a s t r a t e t he m s e l ve s a nd l a t e r t o vi ol e nt l y r e be l a ga i ns t t he dom i na nt w om e n) I nt e r e s t i ngl y, M r H a l i s a l s o r e pe a t e dl y r e f e r e nc e d a s f e a r i ng c a t s a ni m a l s w hi c h L i s s i e i de nt i f i e s w i t h; t he r e s e e m s t o be a n a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n hi s dr e a d of t he s e xua l f e m a l e a nd t he a ni m a l f a m i l i a r W e c a n s e e t hi s pr obl e m a t i c c on s t r uc t i on of f e m a l e w i t h a ni m a l ot he r ne s s a s e xc l us i ona r y a nd dom i na t i ng e s pe c i a l l y c l e a r l y i n L i s s i e s c ons t r uc t i on of t he f a m i l i a r a s a s our c e of pow e r a nd i de nt i t y e xc l us i ve t o w om e n. W e a r e f i r s t i n t r oduc e d t o t he f a m i l i a r i n t he c ont e xt of a dr e a m L i s s i e de s c r i be s t o S uw e l o. I n t he dr e a m L i s s i e s a t t e m pt s t o i m pr i s on or hi de he r f a m i l i a r ( a n a m a l ga m of r e pt i l e bi r d a nd f i s h pa r t s ) f r om a w hi t e a udi e nc e l e a d t he f a m i l i a r t o a ba nd on L i s s i e a n a b a ndonm e nt L i s s i e f i nds de va s t a t i ng: I t l ooke d a t m e w i t h pi t y a s i t pa s s e d. T he n u s i ng w i ngs i t ha d ne ve r us e d be f or e i t f l e w a w a y. A nd I w a s l e f t w i t h onl y you a nd t he r e s t of your pe opl e on t he s t e ps of a c ol d s t one bui l di ng, t he c ol or of c he a p f a l s e t e e t h, i n a d i f f e r e nt w or l d f r om m y ow n, i n a c e nt ur y t ha t I w oul d ne ve r unde r s t a nd. E xc e pt by r e m e m be r i ng t he be a ut i f ul l i t t l e f a m i l i a r w ho w a s s o c he e r f ul a nd l oya l t o m e a nd w hom I s o t hought l e s s l y, out of p r i de a nd di s t r a c t i on, be t r a ye d. ( 118) T hi s pow e r of t he f a m i l i a r a s a s our c e of e s s e nt i a l s t r e ngt h, a nd t he r e l a t i ons hi p b e t w e e n l os i ng i t a nd be c om i ng oppr e s s e d s e xua l l y or r a c i a l l y oppr e s s e d, i s e l a bor a t e d on i n he r m e m or i e s of s e x s e gr e ga t e d pr e hi s t or i c A f r i c a n. W om e n l i ve i n t r i be s a nd a r e e a c h a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a n a ni m a l f a m i l i a r T he m e n, w ho l i ve i n s e pa r a t e t r i be s a r e f r i e ndl y

PAGE 51

4 5 w i t h t he w om e n but do not ha ve t he i r ow n a ni m a l f a m i l i a r s I n he r e a r l i e s t m e m or y of t hi s t i m e L i s s i e i s a w hi t e boy w hos e r a c i a l di f f e r e nc e a l i e na t e s hi m bot h f r om t he m a l e t r i be a nd f r om hum a nki nd a t l a r ge H i s m ot he r a pow e r f ul t r i ba l l e a d e r w hos e f a m i l i a r i s a l i on ( H us a ) ke e ps hi m c l os e t o pr ot e c t hi m a nd r ubs hi s s ki n da r k w i t h nut j ui c e s t o t r y t o da r ke n hi m t o t he c ol or of t he ot he r pe opl e H i s f i r s t s e xua l e nc ount e r c oul d of f e r a s ol ut i on t o hi s a l i e na t i on by a l l ow i ng hi m t o m ove t o t he m e n s t r i be I ns t e a d, he f i nds t ha t h i s l ove r i s r e pe l l e d by pe ni s w hi c h ha s be e n r ubbe d w hi t e dur i ng i nt e r c our s e A ngr i l y, t he boy ki c ks a nd po s s i bl y ki l l s he r f a m i l i a r a c r i m e w hi c h, a l ong w i t h hi s s ha m e c a us e s hi m t o l e a ve t he t r i be H us a t h e l i on, br i ngs hi m a s ki n t o w e a r w hi c h w i l l pr ot e c t hi m f r om bur ni ng. H ow e ve r t he s ki n m a ke s t he ot he r a ni m a l s f e a r hi m T he y a s s um e t h a t he ki l l e d f or i t de s pi t e hi s i ns i s t e nc e t ha t i t w a s H us a a n a nge l of de a t h ( 363) w ho ha d pr ovi de d i t T hi s f i na l r e j e c t i on a nd ot he r i ng by a ni m a l s e m bi t t e r s t he boy unt i l he r a i ds a l i t t e r of ba r ba r ous dogs f or c om pa ni ons hi p, be gi nni ng t he t r a di t i on of m e n a nd dogs a s a s s oc i a t e d be i ng s w hos e r e l a t i ons hi p i s a n oppr e s s i ve dom i na t i ve pe r ve r s i on of t he one s ha r e d by w om e n a nd f a m i l i a r s L i s s i e not e s t ha t he r m e m or y a s t he boy e nds w i t h t he dogs but t ha t l i ke l y a f t e r w a r ds hi s f or m e r m a t e f ound hi m a nd t oge t he r t he y s t a r t e d a t r i be of t he i r ow n. I t i s s he s a ys t he f a nt a s y upon w hi c h t he O l d T e s t a m e nt r e s t s but w i t hout a ny m e nt i on of our i nt i m a c y w i t h t he ot he r a ni m a l s or of t he b r ow n or bl a c k c ol or s of t he r e s t of m y f ol ks ( 365) I f w e vi e w W e s t e r n c ul t ur a l m i s ogyny i n t he w a y t he s e pr e hi s t or i c na r r a t i ve s s ugge s t w e do, t ha n t hi s de t a i l s ugge s t s t ha t t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he B i bl e i s a n

PAGE 52

46 e xpr e s s i on of m a n s vi ol e nt r e s e nt f ul r e s pons e t o t he ot he r ne s s m e n or i gi na l l y f e l t a m ong w om e n a nd a ni m a l s T hi s m e m or y i s i m m e di a t e l y f ol l ow e d by one i n w hi c h w e s e e t he r e i nt e r gr a t i on of m e n a nd w om e n i nt o on e t r i b e A s i n t he m e m or y of t he c ous i n s t he m e r ge i s pr obl e m a t i c pa r t i c ul a r l y f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve t hr ough w hi c h L i s s i e r e m e m be r s vi e w i ng i t : a s he r s e l f a l i on f a m i l i a r of a young w om a n. L i s s i e r e m e m be r s i t a s a c ha ot i c t i m e dur i ng w hi c h m e n a nd w om e n l os t t he i r f r e e do m t o e a c h ot he r t hough w om e n m or e t ha n m e n ( 366) W om e n be c a m e e m ot i ona l l y de pe nde nt on t he i ndi vi dua l m a n by w hom m a n s l a w now de c r e e d t he y m us t ha ve a l l t he i r c hi l d r e n, l os t t he i r w i l dne s s t ha t qua l i t y of hom e y e a s e on t he e a r t h t h a t t he y s ha r e d w i t h t he r e s t of t he a ni m a l s ( 367) M e n a s s e r t e d t he m s e l ve s a l one a s t he f a m i l i a r s of w om e n a nd c ha s e d of f t he f or m e r f a m i l i a r s i nc l udi ng t he l i on a s a m e a ns of dom i na t i ng a nd di s e m pow e r i ng w om e n ( 266) A s a l i on, L i s s i e r e m e m be r s f e e l i ng t ha t t hough s he kne w s he w oul d m i s s t he w om a n, s he w a s n t t oo ups e t t o go a s s he unde r s t ood t ha t m e r ge d, m a n a nd w om a n w e r e i n f o r a n e t e r ni t y o f s t r i f e ( 367 ) S he c ont i n ue s ; I di d not know m a n w oul d be gi n, i n hi s r a ge a nd hi s j e a l ous y of us t o hunt us dow n, t o ki l l a nd e a t us t o w e a r our hi de s our t e e t h, a nd our bone s N o, not e ve n t he m os t c yni c a l of a n i m a l s w oul d ha ve dr e a m e d of t ha t ( 366 ) M a l e a ggr e s s i on t ow a r ds a ni m a l s i s r e pr e s e nt e d he r e a ga i n a s a n e xt e ns i on of a de e p r oot e d m i s ogyny r a t he r t ha n a ne c e s s i t y of hum a n s ur vi va l T he a ni m a l s L i s s i e i ns i s t s c l e a r l y pr e f e r r e d w om e n, a n a l l i a nc e w hi c h a l i e na t e s a nd t hr e a t e n s m e n ( 368) T hi s unde r s t a ndi ng goe s a ga i ns t w h a t L or i G r ue n out l i ne s i n D i s m a nt l i ng O ppr e s s i on

PAGE 53

47 a s t h e popul a r or i gi n t he or i e s of hum a n s oc i a l e vol ut i on, t he o r i e s w hi c h pr opos e m a n s a ggr e s s i on t ow a r d a ni m a l s a s hunt e r s bot h e s t a bl i s he d hi m c ul t ur e a s s e pa r a t e f r om na t ur e ( G r ue n 62) T hi s ki nd of r e a di ng of m a l e vi ol e nc e t ow a r d a ni m a l s a l s o pl a c e s w om e n i n a dom e s t i c r ol e w he r e i n l a c k of a ggr e s s i on t ow a r d a ni m a l s i s c ons t r uc t e d a s i ndi c a t i ve of w om e n s phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l i nf e r i or i t y ( 62) G r ue n obs e r ve s t ha t c ons t r uc t e d i n t hi s w a y, hum a n s oc i a l e vol ut i o n e s t a bl i s he s t he s ubs e r vi e nt s t a t us of w om e n a nd a ni m a l s ( 62) I n c ont r a s t t he vi s i on of f e r e d by L i s s i e 1) d e pi c t s m a l e a ggr e s s i on t ow a r d a ni m a l s a s c hi l di s h, e m ot i o na l a nd i ns e c ur e a nd 2) w om e n s r e l a t i ve l y pe a c e f ul r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h a ni m a l s t o b e a s our c e of s t r e ngt h a nd i ndi c a t or of r a t i ona l i t y. T he out c om e unf o r t una t e l y, i s t he s a m e : t ha t m e n a r e t hr e a t e ne d by a ni m a l s a nd t hr e a t e ne d by w om e n a nd r e a c t vi ol e nt l y t o i s ol a t e a nd dom i na t e bot h W e c a n s e e f ur t he r c ons e que nc e s of t he pe r c e i ve d t hr e a t of t he w om a n s f a m i l i a r i n L i s s i e s m e m or i e s f r om I nqui s i t i on e r a S pa i n T he f a m i l i a r i s pa r t of t he e s s e nc e s he r e f us e s t o gi ve up, a r e f us a l w hi c h l e a ds t o he r e xe c ut i on. I n a l e t t e r t o S uw e l o, L i s s i e not e s how w om e n, by hook a nd by c r ook m a n a ge d t o ha ve ke pt a l i ve s om e f e e l i ng f or t he ot he r a ni m a l s a l t hough s he w a s u s ua l l y r e duc e d t o t he c a r i ng a nd f e e di ng of one s m a l l hous e c a t ( W a l k e r 198) W i t c he s s he a r gu e s w e r e i de nt i f i e d by a nd a t t a c ke d f or t he i r ove r t a c know l e dge m e nt of a ni m a l s a nd w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h S a t a ni c e vi l t hr ough a ni m a l i s t i c i m a ge r y. L i s s i e s ugge s t s t he l i nk be t w e e n pa t r i a r c ha l pe r s e c ut i ons w h e n s h e obs e r ve s t ha t t he I nqui s i t or s u s e d t hi s a ni m a l i z a t i on t o m a ke i t s e e m not onl y n a t ur a l but e ve n r i ght e ous t o ki l l a s br ut a l l y a s po s s i bl e w i t hout a ny f e e l i ng but l us t f ul s e l f j us t i f i c a t i on, a ny a ni m a l or da r k c r e a t ur e t ha t one s a w ( 198 99)

PAGE 54

48 T he s e l i nke d oppr e s s i ons a r e e vi de nt i n a l a t e r r e c ol l e c t i on of L i s s i e s c ur r e nt i nc a r na t i on. A s a young w om a n, s he t r a ve l s w i t h R a f e ( S uw e l o s unc l e w ho L i s s i e l e f t M r H a l f or ) a nd i s ov e r w he l m e d by t he pe r s i s t e nc e of r a c i s m S he vi s i t s a z oo, a n d r e l a t e s t he e xp e r i e nc e t o t ha t of w a t c hi ng bl a c k m us i c i a ns p e r f or m i n a l l w hi t e di ne r s L i s s i e pr e f e r s t he z oo be c a u s e a t l e a s t t he r e w e r e no i l l us i ons a bout w ho w a s f r e e a n d w ho w a s not ( 371) S he a l s o r e l a t e s t he i l l us i ons of t he di ne r t o c a r ni vor ous c ons um pt i on of a ni m a l s r e m e m be r i ng how s he c oul d ne ve r e a t m e a t a r ound w hi t e pe opl e ( 370) R a f e s a bi l i t y t o do s o i s a l s o us e d t o de m ons t r a t e hi s a w a r e ne s s of t h e c onne c t i on be t w e e n t he t w o; upon s e e i ng L i s s i e s e vi de nt di s gus t w i t h hi s c hoi c e i n m ut t on, he e nc our a ge s he r t o l ook a r ound t he di ne r ( 370) T hi s s ha r e d a c know l e dgm e nt of a nd oppos i t e r e s pons e s t o c onne c t e d r a c i a l a nd a ni m a l e xpl oi t a t i on pr ovi de s a n i nt e r e s t i ng poi nt f or us t o r e e va l ua t e N or w ood s obs e r va t i on t ha t f or m a ny w om e n o f c ol or t o c hos e t o w r i t e a bout t he f a m i l i a r w a s t o r i s k br i ngi ng up pr obl e m a t i c vi s i ons of unc ont r ol l e d s e xua l i t y ( 175) I n t he m e m or y of t he boy, f or i ns t a nc e w om e n a r e s e xua l l y a gg r e s s i ve a nd ge ne r a l l y uni nt e r e s t e d i n m onoga m y, de s c r i pt i ons w hi c h f r om a he t e r os e xua l he t e r o nor m a t i ve s t a ndpoi nt do s e e m unc ont r ol l e d. B y c ont r a s t i n a s s e r t i ng t he m s e l ve s a s w om e n s f a m i l i a r s m e n a l s o c ont r ol w om e n s s e xua l i t y ( by m a ki ng w om e n de pe nde nt a nd m o noga m ou s ) H e r e L i s s i e s de c i s i on t o l e a ve M r H a l t o t r a ve l w i t h R a f e i s a l s o r e pr e s e nt e d a s unc ont r ol l e d, e xt r a m a r i t a l s e xua l i t y. H e r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he oppr e s s i ve na t ur e of he r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h M r H a l ( w he r e i n L i s s i e w a s e xpe c t e d t o be m onoga m ous w i t h a m a n i nc a pa bl e of i nt e r c our s e ) i s pa r a l l e l e d by he r unde r s t a ndi ng o f s oc i oe c onom i c oppr e s s i on of bl a c ks a nd hum a n oppr e s s i on of a ni m a l s a s m e a t a nd a s c a ge d a t t he z oo. L i s s i e r e l a t e s t h e

