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Western Notions of Canon is Buddhism

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004399/00001

Material Information

Title: Western Notions of Canon is Buddhism Obscuring the Nature of a Multiplex Scriptural Tradition
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: McLean, Rachel
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Buddhism
Canon
Scripture
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis explores the extent to which Western notions of canon can be applied to the Buddhist scriptural tradition. It seeks to resolve inconsistent portrayals of Buddhist scriptural collections rendered by Buddhist scholars in the West; these portrayals often use the technical term canon to frame the tradition's sacred texts in terms of Theravadin Pali, Chinese Mahayana, and Tibetan canons. Although canon has been employed by Buddhist scholars since the mid-19th century to frame depictions of Buddhist scripture, there has been little consideration within Buddhist Studies about using this term in a specifically Buddhist context. In my research, I explored canon's origin in Christianity and its secular and religious meanings. I surveyed the most recent scholarship on the primary extant Buddhist scriptural domains, analyzing how canon has been employed to characterize the Buddhist tradition, and considered the earliest usage of the term by Western Buddhist scholars. From this, I assessed whether Western notions of canon actually applied in the Buddhist case, concluding that usage of canon misrepresents Buddhism in all cases, except with respect to the Theravadin Pali collection, which is but one of many collections within Buddhism.
Statement of Responsibility: by Rachel McLean
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Newman, John

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 M12
System ID: NCFE004399:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004399/00001

Material Information

Title: Western Notions of Canon is Buddhism Obscuring the Nature of a Multiplex Scriptural Tradition
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: McLean, Rachel
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Buddhism
Canon
Scripture
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis explores the extent to which Western notions of canon can be applied to the Buddhist scriptural tradition. It seeks to resolve inconsistent portrayals of Buddhist scriptural collections rendered by Buddhist scholars in the West; these portrayals often use the technical term canon to frame the tradition's sacred texts in terms of Theravadin Pali, Chinese Mahayana, and Tibetan canons. Although canon has been employed by Buddhist scholars since the mid-19th century to frame depictions of Buddhist scripture, there has been little consideration within Buddhist Studies about using this term in a specifically Buddhist context. In my research, I explored canon's origin in Christianity and its secular and religious meanings. I surveyed the most recent scholarship on the primary extant Buddhist scriptural domains, analyzing how canon has been employed to characterize the Buddhist tradition, and considered the earliest usage of the term by Western Buddhist scholars. From this, I assessed whether Western notions of canon actually applied in the Buddhist case, concluding that usage of canon misrepresents Buddhism in all cases, except with respect to the Theravadin Pali collection, which is but one of many collections within Buddhism.
Statement of Responsibility: by Rachel McLean
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Newman, John

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 M12
System ID: NCFE004399:00001


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WES TER N N O TI O N S O F CAN O N I N BU D D H I S M : O BS C U R I N G TH E N A T U R E O F A M U LTI P LEX S C R I P TU R A L TR A D I TI O N BY RA CH A E L M CL E A N A T he s i s S ubm i t t e d t o t he D i v i s i on of H um a ni t i e s N e w Col l e ge of F l ori d a i n pa rt i a l ful f i l l m e nt of t he re qu i re m e nt s f or t he de gre e Ba c he l or of A rt s i n R e l i g i on U nde r t he s pons ors hi p of D r. J ohn N e w m a n S a ra s ot a F l ori da M a y, 2011

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i i A C K N O WLED G EM EN TS F i rs t a nd fore m os t I w oul d l i ke t o e xt e nd w a rm e s t t ha nks t o D r. J ohn N e w m a n for hi s unw a ve ri ng s upport a s I t oi l e d on t h i s ra t he r e x t e nd e d proj e c t H i s e xpe r t i s e a nd gui da nc e w e r e i nv a l ua b l e t o m y re s e a r c h; l i ke w i s e our di s c us s i ons a bout m y t he s i s t opi c w e re e s s e nt i a l t o c rys t a l l i z i ng m y unde rs t a ndi ng of m a ny re l a t e d a r e a s i n t h e fi e l d of re l i gi on. I a m gra t e fu l t ha t I h a ve h a d t he opport uni t y t o c ul t i va t e m y pa s s i on for Buddhi s m a nd T i b e t a n c ul t ur e a s hi s s t ude nt ; ha d i t not be e n for hi s Cul t ur al H i s t or y of T i be t c ours e I m a y ha v e ne ve r d i s c ove re d t hi s a re a of i nt e r e s t O n a pe rs ona l l e v e l I a m m os t a ppre c i a t i ve of t h e ki ndn e s s a nd c om pa s s i on he ha s s how n m e a nd I w i l l do m y be s t t o pa y i t forw a rd. I w oul d l i ke t o s i n c e re l y t h a nk D r. D ougl a s L a ngs t on for our num e rous l i v e l y c onve rs a t i ons a nd for prov i di ng m e w i t h a w onde rful ba c kground i n bo t h phi l os oph y a nd re l i gi on. H i s c ours e s w e r e a l w a ys e ng a gi ng a nd pus he d m e t o grow a s a s t ud e nt I w oul d a l s o l i ke t o gi ve s pe c i a l t h a nks t o D r. S us a n M a rks for a gre e i ng t o s e rve on m y t he s i s c om m i t t e e O ur m a ny t houg ht ful di s c us s i ons on c a non form a t i on w e r e e s s e nt i a l t o s ha pi n g t h e e a rl y di r e c t i on of m y t he s i s re s e a r c h. I onl y w i s h s he ha d a r ri ve d a t N e w Col l e g e e a rl i e r, s o t ha t I m i ght h a v e e nj oye d m ore of he r c l a s s e s In a ddi t i on, I a m e t e rn a l l y gr a t e fu l t o D rs N e w m a n, L a ngs t on, a nd M a rks for t he i r pa t i e n c e a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o s upport m e i n t h e c om p l e t i on of m y t h e s i s a nd m y re t urn t o s c hool I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk m y p a re nt s for a l l of t he i r l ov e a nd e n c oura g e m e n t I know t ha t t h e y w i l l a l w a ys be on m y s i d e A l s o, I w oul d l i ke t o e xpre s s m y de e pe s t

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i i i a ppre c i a t i on t o m y c ho s e n fa m i l y, m y fr i e nds bot h m e nt i on e d a nd unm e nt i on e d, for s upport i ng m e i n e ve ry a re a of l i fe C a rl y S um m e rs Ri t a E l K houri Bre n t G a rdne r, M i c he l l e Brow ne K a t e S c a ra b e l l i J ul i e G ut i e rre z : I w oul d not h a ve m a de i t t h i s fa r w i t hout you. T ha nk you a l l s o m u c h.

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i v TA BLE O F C O N TEN TS A CK N O W L E D G E M E N T S .. ... i i T A BL E O F CO N T E N T S .... i v A BS T RA CT ...vi Cha pt e r 1. W E S T E RN N O T IO N S O F CA NO N .......1 E t ym ol ogy, O ri g i n, a nd U s e of Canon i n a Chri s t i a n Cont e xt S e c ul a r a nd R e l i g i ous D e fi ni t i ons of Canon D e fi ni ng Sc r i pt ur e 2. H IS T O RY O F T H E BU D D H IS T S CRIP T U RA L T RA D IT IO N .. O ra l Re c i t a t i ons a nd t h e F i rs t Counc i l i n E a rl y Buddhi s m S ubs e que nt Counc i l s a nd t he Be g i nni ng o f a W ri t t e n T r a di t i on P a l i Col l e c t i on Chi ne s e M a ha ya n a Col l e c t i on T i be t a n Col l e c t i on Buddhi s t A poc rypha D oc t ri na l Cons i d e ra t i ons i n t he D e ve l op m e nt of Buddhi s t S c ri p t ura l Col l e c t i ons Rol e of Ins t i t u t i ona l S t ruc t ur e a nd P ol i t i c a l F a c t ors

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v 3. CA NO N IN BU D D H IS T S T U D IE S : O RI G IN A N A L Y S IS & A P P L ICA T IO N .36 A na l ys i s of Canon U s a ge i n Re c e n t S c hol a rs hi p A ppl yi ng W e s t e rn N ot i ons of Canon t o t h e M a i n Buddhi s t S c ri p t ura l Col l e c t i ons Canon a s a T e c hn i c a l T e rm i n R e l i g i ous S t udi e s A P P E N D I X A A P P E N D I X B A P P E N D I X C BIBL IO G RA P H Y ..55

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vi W E S T E RN N O T IO N S O F CA NO N I N B U D D H I S M : O BS C U RIN G T H E N A T U R E O F A M U L T IP L E X S CRIP T U RA L T RA D IT IO N Ra c ha e l M c L e a n N e w Col l e ge of F l ori d a 2011 A BS T RA CT T hi s t he s i s e xpl or e s t he e x t e nt t o w hi c h W e s t e rn not i ons of c anon c a n b e a ppl i e d t o t he Buddhi s t s c r i pt ura l t ra d i t i on. I t s e e ks t o re s ol ve i nc ons i s t e nt po rt r a ya l s of Buddhi s t s c ri pt ura l c ol l e c t i ons re nde r e d by Buddhi s t s c hol a rs i n t h e W e s t ; t he s e port ra y a l s oft e n us e t he t e c hni c a l t e rm c anon t o fra m e t h e t ra di t i ons s a c r e d t e xt s i n t e rm s of T he r a v di n P l i Ch i ne s e M a ha y a na a nd T i b e t a n c a no ns A l t hough c a non ha s be e n e m pl oy e d b y Buddhi s t s c hol a rs s i nc e t he m i d 19 t h c e n t u ry t o fra m e d e pi c t i ons of Buddhi s t s c ri p t ur e t he re ha s be e n l i t t l e c ons i d e ra t i on w i t hi n Buddhi s t S t udi e s a bout us i ng t hi s t e r m i n a s pe c i fi c a l l y Buddh i s t c ont e xt In m y re s e a r c h, I e xpl o r e d c anon s ori gi n i n Chri s t i a n i t y a nd i t s s e c ul a r a nd re l i gi ous m e a ni ngs I s urve y e d t he m os t r e c e nt s c ho l a rs hi p on t h e pri m a ry e x t a nt Buddhi s t s c ri pt ura l dom a i ns a na l y z i ng ho w c anon ha s be e n e m p l oye d t o c ha r a c t e ri z e t he Buddhi s t t ra di t i on, a nd c ons i de r e d t he e a rl i e s t us a ge of t h e t e r m by W e s t e rn Buddhi s t s c hol a rs F rom t hi s I a s s e s s e d w he t he r W e s t e rn not i ons of c anon a c t u a l l y a ppl i e d i n t he Buddhi s t c a s e c on c l udi ng t ha t us a g e of c anon m i s re pre s e nt s Buddhi s m i n a l l c a s e s

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vi i e xc e pt w i t h re s pe c t t o t he T h e ra v di n P l i c ol l e c t i on, w hi c h i s but one of m a ny c ol l e c t i ons w i t h i n Buddhi s m D r. J ohn N e w m a n D i vi s i on of H um a ni t i e s

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1 CH A P T E R O N E W E S T E RN N O T IO N S O F CA NO N S a c re d w ri t i ngs ha v e l ong b e e n s t udi e d a n d e xa m i n e d a s a r i c h s ou rc e for t he s t udy of re l i gi on. T hi s i s not s urpri s i ng gi ve n t he re l a t i ve e a s e w i t h w hi c h one m a y a c c e s s a nd s t udy t h e w ri t t e n m a t e r i a l s pro duc e d by a re l i gi ous t r a di t i on. T h e hi s t ori c a l de ve l opm e nt e x e ge t i c a l s t ra t e gi e s a nd c o nt i nui ng vi a bi l i t y of a r e l i g i ons s c ri pt ur e s a re a re a s of s t udy t ha t a r e e s pe c i a l l y popul a r w i t h 20 t h c e nt ury a nd pre s e nt d a y s c hol a rs In J uda i s m a nd Chri s t i a ni t y, t he s t udy of c a n on form a t i on l ooks t o a ns w e r va ri ous que s t i ons a bout how a nd w hy c e rt a i n t e xt s a r e he l d a s a ut hori t a t i v e s a c r e d w ri t i ngs ; a na l y z i ng t he H e bre w a nd Chri s t i a n B i bl e s a nd t he w a y i n w hi c h s pe c i f i c w ri t i ngs or books a re s e l e c t e d for i nc l us i on i n a s c ri pt ur a l c o l l e c t i on. In m y t he s i s I a m go i ng t o e xp l ore t h e t e r m c anon i t s ori g i n i n Chri s t i a ni t y, l a t e r us a ge i n t he f i e l d of r e l i g i ous s t udi e s a nd a ppl i c a t i on by s c ho l a rs t o t h e Buddhi s t t ra di t i on. T he m a nne r i n w hi c h s c ho l a rs u s e a t e rm s uc h a s c anon i n d e s c ri bi ng a s pe c t s of a re l i g i on re l i e s i m p l i c i t l y on how t h a t t e rm i s unde rs t ood, bot h i n ge ne r a l a nd w i t hi n t he i r fi e l d of s t udy. T h e s e c om m on t e c hni c a l t e rm s a r e e m p l oye d i n a n e ffort t o c ha ra c t e r i z e a s pe c t s of a p a rt i c ul a r re l i gi o n, e na bl i ng c om pa r a t i ve s t udy w he re i n s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd di ffe r e nc e s m a y be r e ve a l e d t hrough a s ha re d l a ngu a ge of re l i gi o us s t udi e s T he re how e v e r, e xi s t s a po t e nt i a l prob l e m w i t h t e r m i nol ogy i n a ny di s c i pl i n e i n s o fa r a s a s i ngl e t e rm m a y be us e d t o de s c ri be di s pa ra t e i d e a s F urt he r m ore t h i s