PAGE 55

49 pos i t i vi t y a nd l i be r a t i on of he r s e xua l a f f a i r w i t h R a f e t o a de s i r e t o s e e bl a c ks a nd a ni m a l s f r e e d f r om de s t r uc t i ve s ys t e m s of hu m a n oppr e s s i on. S he a c t s on t he s e a s s oc i a t i on s r e f us i ng m e a t i n t he di ne r a t t e m pt i ng t o f or c e t he l i ons t o r e ga i n t he i r i nhe r e nt di gni t y by hol di ng a m i r r o r t o t he i r c a ge e t c T he nove l e nds w i t h a n i m a ge pr oduc e d by L i s s i e w ho i s he r s e l f now a n a r t i s t I n t he f i na l s c e n e S uw e l o a nd M r H a l s or t t hr ough t he l a t e L i s s i e s f i na l pa i nt i ngs one of w hi c h de pi c t s a l i on w e a r i ng a r e d s l i ppe r S uw e l o r e c ogni z e s t he pa i nt i ng t o be a s e l f por t r a i t no t i ng M i s s L i s s i e s da r e t o be e ve r yt hi ng l i on e ye s ( W a l ke r 417) M r H a l l w ho i s a l m os t c om pl e t e l y bl i nd a t t hi s poi nt a s ks t o hol d t he pa i nt i ng i n hope s t ha t he w i l l be a bl e t o s e e M i s s L i s s i e H ow e ve r t he onl y t hi ng M r H a l c a n i de nt i f y i s t h e r e d of t he he e l I r e a d t hi s a s hi s f a i l ur e t o a c c e pt h e r i nde pe nd e nt s e xua l i t y, a nd c onve r s e l y a l i nge r i ng c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on of he r a s hi s w om a n. W ha t he s e e s i s a t oke n of t he f e m i ni ni t y a nd, by e xt e ns i on, c ont r ol l e d s e xua l i t y. T he f a m i l i a r l i on r e pr e s e nt s a n a s pe c t of he r s e xua l f r e e dom w hi c h, a s he r f or m e r hus ba nd, he s t r uggl e s t o a c c e pt T he a ni m a l i m a ge S uw e l o s e e s by c ont r a s t i s e m pow e r i ng a nd pos i t i ve L ooki ng a t t he pa i nt i ng, S uw e l o, know s a nd s he [ M i s s L i s s i e ] know s t h a t M r H a l w i l l be a bl e t o s e e a l l of he r s om e da y j us t a s S uw e l o, w ho ha s s e e m s t o ha ve a c c e pt e d F a nny s s e xua l a ut onom y vi a a m or e ope n r e l a t i ons hi p ( 417 ) H a vi ng de m ons t r a t e d t ha t L i s s i e s r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he f a m i l i a r do a s s oc i a t e i t w i t h non he t e r o nor m a t i ve ( i e not m onoga m ous ) s e xua l i t y, I d l i ke t o e xa m i ne 1) how t hi s por t r a ya l doe s a nd doe s not s ubve r t dom i na nt i de ol ogy, a nd 2) w he t he r t he us e of a ni m a l s i s a n i nnova t i ve f or m of e a t i ng w e l l a s a r e l a t i on s ubj e c t or not T he a s s oc i a t i on of unc ont r ol l a bl e s e xua l i t y w i t h t he a ni m a l f a m i l i a r i s on one l e ve l a

PAGE 56

50 c ol l us i on w i t h dom i na nt i de ol ogy. T he m os t p r o bl e m a t i c f a c e t of t hi s c ol l us i on i s i t s ge nde r e s s e nt i a l i s m ; w om e n s s pe c i f i c c onne c t i on w i t h a ni m a l s i s c ons t r uc t e d a s e s s e nt i a l l y f e m i ni ne w hi l e m a n s l a c k of c onne c t i on a nd vi ol e nt or f e a r f ul r e s pon s e t o t ha t l a c k i s e s s e nt i a l l y m a s c ul i ne W hi l e a ni m a l s pr ovi de a nd s ym bol i z e f e m i ni ne s t r e ngt h a nd va l ue t he i r r e l a t i on t o w om e n i n t hi s r e a di ng e nf or c e s s t e r e ot ype s of w om e n a s m ys t e r i ous e xot i c a nd ot he r W he r e a s i n t he H e m pe l t he pa r t i c ul a r a l l i a nc e of w om e n a nd a ni m a l s s e e m s r e l a t e d pr i m a r i l y t o l i ke e m ot i ona l or s oc i a l e x pe r i e n c e s of w om e n, L i s s i e r e pr e s e nt s t he a l l i a nc e a s n a t ur a l f ounda t i ona l a nd i nhe r e nt l y e xc l us i ona r y f or m e n. A l o ng t he s e l i ne s t he di f f e r e nt i a t i on be t w e e n t he s ym bol i c f unc t i on of w i l d ve r s us pe t a ni m a l s i n H e m p e l s s t or i e s be c om e s m or e dr a m a t i c i n L i s s i e s na r r a t i ve W hi l e dogs a r e r e pr e s e nt e d a s e nj oyi ng a nd e ve n l ovi ng hum a ns i n H e m pe l s s t or i e s L i s s i e c onde m ns t he i r de vo t i o n he r e a s c ow a r dl y a nd s l a vi s h s ubm i s s i on t o m e n. T he l i on, m e a nw hi l e i s va l o r i z e d a s m uc h m or e i nde pe nde nt f r om a nd a s s upe r i or t o m a s c ul i ne c ul t ur e w he r e a s t he gor i l l a s i n t he H e m pe l w e r e s e e n a s f l a w e d. P a r t of t hi s m or e c ont r a s t e d di vi de be t w e e n dom e s t i c a t e d a nd w i l d a ni m a l s m a y r e l a t e t o T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar s c onc e r n w i t h t he di s c our s e of s l a ve r y. C a r ol A da m s not e s t he m a r ke r of a t t r i but e d be a s t l i ne s s of l e s s t ha n hum a nne s s e xi s t s t o c ons t i t ut e w hi t e ne s s a s w e l l a s hum a n m a l e ne s s ( N e i t he r M an nor B e as t 73) A f r i c a ns w e r e s pe c i f i c a l l y l i ke ne d t o dom e s t i c a t e d a ni m a l s t o j us t i f y t he i r us e a s l i ke t ha t o f l i ve s t oc k. T he r e f or e us i ng r e s i s t a nt w i l d a ni m a l s ym bol s i s doubl y e m pow e r i ng, bot h, a s i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r a s a m e a ns of r e f e r e nc i ng t ha t out s i de of do m i na nt c ul t ur e a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y he r e a s a m e a ns of r e f e r e nc i ng hi s t or i c a l hum a n r e s i s t a nc e t o e ns l a v e m e nt

PAGE 57

51 L i s s i e doe s de l i be r a t e l y l i ke n he r s e l f t o t h e c o us i ns a l l ude s t o t he w a ys i n w hi c h A f r i c a ns w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s m onke ys i n t he 1 800 s ; f or i ns t a nc e i n he r e s s a y, A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n W om e n i n T hr e e C ont e xt s of D om e s t i c V i ol e nc e D ol or e s S W i l l i a m s c i t e s J ohn D a vi d s 1867 T he N e gr o: W ha t i s H i s E t hnol ogi c a l S t a t us a s one of s e ve r a l doc um e nt s c a t e gor i z i ng A f r i c a ns a s nonhum a n pr i m a t e s ( W i l l i a m s 41) T he c ous i ns m e m or y s e e m s t o be a bl e t o pul l t hi s o f f be c a us e i t e xi s t s pr i or t o a ny c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on of r a c e I nt e r e s t i ngl y, t he m e m or y a l s o doe s n t por t r a y a n e s s e nt i a l ge nde r e d w om a n a ni m a l c onne c t i on, w hi c h l e a ds m e t o vi e w t he m e m or y a s pa r t of t he s m a l l body o f e vi de nc e w i t hi n L i s s i e s na r r a t i ve pr om ot i ng a m o r e i nc l us i ve i nt e gr a t e d i de ol ogy r a t he r t ha n one ba s e d on s ubve r t e d, but s t r uc t ur a l l y s i m i l a r bi na r i e s A not he r i m po r t a nt r e l a t e d pi e c e of t hi s ki nd of e vi de nc e i s i n t he m e m o r y o f L i s s i e s l i on l i f e a nd l i on pe r s pe c t i ve on hum a ni t y. W hi l e a s a l i on, L i s s i e w a s m or e pa r t i a l t o w om e n, t he l i on i m a gi ne s i t s e l f a s one of m a ny a ni m a l vi s i t or s pl a ym a t e s a n d t e a c he r s t o a hum a n t r i be w hi c h f or t una t e l y c oul d not f i gu r e out f or a ve r y l ong t i m e a ny r e a s on w e s houl d be vi e w e d a s c om pl e t e l y di f f e r e nt f r om t he m a nd s e pa r a t e f r om t he m ( 368 ) T hi s pe r s pe c t i ve c r i t i c i z e s s e gr e ga t i on b a s e d on di f f e r e nc e r a t he r t ha n r e e va l ua t e d hi e r a r c hi e s of di f f e r e nc e t he m a t r i a r c ha l f a m i l i a r b a s e d s oc i e t i e s s e e m t o r e l y on W hi l e t he s e x a nd/ o r r a c i a l l y e xc l us i ona r y c ons t r uc t i on of a n e s s e nt i a l c onne c t i on be t w e e n w om e n a nd a ni m a l f a m i l i a r s s ubve r t s hi e r a r c hi e s of bi na r y oppos i t i ons w i t hi n dom i na nt i de ol ogy by r e ve r s a l t he l a t t e r m or e i nc l us i ve vi e w s ubve r t s by d e nyi ng t he bound a r i e s on w hi c h c a t e gor i e s w i t hi n t hos e bi na r i e s a r e ba s e d. T he i s s ue s w hi c h a r i s e w h e n t r yi ng t o a na l yz e T e m pl e s t r e a t m e nt of w om e n i n r e l a t i on t o a ni m a l s t he pr obl e m a t i c e s s e nt i a l i s m di vi s i ve ne s s e t c ha ve of c our s e

PAGE 58

52 be e n not e d by a va r i e t y of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s a s w e l l a s ot he r a ut hor s J a m e s W ol c ot t c a l l e d T e m pl e t he nut t i e s t nove l I ve e ve r r e a d, ( qt d. i n B r a e ndl i n 47) w hi l e J oyc e M a yna r d de s c r i be d i t a s a r a di c a l f e m i ni s t H a r l e qui n r om a nc e nove l unde r t he i nf l ue nc e of ha l l uc i noge ni c m us hr oom s ( qt d. i n B r a e ndl i n 47) I ke nna D i e ke how e ve r r e a ds T e m pl e a s pr om ot i ng a m oni s t i c i de a l i s m i n w hi c h hum a ns a ni m a l s a nd t he w hol e e c ol ogi c a l or de r c oe xi s t i n a uni que dyna m i c of pa nc os m i c s ym bi os i s c i t i ng L i s s i e s m e m or i e s a nd S uw e l o s c ons e que nt r e f l e c t i ons a s e vi de nc e ( D i e ke 507) F r om a n a ni m a l s t udi e s pe r s pe c t i ve R obe r t M c K a y s e e s T e m pl e a s de m ons t r a t i ng t ha t c r e a t i ve i m a gi na t i ve unde r s t a ndi ng a l l ow s h um a ns c a n ge t c l os e t o a ni m a l s ( 253) H e s e e s t he i r f un c t i on i n t he nove l ( a ga i n, c i t i ng pr e dom i na nt l y t he L i s s i e pl ot l i ne ) a s e vi de nc e t ha t l a ngua ge i s not a m e a n s f or de m a r c a t i on of a hum a n/ a ni m a l di vi de be c a us e w e s e e c ha r a c t e r s t r a ns c e nd s uc h di vi de s t hr ou gh t he ki nds of r e m e m be r i ng a nd m yt h m a ki ng L i s s i e e nga ge s i n. I nt e r e s t i ngl y, S c hol t e m e i j e r r e a ds t he r ol e of a ni m a l s i n t h e nove l a s r oot e d i n i de nt i t y L i ke M c K a y, s he a c know l e dge s t he r ol e of s pe e c h; unl i ke M c K a y, S c hol t m e i j e r f oc us e s on L i s s i e s obs e r va t i on t ha t a ni m a l s c a nnot s pe a k s pe c i f i c a l l y i n t he w or l d of m a n a nd he r r e l a t e d a s s e r t i on t ha t w om e n m u s t s pe a k f or t he m ( T he R ol e of A ni m a l s I n W om e n s F i c t i on 248) S c hol t m e i j e r a r gue s t ha t : T he ve r y e xi s t e nc e of t he m o s t pow e r f ul c ul t ur a l i de nt i t i e s w om e n c a n a s s um e de pe nds on nonhum a n a ni m a l s I nde e d, s i nc e W a l ke r s c ha r a c t e r put s a ni m a l s pe e c h i n t he c ont e xt of t he w or l d of m a n w om e n a r e c a s t a s ot he r s w hos e pow e r c om e s f r om s pe a ki ng f or a ni m a l s ( 249)

PAGE 59

53 A s I s ugge s t e d pr e vi ous l y, S c hol t e m e i j e r s e e s t he a s s oc i a t i on of w om e n w i t h a ni m a l s a s a m e a n s by w hi c h W a l ke r s ubve r t s c ur r e nt r e l a t i ons w he r e i n m e n a nd w om e n a r e a pa i r ; t he y c om pos e e a c h ot he r s i de n t i t i e s ( 251) A ga i n, I f i nd t h i s r e a di ng a l one pr obl e m a t i c gi ve n t he nove l s c onc e r n w i t h dom i na t i ve i de nt i t y. J M C oe t z e e a s s e r t s t ha t t he m o s t s e r i ous c onf l i c t w i t hi n t he t e xt i s t he s t r uggl e of oppr e s s e d pe opl e w ho i de nt i f y a s s uc h t o f i ght t he u r ge t o be c om e vi ol e nt r a c i s t s t he m s e l ve s t ha t i s t o us e t he i r i de nt i t y t o j us t i f y a nd a c t a s s upr e m a c i s t s ( T he B e gi nni ngs of ( W o) M a n i n A f r i c a 1) H i s r e vi e w f or t he N e w Y or k T i m e s f oc us e s on a s c e ne i n w hi c h F a nn y de s c r i be s a dr e a m t o he r t he r a pi s t I n t he dr e a m s he s e e s a f e a s t w he r e s om e t i m e s w hi t e pe opl e c ons um e he r a nd s om e t i m e s s he i s c ons um i ng. A l t hough, i n t he s a m e r e vi e w C oe t z e e c a l l s L i s s i e l e s s a c ha r a c t e r t ha n a na r r a t i ve de vi c e ( a c l a i m w hi c h obvi ous l y I di s a gr e e w i t h) I t hi nk t he i de a of t he f e a s t a nd t he t e ns i on be t w e e n a s s e r t i on of i de nt i t y a nd pot e nt i a l pr e j udi c e a r e s i gni f i c a nt t o r e a di ng t he ove r a l l r ol e of a ni m a l s i n c on s t r uc t i ng L i s s i e L i s s i e r e c ogni z e s t he a l i e n a t e d pot e nt i a l of t ha t ki nd of e xc l us i ona r y i de nt i t y m os t poi gna nt l y i n he r m e m or y of l i f e a s a s ha m e f i l l e d, out c a s t boy, w ho s uf f e r s unj us t l y f r om t he pr e j udi c e s of w om e n a nd a ni m a l s T hus w hi l e S c hol t e m e i j e r s c l a i m m a ke s s e ns e C oe t z e e s a s s e r t i on of t he nove l s w a r i ne s s of s ubve r t i ng s e e m s t o a l s o pl a y i nt o t hi ngs a nd s t r e ngt he ns t he s ugge s t i ons of a n i nc l us i ve pot e nt i a l r e l a t i on be t w e e n hum a ns a nd a ni m a l s a nd i de a l l y hum a ns a nd e a c h ot he r P e r ha p s t ha t w a r i ne s s i s w hy t ha t f i na l i m a ge of M i s s L i s s i e i s a s a m a l e l i on r a t he r t ha n a l i one s s T he i m a ge bl ur s hum a n a nd a ni m a l a s w e l l a s m a l e a n d f e m a l e ; t he s hoe a t oke n of f e m a l e c ons t r uc t e dne s s ( T he R ol e of A ni m a l s i n

PAGE 60

54 W om e n s F i c t i on 251) i s di s pos a bl e a m e a ns f or a l l ow i ng M r H a l t o a c c e s s t he pa i nt i ng a t a l l a nd s i m ul t a ne ous l y a s t e p t ow a r d r e j e c t i ng i t s c ons t r uc t i on. L i s s i e l i ke F a nny a t t he f e a s t i s ul t i m a t e l y a c ha r a c t e r w ho bot h e nga ge s i n a n d know s t he oppr e s s i ons of a s oc i a l a nd i de a t i ona l s ys t e m r oot e d w he r e i n i de nt i t y i s m os t of t e n e s t a bl i s he d i n oppos i t i ona l t e r m s S he unde r s t a nds t he z oo, l i t e r a l l y a nd f i gur a t i ve l y, ye t w on t s t op goi ng t o i t bot h a s a l i t e r a l pa t r on w ho c ont r i but e s how e ve r unha ppi l y, t o i t s e xi s t e nc e a nd a s one w hos e f i gur a t i ve i de nt i t y pl a c e s he r w i t hi n t he c a ge I n he r m os t pr e s e nt i nc a r na t i on, s he goe s f r om hol di ng a m i r r o r t o t he c a ge d l i ons t o be c om i ng one de l i be r a t e l y bl ur r i ng t he l i t e r a l hi e r a r c hy of vi s i t or / c a ge d w e s a w pr e vi ous l y. I be l i e ve t hi s i s m or e t ha n a f unc t i ona l ut i l i t a r i a n r e l a t i ons hi p; i t s a n e a t i ng w e l l w he r e i n bot h vi c t i m s a r e r e l e a s e d, t he f i gur a t i ve a nd l i t e r a l c ons t r uc t i ons of t he i r oppr e s s i on m a de vi s i bl e a nd ove r c om e

PAGE 61

55 C H A P T E R 3: O C T A V I A B U T L E R S F U T U R E H um a n, A ni m a l a nd S e xua l I de nt i t y i n O c t a vi a B ut l e r s C l ay s A r k I n w ha t ha s be e n c r i t i que d a s a t r a di t i ona l l y m a l e ge nr e dom i na t e d by m a l e a ut hor s w ho c ont r ol di s t i nc t l y m a s c ul i ne w or l ds ( S a l va ggi o 78) O c t a vi a B ut l e r i s r e f r e s hi ngl y uni que B ut l e r de s c r i be s h e r s e l f a s a pe s s i m i s t i f I m not c a r e f ul a f e m i ni s t a l w a ys a B l a c k, a qui e t e goi s t a f or m e r B a pt i s t a nd a n o i l a nd w a t e r c om bi na t i on of a m bi t i on, l a z i ne s s a nd dr i ve ( B l oodc hi l d 145 ) S he s out s poke n a bout bot h he r pe r s ona l pol i t i c s t he i nt e nde d m e a ni ng o f he r w or k t hough ne ve r s pe c i f i c a l l y a bout a ni m a l s i n e i t he r c ont e xt N ot t ha t i t of t e n c om e s up, a l t hough a r gu a bl y, a s a ge nr e s c i e nc e f i c t i on a l m os t ne c e s s a r i l y i nvol ve s r e t hi nki ng of w ha t c ons t i t ut e s pe r s onhood or hum a ni t y i n r e l a t i on t o i de ol ogi c a l l y c ha l l e ngi ng non hum a n ot he r s w h i c h m a ni f e s t t he m s e l ve s bot h i n t h e ha r de r f or m s of c ybor gs / ot he r a r t i c i f i c i a l i nt e l l i g e nc e s a nd/ or t he m or e or ga ni c a l i e n. T he gr ounds on w hi c h t he s e ki nd s of nonhum a n p r e s e nc e s c ha l l e nge our c ons t r uc t i on of hum a n s up e r i or i t y a s r a t i ona l a s e m ot i ona l a s e t hi c a l l e a d, i n B ut l e r s w or k t o r e i m a gi ni ngs of t he m or e c or por e a l f a c e t s our c on s t r uc t i on of our s e l ve s a s a di f f e r e nt a nd s upe r i or s pe c i e s B ut l e r s w or k i s obs e s s e d w i t h bodi e s a nd p a r t i c ul a r l y t he bodi e s of w om e n. W om e n s bodi e s of t e n be c om e s our c e s of r e s i s t a nc e s t r e ngt h, e m pow e r m e nt a nd e ve n hope i n pos t a poc a l ypt i c f ut u r e s I n he r e xt e ns i ve s t udy of f e m i ni s m a nd s c i e nc e f i c t i on, A N e w Spe c i e s R obyn R ob e r t s i de nt i f i e s t hi s va l or i z e d e ndur a nc e of w om e n a s a ha l l m a r k of f e m i ni s t s c i e nc e f i c t i on, not i ng t ha t f e m a l e w r i t e r s s how t ha t w om e n a r e m or e l i ke l y t o s ur vi ve t ha n t he m e n w ho c r e a t e a poc a l yps e ( R obe r t s 109) I n C l ay s A r k

PAGE 62

56 i ndi vi dua l a nd s oc i a l s ur vi va l hi nge s on t he a bi l i t y t o a c c e pt t he f i gur a t i ve i m pl i c a t i ons of a l i t e r a l t r a ns f or m a t i on f r om hum a n t o ( ge ne t i c a l l y) nonhum a n. T he r e l a t i ve s uc c e s s of w om e n i n a c c e pt i ng a bl ur r e d bounda r y be t w e e n t he l i t e r a l a ni m a l ( i nva di ng t he i r hum a n c e l l s ) a nd t he r e l a t e d f i gur a t i ve bl ur r i ng ( of t h e oppos i t i ona l c a t e gor i e s hum a n a n d a ni m a l ) s e e m s t o be c onne c t e d t o t he i r m o t i va t i on a s a n oppr e s s e d s e x t o de c ons t r uc t t he r e l a t e d oppos i t i ona l c a t e gor i e s of m a s c ul i ne / f e m i ni ne ; c a t e gor i e s w hi c h di s e a s e f or c e s m e n a nd w om e n t o r e e va l ua t e a l ong w i t h t hos e o f hum a n/ a ni m a l C l ay s A r k de s c r i be s t he i nt r oduc t i on a nd s pr e a d of a pa r a s i t i c or ga ni s m a n or ga ni s m w hi c h m e l ds w i t h hos t c e l l s a nd a l t e r s t he m ge ne t i c a l l y. A s a r e s ul t i nf e c t e d hum a ns be c om e a bi ol ogi c a l l y nonhum a n hybr i d s pe c i e s w hom f or t he pur pos e s of t hi s e s s a y w i l l be r e f e r e nc e d a s a ni m a l hum a ns 7 T he i ni t i a l i nf e c t i on ( c a us e d by i noc ul a t i on) i s pot e nt i a l l y f a t a l pa r t i c ul a r l y f or m e n. D ur i ng t hi s s t a ge m e n a r e di s pr opor t i ona t e l y pr one t o phys i c a l i l l ne s s ; ho w e ve r i t i s t he p s y c hol ogi c al t ol l t ha t pr ove s m or e da nge r ous S t r uggl i ng w i t h f e e l i ngs of r a ge m a dne s s a nd l os s of c ont r ol t he i r s e xua l r i va l r y w i t h o t he r m e n i s t r a gi c a l l y i s ol a t i ng. W om e n i ns t e a d t e nd t o ba nd t oge t he r a s E l i ( t he l e a de r of t he a ni m a l hum a n s ) m a ke s c l e a r i n hi s e xpl a na t i on t o a r e c e nt c onve r t or i nf e c t e d, m a l e : T he or ga ni s m s e e m s t o pul l w om e n t oge t he r a nd pus h m e n a pa r t a t l e a s t a t f i r s t E l i s i ghe d. N ow w e c a n be m e n a nd w or k t hi s out w or k t he r a nc h w i t h t he w om e n a nd ke e p t he di s e a s e t o our s e l ve s a s m uc h a s pos s i bl e or w e c a n l e t t he o r ga ni s m m a ke a ni m a l s of us a nd w e c a n ki l l e a c h o t he r f or not hi ng ( C l ay s A r k 139) 7 T h i s i s t h e t e r m u s e d b y S h e r y l V i n t i n h e r e s s a y K i n s h i p a n d A n i m a l i t y i n C l a y s A r k ( V i n t 2 0 0 5 )

PAGE 63

57 T he pa r t i c ul a r ps yc hol ogi c a l p a i n s uf f e r e d by m e n i s l i nke d t o t he i r pr i vi l e ge d s t a t us i n a hum a n c ul t ur e w hi c h, t hough s e t i n a pos t m i l l e nni a l f ut ur e i s s t i l l i nt e ns e l y pa t r i a r c ha l I nde e d, i t a ppe a r s t o be i n s om e w a ys m or e s e xua l l y oppr e s s i ve t ha n our pr e s e nt one H um a n s oc i e t y out s i de t he r a nc h i nh a bi t e d by t he a ni m a l hum a ns e xi s t s i n t w o f or m s : c i vi l i z e d, s ubur ba n e nc l a ve s gua r de d by pol i c e a nd a ga n g r ul e d, vi ol e nt c ha ot i c w a s t e l a nd. T hi s s e w e r i s o c c upi e d by br ut a l c r i m i na l pa t r i a r c h l e d f a m i l i e s w ho pr e y on s t r a y hum a n s f or r a ns om s e xu a l gr a t i f i c a t i on, body pa r t s t o s e l l t o hos pi t a l s or s i m pl y f or s a di s t i c pl e a s ur e I t i s a p a r t i c ul a r l y da nge r ous w or l d f or w om e n, w ho w e s e e obj e c t i f i e d a nd vi c t i m i z e d m uc h m o r e f r e que nt l y a nd vi o l e nt l y t ha n m e n. C l ay s A r k i s s e t m os t l y on t he r a nc h, i n w ha t c o m e s t o a ppe a r a n a l m os t ut opi a n a ni m a l hum a n s oc i e t y i n c ont r a s t t o t he di s or de r out s i de A l t e r na t i ng c ha pt e r s w i t hi n t he s e pa r t s l a be l e d P a s t a nd P r e s e nt f ol l ow t w o pl ot l i ne s t a ki ng pl a c e f i ve y e a r s f r om one a not he r T he P a s t s e c t i ons f ol l ow t he i ni t i a l i nt r oduc t i on of t he d i s e a s e t o E a r t h vi a E l i t he l one s ur vi vor of a s pa c e m i s s i on w ho ha s s ur vi ve d t he s hut t l e s c r a s h. W hi l e e xpl or i ng a not he r pl a nt he a nd hi s f e l l ow a s t r ona ut s w e r e i nf e c t e d w i t h t he or ga ni s m T hos e w ho s ur vi ve d t he i r i ni t i a l i nf e c t i on t ook on a ni m a l qua l i t i e s s ym pt om a t i c of t h e di s e a s e i nc l udi ng he i ght e ne d s e ns or y a w a r e ne s s phys i c a l s t r e ngt h, s pe e d, a nd a dr a m a t i c a l l y i nc r e a s e d a ppe t i t e M or e t r oubl i ng, t he y f ound t he m s e l ve s ov e r w he l m e d by t he de s i r e t o s pr e a d t he di s e a s e t o ot he r hum a ns T he m os t di s t ur bi ng a s pe c t of t hi s de s i r e i s s e xua l a s t he i nf e c t e d e xp e r i e nc e a ne e d t o r e pr oduc e ; a ne e d s o pow e r f ul a s t o dr i ve t he m t o i nc e s t r a pe a nd w i l l i ng c ol l u s i on w i t h e i t he r E l i a l ong w i t h B l a ke a nd R a n e l a t e r de s c r i be t he s e m or a l l y a bhor r e nt f a c e t s of t h e i nf e c t i on a s a ni m a l m uc h a s L i s s i e i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r l i ke n e d c ol oni a l e r a s l a ve r s t o br ut e s