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2 probl e m of de f i ni t i on a nd us a ge c a n go b e yond t he i s s ue of s e m a n t i c s w he n t e r m i nol ogy hi s t ori c a l l y e m pl oye d i n a v e ry na rrow s pe c i fi c c ont e xt i s t h e n us e d t o d e s c ri be o t he r t hi ngs i n a re l a t e d, but di ff e re n t c ont e xt S uc h i s t he c a s e w i t h c anon w hi c h w a s fi r s t us e d w i t hi n t he Chr i s t i a n t ra di t i on. Re l a t i ve t o s c ri pt ur e us e of t hi s t e rm i n t he c ont e xt of a l l re l i gi ons ha s be c om e c om m onpl a c e i n re l i gi ous s t udi e s de s pi t e s om e l i ng e ri ng de ba t e s w i t h i n t he o l ogi c a l c i rc l e s a s t o i t s re de fi ni t i on t hroughou t hi s t ory. M a ny s c hol a rs w i t hi n t h e ol ogy ha v e t h e re fore ope nl y e ng a ge d i n a d i a l ogue a bout c anon : how i t ha s be e n de fi n e d, i t s re l a t i o ns hi p t o s c r i pt ur e a nd how i t i s us e d t o c ha ra c t e r i z e t he Chri s t i a n s c ri p t ura l body a nd ot he r non t e xt u a l a s pe c t s of t he r e l i g i on a t va ri ous poi nt s i n hi s t ory. A c o l l e c t i on of e s s a ys on t hi s ve ry s ubj e c t T he Canon D e bat e pre s e nt s a t horough e x a m i na t i on of c anon w i t hi n J ude o Chri s t i a n t he o l ogi c a l hi s t ory A l t hough c anon ha s be e n e m pl oy e d by Bu ddhi s t s c hol a rs w he n di s c us s i ng s a c re d t e xt s s i nc e t he m i d 19 t h c e nt ury, t h e re i s l i t t l e c ons i de ra t i on w i t hi n Buddhi s t S t ud i e s a bou t t he t e rm i t s e l f a nd i t s us a ge i n t hi s s pe c i f i c c o nt e xt S c hol a r Robe rt M a y e r hi n t s t ha t t hi s m a y be c h a ngi ng, a s our e nqui r i e s i nt o t h e ve ry i de a of a c a non i n Buddh i s m ha ve be c om e m ore s ubt l e bu t hi s ow n w ork di ve rge s from t he s e m ore g e ne ra l c onc e rns s urroundi ng c anon w i t hi n Buddhi s m 1 T hi s proj e c t s e e ks t o re s ol v e a prob l e m I e nc ount e re d w he n I fi rs t be g a n t o s t udy Buddhi s m F rom a s urve y of w orl d re l i gi ons onw a rd, I not i c e d s om e i nc ons i s t e nc i e s i n t he port ra y a l s of t he Buddh i s t s c ri pt ur a l t r a di t i on, a l t hough on e fe a t ure w a s om n i pre s e nt T ha t w a s us e of t he t e rm c anon E v e n s o, t he re w a s ra r e l y a d e t a i l e d a c c oun t of t he c ont e nt s of t h e Buddhi s t c a non(s ) or di s c u s s i on of t he c a non form a t i on pro c e s s T hi s 1 R obe r t M a ye r A Sc r i pt ur e of t he A nc i e nt T ant r a C ol l e c t i on: T he P hur pa B c u gny i s ( E di nbu r gh: K i s c a da l e P ubl i c a t i ons 1996) 4.

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3 a m bi gui t y i s p ri m a ri l y w ha t l e d m e t o qu e s t i on t he e x t e nt t o w hi c h W e s t e rn no t i ons of c anon c a n be a ppl i e d t o t he Buddhi s t s c r i p t ura l t r a di t i on. In m y re s e a rc h, I e xpl ore d t he e t ym ol ogy a nd ori gi n of c anon i n t h e c ont e xt of s a c re d t e xt s a s w e l l i t s s e c ul a r a nd re l i gi o us m e a ni ngs I s urve y e d t he m os t r e c e nt s c ho l a rs hi p on t h e pri m a ry e x t a nt Buddhi s t s c ri pt ura l dom a i ns : t he P l i Chi ne s e a nd T i b e t a n c ol l e c t i ons ; t h e n, I a na l yz e d how c anon ha d be e n us e d i n t he c ont e x t o f Buddhi s t s c ri pt ure A ft e r c ons i de r i ng bo t h t he e a rl i e s t us a ge of t h e t e rm by W e s t e rn Bud dhi s t s c hol a rs a nd t h e l a c k of a n e qui va l e n t c onc e pt w i t hi n Buddhi s m I a s s e s s e d w he t he r not i ons of c anon a c t ua l l y a ppl i e d t o t h e Buddhi s t s c ri pt ura l t ra d i t i on. F rom t hi s I ha ve c on c l ude d t ha t t he us a g e of c anon t o de s c ri b e Buddhi s t c ol l e c t i ons of s a c r e d t e xt s s houl d be s i gni f i c a nt l y l i m i t e d, be c a us e i t s m e a n i ng, a s i m port e d fro m Chri s t i a ni t y a nd t he o l ogy, doe s not m a t c h t he n a t ur e of t he Buddh i s t s c ri pt ura l body a nd i t s c o m pl e x d e ve l opm e nt T hi s i s e v i de nt by t h e ve ry f a c t t ha t u s i ng t he t e r m m i s c ons t ru e s t ha t w hi c h i s now know n a bout t he s t a t us s t ruc t ure a nd de ve l opm e nt of Buddhi s t s c r i pt ure I t i s a l s o s upport e d by t he e x a m pl e s gi ve n i n w hi c h c anon i s m odi fi e d or provi s i ona l l y re d e fi n e d i n orde r t o w ork i n t he Buddhi s t c a s e ; l i ke w i s e t h e re h a s be e n a n a t t e m pt t o l e g i t i m i z e t he t e rm a s a re l i gi ous uni v e rs a l by offe ri ng a n a l t e rn a t i ve de f i ni t i on t ha t i s un re a s ona bl y a nd i m pr a c t i c a l l y broa d. Cons e que nt l y, Buddhi s t s c ho l a rs ne e d t o c ri t i c a l l y e va l u a t e t he i r ow n us a ge of c anon c ons i de ri ng w he t h e r a l t e rn a t i v e t e r m s m a y be m ore a ppropr i a t e

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4 Etymol ogy, O r i g i n an d U s e of Can on i n a C h r i s ti an C on te xt L e t us be gi n w i t h a n e x a m i n a t i on of t he or i gi n of t he s e c ul a r t e r m c anon a nd how i t c a m e t o b e us e d i n a pa rt i c u l a rl y re l i gi o us s e ns e w i t h re fe re n c e t o Chr i s t i a n i t y. T he t e rm c anon h a s i t s e t y m ol ogi c a l root s i n t he G re e k k an n w hi c h i t s e l f c a n b e t ra c e d t o t he S e m i t i c k ane h m e a n i ng m e a s uri ng ro d or m e a s uri ng s t i c k. 2 O ve r t i m e i n t he G r e c o Rom a n w orl d, k an n be g a n t o m e a n t he s t a nda rd by w hi c h a l l t hi ngs a r e j udge d. 3 W i t h t hi s m e a n i ng, k an n w a s us e d i n m a ny a r e a s i nc l udi ng a rc hi t e c t ure m us i c a nd gr a m m a r. W i t hi n a pa rt i c ul a r fi e l d, t h e k an n w a s t h e pe rfe c t e x a m pl e of i t s ki nd a nd s e rve d a s a m ode l for ot h e rs It w a s onl y i n t he m i ddl e of t he four t h c e n t ury C.E t ha t k an n be g a n t o r e fe re n c e t he c ol l e c t i on of hol y w ri t i ngs w i t hi n t he Chri s t i a n t r a di t i on. It re m a i ns un c l e a r w he t he r k an n a s us e d i n t he e a r l y fourt h c e nt ury by E us e bi us a nd ot he rs re f e rre d s pe c i fi c a l l y t o a c ol l e c t i on of s c ri pt u re s or m ore g e ne ra l l y t o t he rul e of fa i t h of t he Chr i s t i a n c hurc h. E us e bi us di d, how e ve r, re f e r t o t he c o l l e c t i ons of Chri s t i a n w ri t i ngs a s e nc ov e na nt e d a nd re c ogn i z e d i n t hi s e a r l y fourt h c e nt u ry pe ri od, w hi l e A t h a na s i us re f e rs t o t he m a s k an n i n 367. 4 T he w a y i n w hi c h c urre nt s c hol a rs us e c anon t o r e fe r t o a c o l l e c t i on o f pa rt i c u l a r s c r i pt ure s be g a n i n 1768 w he n D a vi d Ruhnke n l i s t e d s a c r e d s c ri pt ur e s i n hi s H i s t or i a c r i t i c a or at or um gr ae c or um 5 A s J uda i c a nd Chri s t i a n s c ho l a rs c on t i nue t o re s e a rc h how t h e H e l l e ni s t i c us a ge of c anon a ffe c t e d t h e e s t a bl i s hm e nt of bi b l i c a l c a nons i t ha s be e n a rgue d t ha t t he i d e a of a 2 L e e M a r t i n M c D ona l d a nd J a m e s A S a nde r s I n t r oduc t i on, i n T he C anon D e bat e ( P e a body, M A : H e ndr i c ks on P ubl i s he r s 2002) 11 3 I bi d 4 E us e bi us E c c l e s i as t i c al H i s t or y c a 325 C E a n d A t ha na s i us F e s t a l L e t t e r 367 C E quot e d i n M c D ona l d a nd S a nde r s I nt r oduc t i on 12 13 5 M c D ona l d a nd S a nde r s I nt r oduc t i on, 13.

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5 c l os e d c a non of a ut hori t a t i ve s c r i pt ure s w a s uni que t o Chri s t i a ni t y, be c a us e i t di d no t re c e i v e a c l os e d c a non from J uda i s m 6 F rom t he be g i nni ng, t h e Chri s t i a n c hur c h fol l ow e d t he J e w i s h e x a m pl e a nd a c know l e dge d c e r t a i n w ri t i ngs a s s a c r e d, or s c ri pt ure but i t w a s l a t e r t h a t t h e i d e a of a c l os e d a u t hori t a t i ve body of s c r i pt ure e m e rge d. S c hol a r A .C. S undbe rg a rgue s t ha t t h e Ch ri s t i a n N e w T e s t a m e nt c a non de v e l ope d i n t hre e s t a ge s : (1) ove r t i m e t he w r i t i ngs of t h e N e w T e s t a m e nt g a i ne d s t a t us a s s c ri p t ure ; (2) t he s c ri pt ure w a s groupe d i n t o c l os e d c ol l e c t i ons (i e t he four gos pe l s ); a nd (3) t h e form a t i on of a c l os e d l i s t of a ut ho r i t a t i ve s c ri pt ur e s 7 T hi s proc e s s of de ve l op m e nt c l os e l y t ra c ks t he e vol u t i on of t h e t e r m s m e a ni ng: (1) a s t a nda rd norm a u t hori t a t i v e ; a nd (2 3) c l o s e d, e xc l us i ve c ol l e c t i on of s a c r e d t e x t s S e c u l ar an d R e l i gi ou s D e fi n i ti on s of Can on E t ym ol ogy of c a non a nd i t s ori gi n w i t h i n Chri s t i a ni t y a re c e r t a i n l y i m por t a nt e l e m e nt s i n unde rs t a ndi ng t h e rol e of c ano n a s a t e c hn i c a l t e rm i n t he fi e l d of re l i gi o us s t udi e s U s a ge a nd m e a ni ng prov i de t h e r e s t of t he s t ory, be g i nni ng w i t h how t h e t e rm ha s be e n de fi n e d F i rs t a r e vi e w of t h e c o nt e m pora ry g e ne r a l de f i ni t i ons of t he t e rm c anon T he R andom H ous e We bs t e r s U nabr i dge d D i c t i onar y off e rs no l e s s t ha n s i xt e e n de fi ni t i ons unde r t w o l e x i c a l e n t ri e s S e v e n i nvol ve r e l i g i ous but non t e x t ua l m e a ni ngs a l l of w hi c h a re i n r e fe r e nc e t o Chri s t i a ni t y, s uc h a s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l a w a p a rt of t h e l i t urgy, or a l i s t of re c ogni z e d s a i n t s O ne i nvol ve s m us i c no t a t i on a nd a no t he r r e fe r s t o pri nt t ype 6 I bi d. 7 I bi d.

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6 F or t he purpos e of di s c us s i ng t he us e of c anon t o c ha ra c t e ri z e re l i gi ous t e x t s t he re a r e s e ve n r e l e v a nt de f i ni t i ons T he f ol l ow i ng t hre e de fi n i t i ons i nvok e nua n c e s i n i t s s e c ul a r m e a n i ng a s a s t a nd a rd or rul e : 3. t he body of rul e s pri n c i pl e s or s t a nda rds a c c e p t e d a s a xi om a t i c a nd uni v e rs a l l y b i n di ng i n a fi e l d of s t udy or a r t : t h e ne o c l as s i c al c anon ; 4. a funda m e nt a l pr i nc i p l e or ge n e r a l rul e : t he c anons of good be ha v i or ; 5. a s t a nda rd; c r i t e ri on: t h e c anons of t as t e 8 T he s e va ri a t i ons c oul d be us e d e a s i l y i n num e rous c ont e x t s a nd di s c i p l i ne s T he ne xt four d e fi ni t i ons a r e m ore i m port a nt c ove r i ng t he m e a ni ngs re l a t e d t o s e t s or l i s t s of books or ot he r w ri t t e n w orks ; t w o of w hi c h s pe c i fi c a l l y re f e r t o re l i gi ous t e xt s : 6. t he books of t he B i bl e r e c ogni z e d by a ny Chri s t i a n c hurc h a s ge nui ne a nd i ns pi re d; 7. a ny off i c i a l l y r e c ogn i z e d s e t o f s a c re d books ; 8. a ny c o m pre h e ns i ve l i s t of books w i t hi n a fi e l d; 9. t h e w orks of a n a u t hor t ha t h a ve be e n a c c e p t e d a s a u t he nt i c : T he r e ar e 37 pl ay s i n t he Sha k e s pe ar e c an on 9 O f t hi s s e t a qui c k e xa m i n a t i on of t h e fi rs t t w o de fi ni t i ons w hi c h re f e r t o r e l i gi o us t e xt s s how s t ha t i n one s e ns e c anon i s s pe c i fi c a l l y r e fe rr i ng t o t h e Chri s t i a n Bi bl e w hi l e t h e ot he r e xpa nds t h i s t o ot he r c ol l e c t i ons of t e xt s de e m e d s a c re d, pre s u m a bl y t hos e found i n ot he r r e l i g i ons T he t hi rd de fi ni t i o n gi ve n h e re offe rs t he nua n c e of c l os ure a s i n a l i s t of books t ha t i s c om p l e t e but t hi s i s not s pe c i fi c t o a re l i gi on or r e l i g i ous s t udi e s T he fourt h d e fi ni t i on i n t hi s s e t bri ngs up t he m a t t e r of a ut h e nt i c i t y i n w ri t t e n w orks but i n t he s e ns e of a s pe c i fi c a ut hors body of w ork. O bvi ous l y us a ge a nd c ont e xt p l a y a hug e rol e i n w ha t i s m e a nt w he n s om e t hi ng i s i d e nt i f i e d a s a c anon o r c anoni c al 8 R andom H ous e W e bs t e r s U nabr i dge d D i c t i onar y Se c ond E di t i on ( N e w Y o r k: R a ndom H ous e 2001 ) s v. C a non, de f i ni t i on 1 14 9 I bi d.

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7 T he c ont e m por a ry unde rs t a nd i ng of c anon i n a ge ne r a l s e ns e prov i de s va l u a bl e i ns i ght from w hi c h t o l a un c h a n e x a m i na t i on of i t s i nc l us i on i n t he r e l i g i ous s t udi e s l e xi c on. In A Ne w D i c t i onar y of R e l i gi ons t he e nt ry for Ca non b e gi ns by de f i ni ng i t e xpl i c i t l y i n t e r m s of Chri s t i a n i t y; t he e n t r y doe s not m e nt i on or a l l ude t o a ny ot h e r, broa de r unde rs t a ndi ng T h e e nt ry s t a t e s t ha t t h e c a non (f rom t h e G re e k m e a ni ng m e a s ure ) of t h e Bi bl e i s t h e Chri s t i a n w a y of de s c ri bi ng t h e l i s t of books a c know l e dge d va ri ous l y by s yna gogue a nd c hurc h a s uni que l y a ut hor i t a t i ve 10 It t he n bri e fl y de s c r i be s t he form a t i on o f t h e Chri s t i a n c a non. In a n a l t e rna t e re f e re nc e w ork, A D i c t i ona r y of Com par at i v e R e l i g i on t he r e i s no e nt ry for Ca non, but t h e re i s one for C a non of N e w T e s t a m e nt T hi s e n t ry e xpl a i ns t he form a t i on of t h e Chri s t i a n N e w T e s t a m e nt c a non, but a l s o d e fi n e s t he us e of t h e w ord c anon i n t hi s c on t e xt a s a l i s t of books offi c i a l l y re c ogni z e d a s s ui t a bl e for r e a di ng a t publ i c w ors hi p. Im pl i c i t a s a ut hor i t a t i v e for Chr. fa i t h a nd pr a c t i c e 11 N ot a bl y, a t t h e e nd of t he e n t ry, t he r e a r e re fe r e nc e s t o C a non of O l d T e s t a m e nt a nd Ca non of S c ri pt ure Buddhi s t w hi c h di r e c t t he r e a de r t o t he e nt ri e s for Bi bl e a nd T i pi t a k a re s pe c t i v e l y. N e i t he r of t he s e a dd i t i on a l e nt ri e s de fi n e s c anon a l on e but t he t e rm i s us e d i n de s c ri bi ng t he s ubj e c t of t h e e n t ry. T he de fi ni t i on of T i pi t a ka a nd how c anon i s us e d i n t hi s s pe c i f i c a l l y Buddhi s t c ont e x t w i l l b e e xa m i ne d i n t he t h i rd c h a pt e r. A s urve y of t w o m ore s ourc e s c om p l e t e s t he l e xi c a l p i c t u re of c anon fro m a s t ri c t l y r e l i g i ous s t udi e s pe rs pe c t i v e T he E nc y c l ope di a o f B uddhi s m ha s a n e nt ry on Ca non w hi c h off e rs a provi s i on a l de f i ni t i on of t he t e rm de fi n e d l oos e l y a s a m or e or 10 J ohn R H i nne l l s e d. A N e w D i c t i onar y of R e l i gi ons ( O xf or d: B l a c kw e l l R e f e r e nc e 1995) s v C a non. 11 S G F B r a ndon, A D i c t i onar y of C om par at i v e R e l i gi on e d S G F B r a ndon ( N e w Y or k: C ha r l e s S c r i bne r 's S ons 1970 ) s v. C a non of N e w T e s t a m e nt

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8 l e s s bounde d s e t of t e x t s a c c o rde d pre e m i ne nt a ut hor i t y a nd s a n c t i t y. 12 T hi s pa rt i c u l a r e nt ry w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n t h e t h i rd c ha pt e r, but i t s houl d be not e d t h a t t h i s l oos e de f i ni t i on i s c ra f t e d s pe c i fi c a l l y t o a c c om m oda t e t h e Buddhi s t t r a di t i on. G e ra l d S he ppa rds e n t ry i n T he E n c y c l ope di a of R e l i gi on off e rs a l e ng t hy t re a t m e nt of c anon re v i e w i ng i t s e t ym o l o gy a nd us a ge bot h hi s t or i c a l l y a nd a s a t e c hni c a l t e r m W i t h re ga rd t o c anon a s a t e c hni c a l t e r m i n re l i gi ous s t udi e s he a s s e rt s t ha t t he t e rm i nh e re n t l y va c i l l a t e s be t w e e n t he t w o di s t i n c t pol e s i n bot h s e c u l a r a n d re l i gi ous us a ge [ a s ] a rul e s t a nda rd, i de a l norm or a u t hori t a t i v e offi c e or l i t e r a t ur e w he t he r ora l or w r i t t e n[a nd] a t e m por a r y or pe rpe t ua l fi xa t i on, s t a nda rdi z a t i on, e num e ra t i on, l i s t i ng, c hrono l ogy, re g i s t e r, or c a t a l og of e x e m pl a ry or norm a t i ve p e rs ons pl a c e s or t h i ngs 13 S he ppa rd re fe rs t o t h e s e t w o m e a n i ngs a s c a non 1 a nd c a non 2, re s pe c t i v e l y. H e fur t he r a d m i t s t h a t t h e d i a l e c t i c a l i nt e rpl a y be t w e e n t he s e t w o i d e a l c onc e pt i ons of t he t e rm a s a ppl i e d t o a r e l i gi ous t e xt e nge nd e rs a s ys t e m i c a m bi gu i t y i n a ny di s c us s i on of re l i g i ous c a nons a nd he l ps a c c ount for t h e va r i e t y of w a ys s om e t i m e s c onfl i c t i ng, i n w hi c h t he t e rm c anon ha s b e e n e m p l oye d i n r e c e nt s c hol a rs hi p. 14 H e i s re fe rri ng t o t he d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e rpl a y a t w ork a s a n ora l or w ri t t e n r e c ord of s a c r e d t e a c h i ngs e m e rge s i n t h e na s c e n t pe ri od of e s t a bl i s hi ng a re l i gi on, ga i ns s t a t us ove r t i m e a s a ut hori t a t i v e a nd e a rns i nc l us i on i n a r e l i gi ons c a non, i t s fi x e d c ol l e c t i on of s a c r e d t e xt s T o i l l us t ra t e a s a c re d t e xt t ha t i s c a noni c a l ( c a non 1) i n t he e a rl i e s t s t a g e of a t ra di t i on c a n l a t e r be c om e c a noni c a l ( c a no n 2), w he n i t i s i nc l ude d i n t he fi x e d s c ri p t ura l 12 P a ul H a r r i s on, E nc y c l ope di a of B uddhi s m e d. R o be r t E B us w e l l J r ( N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e nc e U S A 2004) s v C a non. 13 G e r a l d S he ppa r d T he E nc y c l ope di a of R e l i gi on e d. M i r c e a E l i a de vol 3 ( N e w Y o r k: S i m on & S c h us t e r M a c m i l l a n, 1 995) s v. C a non. 14 I bi d.

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9 c ol l e c t i on. S he pp a rd e nv i s i ons t hi s hi s t ori c a l proc e s s a s t he ke y t o unde rs t a nd i ng ho w c anon pe rs i s t s a s a t e c hni c a l t e rm d e s pi t e t he c onfl i c t i ng us a g e S he ppa rds a c know l e dg m e nt of t he a m bi g ui t y i nhe r e nt i n us i ng a t e r m w hos e m e a ni ng i n us a ge ha s c ha nge d ov e r t i m e i s re fre s hi ng, but hi s di s c us s i on fa i l s t o off e r a s ol ut i on or, a t a m i n i m um s ugge s t t ha t a s ol ut i on i s ne e de d. Ins t e a d, he a c qui e s c e s t o c anon s c ont i nue d us a g e a s bot h a norm / s t a nda rd a nd a s a fi xe d c ol l e c t i on of s a c re d t e xt s T hi s a m bi gu i t y i s a m pl i f i e d w he n c ons i d e ri ng i t s us a ge a s a t e c hni c a l t e rm i n t he a c a de m i c s t udy of re l i gi on w he re i t ha s a s pe c i fi c m e a ni ng r e l a t i ve t o t he a ut hori t a t i v e body of Chri s t i a n s c ri p t ure s but i s a l s o a p pl i e d m or e broa dl y t o t he s c ri pt ur a l bodi e s of ot he r re l i gi ons T he r e fore w he n c anon i s us e d a s a de s i gna t i on for a c ol l e c t i on of s a c re d t e xt s i n a ny r e l i g i on, i t c a n onl y b e t h a t t h e i nt e n t of t he t e rm i s t o c onv e y t he r e l i g i o us s e ns e S he ppa rds e ffort s t o e x c us e m i s l e a di ng us a ge fa l l s hort be c a us e i t a m ount s t o e xpa ndi ng t h e m e a ni ng of c anon t o fi t e ve ry us a ge us i ng e t ym o l ogy a s a c rut c h, r a t he r t ha n s e ri ous l y c ons i d e ri ng w he t h e r c urr e nt us a ge w i t hi n t h e fi e l d of re l i gi on h a s a l re a dy i n fa c t d e fi ne d t he t e rm S he ppa rd ne ve rt h e l e s s m a i nt a i ns t ha t t he t e rm ha s be e n e ffe c t i v e t hough probl e m a t i c a nd ul t i m a t e l y he doe s not p us h s c hol a rs w i t hi n t he f i e l d t o a s s e s s t he i r us a ge of c anon W hi l e a n e nt ry i n a s t a nd a rd re fe r e nc e w ork i s proba b l y not t h e be s t ve nue t o i n t roduc e s u c h m a t t e rs S he ppa rd s a c c e pt a nc e of t he s t a t us quo i n t h i s re ga rd s i m pl y pe rpe t ua t e s t he probl e m E uge ne U l ri c h i m p l i c i t l y c ri t i que s S he ppa rds i de a s a bout c anon w i t h hi s ow n re vi e w of t he t e rm s us a ge t hroughout h i s t ory, t he w a ys i n w hi c h i t ha s be e n de fi n e d a nd t he re s ul t i ng s ourc e s of c onfus i on. H e ul t i m a t e l y c onc l ude s t h a t t h e re a r e e s s e nt i a l