PAGE 64

58 A boa r d t he s pa c e s hut t l e a t t e m pt s t o i s ol a t e t he f i r s t vi c t i m s ( w ho, be c a us e r e i nf e c t i on i s ne c e s s a r y f or s ur vi va l di e ) a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a nd l i ke ne d t o m e di c a l e xpe r i m e nt s i nvol vi ng a ni m a l s a s i n t he r e f e r e nc e t o, t he m e a ge r s t a t i s t i c s pr ovi de d by t he c r e w a nd t he f e w e xpe r i m e nt a l a ni m a l s t he y m a na ge d t o r a i s e f r o m f r oz e n a ni m a l s ( 47) T he t hr e a t of be i ng r e duc e d t o e xpe r i m e nt a l a ni m a l s i s br ought up r e pe a t e dl y t hr oughout t he t e xt pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he P r e s e nt c ha pt e r s T hi s dr e a d of m e di c a l a nd s c i e nt i f i c i ns t i t ut i ons put s E l i i n a t e r r i bl e di l e m m a A l t hough t he or ga ni s m ha s c a us e d hi m t o w a nt t o s pr e a d t he di s e a s e he ha s r e s ol ve d t o c ont a i n i t ; t o be a hum a n pl us not a hum a n m i n us ( 18) H e ha s s e e n w ha t m i ght ve r y l i ke l y ha ppe n t o hi m i f he w e r e t o t u r n hi m s e l f i n, i e t ha t he w i l l p r oba bl y be t r e a t e d l i ke a n a ni m a l F ur t he r he f e a r s t ha t phys i c i a n s w on t r e s pe c t hi m e nough t o he e d hi s w a r ni ngs a bout t he di s e a s e a nd c ons e que nt l y m i g ht s pr e a d i t E l i s pos t c r a s h s e a r c h f or w a t e r l e a ds hi m t o a f a r m hous e oc c upi e d by a r e l i gi ous c ons e r va t i ve pa t r i a r c h, hi s d a ught e r s hi s s on C hr i s t i a n, a nd t w o s ons i n l a w E l i f i ght s hi s a ni m a l i ns t i nc t t o r a pe one of t he da ught e r s w ho he c a n s m e l l ovul a t i ng T he s t r uggl e be t w e e n w ha t he c a l l s hi s a ni m a l s e x dr i ve ve r s us hi s hum a n m or a l i t y a nd m i nd e xha us t s hi m a nd he l o s e s c ons c i ou s ne s s H e i s r e s c u e d by C hr i s t i a n. U pon w a ki ng i n t he r oom of t he e l de s t da ught e r M e da E l i r e a l i z i ng t he or ga ni s m ha s a l m os t c e r t a i nl y be e n s pr e a d, r e s ol ve s t o c ont a i n i t t o t h e f a r m H e i m a gi ne s h e m i ght c r e a t e a hum a n ga t he r i ng, not a he r d, a hope w hi c h a ga i n r e i nf or c e s hi s ob s e s s i ve ne e d t o di f f e r e nt i a t e t he a ni m a l hum a ns f r om a ni m a l s ( 90) T he ot he r m e n a l l di e pr i m a r i l y be c a us e of t he gui l t i nduc e d by ne w l y i nt e ns i f i e d s e x dr i ve T he w om e n, w ho s e e m t o j udge t he i r pr i va t e de s i r e s l e s s ha r s hl y, s ur vi ve

PAGE 65

59 T he s e xua l ne e ds of t he w om e n a nd t he ge ne r a l ne e d t o r e i nf e c t e ve nt ua l l y dr i ve s t he s ur vi vor s t o be gi n a bduc t i ng m e n f r om t he hi ghw a y. T he f i r s t of t he s e Z e r i a m c om m i t s s ui c i de s hor t l y a f t e r be c om i ng i nf e c t e d a nd i m pr e gna t i ng G w yn. S ub s e que nt c onve r t s a m ong t he m I ngr a ha m L upe a nd S t e ve n s ur vi ve t o bui l d a r e l a t i ve l y i dyl l i c c om m uni t y. T he y p r e s e r ve w ha t i s r e pe a t e dl y r e f e r e nc e d a s t he i r hum a n pa r t by pr ot e c t i ng t he hum a n s pe c i e s a t l a r ge ( by be i ng c a r e f ul not t o s pr e a d t he di s e a s e t o t he out s i de ) pr a c t i c i ng m onoga m y, a nd by nur t ur i ng t he i r c hi l dr e n T he a ni m a l hum a ns a r e pa r t i c ul a r l y voc a l a da m a nt i n t he i r i ns i s t e nc e s t ha t t he c hi l dr e n, w ho a r e vi s i bl y a nd f ul l y nonhum a n, a r e no t a ni m a l s T he s e ki nds of s upe r f i c i a l c ons t r uc t s of t he good, e s s e nt i a l hum a n v e r s us t h e i r r a t i ona l de ni gr a t e d a ni m a l out w a r dl y s uppor t s t he t r a di t i ona l hum a n/ a ni m a l bi na r y. S he r yl V i nt n ot e s t ha t E l i s pe r s pe c t i ve i n t he P a s t s e c t i ons r e i nf or c e s t he u s e of hum a n/ a ni m a l bounda r i e s i n f a m i l i a r w a ys B e i ng hum a n i s s om e t hi ng de s i r a bl e w or t h c l i ngi ng t o ( 289) E l i s vi e w s of w om e n a r e s t uc k i n a r e l a t e d pa t r i a r c ha l pa r a di gm H i s obj e c t i f yi ng of w om e n i s due pa r t i a l l y, of c our s e t o t he di s e a s e ; how e ve r w e s e e hi nt s of i t i n hi s m e m o r i e s of a f or m e r l i f e w he r e w om e n a s s e xua l c om m odi t i e s w e r e ne ve r a pr obl e m ( C l ay s A r k 44 ) H e t r i e s t o f i ght hi s a t t r a c t i on t o M e da by s i z i ng he r up i n r e l a t i on t o he r s i s t e r s i n t e r m s of hum a n obj e c t i ve i de a l s of phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s I n t hos e t e r m s M e da a ppe a r s m a s c ul i ne he r ga i t a ge s i z e s t r e ngt h, out s poke nne s s a nd ope n a c know l e dgm e nt of s e xua l de s i r e m a ke he r s e xua l l y r e pugna nt t o hum a n m e n pr e i nf e c t i on. E l i us e s t hi s s e xu a l l y obj e c t i f yi ng pe r s pe c t i ve t o r e s i s t he r i ni t i a l a dv a nc e s M e da s ga z e w hi c h s e xu a l l y obj e c t i f i e s E l i f r i ght e ns a nd r e pul s e s E l i a nd put s hi m i n a de f e ns i ve pos i t i on. L a t e r i nf e c t i on f or c e s bot h hi m a nd t he s i s t e r s t o a c know l e dge t he i r

PAGE 66

60 s e xua l i t y a nd s e xua l dr i ve T hi s a c know l e dge m e nt i n t ur n s ha t t e r s t he s e xua l pa r a di gm of w om e n a s pa s s i ve obj e c t s a nd m e n a s a c t i ve c ons um e r s of t he s e obj e c t s W om e n be c om e a ge nt s i n s e xua l e nc ount e r s ; m os t r a di c a l l y, t he y be c om e pot e nt i a l r a pi s t s w hos e m a l e vi c t i m s c a nnot po s t i nf e c t i on, r e s i s t phys i c a l a r ous a l A s E l i a nd t he s i s t e r s pl a n t he i r a bduc t i on of Z e r i a m L or e ne m a ke s t he p ot e nt i a l r a di c a l s hi f t i n s e xua l pol i t i c s c l e a r : Y ou know s he s a i d, s t i l l l a ughi ng, t hi s i s t he ki nd of t hi ng you r e a d a bout m e n doi ng t o w om e n ki dna ppi ng t he n, t he n t he w om e n ge t t i ng t o l i ke t he i de a I t hi nk I m goi ng t o e nj oy r e ve r s i ng t hi ngs ( 108) E l i r e s ponds by i ns i s t i ng t ha t t he a ni m a l hum a n s m us t s us pe c t a nd r e s i s t a ny f e e l i ngs w hi c h w oul d ha ve be e n r e pugna nt be f or e hi s i l l ne s s but w e r e now a t t r a c t i ve ( 89) H e r e m i nds L or e ne t ha t he r de s i r e i s c a us e d by t he di s e a s e a nd t hus a ni m a l a nd ba d. W e ve l os t pa r t of ou r hum a ni t y he t e l l s he r a ddi ng, W e c a n l os e a l ot m or e w i t hout e ve n r e a l i z i ng i t ( 109) T he i m pl i c a t i on t ha t he r s e xua l de s i r e i s du e e nt i r e l y t o t he a ni m a l of t he or ga ni s m i s obvi ous l y pr obl e m a t i c a nd r e f l e c t s a s t e r e ot ype w e l l s e e i n t he P r e s e nt s e c t i ons H ow e ve r E l i s r e s i s t a nc e t o ke e pi ng t he w om e n t o hi m s e l f a s a ha r e m how e ve r c onc e pt ua l l y l i nke d i n hi s m i nd t o pr e s e r va t i on of t he hum a n, s uppor t s a r e a di ng of hi s a r gum e nt a ga i ns t L or e n e s r e ve r s i ng t hi ngs a s a m ove a w a y f r om pa t r i a r c ha l pos s e s s i on a nd by e xt e ns i on obj e c t i f i c a t i on of w om e n. A s m ot he r s a nd pot e n t i a l m ot he r s t he a ni m a l hum a n w om e n f or c e E l i t o c onf r ont hi s s pe c i e s i s t pr e j udi c e a s w e l l a s i m pl i c i t l y, hi s s e xi s m E l i s t r uggl e s t o a c c e pt J a c ob, hi s c hi l d w i t h M e da I n r e s pon s e t o t he c hi l d s i nc r e a s i ngl y e vi de nt di f f e r e nc e E l i t r i e s t o

PAGE 67

61 f or c e t he c hi l d t o w a l k upr i ght t hough t he a ni m a l hum a n c hi l dr e n a r e na t ur a l l y qua dr upe ds D e s pi t e hi s f r us t r a t i on, a nd e v e n r e p ul s i on, E l i l ove d t he ki d de s pe r a t e l y, w a nt e d t o gi ve hi m t he gi f t o f hum a ni t y w hi c h h e i m a gi ne s he r e t o be phys i c a l l i ke ne s s ( 176) E l i t hi s gi f t i s l i nke d t o m a s c ul i ni t y, f or a boy, a m a n, w a l ke d upr i ght s ugge s t i ng t ha t t o E l i m a s c ul i ne m e a ns m os t hum a n ( 175) T he w om e n, w ho f e a r E l i m i ght hur t t he c hi l dr e n he s e e s a s hope l e s s l y nonhum a n c onf r ont hi m M e da i ns i s t s t h a t E l i l ov e s t he c hi l dr e n de s pi t e hi s i nc r e a s i ngl y obvi ous di s gus t w i t h t he m S he t e l l s hi m t ha t he w oul d ha ve t o go a ga i ns t your de e pe s t f e e l i ngs t o hur t t he m ( 191 ) G w yn a dds no m a t t e r how you f e e l i f you t r y t o hu r t t he m w e w i l l ki l l you ( 181 ) M e da s s e nt i m e nt s a s s e r t t he va l i di t y a nd m e a ni ng of E l i s pa t e r na l r e l a t i on t o t he c hi l d r e n he ha s f a t he r e d ( t w o, a t t h i s poi nt ) he r ha s a b i ol ogi c a l e t hi c a l a nd e m ot i ona l r e l a t i on t o ( 192 ) H e r a r gum e nt i s i m pl i c i t l y t ha t he s houl d l ove t he c hi l dr e n a s pa r t s of hi m s e l f w hi l e G w yn s i m pl i e s t he i nhe r e nt w or t h of t he c hi l dr e n a s pe opl e R a t he r t ha n ba s e t hi s w or t h i n t he i r hu m a ni t y, M e da goe s on t o i nc l ude t he i r a ni m a l di f f e r e nc e W he n E l i s a ys w ha t i n t he w or l d i s goi ng t o ha ppe n t o ki ds w i t h hum a n m i nds a nd f our l e gs ? M e da c ount e r s w ho s a ys t he y ha ve hum a n m i nds ? ( 191) W hi l e t he y a r e obvi ous l y br i ght M e da not e s t ha t t he i r m i nds m a y be a s di f f e r e nt a s t he i r bodi e s a nd w e c a n t e a c h t he m but w e c a n t know a he a d of t i m e w ha t t he y l l be c om e ( 191) T he m ot he r s he nc e f or c e E l i t o r e c ogni z e hi s l i t e r a l ki ns hi p w i t h hi s c hi l dr e n, w ho he m us t a c c e pt not on l y a s l i ke hi m but a s ot he r T he s e P a s t s e c t i ons a l l ow us t o vi e w t he c ons t r u c t i on of a ne w ki nd of s oc i e t y, one w hi c h de s t a bi l i z e s our c ul t u r a l l y a ndr oc e nt r i c a nd a nt hr opoc e nt r i c f oc us C ons t r uc t e d ge nde r a nd s pe c i e s bounda r i e s a r e bl ur r e d w he n pow e r m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f i n t he s e x f e m a l e