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10 e l e m e nt s i n a pr e c i s e de fi n i t i on of t he c an on of s c ri pt ure a nd a dhe r e nc e by s c ho l a rs t o t he prope r c onc e pt w i l l l e a d t o t h e c l a ri t y, c o ns i s t e nc y, a nd c ons t ru c t i v e di a l ogue t ha t i s ne e de d i n t hi s a r e a w i t h i n t he o l ogy/ re l i gi o n. 15 H e be gi ns by out l i n i ng t he g e ne r a l de f i ni t i on of t he t e r m from t h e R andom H ous e D i c t i onar y of t he E ng l i s h L anguage a nd T he E nc y c l op e d i a B r i t anni c a w hi c h bot h c om port w i t h t he l a t e r e di t i on of t h e R and om H ous e D i c t i onar y s t re a t m e n t of c ano n t ha t I re vi e w e d e a rl i e r i n t hi s c ha p t e r. T urni ng t o t h e fi e l d of re l i gi on s pe c i fi c a l l y, U l ri c h ut i l i z e s ni ne t h e ol ogi c a l di c t i on a ri e s (J e w i s h, Ca t h o l i c a nd P rot e s t a nt ) t o di s c e rn t he po i nt s of a gr e e m e nt on i t s m e a ni ng a s a t e c hni c a l t e rm us e d i n bi b l i c a l or t h e ol ogi c a l di s c ours e a m ong J e w s a nd Chri s t i a ns a nd c onc l ud e s t ha t t he r e a re t w o pri nc i pa l m e a n i ngs a s fol l ow s : 1. T he c a non of s c r i pt ur e i .e ., t he c a non w hi c h s c ri pt ure c ons t i t u t e s t h e r ul e of fa i t h a rt i c ul a t e d by t he s c ri p t ure s t he rul e t ha t d e t e rm i n e s fa i t h, t he a ut hor i t a t i ve pr i nc i pl e s a nd gu i di ng s p i ri t w hi c h gov e rn be l i e f a nd pra c t i c e 2. T he c a non of s c ri pt ur e i .e ., t h e c a non w hi c h c ons t i t u t e s s c ri pt ure t h e l i s t of books a c c e pt e d a s i ns pi re d s c ri pt ur e t h e l i s t t h a t h a s be e n de t e rm i n e d, t h e a ut hor i t a t i ve l i s t of b ooks w hi c h ha ve be e n a c c e pt e d a s s c ri pt ure 16 U l ri c h a l s o pa ys c a re fu l a t t e nt i on t o us a ge a nd how i t re ve a l s w hi c h of t h e t w o pri n c i pa l m e a ni ngs i s i n t e nde d. H e po i nt s out t h a t c anon m os t fre que nt l y i s i nt e nde d t o m e a n t he 15 E uge ne U l r i c h, T he N ot i on a nd D e f i ni t i on of C a non, i n T he C anon D e bat e e d L e e M a r t i n M c D o na l d a nd J a m e s A S a nde r s ( P e a body, M A : H e ndr i c ks on P ubl i s he r s 2002) 35 16 I bi d. 28

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11 offi c i a l c orpus of books a c c e pt e d a s s c ri pt ure (t he s e c ond s e ns e or S he ppa rds c a no n 2) a nd t ha t i t s a dj e c t i va l for m c anon i c al i s us e d l e gi t i m a t e l y i n bot h s e ns e s 17 T he re fore h e s t a t e s t ha t t h e prope r m e a n i ng of c a non i s t h e de fi n i t i v e l i s t of i ns pi re d, a ut hor i t a t i ve books w hi c h c ons t i t ut e t he r e c ogni z e d a nd a c c e pt e d body of s a c re d s c ri pt ure of a m a j or r e l i gi ous group, t ha t d e fi ni t i ve l i s t be i ng t he re s ul t of i nc l us i ve a nd e xc l us i ve d e c i s i ons a f t e r s e r i ous de l i b e ra t i on. 18 H e a dm i t s t ha t t hi s de fi n i t i on m a y re qui re furt h e r re f i ne m e nt but s t rong l y a s s e rt s t ha t a pr e c i s e de fi n i t i on i s s ore l y ne e de d. H e l a t e r r e s t a t e s hi s de fi n i t i on m ore c on c i s e l y: T h e c a non of s c ri pt ur e i s t he d e fi n i t i ve c l os e d l i s t of t he books t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he a ut he nt i c c on t e nt s of s c r i pt ure 19 U l ri c h m a k e s t he s a l i e n t poi nt t ha t t he r e w a s a nd i s a ne e d for a t e r m t ha t de not e s t he fi na l fi xe d, a nd c l os e d l i s t of t h e book s of s c ri pt ure t ha t a r e offi c i a l l y a nd pe rm a ne n t l y a c c e pt e d a s s upre m e l y a ut hor i t a t i ve by a f a i t h t ra di t i on, i n c ons c i ous c ont ra di s t i nc t i on from t hos e books t h a t a r e not a c c e p t e d. 20 T ha t t e rm h e s a ys ha s be e n c anon s i nc e t h e fourt h c e nt ury C. E a nd h e a s s e rt s t ha t c anon s houl d onl y be us e d w he n t he ful l m e a n i ng, a s not e d a bove i s i nt e nd e d. If e l e m e nt s s uc h a s c l os ure of t h e l i s t a re m i s s i ng, t he n you a r e not t a l ki ng a bout a c anon but a c o l l e c t i on of s c r i pt ur e s or a c ol l e c t i on of a ut hor i t a t i v e books 21 H e i ns i ght ful l y hi gh l i ght s a n i m port a nt di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n a c o l l e c t i on of a ut hori t a t i ve boo ks a nd a n a u t hori t a t i ve c o l l e c t i on of books 22 T he form e r c ons i s t s of t e xt s t h a t a re i ndi v i dua l l y a ut hor i t a t i v e or norm a t i ve w hi c h c oul d t e c hni c a l l y be r e fe rre d t o a s c anoni c al s t ri c t l y i n t e r m s of c anon s fi rs t 17 I bi d. 28 29. 18 I bi d. 29 19 U l r i c h, N ot i on of C a non, 34. 20 I bi d. 31 21 I bi d. 32 22 B r uc e M e t z ge r T he C anon of t he N e w T e s t am e nt : I t s O r i gi n, D e v e l opm e nt and Si gn i f i c anc e ( O xf o r d: C l a r e ndon, 1987) quot e d i n U l r i c h, N ot i on o f C a n on, 30.

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12 pri nc i pa l m e a ni ng (S he pp a rds c a non 1); how e ve r, t he s e c ond s e ns e (S he ppa rds c a non 2) w oul d not a ppl y be c a us e no j udg m e nt h a d ye t be e n m a d e for t he c ol l e c t i on a s a w ho l e a s t o i t s c ont e nt s a s a c o m pl e t e body. A n a ut hori t a t i ve c ol l e c t i on of books i s how e v e r, a c a non i n t h e s e c ond s e ns e of t he t e rm U l ri c h s ugge s t s t w o a ddi t i ona l c ri t i c a l e l e m e nt s of m e a ni ng: 1) r e fe r e nc e t o books or t e xt s re ga rd l e s s of s pe c i f i c e d i t i ons for m s or ve rs i ons ; a n d 2) re fl e c t i ve j udgm e n t 23 T he fi rs t c a s e i s c l e a r t ha t c anon i s not c onc e rne d w i t h t hos e a s pe c t s w hi c h ha v e c ha nge d ove r t i m e t hrough d e ve l op m e nt a nd m ode rni z a t i on, s uc h a s a s pe c i fi c for m or e di t i on of t he t e xt T h e s e c ond c ri t i c a l e l e m e nt c ov e rs w ha t U l ri c h de s c ri b e s a s a c ons c i ous re t ros pe c t i v e offi c i a l j udgm e nt on t he s c r i pt ura l t r a di t i on t ha t ha s e vol ve d a s norm a t i v e a nd a ut hori t a t i ve i n a re l i gi o us c om m uni t y. 24 T hi s m a rks a k e y t urni ng poi nt i n t h e de ve l opm e n t of a c a non, i n w hi c h t he t e xt s t h a t ha v e be c om e nor m a t i ve a nd a ut hori t a t i v e a r e a c c e pt e d a nd c od i fi e d a s a pa rt i c ul a r t ra d i t i ons c a non. It s i gni f i e s t he t ra ns i t i on fro m a c ol l e c t i on of a u t hori t a t i ve books t o a n a ut hori t a t i ve c ol l e c t i on o f books U l ri c hs c ons t ruc t i on of a fun c t i o na l de fi n i t i on of c anon i s obvi ous l y t h e pr oduc t of a w e l l de v e l op e d unde rs t a nd i ng of t he t e rm c ul t i va t e d by a t horough i nqu i ry a nd hi s ow n re c ogni t i on t ha t t he t e rm c om e s w i t h a hi s t ory of i m prop e r us a ge by s om e H i s a pproa c h t o d e fi ni ng c anon i s s upe ri or t o t ha t of S he ppa rds e qui vo c a t i on, w hi c h s i m pl y doe s not w ork i n pra c t i c e U l ri c hs e s s a y i s a dm i t t e d l y fra m e d i n t e r m s of J uda i s m a nd Chri s t i a ni t y, bu t he a c c e p t s S he ppa rds pos i t i on on c anon t ha t t he J e w i s h a nd Chr i s t i a n s c r i pt ur e s 23 U l r i c h, N ot i on of C a non, 31 32. 24 I bi d.

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13 [e s t a bl i s he d] t he p a t t e rns of us a ge for w orl d re l i g i ons i n ge ne r a l 25 T he re fore hi s ow n poi nt s a ppl y t o t he broa d e r us e of c anon i n t he c ont e xt of t h e s c ri pt u re s of ot he r w or l d re l i gi ons O t he r m ode rn s c hol a rs i n re l i gi on h a ve pr ovi de d t he i r ow n de fi ni t i ons w hi c h c onform t o t h e s pi ri t of U l r i c hs ow n c a r e f ul l y c ra f t e d de f i ni t i on. J ona t h a n Z S m i t h s t a t e s t ha t c a non i s broa d l y unde rs t ood a s t he a rbi t ra ry fi x i ng of a l i m i t e d nu m be r of t e xt s a s i m m ut a b l e a nd a ut hor i t a t i ve 26 L e e M c D ona l d a nd J a m e s S a nde rs e xpl a i n t ha t w hi l e s c ri pt ur e i s c a noni c a l (e vok i ng S he ppa rds c a non 1), c anon i s a fi x e d s t a nda rd (or c ol l e c t i on of w ri t i ngs ) t h a t de f i ne s t he fa i t h a nd i de nt i t y of a p a rt i c ul a r re l i gi ous c om m uni t y. 27 In bot h of t he s e c a s e s c l os u re i s a n i nhe r e nt a s pe c t of c anon T o da y, a l t hough s c hol a rs hi p on c a non for m a t i on w i t hi n Chri s t i a ni t y c ont i nue s t o fl ouri s h, t he re i s not a s e t i n s t one d e fi ni t i on of c anon t ha t i s a c c e pt e d by a l l S c hol a rs w i l l c onc e de t h a t a l t hough t he re i s no c on s e ns us a bout how t he t e rm s s houl d be d e fi ne d or e xa c t l y how t he s e t e rm s a nd t he i r m e a n i ngs ha ve e vol v e d t hroughout h i s t ory, t he t e rm s t he m s e l v e s a nd t he i r us a ge i n t he s t udy of s c ri pt ura l bod i e s a r e of c ons i de r a bl e i m port a n c e Cont i nui ng re s e a rc h i nt o ho w c anon ha s e vol ve d s i nc e a n c i e n t t i m e s h a s s how n t ha t t he i s s ue i s c o m pl e x. H ow e v e r, t he ongoi ng di a l ogue h a s l e d t o t w o ve r y ge ne ra l w a ys of und e rs t a ndi ng c anon a s a n a ut hori t y w i t hi n a re l i gi ous c o m m uni t y t ha t i s s ubj e c t t o c ha nge a nd a s a body of l i t e ra t ure t ha t c a nno t be a l t e re d or a dd e d t o. O f c ours e t he s e t w o bro a d unde rs t a nd i ngs a r e m ut ua l l y e x c l us i ve A s a r e s ul t s c hol a r s c ont i nue t o e nga g e i n a n a ni m a t e d di a l ogu e a bout c anon T he f a c t t ha t a prom i n e nt 25 I bi d. 26 26 J ona t ha n Z S m i t h I m agi ni ng R e l i gi on: F r om B a by l on t o J one s t ow n ( C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y o f C hi c a go P r e s s 1982) 44. 27 M c D ona l d a nd S a nde r s I nt r oduc t i on, 11.

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14 di s c us s i on on t hi s s ubj e c t c ont i nu e s w i t hi n J uda i c a nd Chri s t i a n s c hol a rs hi p i s a de m ons t ra t i on of t he i m port a nc e of t e r m i n ol ogy t ha t t e rm s m us t b e s ha rpl y de f i ne d, us a ge c a r e ful l y e xa m i ne d, a nd a dj us t m e nt s m a de w he n ne c e s s a ry. D e fi n i n g S c r i pt u r e It i s a ppropri a t e a t t hi s poi n t t o i ns pe c t t he w ord s c r i pt ur e be c a us e i t i s oft e n i nvoke d w he n t a l ki ng a bou t a r e l i g i ous c a non. F i rs t i t i s i m por t a nt t o fra m e t he no t i on of s c r i pt ur e w i t h t he und e rs t a ndi ng t ha t J uda i s m Chri s t i a n i t y, a nd Is l a m t hr e e of t h e w orl ds m a j or re l i gi ons de fi n e t he m s e l v e s l a rge l y i n t e rm s of a s a c re d w ri t t e n t e xt 28 W i t hi n t he s e pa r t i c u l a r r e l i g i ous t ra di t i ons t he de ve l opm e n t of a c ol l e c t i on of w ri t i n gs w hi c h a re he l d t o c ont a i n di vi n e know l e dg e a nd di re c t i ons from G od, i s a c e n t ra l fo c us of t ha t re l i gi on. H ow e ve r, i n re l i gi ous s t udi e s s c r i pt ur e i s ge ne ra l l y de fi n e d a s s a c r e d w ri t t e n t e xt s L i k e c anon t h e t e rm s c r i pt ur e re fe rs t o a r e c ogn i t i on of s a c re dne s s a nd a ut hori t y w i t hi n a b e l i e vi ng c om m uni t y. 29 Cl a s s i fi c a t i on a s s c ri p t ure h a s t o do w i t h w he t he r or not t h e re l i gi ous body or i ns t i t ut i on re c ogn i z e s a pa rt i c ul a r t e x t a s s a c re d a nd a ut hori t a t i v e T he a ut hor i t y of a t e xt i s ba s e d on a fe w di ffe re n t fa c t ors i nc l udi ng, b ut not l i m i t e d t o, do c t ri n a l c ons i d e ra t i ons a ut hor s hi p, a nd a ut he n t i c i t y. Re s pons i bi l i t y for de c i di ng w hi c h t e x t ha s a u t hori t y a nd w hi c h doe s not be l ongs t o t he i ns t i t ut i ona l bo dy of t he re l i gi ous c om m uni t y. In t he ne xt c ha pt e r, I w i l l e xa m i ne t he hi s t ory a nd de ve l op m e nt of t he Buddhi s t s c ri pt ura l t ra di t i on. T h e n, i n c ha pt e r t hre e I w i l l c ons i de r t he ori g i n of t hi s t e rm s u s a ge i n Buddhi s t S t udi e s a s w e l l a s how c anon ha s be e n us e d m ore re c e nt l y by s c ho l a rs t o 28 I bi d. 8 29 I bi d. 11

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15 de s c ri be t h e Buddhi s t s c ri p t ura l bodi e s T hi s w i l l s e t up a c a re fu l re v i e w of w he t he r a nd t o w ha t e xt e nt W e s t e rn no t i ons of c anon e xpl ore d i n t hi s c ha p t e r c a n be a ppl i e d t o t he B uddhi s t c a s e

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16 CH A P T E R T W O H IS T O RY O F T H E BU D D H IS T S CRIP T U RA L T RA D I T IO N In t hi s c ha pt e r, I w i l l prov i de a bri e f ov e rv i e w of t he t hr e e pri m a ry s c hoo l s w i t hi n Buddhi s m w hi c h e nc o m pa s s t w o m a rke d l y di ffe re nt a pproa c he s t o t h e i s s ue of c a noni c i t y. T h e s e a p pro a c he s be g i n w i t h a c om m on found a t i on i n t he e a r l y hi s t ory of Buddhi s t s c ri pt ura l de ve l opm e n t but ul t i m a t e l y di ve rg e on phi l os ophi c a l grounds a nd, from t ha t po i nt on, t h e s t ruc t ur e a nd c om p os i t i on of t he Buddh i s t s c ri pt ur a l body be c om e s a n i nc r e a s i ngl y c om pl e x que s t i o n. It s houl d be not e d t ha t c anoni z at i on, or t he ge ne ra l c onc e pt of de f i ni ng a c ol l e c t i on of s c ri pt ure s a s s a c r e d a nd a u t hori t a t i v e t o t he e xc l us i on of ot h e rs doe s not a ppe a r t o b e a t a s k of a ny i m port a n c e e a rl y i n t he ov e ra l l t ra di t i on. T hi s w i l l be furt h e r di s c us s e d i n t he t hi rd c ha pt e r, but prov i de s a fra m e w i t h w hi c h t o vi e w t h e c om p l e xi t i e s t ha t e m e rg e w i t hi n t h e s c ri pt ur a l d e ve l op m e nt pro c e s s T he s e c t a ri a n di vi s i ons i n Buddhi s m r e fl e c t t he d i ve rge n t l i n e a g e s of t ra ns m i s s i on a ri s i ng from a t ra di t i on t h a t w a s di s s e m i n a t e d ove r a n e norm ous a r e a ge ogr a phi c a l l y a nd c ul t ura l l y. S om e l e ve l of doc t ri na l a nd ph i l os ophi c a l di ffe r e nc e i s a ppa r e nt s ure l y c ont ri but i ng t o t h e di vi s i on, a nd t hi s i s e v i de nt i n t h e a pproa c h of e a c h t o t he s c ri p t u re s T he t w o pri m a ry di vi s i ons a r e t h e r # v ak a y # na (H i na ya na ), of w hi c h T h e ra v da i s t he onl y e xt a n t s ubs e c t a nd M a h a ya n a T he f orm e r w a s c om m on i n S out he a s t A s i a w h i l e t he l a t t e r w a s dom i na nt i n Chi n a J a pa n, K ore a a nd T i be t It s houl d be no t e d t h a t t h e M a ha ya na um br e l l a ge n e ra l l y i nc l ude s t he T i be t a ns V a j ra y a na t r a di t i on, a l t hough i t c a n be vi e w e d a s i t s ow n m a j or s c hool T hou gh t he s e a re t he m a j or s c hoo l s w i t hi n

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17 Buddhi s m s e vol ut i on, t he y s houl d not b e vi e w e d ne c e s s a ri l y a s uni fi e d or un i form i ns t i t ut i ons be c a us e w i t hi n e a c h t he re a re s e pa ra t e l i n e a ge s O r al R e c i tati on s an d th e F i r s t C ou n c i l i n Ear l y Bu d d h i s m T he hi s t ori c a l Buddh a S i ddha rt h a G a ut a m a w a s born i n N e pa l i n t h e 5 t h or 6 t h c e nt ury B.C.E ., 30 a nd fol l ow i ng h i s e nl i gh t e nm e nt he e m ba rk e d on a t e a c hi ng m i s s i on t hroughout Ind i a a nd N e pa l t ha t l a s t e d a pp roxi m a t e l y 45 ye a rs 31 H i s l e ga c y w a s c a rri e d on by hi s di s c i pl e s a f t e r hi s pa r i ni rv a na a n d de a t h i n e i t h e r 486 or 368 B.C.E ., b e gi n ni ng a s a n ora l t r a di t i on, w he re i n t he y w oul d g a t he r t o r e c i t e h i s t e a c hi ngs from m e m ory. T hi s ora l t ra d i t i on c ont i nu e d for a f e w c e nt ur i e s w i t h t he i nt e nt t o pr e s e rve t h e doc t ri ne t a ught by t he Buddha a nd i t i s unc l e a r w he n t he fi rs t i ndi vi du a l t e xt w a s a c t ua l l y w ri t t e n. 32 Com m onl y re f e rre d t o a s Counc i l s Ri c ha r d G om bri c h de s c ri b e s t he m e e t i ngs a s c om m una l re c i t a t i ons of t h e Buddha s s e r m ons a form a l i z a t i on of t h e ora l t ra d i t i o n. T he re ha v e be e n s e ve ra l s uc h Counc i l s s i nc e t he f i rs t one s uppos e dl y t ook p l a c e s oo n a ft e r t h e hi s t ori c a l Buddha s de a t h. G om b ri c h m e n t i ons t ha t Buddhi s t s c hoo l s di ffe r i n t he Counc i l s t he y re c ogni z e a nd he goe s on t o furt he r e xp l a i n t ha t t he on l y c ounc i l s re c ogni z e d by a l l s c hool s a r e t he f i rs t t w o. 33 T hi s fi rs t c ounc i l i s t r a di t i ona l l y c ons i de re d t o be t he t i m e a t w hi c h t h e c a non w a s re c ogni z e d for t h e fi rs t t i m e H ow e ve r, i t i s i m port a n t t o not e t ha t no hi s t ori c a l r e c o rds va l i da t i ng t h e e xi s t e nc e a nd a g e nda of t h i s c ounc i l h a ve b e e n di s c ov e re d, nor i s t h e re 30 T he r e i s s om e de ba t e ove r t he e xa c t ye a r s i n w hi c h he l i ve d. S om e p l a c e hi s de a t h i n 486 B C E ot he r s s ugge s t 368 B C E 31 E t i e nne L a m ot t e T he B uddha H i s T e a c hi ngs a n d H i s S a ngha i n T he W or l d of B uddhi s m e d. H e i nz B e c he r t a nd R i c ha r d G om br i c h ( L ondon: T ha m e s a nd H uds on, 1998) 41 42 32 R i c ha r d G om br i c h, B uddhi s m i n A nc i e nt I ndi a : T he E vol ut i on of t he S a ngha i n T he W or l d of B uddhi s m e d. H e i nz B e c he r t a nd R i c ha r d G om b r i c h ( L ondon: T ha m e s a nd H uds on, 1998) 77 33 I bi d. 77 78.

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18 e vi de nc e a s t o t h e s pe c i fi c c ont e n t s of t he c a non a s e s t a b l i s he d a t t h a t t i m e T he t op i c of t he c ounc i l s t he n off e rs a gre a t probl e m fo r s c hol a rs for i t i s unknow n w ha t t r a ns pi r e d, e s pe c i a l l y a t t h e fi rs t t w o. T ra di t i on hol ds t ha t t he Buddh a s t e a c hi n gs w e re di vi de d i n t o t w o c a t e gor i e s c a l l e d pi t a k as (ba s ke t s ), a t t he f i rs t c ounc i l T he fi rs t b a s ke t i s t h e S $ t r api t a k a w hi c h i s c om pos e d of t he d i s c ours e s of t he Buddha a s re port e d by hi s fri e nd a nd fo l l ow e r, na nda T he s e c ond ba s ke t i s t he V i nay a pi t a k a w hi c h i n c l ude s t h e di s c i p l i n e or c o de s for t he m ona s t i c orde r, a s re c i t e d by t he B uddha s di s c i pl e U p l i T h e Buddhi s t s c ri pt ura l t ra di t i on ha s t he f i rs t c ounc i l a s i t s founda t i on, i f onl y s ym bo l i c a l l y, d e s pi t e a ny l i ng e ri ng c onc e rns re g a rdi ng w he t h e r i t i s hi s t ori c a l l y fa c t u a l J os e Ca be z on a c know l e dge s t h a t i t m a y s i m pl y be a n a t t e m p t on t he p a rt of t he t ra di t i on t o l e gi t i m i z e t h e a u t he nt i c i t y of i t s s c ri pt ure s by t ra c i ng t h e m ba c k t o t h e ori gi na l s ourc e i n a n unb roke n l i ne a g e 34 T hi s c l a i m of l e gi t i m a c y i s m os t e v i de nt i n di s put e s ove r t e x t s i n w hi c h di ff e re nt l i n e a ge s or s c hool s a s s e rt t ha t t h e i r c o l l e c t i on or ve rs i on i s t he one t ha t w a s r e c i t e d a t t he f i rs t c ounc i l a nd, t he r e fore t he m os t a c c ur a t e a c c ount of t he Buddha s t e a c hi ng. T h e re i s a n i nhe re nt d i ffi c u l t y, of c ours e i n t ry i n g t o re c ons t ruc t t he progr e s s i on of a n ora l t ra di t i on a nd how c o m pos i t i on a nd c ont e n t m a y ha ve be e n a l t e re d ov e r s e ve ra l ge ne ra t i ons N e ve rt he l e s s i t s e e m s c l e a r t ha t t e a c hi n gs a t t ri bu t e d t o t he Buddha w e re pa s s e d on o ra l l y for a l e ngt hy p e ri od of t i m e but t h a t doe s not m e a n t ha t a fi xe d, i m m u t a b l e c o l l e c t i o n of s c r i pt ure s e xi s t e d i n t h e e a rl i e s t s t a ge s of t he t ra d i t i on, or a t a l l i n s om e c a s e s L i ke w i s e t he re a r e t e xt s t ha t c a nno t be de f i ni t i ve l y 34 J os e I gna c i o C a be z on, E nc y c l ope di a of B uddhi s m e d. R obe r t E B us w e l l J r ( N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e nc e U S A 2004) s v S c r i pt u r e

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19 t ra c e d t o, or c l os e t o, t h e t i m e of t h e Budd ha i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he t e xt u a l hi s t ory of t h e s c ri pt ure s c ont i nue s i n a s ubs t a n t i v e w a y be yond t he fi rs t c ounc i l 35 Be yond t he fi rs t c ounc i l s c ri pt ur a l t ra ns m i s s i on c ont i nue d a nd, de s pi t e a c om m on founda t i on, va r i a t i ons e m e rge d i n c ont e n t a nd a pproa c h t o t h e s a c re d t e xt s S u b s e q u e n t C o u n c i l s an d th e Be gi n n i n g of a Wr i tte n Tr a d i ti on T he s e c ond c oun c i l oc c urr e d i n V a i s a l i a bout 100 ye a rs fol l ow i ng G a u t a m a s de a t h, a nd i t s foc us w a s c l a ri fyi ng ru l e s of m ona s t i c l i fe a ft e r d i s a gre e m e n t s ha d a ri s e n. A l t hough t he i s s ue a t ha nd w a s s e t t l e d, i t i s be l i e ve d t ha t s e r i ous di s a gre e m e n t s c ont i nue d t o a ri s e e v e nt u a l l y l e a d i ng t o t h e e m e rge n c e of di ffe r e nt s e c t s 36 In 250 B.C.E ., a T he ra v di n c ounc i l i n P a t a l i put ra w a s c on ve ne d by K i ng A oka a nd t a s k e d w i t h e s t a bl i s hi ng Buddh i s t doc t r i ne A l t hough i t s ori gi n i s l e s s c l e a r, a t hi rd c ol l e c t i on of t e xt s t he A bhi dhar m a s e e m s t o ha v e be e n i nt roduc e d fro m t he 2 nd c e n t ury B.C.E o n a nd by a l l a c c ount s c a nnot b e da t e d t o t h e fi rs t c ounc i l G o m br i c h de s c ri be s t h e A bhi dh ar m a a s a s e ri e s of phi l os ophi c a l t re a t i s e s e xpou ndi ng on t he s t ra s but o t he r c h a ra c t e r i z a t i ons ra nge from a n e xpa nd e d s ys t e m a t i z a t i on o f t he dha rm a t o a n a na l yt i c a l l i s t i ng of t e r m s a nd de fi ni t i ons T he w ri t t e n hi s t ory of t h e s c ri pt u re s c a n b e t ra c e d t o a T he r a v da c oun c i l dur i ng t he 1 s t c e nt ury B.C.E i n S ri L a nk a i n w hi c h t he Buddhi s t c om m un i t y, or s a ngha ga t he re d a t t h e re qu e s t of t he k i ng. A c ol l e c t i on of Buddh i s t s a c re d t e xt s w e r e purport e dl y re c orde d on p a l m l e a v e s i n t h e P l i l a ngu a ge a t t hi s c oun c i l a n a c t w hi c h 35 P a ul W i l l i a m s M ahay ana B uddhi s m : t he D oc t r i nal F oundat i ons ( L ondon: R out l e dge 1999 ) 7. 36 P a ul H a r r i s on, E nc y c l ope di a of B uddhi s m e d. R o be r t E B us w e l l J r ( N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e nc e U S A 2004) s v C a non.