PAGE 68

62 a nd a ni m a l na t ur e i nhe r e nt t o hum a ns T he c hi l dr e n e m e r ge a s m a ni f e s t a t i ons of t hi s ki nd of bl ur r i ng. I n t he P r e s e nt c ha pt e r s w e c a n s e e a c l e a r r e l a t i on s hi p be t w e e n t he l i t e r a l c a pa c i t y t o a c c e pt t he a ni m a l or ga ni s m a nd t he f i gur a t i ve c a pa c i t y t o a c c e pt a di f f e r e nt c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on of t he hum a n/ a ni m a l di vi de ge nde r a nd s e xua l i t y. T he s e s e c t i ons f ol l ow t he a b duc t i on e s c a pe a nd r e a bduc t i on of B l a ke M a s l i n a nd hi s t w i n t e e na ge da ught e r s R a ne a nd K i e r a T he f i r s t s e c t i ons ( i n P a r t I ) f oc us on B l a ke s pe r s pe c t i ve B l a ke a w i dow e r phys i c i a n, a nd a f f l ue nt w hi t e m a l e i s dr i vi ng hi s da ught e r s hom e f r om a t r i p t o s e e t he i r gr a ndpa r e nt s T he t r i p w a s i ns t i ga t e d by K i e r a w ho i s dyi ng of l e uke m i a a di s e a s e w hi c h i s i n t hi s f ut ur e c ur a bl e t hough s he ha s f a i l e d t o r e s pond t o t r e a t m e nt B l a ke s l a t e w i f e t he i r m ot he r w a s bl a c k; a de t a i l s e e n a s r a di c a l a nd ge ne r a l l y vi e w e d a s unna t ur a l i n s oc i e t y a t l a r ge T he da ught e r s l a c k of r e s e m bl a nc e t o hi m pa r a l l e l s t he a ni m a l hum a n c hi l dr e n s l a c k o f r e s e m bl a nc e t o t he i r pa r e nt s a nd i s vi e w e d l a t e r by B l a ke a nd R a ne w i t h t he s a m e di s gus t w i t h w hi c h s oc i e t y s e e m s t o vi e w t he M a s l i n f a m i l y. A ddi t i ona l l y, K i e r a s r e s e m bl a nc e of he r m ot he r t hough l e s s e ne d by he r di s e a s e r e l a t e d w e i ght l os s m a ke s he r a s e xua l t hr e a t one w hos e da nge r B l a ke s e e m s t o r e gi s t e r s ubc on s c i ous l y ( he pr e f e r s he r t o w e a r ba ggy c l ot he s a nd not e s t ha t he r f or m e r be a ut y hur t hi m ) a t f i r s t ( 7 ) H e i de nt i f i e s m or e s t r ongl y w i t h t he ou t s poke n, m a s c ul i ne a nd l i ght e r s ki nne d R a ne B l a ke s t op s t o a l l ow a s a nds t or m t o pa s s ove r a nd t he c a r i s br oke n i nt o by E l i a nd I ngr a ha m T he y t h r e a t e n hi m w i t h a gun t hou gh he obs e r ve s t he y s e e m e d s t r a nge l y r e s i gne d, a s t hought t he y di d not l i ke w ha t t he y w e r e doi ng a s t hough t he y w e r e unde r t he gun t he m s e l ve s a pe r c e pt i on w hi c h r e i nf or c e s t he i d e a of t he a ni m a l hum a ns a s

PAGE 69

63 ope r a t i ng unde r a non dom i na t i ve nonvi ol e n t a l t e r na t i ve i de ol ogy t o t he c ont r a s t e d vi ol e nc e of pa t r i a r c hy ( 12 13) T he a ni m a l hum a ns t a ke t he M a s l i n f a m i l y t o t he r a nc h, w he r e a f t e r di nne r t he a ni m a l hum a ns s e pa r a t e t he c onve r t s B e f or e B l a ke i s s e nt of f w i t h M e da he t r i e s t o s t e a l a kni f e f r om t he t a bl e M e da c a t c he s hi m but a l l ow s i t a s s ur i ng hi m t ha t i t w on t be of a ny us e but unw i l l i ng t o e m ba r r a s s hi m by t a ki ng i t f r om hi s by f or c e i n f r ont o f hi s da ught e r s T he kni f e be c om e s s ym bol i c of hi s pha l l i c pow e r i n t he i r s ubs e que nt s t r uggl e w he r e he w i e l ds i t he t hi nk s s uc c e s s f ul l y, onl y t o f i nd t ha t M e da ha s a l r e a dy i nf e c t e d hi m R e c ogni z i ng he r s upe r i or s t r e ngt h, B l a ke r e l i nqui s he s t he kni f e a nd t r i e s i ns t e a d t o us e hi s m e di c a l a ut hor i t y t o e s t a bl i s h dom i na nc e T he m om e nt s he r e m ove s he r c l ot h e s f or e xa m i na t i on, how e ve r M e da be c om e s s e xua l l y a t t r a c t i ve t o B l a ke i n w a ys w hi c h t hr e a t e n hi s pr e vi ous d e hum a ni z a t i on of he r a s s i c kl y a nd nonhum a n l ooki ng. N ude M e da l ooks m or e l i ke t he hum a n f e m a l e s he w a s not ( 53) H e t r i e s t o i gnor e not onl y M e d a s ne w f ound hum a n r e s e m bl a nc e but a l s o t he i nf or m a t i on s he t r i e s t o of f e r hi m c onc e r ni ng t he di s e a s e B l a ke r e pe a t e dl y ve r ba l l y a nd i nt e r na l l y di s c a r ds M e da s e xpl a na t i ons H e t hi nks s he w a s no l onge r hum a n a nd di d not know how c ha nge d s he w a s de s pi t e t ha t M e da ha s i n f a c t e xpr e s s e d a n a dva n c e d unde r s t a ndi ng of t he e xt r e m i t y o f t he c ha nge s t o h e r ge ne t i c m a ke up ( 52) T he y a t t e m pt s t o obj e c t i f y M e da a r e e a s i l y r e l a t a bl e t o f e m i ni s t a nd a ni m a l s t udi e s c r i t i que s of s c i e nt i f i c obj e c t i vi t y, w hi c h de hum a ni z e s e xpe r i m e nt a l s ubj e c t s B l a ke goe s on t o r e l a t e t he di s e a s e t o r a bi e s a pa r a di gm w hi c h m a ke s t he c a r r i e r s de s i r e t o s pr e a d i t e v e n m or e de hum a ni z e d a nd a ni m a l W he n M e da c onf i de s t o hi m he r f a nt a s y of w a l ki ng t hr ough a hum a n c r ow d, he t r i e s t o t e l l he r t ha t s he w a nt s i t t o be t r ue

PAGE 70

64 P i gs hi t M e da r e s ponds i f I w a nt e d i t t o ha ppe n i t w oul d ( 53) H e r r e s pons e a s s e r t s he r a g e nc y a nd c ont r ol w hi l e B l a ke s r e f l e c t s hi s be l i e f t ha t t h e a ni m a l of t he or ga ni s m c ont r ol s he r I t f ol l ow s t ha t e ve n pos t i nf e c t i on t he hum a n i de nt i t y he t r i e s t o a s s e r t i nc l ude s hi s i nt e l l e c t ua l s upr e m a c y a s a phys i c i a n, hi s phys i c a l a nd s e xua l dom i na nc e a s a m a n, a nd hi s e s s e nt i a l t r a ns c e nde nt a l s upe r i or i t y a s bi ol ogi c a l l y hum a n. B e c a us e t he a ni m a l hum a n s oc i e t y doe s n t c onc e pt ua l i z e m e di c a l or m a s c ul i ne a ut hor i t y a s s uc h, B l a ke f i nds t he pr os pe c t of a c c e pt i ng t he or ga ni s m t o be pa r t i c ul a r l y hor r i f i c B l a ke c ons pi r e s w i t h K i e r a t o e s c a pe dur i ng a b r i e f vi s i t W he n l a t e r t he y do t he y a l m os t hi t a n a ni m a l a s t he pi c k up R a ne T he da ught e r s i de nt i f y t he a ni m a l s a s J a c ob, a nd t he i r e m pa t hy t ow a r d hi m a l i e na t e s B l a ke w ho f e e l s e xc l ude d a s bot h m a l e a nd a s s om e one w ho s t i l l ve he m e nt l y a s s e r t s t he s upe r i or i t y o f t he hum a n ( 68 ) I n t he s e c ond s e c t i on, t h e P r e s e nt C ha pt e r s f ol l ow R a ne s i nf e c t i on a nd e s c a pe L i ke B l a ke s he r e s i s t s t he s e duc t i on of t he a ni m a l hum a ns t hough ul t i m a t e l y l e s s s o t ha n he r f a t he r L i ke hi m t oo, s he s e e s t he a ni m a l hum a n di vi de a s e s s e nt i a l l oa t hi ng t he w a y L upe a nd I ngr a ha m s t ouc h m a ke s he r f e e l l i ke a n a ni m a l ( 92) T he s i m i l a r i t i e s be t w e e n he r vi e w s of t he a ni m a l a s s c i e nt i f i c obj e c t a r e m a de c l e a r i n he r obs e r va t i on of a w om a n c l e a ni ng a c hi c ke n. R a ne pl a nne d t o be a doc t or s om e da y, a nd w a s pl e a s e d t ha t t he s i ght di d n ot r e pe l he r ( 78 ) I n s t a r k c ont r a s t e vi de nc e of m a t e r ni t y a nd c hi l dr e n doe s A f t e r m e e t i ng J a c ob, s he a s ks t he pr e gna nt L upe i f t he hum a n a ni m a l c hi l dr e n a r e A l l a ni m a l s ? A l l t hi ngs ? ( 83) R a ne vi e w s he r pot e nt i a l r ol e a s a m ot he r w i t h s i m i l a r r e vul s i on. R a ne a s ks he r s ui t or S t e ve n ( a m a n s he i s ot h e r w i s e phy s i c a l l y a n d

PAGE 71

65 i nt e l l e c t ua l l y a t t r a c t e d t o) w ha t do I do i f I l i v e ? G i ve bi r t h t o one l i t t l e a ni m a l a f t e r a not he r ? ( 93) I n P a r t I I I w e ha ve K i e r a s pe r s pe c t i ve S he i s e nt i r e l y w i l l i ng t o a c c e pt t he a ni m a l hum a n i de nt i t y a nd s oc i e t y, a nd w i l l i ngl y e xpos e s he r s e l f t o i nf e c t i on by E l i w he n s he s e duc e s hi m E l i a dm i t s h e m us t e ve nt ua l l y r e t ur n t o M e da a nd K i e r a s c ons e qu e nt r om a nt i c e nvy i s a s vi t a l a f a c t or a s f i l i a l l oya l t y f or he r t o c ol l ud e w i t h he r f a t he r s e s c a pe pl a n. T he s e c onf l i c t i ng de s i r e s r e f l e c t de c i de dl y hum a n r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h bot h a ni m a l hum a ns a nd hum a ns B l a ke a nd R a ne b y c ont r a s t a r e f ue l e d by a de s i r e t o m a i nt a i n t he i r pr i vi l e ge a s s upe r i or t o t he a ni m a l hum a ns B l a ke s de s i r e t o e s c a p e i s ba s e d f or e m os t i n a f a i t h i n ( hi s ) m e di c a l a ut hor i t y t o c ur e t he di s e a s e a nd R a ne s i n f e a r of he r pot e nt i a l a ni m a l t r e a t m e nt T he i m pl i c a t i ons of t he i r i ndi vi dua l m ot i va t i ons be c om e c l e a r w he n t he f a m i l y i s a bduc t e d by a ga ng. T he ga ng i s bot h pa t r i a r c ha l a nd a ni m a l i n i t s s a di s m m i s ogyny, a nd i r r a t i ona l i t y. T he ga ng l e a de r i s c a l l e d B a dg e r a n a l l us i on w hi c h s e r ve s t o he i ght e n t he c ont r a s t be t w e e n t he a ni m a l a c t i ons of hum a ns t o t he e t hi c a l c onc e r ns of t he nonhum a n a ni m a l hu m a ns W hi l e i m pr i s one d, t he M a s l i ns b e gi n t o t r a ns f or m B l a ke goe s i ns a ne a nd t r i e s t o r a pe K i e r a w hi l e R a ne a l l ow s e ve n f a c i l i t a t e s he r r a pe a t t he ha nds of he r a pe c a pt or s ( 183) S he l i ke B l a ke f e e l s i nt e r na l l y di vi de d be t w e e n w ha t t he y ha ve c ons t r uc t e d a s a ni m a l a nd hum a n r e a l i t i e s R a ne f e e l s a s t hough s h e w e r e t w o pe opl e one o f w hom w a s ut t e r l y c om pe l l e d t o ha ve t hi s m a n pe r ha ps a ny m a n, w hi l e t he ot he r w a s s t i l l he r a nd s c r e a m e d, s oundl e s s l y w e e pi ng, a nd c l a w e d w i t h i m a gi na r y f i nge r s a t t he a pe s ugl y, s t upi d f a c e ( 184) W he r e a s R a ne f e e l s di vi de d, K i e r a c a n i nt e gr a t e he r a ni m a l phys i c a l s ym pt o m s w i t h he r pr e e xi s t i ng s e l f i n a w a y

PAGE 72

66 w hi c h a l l ow s he r t o e s c a pe t he hou s e R a ne di e s i n. B l a ke a l s o e s c a pe s but i s s i m i l a r l y f oi l e d by hi s i na bi l i t y t o c ont r ol w ha t he s e e s a s a di vi de d s e l f ; B l a ke di e s a f t e r a s t r uggl e w i t h a pa s s i ng t r uc ke r he i s una bl e t o r e s i s t a t t a c ki ng. T he t r uc ke r e s c a pe s s i gna l i ng t he s t a r t of t he i ne vi t a bl e e pi de m i c K i e r a r e t ur ns t o t he r a nc h w i t h t he a ni m a l hu m a ns r e s ol ve d t o r e m e m be r t he ki ds ( 21 0) I n t he e pi l ogue w e s e e s he ha s a c c e pt e d S t e ve n a s h e r hus ba nd. W i t h t he out s i de w or l d i n c ha os t he i m por t a nc e of t he c hi l dr e n i s r e i nf o r c e d; t he y a r e a l l w e ha ve l e f t a s ki n a nd a s hope f or t he f ut ur e ( 2 13) T he c l os i ng l i ne s de m ons t r a t e t he m ut ua l i t y of K i e r a a nd S t e ve n s r e l a t i ons hi p, a s t he y hol d e a c h ot he r unt i l t he y c oul d no l onge r t e l l w h i c h of t he m w a s t r e m bl i ng ( 213) T hi s i s i n s t a r k c ont r a s t t o t he s e xua l dyna m i c s of t he f i r s t P a s t a nd P r e s e nt c ha pt e r s bot h of w hi c h ope n w i t h a b s e nt w i v e s j uxt a po s e d by i na ppr opr i a t e s ubs t i t ut e s ; i n t he P a s t t he s l e e pi ng da ught e r a nd i n t he P r e s e nt K i e r a a s l i ke ne d t o J or a h. I n bot h c a s e s t he m e n i nvol ve d ul t i m a t e l y f i ght ( or f a i l t o f i ght ) t he ur g e t o s e xu a l l y dom i na t e w om e n t hr ough r a pe I n c ont r a s t S t e ve n a nd K i e r a s r e l a t i ons hi p i s m ut ua l a nd c ont e nt i ous T hi s i s pa r t of a n ove r a l l s hi f t i n t he a ni m a l hum a n s oc i e t y t ow a r d s i nt e r de pe nde nc e ove r i nde pe nde nc e one w hi c h i s a ha l l m a r k of C l ay s A r k s s t a t us a s f e m i ni s t f i c t i on ( R obe r t s 91) S om e ot he r e xa m pl e s of i nt e r de pe nc e i nc l ude t he l i t e r a l f unc t i oni ng of t he or ga ni s m i n r e l a t i on t o hu m a n c e l l s F ur t he r t he r e i s t he po r t r a ya l o f f e m a l e pow e r of r e pr oduc t i on a s a pos i t i ve a nd i nt e r de pe nde nt pr oc e s s r a t he r t ha n t he pa i nf ul or e ve n f e a r f ul l i a bi l i t y of c e r t a i n m a l e s c i e nc e f i c t i on ( R obe r t s 111) T he pa r t i c ul a r a bi l i t y o f w om e n t o s ur vi ve i nf e c t i on i s a l s o i n l i ne s w i t h R obe r t s c l a i m t ha t w om e n w r i t e r s of f e m i ni s t s c i e nc e f i c t i on s how t ha t w om e n a r e m or e l i ke l y t o s ur vi ve t ha n t he m e n w ho c r e a t e a poc a l yps e ( R obe r t s 109)