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20 Cha rl e s P re bi s h de s c ri b e s a s c l os i ng t he t hre e ba s ke t s of s c ri pt ure s i n t he T h e r a va da t ra di t i on. 37 T hi s c ol l e c t i on of t e xt s t e r m e d t he P l i c a non, i s t he o l de s t group t o h a ve be e n t ra ns m i t t e d w hol e t h roughout hi s t ory 38 F urt he r de ve l op m e nt of t he s c r i pt ura l t ra d i t i on t ook pl a c e a t a s ubs e qu e nt c oun c i l i n G a ndha ra i n 100 C. E ., re s ul t i ng i n a ne w V i na ya a nd a c om m e nt a ry on a n A bhi d har m a t e xt T h e ne xt c ounc i l w a s he l d i n t he l a t e 8 t h c e nt ury C.E i n T i b e t i n w hi c h T i b e t a n Buddhi s t s gra ppl e d w i t h d i ffe re n c e s i n t h e Chi ne s e a nd Indi a n t r a di t i ons t h a t t he y ha d i nhe ri t e d, ul t i m a t e l y op t i ng for t h e Indi a n l i ne a g e Re vi s i ons of t h e P l i c a non oc c ur re d i n Burm a a t t he f i ft h T h e ra v d i n c ounc i l i n 1871, w hi c h c onc l ud e d by c a rvi ng t h e re l i gi ous t e xt s i n m a rbl e T he m os t re c e nt T he ra v di n c ounc i l w a s he l d i n Burm a i n 1954 t o re c i t e a nd c onfi r m t he e nt i r e P l i c a non. P al i C ol l e c ti on T he c ol l e c t i on of t e xt s re f e rre d t o by m a n y a s t he P l i c a non i s i de n t i fi e d w i t hi n t he Buddhi s t t r a di t i on a s T r i pi t ak a t he t hr e e ba s ke t s (s t ra v i na y a a nd abhi dhar m a ). It i s t he body of s c ri pt ur e re c ogni z e d a s va l i d a nd a ut hori t a t i ve by t h e T h e ra v di ns w i t hi n t he r # v ak ay # na t ra d i t i on. T he di v i s i ona l c ont e nt s of t h i s c ol l e c t i on a r e e num e ra t e d i n A ppe ndi x A T o be c l e a r, t he P l i c a non d o e s not re pre s e nt t he c ol l e c t i on of s c ri pt ur e s a c c e p t e d by a l l s ub t r a di t i ons a nd l i n e a ge s i n Indi a a nd S out h e a s t A s i a duri ng t he e a r l y pe ri od of Buddhi s m Ra t he r, i t i s a c o l l e c t i on a c c e pt e d a s a n a u t he nt i c a c c ount of t h e 37 C ha r l e s S P r e bi s h, E nc y c l ope di a of B uddhi s m e d R obe r t E B us w e l l J r ( N e w Y o r k: M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e nc e U S A 2004) s v C ounc i l s B uddhi s t 38 H a r r i s on, C a non.

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21 Buddha s t e a c h i ngs by one pa r t i c u l a r grou p i n S ri L a nka ; i t j us t s o ha ppe ns t o be t he onl y c om pl e t e c o l l e c t i on t o ha v e s urvi ve d from t hi s e ra Re c ons t ruc t i ng t he pr i m i t i ve t ra d i t i on i n I ndi a i s a di ff i c ul t t a s k t h a t re l i e s he a vi l y on fra gm e nt s of Indi a n (S a ns kri t or S a nkri t i z e d) t e xt s a nd m uc h l a t e r Chi ne s e a nd T i be t a n t ra ns l a t i ons N e v e rt he l e s s i t i s c l e a r t ha t t he d i s s e m i n a t i on of Buddhi s m l e d t o t he de ve l opm e n t of s e pa r a t e Buddh i s t gro ups or ni k ay as i n Indi a e a c h w i t h t h e i r o w n c ol l e c t i on of t e xt s It i s unc l e a r t h e de gre e t o w hi c h t he s e c ol l e c t i ons m a y h a ve re s e m bl e d e a c h ot he r, bu t t he h i s t ori c a l re c ord, a l be i t i n c om pl e t e poi nt s t o s om e va ri a t i on. 39 F i rs t re c orde d on pa l m l e a v e s i n t he P l i l a ngua ge a t t h e a bove r e fe re n c e d T he ra v di n c ounc i l he l d i n t h e 1 s t c e nt ury B.C.E ., t he P l i c a non re pr e s e nt s a un i que c a s e i n t he Buddhi s t a pproa c h t o s c ri pt ur e T h e w ri t t e n r e c ord g e ne ra t e d by t h i s c ounc i l s e rve d t o c l e a r l y de m a rc a t e t hos e t e xt s w h i c h w e re a c c e pt e d a s s a c re d, a u t he nt i c a n d a ut hori t a t i v e by t he T he r a v di n s e c t i n S ri L a nk a T h i s a c t i on e ff e c t i ve l y g e ne ra t e d a s t a nda rd for t hi s group, a c ol l e c t i on of t e xt s t ha t w e re pre s e rve d t hroughou t hi s t ory. A l t hough t he hi s t or i c a l re c ord l e a ve s m a n y que s t i ons una ns w e re d, i t i s e vi de n t t h a t t hi s pa rt i c u l a r c ol l e c t i ons s hort e vol ut i on re l a t i ve t o i t s c ount e rpa rt (s ) i n t he M a h a ya na s c hool c ul m i na t e d i n a c om p l e t e e xc l us i v e s e l e c t i on of t e xt s t ha t ha s not b e e n e xp a nde d or a l t e r e d. 40 M a ny s c hol a rs t he re for e re fe r t o t hi s body of t e x t s a s a c l os e d c a non, s i gni fyi ng t ha t t he c ol l e c t i on i s c om p l e t e a nd unc ha nge a b l e 39 H a r r i s on, C a non. 40 S t e ve n C ol l i ns O n t he V e r y I de a of t he P a l i C a non, J ou r nal of t he P al i T e x t Soc i e t y X V ( 1990) : 9 1.

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22 C h i n e s e M ah ayan a C ol l e c ti on In s t a rk c ont ra s t t o t he T he r a v di n c a s e t h e t w o ot he r m a j or s c ri p t ura l c ol l e c t i ons a re s i gni fi c a nt l y m or e c om p l i c a t e d. T he Chi ne s e a nd T i be t a n c o l l e c t i ons c on t a i n s om e t e xt s found i n t h e P l i c a non, but t h e y a r e be t t e r know n for t h e i r i n c l us i on of s c r i pt ur e s pa rt i c u l a r t o t he M a h a ya na a nd V a j ra y a na s c hool s T he c om p l e xi t y of t he s e c ol l e c t i ons c a n be a t t ri bu t e d t o s e ve ra l fa c t ors i nc l ud i ng a m ore l i be r a l a ppro a c h t o a ut he n t i c a t i ng t e xt s a s s a c re d, w hi c h re s ul t e d i n a gre a t e r vol um e of t e xt s W hi l e t h e Chi ne s e a nd T i be t a n c ol l e c t i ons ha v e a gre a t de a l i n c o m m on, pa rt i c ul a rl y w he n c ont ra s t e d w i t h t he P l i c a non, t h e y a re e a c h uni que I w i l l a ddre s s t he c ol l e c t i on t h a t de v e l ope d i n Chi na fi rs t T he t r a ns m i s s i on of Buddhi s m t o Chi na b e ga n a round t he be g i nni ng of t he Com m on E ra a nd i nc l ude d a foc us on t he na s c e n t M a ha y a na t r a di t i on, i n s o f a r a s t he e a rl i e s t m onks t o br i ng Buddhi s m t o Chi na w e re M a ha y a ni s t s Buddhi s m s pre a d ra pi dl y i n Chi na fro m t he 4 t h t o t he 6 t h c e nt ury a nd e nj oye d a l t e rna t i ng pe r i ods of fa vor/ a dva n c e m e nt a nd pe rs e c u t i on unt i l t he l a t e 10 t h c e nt ury, a t w hi c h po i nt Buddhi s m be ga n a ge n e ra l pe ri od of d e c l i ne T he Chi ne s e c ol l e c t i on i s c o m m onl y r e fe r re d t o a s t he Ch i ne s e Buddhi s t c a non ( D az angj i ng ), w hi c h a l s o be c a m e s t a nda r d i n K ore a a nd J a p a n. A s um m a ry l i s t i ng of t he s e c t i ons i n one e di t i on i s found i n A ppe nd i x B. T hi s c ol l e c t i on i s be s t d e s c ri b e d a s a c om pre he ns i v e a s s e m b l a ge of t e xt s t r a ns l a t e d from S a ns kri t a nd ot h e r Indi c l a ngu a ge s t ha t re pr e s e nt s a v a ri e t y of s ub t ra di t i ons a nd l i ne a g e s t ha t e m e rge d from Ind i a It i nc l ude s Chi n e s e t ra ns l a t i ons of Indi a n t e x t s i nc l udi ng M a h a ya na s t r a s a nd V a j r a ya na t a nt ra s a s w e l l a s c o m m e n t a ri e s a nd t re a t i s e s t e xt s w ri t t e n i n Chi ne s e b i ogra phi e s of m onks a nd nuns l e xi c ogr a phi c a l w orks a nd num e rous c a t a l ogs of t he s c ri pt ur a l

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23 c ol l e c t i on. 41 T hroughout hi s t ory, t he c re a t i on of ne w e di t i ons of t h i s c ol l e c t i on, w hi c h s om e t i m e s m a rke d a n i n c re a s e i n t he nu m be r of t e xt s a s w e l l a s gre a t e r v a ri a t i on (m ul t i p l e ve rs i ons / t ra ns l a t i ons of a t e xt ), l e d t o a n i m m e ns e m e g a c ol l e c t i on. T h e re fore t he s o c a l l e d Chi n e s e Buddhi s t c a non i s m os t a c c ura t e l y t he s um of i t s m a ny v a ri a b l e e di t i ons ; H a rr i s on c ha r a c t e ri z e s i t be s t a s a n a bs t ra c t i on of m a ny hi gh l y va r i a bl e c ol l e c t i ons 42 T o offe r a n i de a of t he e nor m i t y of a s i ng l e e d i t i on, t he T ai s ho s hi ns hu dai z ok oy o ( Ne w E d i t i on o f t he B uddhi s t C anon m ade dur i ng t he T ai s ho r e i gn ) publ i s he d i n J a pa n i n t h e e a rl y 20 t h c e n t ury c ons i s t s of 100 vol um e s e a c h c ont a i n i ng a bout 1,0 00 pa ge s 43 W hi l e t he Chi n e s e c ol l e c t i on do e s not ut i l i z e t he t ri pa rt i t e di v i s i on found i n t h e P l i c a non, i t doe s c ont a i n t h e s a m e ge nre s of t e xt s (s t ra vi na y a abhi dhar m a ), i n a ddi t i on t o ot he rs not found i n t he P l i c ol l e c t i on. T o a c e r t a i n d e gre e t he re i s a l e v e l of c ont e nt ( t e xt s ) t h a t a l l Buddhi s t s c ri pt ur a l c ol l e c t i ons ha v e i n c om m on, w hi c h I w i l l re fe r t o a s a s ha re d c e nt r a l c orpus T h e M a h a y a na t ra d i t i on t he r e fore re c ogni z e s a s va l i d a nd a ut hori t a t i v e s om e of t h e t e xt s t ha t a re a l s o c ont a i n e d i n t h e P l i T r i pi t a k a ; c ons e qu e nt l y, t he s e a re i nc l ude d i n t he Chi n e s e a nd T i be t a n c ol l e c t i ons T he M a ha ya n a t ra d i t i on i s how e ve r, be s t di s t i ngu i s he d by i t s gre a t c o l l e c t i on of s t ra s w hi c h a re no t c ont a i ne d i n t he P l i c a non. F urt he r, t h e s e s pe c i fi c a l l y M a ha ya na s t ra s h a ve be e n c a t e gori c a l l y re j e c t e d a s i n a ut h e nt i c by t he T he ra v d i ns a nd t hus ne ve r a pp e nde d t o t he P l i c a no n. T he s e s t ra s w e re produ c e d from a bout t h e 1 s t c e n t ur y C.E i n Ind i a a nd w e re a re s pons e t o t he doc t ri n a l di vi s i on ou t of w hi c h t he M a h a ya n a t ra d i t i on or i gi na t e d. I n t hi s 41 H a r r i s on, C a non. 42 H a r r i s on, C a non. 43 I bi d.