PAGE 73

67 W hi l e t he f e m i ni s m of B ut l e r s f i c t i on ha s b e e n c r i t i c a l l y w e l l doc um e nt e d, V i nt s e s s a y i s t he onl y I c oul d f i nd e x a m i ni ng C l ay s A r k i n t he c ont e xt of a ni m a l s t udi e s V i nt s a na l ys i s s ugge s t s A r k s c onc e pt ua l r e w or ki ng of t he hum a n/ a ni m a l di vi de i s a ni m a l pos i t i ve i e t ha t i t pr om ot e s t he a ni m a l a s a pot e nt i a l s ubj e c t w or t hy of e t hi c a l c onc e r n. I w oul d a r gue t ha t t he c a s e f or a ni m a l s i s m a de pr i m a r i l y i n t he s a m e t e r m s R ob e r t s a r gue s f e m i ni s m of t e n i s i n s c i e n c e f i c t i on; t ha t i s i n r e l a t i on t o a n ont ol ogy w he r e oppr e s s i on ha s be e n c a r r i e d t o a n i m m e d i a t e l y a bhor r e nt e xt r e m e ( R obe r t s 3) R e pe a t e d a nd hor r i f i c r e f e r e nc e s t o t he e xpl o i t a t i on a nd t or t ur e of a ni m a l s by t he s c i e nt i f i c c om m uni t y e s t a bl i s h a n a w a r e ne s s of bot h t he de gr e e of a ni m a l vi c t i m i z a t i on a nd t he pot e nt i a l f o r s ubj e c t s t o be s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d a s obj e c t s a va i l a bl e f or a bus e F ur t he r t he hunt i ng s l a ught e r a nd c ons um pt i on of r a w a ni m a l bodi e s i s he l d t o be a bhor r e nt e ve n a m ong hum a n de ge ne r a t e s a s i s J a c ob s s e ns or y pe r c e pt i on of hum a ns a s m e a t a pe r c e pt i on h e i s t r a i ne d t o de ny. H u m a ns a s a s p e c i e s a r e t hus h e l d t o b e w or t hy of e t hi c a l c ons i de r a t i on a s s ubj e c t s w ho s e e xpl oi t a t i on a s obj e c t s f or i nf e c t i on, c ons um pt i on, a nd s e x i s r e s t r i c t e d or de ni e d. Y e t a ni m a l s a r e r a i s e d, but c he r e d, a n d c ons um e d a s l i ve s t oc k by t he a ni m a l hum a ns A l s o, t he c ons t r uc t i on of t he t e r m a ni m a l a s ne ga t i ve i s ne ve r que s t i one d e xpl i c i t l y; t he s pe c i e s i s t m e a ni ng i s j u s t c ha nge d. H um a n i s s t i l l a pos i t i ve s i gni f i e r of e t hi c a l nor m a t i ve be ha vi or w hi l e a ni m a l s i gni f i e s bot h ne ga t i ve c r ue l a bno r m a l be ha vi or a nd s pe c i e s a va i l a bl e f or c ons um pt i on. T he qua l i f i e r f or s ubj e c t i vi t y i s s t i l l ve r ba l l a ngu a ge w hi c h t he a ni m a l hum a ns c l i ng t o de s pi t e t he i r a dva nc e d unde r s t a ndi ng of non ve r ba l or body l a ngua ge W he t he r or not t he a ni m a l hum a ns c a n r e a d t he body l a ngua ge of a ni m a l s i s n e ve r m e nt i one d, t hough i t s e e m s l i ke t he y c a nnot I f t he y c a nnot t he que s t i on be c om e s w he t h e r t he y l a c k t he a bi l i t y

PAGE 74

68 t o do s o or w he t he r ot he r s pe c i e s l a c k e m ot i o na l a nd/ or r a t i ona l c ont e nt r e a l l y, s ubj e c t i vi t y t o be r e a d. T he s e c ont r a di c t i ons t hough i nt r i gu i ng, f a i l t o e xt e nd a ny c ons i s t e nt l y pos i t i ve e t hi c a l s t a t us t o a ni m a l s not of t he h um a n or a ni m a l hum a n s pe c i e s T he phy s i c a l a nd pot e nt i a l c e r e br a l di f f e r e nc e of a ni m a l hum a n c hi l dr e n of f e r a m ode l of t he pot e nt i a l s ubj e c t i vi t y of a m or e r a di c a l l y di f f e r e nt ot he r ; how e ve r t he t e xt ne ve r l i nks t hi s pot e nt i a l t o a ny pot e nt i a l s ubj e c t i vi t y i n ot he r s pe c i e s O ne c oul d t hus a r gue t ha t t hi s t e xt f unda m e nt a l l y uphol ds t he i de a of e t hi c s a s b a s i c a l l y hum a n, a nd r e l i a nt on s om e ki nd of ge ne t i c or s o c i a l l y t a ught hum a n c ont r i but i on. O f c our s e one c oul d e xt e r na l l y c om ba t t hi s by not i ng t he w a ys i n w hi c h nonhum a n a ni m a l s r a r e l y di s pl a y t he be ha vi or de e m e d m os t une t hi c a l by hum a ns i n t he t e xt M os t nonhum a n s pe c i e s f or i ns t a nc e a voi d i nc e s t a nd, w i t h e xt r a or di na r i l y f e w e xc e pt i ons a nyt hi n g r e s e m bl i ng t or t ur e e s pe c i a l l y t or t u r e of ot he r m e m be r s of t he i r s pe c i e s A ga i n, t he s e a r e e xt r a t e xt ua l a r gum e nt s ; w i t hi n t he t e xt t he r e i s one l a s t p a s s a ge I f i nd i nc r e di bl y i nt r i gui ng I n i t E l i a s s ur e s L or e ne t ha t he be l i e ve s t he y, a nd hum a ni t y a t l a r ge w i l l s ur vi ve t he or ga ni s m : onc e w e kn e w w ha t t o l ook f or on P r oxi T w o, w e f ound t he or ga ni s m s i n a l m os t e ve r y a ni m a l s pe c i e s a l i ve t he r e S om e w e r e i m m une he r bi vor e s t e nde d t o be i m m une a nd I s us pe c t a l ot of ot he r s pe c i e s ha d be e n dr i ve n i nt o e xt i nc t i on. ( C l ay s A r k 192) I m pa r t i c ul a r l y i nt e r e s t e d i n B ut l e r s i nc l us i on o f t he de t a i l he r bi vor e s s e e m e d r e s i s t a nt t o t he di s e a s e H ow i n t he l a r ge r c ont e x t of t he w o r k, do w e r e a d t hi s ? I w oul d a r gue t ha t i t i s pot e nt i a l l y pr o a ni m a l a s i ndi c a t i ve of a n i de a l l y ve ge t a r i a n e t hi c T hi s

PAGE 75

69 r e a di ng hi nge s up on a r e a di ng of t he or ga ni s m i t s e l f T he or ga ni s m w hi c h a t one poi nt i s c om pa r e d t o a w r a t hf ul C hr i s t i a n G od, c a u s e s p e opl e t o r e e va l ua t e t he i r e t hi c a l a nd s oc i a l s t r uc t ur e s i n pos i t i ve w a ys H ow e v e r i t doe s t hi s onl y by f or c i ng c ha r a c t e r s t o c onf r ont a he i ght e ne d t e nde nc y t ow a r d a nd c a pa c i t y f or e vi l H um a ns ne e d t he a ni m a l of t he pa r a s i t i c or ga ni s m t o ove r c om e t he a ni m a l w hi c h i s m or e s pe c i f i c a l l y hum a n, t he a ni m a l of de l i be r a t e c r ue l t y, de s t r uc t i on, a nd de ni a l of ki ns hi p. I t s t hi s hum a n a ni m a l i t y w hi c h i s d e s t r uc t i ve r a t he r t ha n c ons t r uc t i ve ne ga t i ve r a t he r t ha n pos i t i ve T hi s hum a n a ni m a l i t y i s t ha t w hi c h a ut hor i z e s t he ne ga t i on of ot he r be i ng s t hr ough s e xua l a nd ot he r obj e c t i f i c a t i on f ol l ow e d by c ons um pt i on. T he o r ga ni s m s t he m s e l ve s gr ow by s ha r i ng, bot h t he c e l l s of hos t s a nd, a s w e s e e a t t he nove l s c l o s e by c om m uni c a t i ng w i t h di f f e r e nt s t r a i ns of c e l l s T he i r c ons t r uc t i ve pos i t i vi t y i s not ba s e d i n de nyi ng a nd de s t r oyi ng t he s ubj e c t i vi t y of ot he r or ga ni s m s j us t a s t he a ni m a l hum a n s o c i e t y i s not ba s e d on a n i m a gi ne d s upe r i o r i t y o ve r hum a n s pe c i e s T he he r bi vor e s l i ve w i t hout c ons um i ng a ny ot he r a ni m a l s a nd a r e t hus e t hi c a l l y c om pl e t e i n a nd of t he m s e l ve s H um a ns ne e d t he or ga ni s m t o de ve l op a ne w w a y of e t hi c a l be i ng, one w hi c h i s no t c ons t r uc t e d i n r e l a t i on t o i nf e r i or i z e d di f f e r e nc e T he he r b i vor e i s t hus a m ode l of c om pl e t i on a n i de a t i ona l a l t e r na t i ve t o D e r r i da s c a r no pha l l ogoc e nt r i s m 8 T hi s r e a di ng i s s t r e ngt he ne d by t he w or k of pr opone nt s of t he f e m i ni s t ve ge t a r i a n e t hi c de s c r i be d i n A da m s s e m i na l T he Se x ual P ol i t i c s of M e at A da m s e s t a bl i s he s a c ul t ur a l l i nk be t w e e n w om e n a nd a ni m a l s a s obj e c t s of c on s um pt i on, one e vi de nt i n t he i m a ge r y of m a s c ul i ne m e a t e a t i ng a nd por nogr a phy a nd i n t he 8 A n o t h e r p o t e n t i a l r e a d i n g o f h e r b i v o r e s i m m u n i t y i s t h a t t h e o r g a n i s m p r e s e r v e s t h e s e a n i m a l s a s l i v e s t o c k i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f p r o m o t i n g h u m a n s u r v i v a l S t e v e n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e h e r b i v o r e s m i g h t b e c a r r i e r s i n t u r n i m p l y i n g t h e i r p o s s i b l y r o l e i n s p r e a d i n g t h e d i s e a s e ; h o w e v e r I w o u l d a r g u e t h a t r e g a r d l e s s h e r b i v o r e s f u n c t i o n a s i d e a t i o n a l m o d e l s a s a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o c a r n o p h a l l o g o c e n t r i s m b a s e d c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l a n d s o c i a l i d e n t i t y

PAGE 76

70 t e r m i nol ogy of s e xua l a s s a ul t ( A da m s 64) A dd i t i ona l l y, t he m e t a phor i c a l l y i de a l i z e d he r bi vor e w oul d s e e m i n l i ne w i t h t he r e a di ngs of c a nna bi l i s m a s a l i t e r a l t hr e a t or m e t a phor a s a t r ope c e nt r a l i n e xpl or i ng r a c i a l g e nde r e d, a nd e c onom i c r e l a t i ons hi ps i n B ut l e r s f i c t i on ( S a nds 1) O f c our s e C l ay s A r k i s not a n e xpl i c i t l y f e m i ni s t ve ge t a r i a n t e xt I t i s how e ve r c e r t a i nl y a nove l of t r an s f or m at i on of bi ol ogi c a l i ndi vi dua l a nd s oc i a l c ha nge V i nt r e l a t e s i t t o t he i de a s of f i xe d m ol a r i de nt i t y ve r s us f l ui d m ol e c ul a r i de nt i t y pr e s e nt e d by G i l l e s D e l e uz e a nd F e l i x G ua t t a r i i n t he i r w or k, A T hous and P l at e aus : C api t al i s m and Sc hi t z ophr e ni a ( qt d. i n V i nt 286) D e l ue z e a nd G u a t t a r i pr opos e t he c onc e pt of b e c om i ng a ni m a l a s a m ode l f or i m a gi ni ng t he f l ui di t y of i ndi vi dua l i de nt i t y a s a c ont i nua l m ol e c ul a r pr oc e s s r a t he r t ha n f i xe d a nd m ol a r i e e s s e nt i a l ( qt d. i n V i nt 287) V i nt i n a n e s pe c i a l l y l ove l y pa s s a ge de s c r i be s C l ay s A r k a s i m a gi ni ng a m om e nt of be c om i ng i n a pr oc e s s of r a di c a l t r a ns f or m a t i on t ow a r ds a not he r w a y of be i ng hum a n s ubj e c t s ( 288) A s a be c om i ng, i t l e a ve s ope n t h e pos s i bi l i t y f or pos i t i ve c ons t r uc t i ve c ha nge ; a s a m om e nt c l e a r l y ne w c onc e pt ua l i z a t i ons of s pe c i e s a nd s e x t r a ns c e nd t he bi na r y ba s e d l a ngua ge us e d t o de f i ne a nd di s c us s t he m

PAGE 77

71 C O N C L U S I O N A s I w hi t t l e d dow n t he s c ope of t hi s t he s i s t o a c ont i ne nt t o a c ul t ur e t o a f e w de c a de s a nd a f e w a ut hor s I i m a gi ne d I w a s doi ng m ys e l f a f a vor by na r r ow i ng dow n, c or r e s pondi ngl y, t he que s t i ons t hi s t he s i s m i ght l e a ve m e w i t h. I ns t e a d, I m l e f t w i t h a m ul t i t ude pot e nt i a l di r e c t i on f o r f ur t he r s t udy, f o r e m os t a m ong w hi c h ( f or m e ) w oul d be a c om pa r a t i ve a na l ys i s of l i t e r a t ur e by m e n. S c hol t m e i j e r c l a i m s t ha t he r s ur ve y of a ni m a l s i n l i t e r a t ur e c l e a r l y i ndi c a t e d a di f f e r e nc e i n how f e m a l e ve r s us m a l e a ut hor s us e d a ni m a l s ( A ni m a l s i n W om e n s F i c t i on 259 ) I f e e l t he va l i di t y of he r a r gum e nt i s s t r e ngt he ne d by a r e a di ng of he r m or e ge ne r a l s ur ve y i n A ni m al V i c t i m s F ur t he r w hi l e I ha ve n t done e nough f or m a l r e s e a r c h on t he t o pi c I ha ve f ound m ys e l f i de nt i f yi ng di f f e r e nt t r e nds i n r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of a ni m a l s a nd ge nde r i n ot he r l i t e r a t ur e A s a s hor t s t or y e nt hus i a s t I m pa r t i c ul a r l y a w a r e of t he s e t r e nds i n s hor t f i c t i on w he r e I ha ve not e d a t e nde nc y a m ong w r i t e r s l i ke A l i c e M unr o, B a r ba r a K i ngs ol ve r M a r y R obi ns on, a nd L or r i e M oor e a m ong o t he r s t o pr o m ot e a ni m a l s a nd i de nt i f y w om e n w i t h t he m a s bot h vi c t i m s a nd a l l i e s i n a n ove r w he l m i ngl y a l i e na t i ng, de m or a l i z i ng hum a n s oc i e t y. I n c ont r a s t i n t he w o r k of m a l e a ut hor s w om e n a r e of t e n a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a ni m a l s a s e xot i c unknow a bl e or una t t a i na bl e ; f or i ns t a nc e i n t he l i ke ni ng of t he gi r l t ha t got a w a y t o a w i l d hor s e i n J unot D i a z s A l m a t he pe a c oc k a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot he r s a nd c hi l dr e n i n R a ym ond C a r ve r s T he P e a c oc k, or t he t hr e a t e ni ng, m ys t e r i ous f e m i ni z e d bi r d i nt r ude r s t one d t o de a t h by a c r ow d o f m e n a nd bo ys i n T C B oyl e s R a r a A vi s T he s e t r e nds i n t he r e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd f unc t i on of a ni m a l s i n l i t e r a t ur e by m e n ve r s us l i t e r a t ur e by w om e n a r e os t e ns i bl y, r e l a t e d t o t he c ul t ur a l pos i t i on a nd

PAGE 78

72 e xpe r i e nc e s of t he a ut hor s W om e n, a s s oc i a l l y oppr e s s e d, a r e a s w a s e s t a bl i s he d i n t he i nt r oduc t i on t he or e t i c a l l y m or e l i ke l y t o i de nt i f y w i t h a ni m a l s a s ot h e r F ur t he r w he n w e a r e l ooki ng a t t he g e nde r s of t he s ubj e c t s of l i t e r a t ur e B i r ke s a r gum e nt r e ga r di ng t he i nt e r r e l a t i on of hum a n a nd a ni m a l pe r f or m a n c e s ve r y l i ke l y s ha pe t he r e l a t i ona l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he a ni m a l a nd a t t i t ude s t ow a r d i t E ve n w i t hout c om pa r a t i ve a na l ys i s t hi s f e m i ni s t a ni m a l s t udi e s a ppr oa c h ha s yi e l de d s om e i nt e r e s t i ng r e s ul t s e s pe c i a l l y i n r e l a t i on t o e xi s t i ng c r i t i c i s m C l e a r l y, i n a l l of t he s e w or ks t he f e m a l e i s i de nt i f i e d m or e s t r ongl y w i t h t he a ni m a l on t he ba s i s of t he i r r e l a t e d s t a t us a s ot he r T hi s c onne c t i on i s c ons t r uc t i ve a nd pos i t i ve f r om bo t h a f e m i ni s t a nd a ni m a l s t udi e s p e r s pe c t i ve be c a us e i t s r oot e d i n a nd l e a ds t o a n i m pl i c i t or e xpl i c a t e c r i t i que of dom i na t i ve i de ol ogy. M or e p r obl e m a t i c a r e c e r t a i n a s s oc i a t i ons be t w e e n w om e n a nd a ni m a l s t ha t s e e m t o i m pl y a n e s s e nt i a l r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he t w o. T hi s i s s ue i s m os t pr om i ne nt i n T he T e m pl e of M y F a m i l i ar w he r e a ni m a l s c l e a r p r e f e r e nc e f or w om e n ( 365) a nd, c onve r s e l y, w om e n s s i n gul a r a bi l i t y t o s pe a k f or a nd r e l a t e t o a ni m a l s a r e r e pr e s e nt e d a s pa r t of a hi s t or i c a l l y c ons t r uc t e d f e m i ni ni t y. T he s e pr obl e m a t i c a s s oc i a t i on s a r e r e l a t e d t o t he s uppos e d c l os e ne s s t o w om e n w i t h na t ur e a s w e l l a s t he e xpe c t a t i on t ha t w om e n be na t ur a l c a r e gi ve r s a nd nur t ur e r s of c hi l d l i ke a ni m a l s A ke y f a c t or i n t he r e p r e s e nt a t i on of w om e n s i d e nt i f i c a t i on w i t h a ni m a l s i s t he t ype of a ni m a l i nvol ve d. P e t s a r e pr obl e m a t i c be c a us e of t he i r r e pr e s e nt e d w i l l i ngne s s t o pl a y i nt o a c ul t ur a l r ol e l i ke ne d t o a nd f a c i l i t a t i ng t he c ons t r uc t i on of w om e n s on t w o l e ve l s ; t he l i ke c on s t r uc t i on of w om e n s de pe n de nc y o n m e n a nd t he c on s t r uc t i on of w om e n a s na t ur a l c a r e gi ve r s L i ve s t oc k, t he ot he r s ubc a t e gor y of dom e s t i c a t e d a ni m a l s

PAGE 79

73 a r e pe r i phe r y pr e s e nc e s i n t he s e w or ks a nd ne ve r i de nt i f i e d w i t h. M or e o f t e n, t he y a r e i m pl i e d by t he i r c ons um pt i on a s m e a t or m i l k. T hi s s ubt e xt of a ni m a l c on s um pt i on s e e m s t o i gnor e or de ny t he pot e nt i a l va l ue or r i ght s of t he s e ki nd of a ni m a l s ; f or i ns t a nc e t he ot he r w i s e a ni m a l obs e s s e d M r s C a r l i n of H e m pe l s A t T he G a t e s of t he A ni m a l K i ngdom s e r ve s he r w a r ds m i l k a l ong w i t h t he i r v e ge t a r i a n bur ge r s L i s s i e a l l ow s R a f e t o e a t m e a t a nd ne ve r f ul l y de nounc e s m e a t e a t i ng he r s e l f t he a ni m a l hum a ns i n C l ay s A r k r a i s e c hi c ke ns c ow s a nd hogs e t c A not he r s i m i l a r i t y be t w e e n t he s e w or ks i n t he f r e que nc y of t he a b s e nt m ot he r f i gur e I e s t a bl i s he d t hi s m os t f ul l y i n t he c ha pt e r on H e m pe l ; how e ve r S uw e l o s bi ol ogi c a l m ot he r a l s o di e d w he n he w a s a c hi l d, a s di d K i e r a a nd R a ne s m ot he r T hi s a bs e nc e c r e a t e s a pa r t i c ul a r ne e d f or a s our c e a nd m ode l of m a t e r na l c om pa s s i on. I t a l s o m a y be r e l a t e d t o t he r e pe a t e d dr e a d m ot he r l e s s c ha r a c t e r s f e e l t ow a r d m ot he r hood, bot h i n t e r m s of t he phys i c a l pr oc e s s of c hi l dbe a r i ng a nd c hi l dr e a r i ng. A s I not e d i n t he H e m pe l a ni m a l s of t e n pr ovi de t ha t nu r t ur i ng a n d w a r m t h t he m ot he r doe s not I n T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar f or e xa m pl e L i s s i e s de s c r i pt i on of t he c ous i n s s e e m s pa r t i c ul a r l y t ouc hi ng t o S uw e l o, w ho w e l a t e r l e a r n gr e w up i n a n a bus i ve hom e ; i n C l ay s A r k K i e r a a nd, t o s om e e xt e nt R a ne f i n d t he m s e l ve s bondi ng ( i n R a ne s c a s e a ga i ns t he r ow n w i l l ) w i t h t he a ni m a l hu m a n m o t he r s I n T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar L i s s i e de s c r i be s pa r t of t he a ni m a l f a m i l i a r o r c o us i ns r ol e a s pr ot e c t i ng w om e n dur i ng c hi l dbi r t h r e l a t e d w e a kne s s f r om m e n; i n C l ay s A r k a c c e pt i ng t he a ni m a l or ga ni s m m a ke s bi r t h r e l a t i ve l y pa i nl e s s f or w om e n a nd s e e m s t o he i ght e n bot h t he i r de s i r e t o c a r e f or a nd i ns t i nc t i ve pr ot e c t i ve ne s s t ow a r d c hi l dr e n. G i ve n t he hi s t or i c a l c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on

PAGE 80

74 of bi r t h a s a ni m a l l i ke a nd c hi l dr e n a s c l os e r t o a ni m a l s t hi s pa r t i c ul a r a s s oc i a t i on o f m ot he r hood a nd a ni m a l s i s s i gni f i c a nt f o r i t s pos i t i vi t y. A not he r f i gur e w e s e e i n a l l t hr e e w or ks i s t he m a l e a r t i s t ; i n H e m pe l s T um bl e H om e t he pa i nt e r ; i n T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar R a f e ; a nd i n C l ay s A r k S t e ve n E a c h of t he s e a r t i s t s a r e s om e ho w de f e a t e d, i e by t he na r r a t or of T um bl e H om e ga i ni ng a ut hor i a l c ont r ol R a f e s f a i l ur e t o phot ogr a phi c a l l y c a pt ur e L i s s i e s e s s e n c e a nd S t e ve n s r e l i nqui s hm e nt of t he vi ol i n t o j oi n t h e a ni m a l hum a ns E ve n i f t he y a r e n t ne c e s s a r i l y a nt a goni s t i c c ha r a c t e r s e a c h do r e pr e s e nt a m a s c ul i ne dom i na t e d c ul t ur a l r e a l m of a r t T he r e c ur r e nc e of t he s e c ha r a c t e r s s ugge s t a pa r t i c ul a r a w a r e ne s s t he s e w om e n a s w r i t e r s m a y ha ve e xpr e s s e d of t he m a s c ul i ne dom i na t i on of t he i r ow n a r t i s t i c r e a l m ; t he de f e a t of t he s e c ha r a c t e r s c oupl e d b y t he e m pow e r m e nt of t he l i t e r a t ur e s c e nt r a l f e m a l e s ubj e c t s i s a s ym bol i c a s s e r t i on of t he w om a n a s a ut hor s i de nt i t y a s a r t i s t T hi s i de nt i t y t hi s a r t i s e s t a bl i s he d out s i de m a l e c ul t ur e ( bot h i n t he m e t a s e ns e of t he t e xt a s a w hol e a nd w i t hi n t he t e xt ) pa r t i a l l y by us i ng a ni m a l i m a g e r y a nd m e t a phor w hi c h i s i nhe r e nt l y out s i de dom i na nt c ul t ur e T he l a ngua ge of a ni m a l s i s pa r t i c ul a r l y i m por t a nt he r e I n H e m pe l w e s e e t he t a l ki ng gor i l l a s i n T um bl e H om e a nd I n t he C e m e t e r y W he r e A l J ol s on i s B ur i e d us i ng l a ngua ge i s a w a y t ha t a l l ow s t he na r r a t or t o s ubve r t c e r t a i n a s pe c t s of dom i na nt c ul t ur e I n T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar L i s s i e e xpl i c i t l y de s c r i be s w om e n s r e s pons i bi l i t y t o s pe a k f or a ni m a l s i n m a s c ul i n e c ul t ur e a r e s pons i bi l i t y w hi c h i s a l s o e m po w e r i ng. C l ay s A r k s ugge s t s t ha t by i nt e gr a t i ng w i t h t he a ni m a l a s t he a ni m a l hu m a ns do w e m i ght t r a ns c e nd l a ngua ge I n e a c h of t he s e c a s e s t he pa r t i c ul a r ki nd of l a ngua ge or non l a ngua ge of a ni m a l s i s c ons t r ue d a s pot e nt i a l l y a dv a nt a ge ous bot h a s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o t he l a ngu a ge a nd

PAGE 81

75 na r r a t i ve c onve nt i ona l of a n ove r w he l m i ngl y m a s c ul i ne c ul t ur e a nd e ve n a s a m e a ns of de f i a nc e w i t hi n t ha t c ul t ur e I w oul d l i ke t o c l a r i f y t ha t I don t be l i e ve t h e s e pa r t i c ul a r c onn e c t i ons a nd f un c t i ons w e s e e w i t h w om e n i n r e l a t i on t o a ni m a l s a r e p a r t of a f e m i ni ne m ode of w r i t i ng. R a t he r I s e e t he m a s a c om m on de ve l op m e nt i n t he l i t e r a t ur e of w om e n w r i t e r s w ho, de s pi t e t he i r di f f e r e nt r a c i a l a nd s oc i oe c onom i c ba c kgr ounds s ha r e c e r t a i n c om m on e xpe r i e nc e s a s w om e n l i vi ng i n a pa t r i a r c ha l c ul t ur e D a gm a r L o r e nz s w or k i n M a n a nd A ni m a l : T he D i s c our s e of D i s c r i m i na t i on a nd E xc l us i on i n a L i t e r a r y C ont e xt de m ons t r a t e s how c e r t a i n f a c e t s of c l o s e i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h a ni m a l s a r e c om m on t o t h e w or k of m a ny m a r gi na l i z e d or m i nor i t y gr oups O bvi ous l y, f r om a c r i t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve I f e e l t hi s t he s i s ha s of f e r e d s om e i nt r i gui ng pa t t e r ns a s w e l l a s m a ny di r e c t i ons f or f ur t he r s t udi e s A s a w r i t e r i t ha s be e n i nva l ua bl e bot h be c a us e i t ga ve m e t he l a n gua ge a nd e vi de nc e t o va l i da t e m y pr e e xi s t i ng s us pi c i ons a bout t he pa r t i c ul a r s i gni f i c a nc e of a ni m a l s i n l i t e r a t ur e a nd be c a us e i t c onf i r m e d a nd i n s om e c a s e s i nnova t e d t he v a l ue of a ni m a l s a s c om pl e x, pol i t i c a l a nd de c i de dl y not t r i vi a l i n l i t e r a t ur e W hi l e I m s t i l l s t r uggl i ng w i t h how t o t hi nk w i t h a ni m a l s i n a n e t hi c a l pr ogr e s s i ve w a y, I m c e r t a i n a t l e a s t t ha t a s L i nda B i r ke c onc l ude s i n, I nt i m a t e F a m i l i a r i t i e s t ha t w e a l l s ha r e i n m a ki ng a nd r e m a ki ng t h e w or l d. W e a l l s ha r e i n c o c r e a t i ng ou r s i t ua t e dne s s ( 433)