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24 s pl i t t he M a h a ya na e m br a c e d t he i de a t h a t t he Buddh a s de a t h w a s m e re a ppe a r a nc e out of hi s c om pa s s i on he r e m a i ns t o he l p s uffe ri ng, s e nt i e nt be i ngs 44 O ut of t hi s t he bodhi s a t t va i de a l e m e rge d a nd t hi s ne w fo c us re qui re d ne w t e xt s i n ord e r t o r e nde r [i t ] doc t ri na l l y ort hodox a nd re s pe c t a b l e 45 In s pi t e of t he i r re l a t i v e l y l a t e a ppe a ra nc e t h e ne w s t ra s a s s e rt e d t h e i r a u t hori t y t hrough t he c l a i m of Buddh a s pe e c h, or buddhav ac ana T hi s c on c e p t i s t he s i ngl e m os t s i gni fi c a nt i n t he a u t he nt i c a t i on of t e xt s a s s a c re d w i t hi n t he Buddhi s t t ra di t i on by a ffi rm i ng t he i r or i gi n a s t h e Buddha s s e r m ons or di s c ours e s T he i nt rodu c t i on of t he M a h a ya na s t r a s c ont i nue d a t a n a s t on i s hi ng pa c e for s e ve ra l c e nt ur i e s T hi s i nf l ux of ne w t e x t s a nd t he i r s ubs e que n t a c c e p t a nc e a s t rue s c ri pt ure by s om e s i gn a l e d a funda m e nt a l c ha nge i n how t h e m e a ni ng of buddha v ac a na c oul d be i n t e rpr e t e d a nd a ppl i e d t o t he a u t he nt i c a t i on of t e xt s By e xp a ndi ng t h e i d e a of w ha t i t m e a ns t o be Buddh a s pe e c h, t he c ol l e c t i on re m a i n e d ope n t o t he pos s i bi l i t y of a ddi ng ne w but e qu a l l y v a l i d, t e x t s D uri ng t he l a t e r p e ri od of M a ha y a na B udd hi s m i n Indi a t he t h i rd m a j or Buddhi s t t ra di t i on, V a j ra y a na e m e rg e d a s a n a dv a n c e d pra c t i c e a nd y i e l d e d ne w s c ri pt ur a l c om pos i t i ons c a l l e d t a n t ra s T h e s e w e re c om pos e d i n S a ns kri t fro m t he 7 t h t o t he 1 2 t h c e nt ury, roughl y. 46 44 W i l l i a m s M ahay ana B uddhi s m D oc t r i nal 25. 45 I bi d. 26 46 A ndr e w S ki l t on E nc y c l ope di a of B uddhi s m e d R obe r t E B us w e l l J r ( N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e nc e U S A 2004) s v S a ns kr i t B uddhi s t L i t e r a t ur e i n

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25 Ti b e tan C ol l e c ti on T h e t hi rd m a j or e xt a n t c o l l e c t i on of Budd hi s t s c ri pt ure s i s c o m m onl y r e fe rr e d t o a s t he T i b e t a n c a non. I t i s bot h t h e m os t r e c e nt l y de v e l ope d c ol l e c t i on a nd t h e l a rg e s t s urpa s s i ng e ve n t he m a m m o t h Chi ne s e M a ha ya na c om p i l a t i on. A ge ne r a l ove rv i e w of i t s m a j or di v i s i ons i s found i n A ppe ndi x C. T hi s c ol l e c t i on e m bod i e s c on t e nt fro m t he m a i ns t re a m Buddhi s t s c hoo l s (pre M a ha y a na ), M a ha y a na s t ra s a nd V a j ra ya n a t a n t ra s T he e vol u t i on of t h e V a j ra y a na t ra di t i on i n Indi a c a n b e t r a c e d t o t he 7 t h c e nt ury a nd i s c ons i de re d i n s om e w a ys t o ha v e bra nc h e d off from t he M a ha y a na a s a n a dva n c e d pra c t i c e 47 L i ke t he Chi n e s e Buddhi s t c a no n, t he T i b e t a n c ol l e c t i on s how c a s e s t he m a j or s c ri pt ura l g e nre s : s t r a s Indi a n t a nt ra s vi na ya phi l os ophi c a l t re a t i s e s a nd c om m e n t a ry. A l t hough Indi a n t a nt ra s w e r e a l s o i n c orpo ra t e d i n t o t he Ch i ne s e c ol l e c t i on, t he y a re m ore prom i ne nt i n t he T i be t a n on e T hi s l i ke l y re fl e c t s bot h a gr e a t e r i nt e re s t i n t he V a j r a ya na a pproa c h a nd a c orr e l a t i on i n t he c hrono l o gy of c om pos i t i on a nd t ra ns m i s s i on out of Indi a T he propa ga t i on of Buddhi s m i n T i b e t da t e s from a bout t h e 7 t h c e n t ury C.E ., pos s i bl y e a rl i e r, a nd i n t he 8 t h a nd 9 t h c e nt uri e s t he re w a s a l a rg e e ffort t o s ys t e m a t i c a l l y t ra ns l a t e Buddhi s t t e xt s from S a ns kri t a nd Chi ne s e 48 E a rl y on, how e ve r, t he Chi n e s e ba s i s w a s a ba ndone d a nd t h e S a ns kri t Ind i a n s ourc e s s e rve d a s t h e ul t i m a t e founda t i on of t he T i b e t a n Buddh i s t t ra d i t i on. 49 A c onc urr e nt c a t a l ogu i ng or l i s t i ng of t he s e t e x t s provi de d s om e orga n i z a t i on t o t he grow i n g c ol l e c t i on, bu t t he c ont e nt s w e re not ne c e s s a ri l y e xc l us i ve a nd c e rt a i nl y no t e x ha us t i ve T h e i nc l us i on of a t e xt s i m p l y 47 R ona l d M D a vi ds on, E nc y c l ope di a of B uddhi s m e d. R obe r t E B us w e l l J r ( N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e nc e U S A 2004) s v V a j r a ya na 48 H a r r i s on, C a non. a nd R ona l d M D a vi ds on, E nc y c l ope di a of B uddh i s m e d. R obe r t E B us w e l l J r ( N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e nc e U S A 2004) s v T i be t 49 H a r r i s on, C a non.

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26 re fl e c t e d a n a s s um pt i on of r e l i a bi l i t y a nd a ut he nt i c i t y. F rom t hi s e a rl y poi n t t he re w a s s om e c ont e n t i on re g a rdi ng t he l e gi t i m a c y of t he m ore e xt re m e t a nt r a s 50 A ft e r a l e ng t hy i nt e rrupt i on due t o t he c o l l a ps e of t he T i be t a n e m pi re a nd re s ul t i ng pol i t i c a l unr e s t t he t ra ns l a t i on a nd c om pi l a t i on of Buddh i s t t e x t s c ont i nu e d w i t h z e a l i n t he 11 t h a nd 12 t h c e n t uri e s s purre d by a n i nfl ux of m a t e r i a l fro m Indi a In t he 14 t h c e nt ury, a n e ffort t o o rga ni z e t h e e nt i re bo dy of t ra ns l a t i ons c ul m i na t e d i n a n off i c i a l T i be t a n c ol l e c t i on, know n a s t h e O l d Snar t hang w i t h t w o di vi s i ons : t he B k a gy ur or T ra ns l a t i on of t he W ord ( buddhav a c ana ), a nd t he B s t an g y ur or T ra ns l a t i on of t he T e a c h i ngs (c om m e nt a ri e s t r e a t i s e s ). In c om pi l i ng t hi s c ol l e c t i on, re dund a nc y w a s ge ne ra l l y not fa vor e d, s o m ul t i pl e t ra ns l a t i ons of t he s a m e t e xt w e r e us ua l l y no t pre s e rve d. 51 T hi s a c t of c om pi l a t i on m a rk e d a n a t t e m pt a t a d e fi n e d c ol l e c t i on of w or ks e a c h be a ri ng a n a ut hor i t a t i ve Ind i a n l i ne a ge a nd i t w a s a m ove i n re s pons e t o re v e l a t ory t e xt s produc e d i n T i b e t t h a t l a c k e d a n Indi a n pe di gre e T h e s e ne w re ve l a t ory t e xt s know n a s t e r m a w e re a c c e pt e d a s a ut hori t a t i ve by t he Ny i ngm a (ol d s c hool i n T i b e t ) a nd, be gi nni ng i n t he 11 t h c e nt ury, t a nt ra s c o m pos e d i n T i be t w e re i n c l ud e d i n t h e R ny i n g m a r gy ud bum ( O l d T ant r i c Canon ), a l ong w i t h s om e Indi a n t a n t ra s 52 It i s i m port a nt t o not e t ha t t he s t a t us of t he N y i ngm apa t a n t r a s i s c ont e nt i ous but a l s o proba b l y m ore c om pl i c a t e d t ha n e a r l y s c hol a rs hi p r e ve a l s due t o que s t i ons s urroundi ng t h e i ni t i a l a s s um pt i on t ha t t h e s c ri pt ur a l c orpus know n a s t he K a nj ur c ons t i t ut e s s om e t hi ng r e a di l y i de nt i f i a bl e a s T h e T i b e t a n Buddh i s t Ca n on. 53 50 I bi d. 51 I bi d. 52 R ona l d M D a vi ds on a nd C ha r l e s O r z e c h, E nc y c l o pe di a of B uddh i s m e d. R obe r t E B us w e l l J r ( N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e nc e U S A 2004) s v. T a n t r a 53 M a ye r A nc i e nt T ant r a C ol l e c t i on, 1 5

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27 T he fi rs t c o m pl e t e pri n t i ng of t h e T i be t a n c ol l e c t i on o c c urr e d from 1730 32 yi e l di ng t he Snar t hang e d i t i on. A s i n t h e Chi ne s e c ol l e c t i on, e a c h e di t i on i s t o va ry i ng de gre e s di ffe r e nt e i t h e r i n orde r of t e xt s o r t he i nc l us i on/ e x c l us i on of pa r t i c ul a r t e xt s T he ope nne s s of t he c ol l e c t i on i s not j us t a t he ore t i c a l i d e a l T hi s i s be s t i l l us t ra t e d b y t he 1930s L ha s a e di t i on of t he B k a g y ur In t hi s c a s e t h e e di t ors of t he c ol l e c t i on a gre e d t o a dd a n e nt i re l y n e w t e x t a ft e r i t h a d be e n de t e rm i ne d t h a t i t w a s i n fa c t a u t he nt i c w i t h a n Indi a n pe di gr e e 54 T hi s a ddi t i on e x e m pl i fi e s w ha t i t m e a ns t o ha ve a n ope n, grow i ng c ol l e c t i on w hi l e a l s o ri gorous l y m a i nt a i ni ng i nt e gri t y by a ut h e nt i c a t i ng t e xt s Bu d d h i s t A p oc r yp h a In e xa m i n i ng t he a ppl i c a t i on of t h e t e r m c anon t o a s c ri pt ur a l t r a di t i on, i t i s re ve a l i ng t o e x a m i ne t h a t w hi c h i s he l d i n oppos i t i on t hos e t e xt s w hi c h fa i l t o g a i n norm a t i v e s t a t u s a nd a re e xc l ud e d. A l t ho ugh t he a ut h e nt i c i t y of t he s e t e xt s m a y be c ha l l e nge d, t h e y m a y ne ve r t he l e s s be popul a r a m ongs t a dhe r e nt s In t he s t udy of re l i gi on, s uc h t e xt s a r e c ons i d e re d apoc r y pha but i n s om e c a s e s m a y be d e s c ri b e d a s ps e ude pi gr aphal or de ut e r oc anoni c al H o w e ve r, t he t w o l a t t e r t e rm s a re m ore t yp i c a l of di s c us s i ons w i t hi n Chri s t i a n i t y, ra t he r t h a n Buddhi s m W i t hi n Buddh i s m s pe c i f i c a l l y, a po c rypha m a y be c ha r a c t e ri z e d c ol l e c t i ve l y a s a ge nre of i ndi g e nous re l i g i ous l i t e ra t ure t h a t c l a i m e d t o be of Indi a n Buddhi s t pe d i gre e or a ffi l i a t i on a nd t ha t c a m e t o a c qu i re va ry i n g de gre e s of l e g i t i m a c y a nd c r e de nc e w i t h re fe re n c e t o t he c orpus of s ha re d s c r i pt ure 55 S om e a s s e rt e d a ut h e nt i c i t y a s buddhav ac ana or c l a i m e d t o or i gi na t e w i t h a prom i ne n t Buddhi s t fi gur e w hi l e o t he rs 54 J ohn N e w m a n, a dvi s i ng m e e t i ng F e br ua r y 23 20 11. 55 K yoko T okuno E nc y c l ope di a of B uddhi s m ( N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e nc e U S A 2004) s v. A poc r ypha