PAGE 82

76 W O R K S C I T E D A da m s C a r ol J T he Se x ual P ol i t i c s of M e at 19 90. N e w Y or k, N e w Y or k: T he C ont i nuum I nt e r na t i ona l P ubl i s hi ng G r oup I nc 2010 P r i nt A da m s C a r ol J a nd J os e phi ne D onova n. I n t r oduc t i on A ni m al s & W om e n: F e m i ni s t T he or e t i c al E x pl or at i ons E ds C a r ol J A da m s a nd J os e phi ne D onov a n. D ur ha m : D uke U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1995. 1 5 P r i nt A da m s C a r ol J N e i t he r M an nor B e as t : F e m i ni s m and t he D e f e ns e of A ni m al s N e w Y or k: C ont i nuum 1994 P r i nt A l f a no, S e a n. P ol l : W om e n's D i vi de d on W h e t he r a S t r ong W om e n's M ove m e nt S t i l l N e c e s s a r y. C B S N e w s 23 S e pt 2005 W e b. 20 A pr i l 2011 A s c i one F r a nk R E m e r gi ng R e s e a r c h on A ni m a l A bus e a s a R i s k F a c t or f or I nt i m a t e P a r t ne r V i ol e nc e I nt i m at e P ar t ne r V i ol e nc e C i vi c R e s e a r c h I ns t i t ut e 2007. W e b. 11 A pr i l 2011. B a r r y, P e t e r B e gi nni ng T he or y 2 n d e d. M a nc he s t e r U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s M a nc he s t e r 2002. P r i nt B a ke r S t e ve P i c t ur i ng t he B e as t C ha m pa i gn I l l i noi s : U ni ve r s i t y of I l l i noi s P r e s s 2001. P r i nt B e nde r B e r t E v ol ut i on and t he Se x P r obl e m ": A m e r i c an N ar r at i v e s dur i ng t he E c l i ps e of D ar w i ni s m K e nt O hi o: K e nt S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 2004. P r i nt

PAGE 83

77 B i r ke L ynda I nt i m a t e F a m i l i a r i t i e s ? F e m i ni s m a nd H um a n A ni m a l S t udi e s Soc i e t y and A ni m al s 10: 4 ( 2002) : 429 36. W e b. 20 A p r i l 2010 B oyl e T C R a r a A vi s T he H um an F l y and O t he r St or i e s N e w Y or k: P e ngui n, 2005. 33 38 P r i nt B r a e ndl i n, B onni e A l i c e W a l ke r 's t he T e m pl e of M y F a m i l i a r a s P a s t i c he A m e r i c an L i t e r at ur e 68. 1, W r i t e N ow : A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t ur e i n t he 1980s a nd 1990 s ( 1996) : 47 67. W e b 20 A pr i l 2011 B r ow n, J ul i e I nt r oduc t i on A m e r i c an W om e n Shor t St or y W r i t e r s E d. J ul i e B r ow n. N e w Y or k, 2000 P r i nt B ut l e r O c t a vi a E B l oodc hi l d and O t he r St or i e s N e w Y or k: S e ve n S t or i e s P r e s s 1996. P r i nt C a r ve r R a ym ond. C at he dr al : St or i e s 1 V i nt a ge B ooks e d. N e w Y or k: V i nt a ge B ooks 1984. P r i nt C oe t z e e J M T he B e gi nni ngs of W o( M a n) i n A f r i c a R e v. of T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar A l i c e W a l ke r N e w Y or k T i m e s 30 A p r i l 1989 W e b. 11 A pr i l 2 011. D e r r i da J a c que s A n I n t e r vi e w w i t h G i l l e s D e l ue z e E a t i ng W e l l W ho C om e s A f t e r t he Subj e c t ? e ds E dua r do C a da va P e t e r C onnor a nd J e a n L uc N a nc y. N e w Y or k : R out l e dge 1991. P r i nt D i a z J unot A l m a T he N e w Y or k e r 24 D e c 20 07. W e b. 11 A pr i l 2011

PAGE 84

78 D i e ke I ke nna T ow a r d a M oni s t i c I de a l i s m : T he T he m a t i c s of A l i c e W a l ke r 's t h e T e m pl e of M y F a m i l i a r A f r i c an A m e r i c an R e v i e w 26. 3, F i c t i on I s s ue ( 1992) : 507 514 W e b 20 A pr i l 2011. D ona w e r t h, J a ne B ody P a r t s : T w e nt i e t h C e nt ur y S c i e nc e F i c t i on S hor t S t or i e s by W om e n. P M L A 11 9 3, S pe c i a l T opi c : S c i e nc e F i c t i on a nd L i t e r a r y S t udi e s : T he N e x t M i l l e nni um ( 2004) : 474 481 W e b. 20 A p r i l 2011 D onova n, J os e phi ne E c of e m i ni s t L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : R e a di ng t he O r a nge H y pat i a 11. 2 ( 1996) : 161 184. W e b 20 A pr i l 2011. D una ye r J oa n. S e xi s t W or ds S pe c i e s i s t R oot s A ni m al s & W om e n: F e m i ni s t T he or e t i c al E x pl or at i ons E ds C a r ol J A da m s a nd J o s e phi n e D onova n. D ur ha m : D uke U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1995. 11 31. P r i nt G a a r d, G r e t a I n t r oduc t i on, E c of e m i ni s m E d. G r e t a G a a r d. P hi l a de l phi a : T e m pl e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1993. 1 14 P r i nt G i l be r t S a ndr a M P a t r i a r c ha l P oe t r y a nd W om e n R e a de r s : R e f l e c t i on s on M i l t on's B oge y. P M L A 93 3 ( 1978 ) : 368 382. W e b 5 J a n. 2011. G r ue n, L o r i D i s m a nt l i ng O ppr e s s i on: A n A na l y s i s of t he C onne c t i on be t w e e n W om e n a nd A ni m a l s E c of e m i ni s m E d G r e t a G a a r d. P hi l a de l phi a : T e m pl e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1993 61 90. P r i nt G ui n, U r s ul a K L e B uf f al o G al s a nd O t he r A ni m a l P r e s e nc e s S a nt a B a r ba r a : C a pr a P 1987

PAGE 85

79 H a l l E l a i ne J a nd M a r ni e S a l upo R odr i gue z T he M yt h of P os t f e m i ni s m G e nde r and Soc i e t y 17. 6 ( 2003) : 878 902. W e b. 11 A pr i l 2011 H a w ki ns R onni e Z oe E c of e m i ni s m a nd N onhu m a ns : C ont i nui t y, D i f f e r e nc e D ua l i s m a nd D om i na t i on. H y pat i a 13 1 ( 1998) : 158 197. W e b. 20 A pr i l 2011 H e m pe l A m y. T he C ol l e c t e d St or i e s N e w Y o r k, N e w Y or k: S c r i bne r 2007. P r i nt H e r z og, H a l Som e W e L ov e Som e W e H at e Som e W e E at N e w Y or k N Y 2010 P r i nt J e w e t t S a r a h O r ne A W hi t e H e r on 1886 T al e s of N e w E ngl and 1997 W e b. 5 J a n. 2011 L or e nz D a gm a r C G M a n a nd A ni m a l : T he D i s c our s e of E xc l us i on a nd D i s c r i m i na t i on i n a L i t e r a r y C ont e xt W om e n i n G e r m an Y e ar book 14 ( 1998) : 201 224 W e b. 20 A p r i l 2011 M a c k C a nt y, C ol l e e n. T hi r d W a ve F e m i ni s m a n d t he N e e d t o R e w e a ve t he N a t ur e / C ul t ur e D ua l i t y. N W SA J our nal 16. 3 ( 2004) : 154 17 9 W e b. 20 A p r i l 2011 M c K a y, R obe r t G e t t i ng C l os e t o A ni m a l s w i t h A l i c e W a l ke r s T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar Soc i e t y & A ni m al s 9 : 3 ( 2001 ) : 253 271. W e b. 20 A pr i l 2011. M oody, R i c k. I nt r oduc t i on, C ol l e c t e d St or i e s B y A m y H e m pe l N e w Y or k, N e w Y or k : S c r i bne r 2007. xi xvi i P r i nt M oor e L o r r i e B i r ds of A m e r i c a N e w Y o r k, N e w Y or k: P i c a dor 1998 P r i nt M unr o, A l i c e D anc e of t he H appy Shade s : A nd O t he r St or i e s L ondon ; N e w Y or k: P e ngui n B ooks 1983. P r i nt

PAGE 86

80 N or w ood, V e r a M ade f r om t hi s E ar t h : A m e r i c an W om e n and N at ur e C ha pe l H i l l : U ni ve r s i t y of N or t h C a r ol i na P r e s s 1993. P r i nt P e e k, C ha r l e s W N a nc y J B e l l a nd C ha r l ot t e C D unha m G e nde r G e nde r I de ol ogy, a nd A ni m a l R i ght s A dvoc a c y. G e nde r and Soc i e t y 10. 4 ( 1996 ) : 464 478 W e b. 20 A pr i l 2011. P ot t s S t e phe n W a nd O c t a vi a E B ut l e r W e K e e p P l a yi ng t he S a m e R e c or d" : A C onve r s a t i on w i t h O c t a vi a E B ut l e r Sc i e nc e F i c t i on St udi e s 23. 3 ( 1996) : 331 338. W e b 11 A pr i l 2011 R e ga n, T om a nd R ow e M a r t i n. A ni m a l R i gh t s : W ha t t he N obe l C om m i t t e e F a i l e d t o N ot e I nt e r nat i onal H e r al d T r i bune 2003 W e b. 1 1 A pr i l 2011 R obe r t s R obi n. A N e w Spe c i e s : G e nde r and Sc i e n c e i n Sc i e nc e F i c t i on U r ba na : U ni ve r s i t y of I l l i noi s P r e s s 1993 P r i nt S a l va ggi o, R ut h. O c t a vi a B ut l e r a nd t he B l a c k S c i e nc e F i c t i on H e r oi ne B l ac k A m e r i c an L i t e r at ur e F or um 18. 2, S c i e nc e F i c t i on I s s ue ( 198 4) : 78 81 W e b. 11 A p r i l 2011 S a nds P e t e r O c t a vi a B ut l e r 's C hi a s t i c C a nni ba l i s t i c s U t opi an St udi e s 14. 1 ( 2003) : 1 14 W e b. 11 A pr i l 2011 S c hol t m e i j e r M a r i a n. T he P ow e r of O t he r ne s s : A ni m a l s i n W om e n' s F i c t i on. A ni m al s & W om e n: F e m i ni s t T he or e t i c al E x pl or at i ons E ds C a r ol J A da m s a nd J os e phi n e D onova n. D ur ha m : D uke U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1995. 2 31 262. P r i nt

PAGE 87

81 S c hol t m e i j e r M a r i a n. A n i m al V i c t i m s i n M ode r n F i c t i on : F r om Sanc t i t y t o Sac r i f i c e T or on t o; B uf f a l o: U ni ve r s i t y o f T or ont o P r e s s 1993 P r i nt S ha r p, G w e n. B e e r S e x, D a t i ng a nd t he H unt Soc i ol ogi c al I m age s T he S oc i e t y P a ge s 28 O c t 2010. W e b. 28 A pr i l 2011. S he e ha n, J a m e s J a nd M or t on S os na e ds T he B o undar i e s of H um ani t y : H um ans A ni m al s M ac hi ne s B e r ke l e y: U of C a l i f or ni a P 1991. S i nge r P e t e r A ni m al L i be r at i on : A N e w E t hi c s f or our T r e at m e nt of A ni m al s N e w Y or k: N e w Y or k r e vi e w ; d i s t by R a ndom H ous e 1975 P r i nt S pa ul di ng, A T i m ot hy. R e F or m i ng t he P as t : H i s t or y t he F ant as t i c and t he P os t m ode r n Sl av e N ar r at i v e C ol um bus : O hi o S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 2005. P r i nt T a yl or T hom a s V i ndi c at i on of t he R i ght s of B r u t e s 1792. P hi l a l e t he i e ns c o. uk 2010 W e b. 20 A pr i l 201 1. V i nt S he r r yl A ni m a l s a nd A ni m a l i t y f r om t he I s l a nd of M or e a u t o t he U pl i f t U ni ve r s e T he Y e ar book of E ngl i s h St udi e s 37 2, S c i e nc e F i c t i on ( 2007) : 85 102. W e b 20 A pr i l 2011. V i nt S he r r yl B e c om i ng O t he r : A ni m a l s K i ns hi p, a nd B ut l e r 's C l a y' s A r k" Sc i e nc e F i c t i on St udi e s 32 2 ( 2005) : 281 300. W e b 20 A p r i l 2011 W a de L i s a M e t a phor i c a l M e r i G o R ound: L i k e ni ng A ni m a l s t o W om e n Soc i ol ogi c al I m age s T he S oc i e t y P a ge s 20 J ul y 2010 W e b. 28 A pr i l 2010

PAGE 88

82 W a de L i s a S e x a nd D a t i ng a s t he H unt So c i ol ogi c al I m age s T he S oc i e t y P a ge s 27 D e c 2008. W e b. 28 A pr i l 2011. W a de L i s a T he S e xua l i z a t i on o f A c t i vi s m So c i ol ogi c al I m age s T he S oc i e t y P a ge s 20 S e pt 2007 W e b. 28 A p r i l 2011 W a de L i s a W om e n a r e W i l d A ni m a l s M e n A r e H unt e r s Soc i ol ogi c al I m age s T he S oc i e t y P a ge s 25 A p r i l 2011 W e b 2 M a y 2011. W a gne r E r i c a L i t t l e E a r t hqua ke s R e v. o f C ol l e c t e d St or i e s A m y H e m pe l N e w Y or k T i m e s 21 M a y 2006. W e b 1 J a n. 2011. W a l ke r A l i c e T he T e m pl e of M y F am i l i ar N e w Y or k, N Y : S i m on & S c hus t e r I nc 1989 P r i nt


ERROR LOADING HTML FROM SOURCE (http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu//design/skins/UFDC/html/footer_item.html)