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28 a c know l e dge d t he i r s t ra nge or i gi ns ne ve r t he l e s s a s s e rt i ng l e gi t i m a c y a s a r e ve l a t ory t e xt hi dde n for fut ure r e c ov e ry. 56 O ne s uc h e xa m pl e i s t h e t e r m a (hi dde n t re a s ure t e x t s ) of t he T i b e t a n N y i ngm a t r a di t i on, w hi c h i s n ot i nc l ud e d i n t h e B s t an gy ur or t h e B k a gy ur due t o i t s a po c rypha l s t a t us w i t hi n t he g e n e ra l T i be t a n Buddhi s t t r a di t i on. M ode rn s c hol a rs hi p ha s a l s o r e ve a l e d a s i na ut he nt i c c e rt a i n t e xt s i nc l ude d i n t he Chi ne s e c ol l e c t i on a nd t hi s yi e l de d a c a t e g ory of s c r i pt ure know n a s c anoni c al apoc r y pha 57 T he s e i n a ut h e nt i c t e x t s w e re pe rpe t ua t e d, oft e n be c a us e t h e i r i n c l us i on i n pa s t s c ri pt ure c a t a l ogs m a de t h e m a p a rt o f t he t ra d i t i on. T hi s i s s ue a l s o hi gh l i ght s s om e of t he c ha l l e ng e s i n a u t he nt i c a t i on, pa r t i c u l a rl y c a s e s w he re t h e c a noni c a l a po c ryph a s ki l l ful l y s ynt h e s i z e d or t hodox Buddhi s t m a t e r i a l fro m Indi a w i t hout a ny a ppa r e nt i ndi c a t i on of t h e i r na t i ve p e di gr e e 58 T he a poc ryph a l d e s i gna t i on i n Buddhi s m m us t a l s o ha ve a poi nt of r e fe r e nc e gi ve n num e rous s c ri p t ura l c ol l e c t i ons F or e xa m pl e t he M a ha ya n a s t ra s a re a poc r ypha l t o t he T h e ra v di ns w ho onl y r e c ogni z e t h e P l i c ol l e c t i on a s a u t hori t a t i ve a nd s om e of t he t a n t ra s i nc l ude d i n t he T i be t a n c o l l e c t i on a re c ons i de r e d a po c rypha l i n re fe r e nc e t o t he Chi ne s e I t i s i m por t a nt t o a c know l e d ge t he e n t i re t e x t ua l t ra di t i on w i t h i n t he a c a de m i c s t udy of Buddhi s m or a ny r e l i g i on. A l t hough s om e t e x t s m a y not b e norm a t i v e for t he e nt i re t r a di t i on or m a y b e e xc l ud e d by s om e t h i s doe s not ne c e s s a ri l y re fl e c t t he v a l u e of t he t e xt i n Buddhi s t pr a c t i c e for c e rt a i n groups or i t s rol e i n prov i di ng i ns i ght i nt o t he hi s t ory a nd de ve l opm e n t o f t he t ra d i t i on. 56 I bi d. 57 I bi d. 58 I bi d.

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29 D oc tr i n al C on s i d e r ati on s i n th e D e ve l o p me n t of Bu d d h i s t S c r i p tu r al C ol l e c ti o n s T he de ve l opm e n t of t h e Buddhi s t s c ri pt u r a l c ol l e c t i ons w e re s ha p e d by m yri a d fa c t ors i nc l udi ng how s c ri pt ur e w a s de fi n e d, c ri t e ri a for a s s e s s i ng t e xt u a l a u t he nt i c i t y, a nd i nt e rpr e t a t i on of k e y t e x t s t ha t prov i de a rubri c for t h a t a s s e s s m e nt A t i t s he a rt t he a u t he nt i c a t i on of a Buddh i s t t e xt a s s a c r e d re s t s on w he t h e r i t i s de t e rm i ne d t o b e buddhav a c ana S i m pl y t ra ns l a t e d a s Buddha s pe e c h or w ord of t he Buddha buddhav ac ana i s t h e de fi n i t i v e m e a s ure of a ut h e nt i c Buddhi s t s c r i pt ure a nd t hi s i s t he one poi n t of a gre e m e nt i n t he Buddh i s t s c ri pt ura l t ra d i t i on a s a w hol e In f a c t Buddhi s t s c ri pt ure i s de fi ne d a s t hos e t e x t s w hi c h a re c ons i de re d buddhav a c ana 59 T hi s i s t rue i n s pi t e of t he w i d e ra ng e of s t yl e s a nd ge nre s obs e rve d i n t he Buddh i s t s c ri pt ura l body, but i t i s be s t i l l us t r a t e d by t he s t ra form T he s t ra s oft e n be gi n w i t h T hus ha ve I he a rd a nd re c oun t w ha t t h e hi s t ori c a l Buddha t a ught a t a p a rt i c ul a r t i m e a nd p l a c e T hi s pa rt i c ul a r s t y l e honors t h e ora l t ra di t i on i n w hi c h t he d i s c i pl e s re m e m be r e d a nd re c ount e d t he Buddh a s t e a c hi n gs be gi nn i ng w i t h t he fi rs t c ounc i l or c om m una l re c i t a t i on. T hroughout Buddhi s m s de ve l opm e n t i n I ndi a a nd s ubs e que nt d i s s e m i na t i on i n A s i a t he uni ve rs a l s t a nd a rd of buddhav ac ana ha s be e n i nt e rpre t e d i n m ore t h a n one w a y. A s t he unde rs t a ndi ngs of budd hav ac ana v a ry, s o t oo doe s t he e nd r e s ul t I t i s i n t hi s w a y t ha t c e rt a i n t e xt s a re c ons i de re d nor m a t i ve a nd a ut he n t i c by c e r t a i n Buddh i s t t ra d i t i o ns a nd l i ne a ge s w hi l e b e i ng r e j e c t e d by o t he rs T he m os t obvi ous e xa m pl e of t hi s i s t h e re j e c t i on of t h e M a ha y a na s t ra s by t h e T he ra v di ns 59 C a be z on, S c r i pt ur e

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30 In a s s e s s i ng w he t he r a t e xt i s buddhav a c a na Buddhi s t s ha ve e m p l oye d t h e Mah # pade % as $ t r a (D i s c ours e on t he G re a t A ut hori t i e s ) t o i de nt i fy t he a ut he n t i c s ourc e s of t he t rue dh a rm a a s : 1) t h e hi s t ori c a l Bu ddha ; 2) t he s a ng h a or c o m m uni t y, of e l d e rs ; 3) a group of l e a rn e d e l de r m onks ; a nd 4) a s i ngl e l e a rne d e l d e r m onk. 60 It furt he r s t a t e s t ha t a t e a c hi ng r e c e i ve d from t he l a t t e r t hr e e s ourc e s i s t he w ord of t h e Buddha i f i t i s found i n t he S t ra s a nd a l i gns w i t h t he V i na y a If i t c a nnot b e found i n t h e S t ra s a nd t he V i na ya t he n i t c a nnot b e va l i d a nd t h i s i n di c a t e s a m i s unde rs t a ndi ng of t h e dha r m a by t he s ourc e T h e s e a u t hori t a t i v e s ourc e s a r e l i s t e d i n bot h e a rl y P l i a nd S a ns kri t i t e ra t i ons but t h e l a t t e r a l s o i n c l u de s t h e a ddi t i ona l c ri t e ri a t h a t a n a ut he n t i c t e a c hi n g m us t not c ont r a di c t t he n a t ur e of re a l i t y. 61 A c ons e rva t i ve i nt e rpre t a t i on of buddha v a c ana re fe rs l i t e r a l l y t o t hos e di s c ours e s a nd t e a c hi ngs offe r e d by t he h i s t ori c a l Bu ddha S i ddha rt ha G a u t a m a duri ng h i s l i fe t i m e T hi s re qui re s i n t e gri t y i n t h e l i n e a g e of t ra ns m i s s i on, s o i t c a n be e xpa nde d t o t h e w ord of t he Buddha s poke n by hi m a nd c o m m i t t e d t o m e m ory by hi s i m m e d i a t e di s c i p l e s a t t he F i rs t Counc i l j us t a f t e r hi s de a t h. 62 In a s s e s s i ng a ut he nt i c i t y, t h i s m e a ns t h a t a t e x t m us t be t ra c e d t o t he F i rs t Counc i l i n ord e r t o be va l i d, but t h e Mah # pade % as $ t r a offe rs t hre e s ourc e s t h a t br i dge t h i s ga p. P a ul W i l l i a m s poi nt s out t ha t d e s pi t e t he t r a di t i o ns a s s e rt i on t ha t e ve ry s t ra re pr e s e nt s a di s c ou rs e a c t ua l l y s poke n by t h e hi s t or i c a l Bu ddha pe rs ona l c e r t i fi c a t i on by hi m w a s a n a c c e p t a bl e a l t e rna t i ve 63 In t hi s c a s e t he Buddha 60 E t i e nne L a m ot t e A s s e s s m e nt of T e xt ua l I nt e r pr e t a t i on i n B uddhi s m i n B uddhi s t H e r m e ne ut i c s e d. D ona l d S L ope z J r S t udi e s i n E a s t A s i a n B uddhi s m 6 ( H onol ul u: U ni ve r s i t y of H a w a i i P r e s s 1992) 11. 61 E t i e nne L a m ot t e T he A s s e s s m e nt of T e xt ua l A ut he nt i c i t y i n B uddhi s m i n B uddhi s m : C r i t i c al C onc e pt s i n R e l i gi ous St udi e s e d P a ul W i l l i a m s vol I ( N e w Y o r k: R out l e dge 2005) 195 6 a c c e s s e d F e br ua r y 15 2011 ht t p: / / books googl e c om / 62 G e or ge D B ond, E nc y c l ope di a of B uddhi s m e d R obe r t E B us w e l l J r ( N e w Y o r k: M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e nc e U S A 2004) s v B uddha va c a na ( W or d of t he B uddha ) 63 W i l l i a m s M ahay ana B uddhi s m D oc t r i nal 29.

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31 c oul d c e r t i fy t h e t e a c h i ngs of ot he rs a s va l i d, not i ng hi s a gr e e m e nt a nd a pprova l T h e ke y poi nt w i t h t hi s l i m i t e d e xt e ns i on of bu ddhav ac ana i s t ha t w i t h t h e Buddha s de a t h, he i s no l onge r a va i l a b l e t o off e r c e rt i f i c a t i on a nd, t he re for e l a t e r w orks c a nno t be c e rt i fi e d. In l i nki ng a u t he nt i c s c ri p t ure t o a s i ngl e hi s t ori c a l f i gure t h e body of s c ri pt u re i s m a de fi ni t e a nd c om p l e t e It i s c l e a r t ha t t he T h e ra v di n s ub t ra d i t i on a dhe r e d t o t h i s s t ri c t unde rs t a ndi ng of buddhav a c ana A l i be ra l i nt e rpr e t a t i on, on t he ot h e r ha nd, re l i e s on t h e w i s dom of t h e Buddha a s oppos e d t o a hi s t or i c a l c a re e r of t e a c hi ngs 64 T hi s doe s not l i m i t t he s c ri p t ure s t o onl y t hos e t e x t s t ha t w e r e re c i t e d a t t he F i r s t Counc i l a nd, l i ke t he c ons e rv a t i ve a ppr oa c h, t he Mah # pade % as $ t r a s e t s t he fra m e w ork. T hi s m e a ns t h a t a t e xt i s a ut h e nt i c i f i t c o m e s from t he s a m e four a ut hor i t a t i v e s ourc e s a nd i s found i n t he S t ra s a nd a l i gns w i t h t he V i na ya But i n qu e s t i oni ng w hi c h S t ra s a nd w hi c h V i na ya s houl d b e t h e re fe r e nc e i n a s s e s s i ng t e xt ua l a ut he n t i c i t y, s om e Buddhi s t s re a c he d a ne w i n t e rpre t a t i on. Ins t e a d of re qui ri ng t h a t t h e t e x t unde r c ons i de ra t i on be found, l i t e ra l l y, i n t h e S t ra s i t w a s s ugge s t e d t ha t t he t e xt ne e d onl y c onform t o t he s pi ri t of t he c ore dh a rm a In t hi s m a nne r, E t i e nne L a m o t t e d e fi ne s t he e s s e nc e of t h e S t ra s V i na y a a nd Buddhi s t doc t ri n e a s t he F our N obl e T rut h s t he a ppe a s i ng of pa s s i ons l i k e ha t re d or c ra vi ngs a nd de p e nde n t ori gi n a t i on, r e s pe c t i ve l y. 65 L a m ot t e fi nds t hi s w i de r unde rs t a ndi ng of t h e Mah # pade % as $ t r a c o m pe l l i ng, be c a us e t h e Buddhi s t s ne v e r pos s e s s e d a c orpus of w ri t i ngs of i ndi s put a bl e a u t hori t y a nd a b l e t o s e rv e a s a norm for t he w hol e c o m m uni t y. 66 H e i s s ugge s t i ng t ha t w i t hout a s i ngl e d e fi ne d s c ri pt ur a l c ol l e c t i on, t he r e c a nno t be una n i m i t y on t he i s s ue of w hi c h S t ra s ? a nd w hi c h 64 I bi d. 65 E t i e nne L a m ot t e A s s e s s m e nt T e xt ua l A ut he nt i c i t y, 195 196 66 I bi d.

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32 V i na ya ? s houl d s e rve a s t h e be nc h m a rk. L a m ot t e furt h e r s ugge s t s t ha t i f t h e re ha d be e n a uni ve rs a l l y a c c e p t e d Buddhi s t c orpus i n t he e a r l y pe r i od, of w hi c h t h e Mah # pade % as $ t r a w a s a m e m be r, t h e n a n y ne w t e xt not a l re a dy found i n t ha t c ol l e c t i on w oul d ha ve be e n r e j e c t e d. In w hi c h c a s e w hy w oul d t he s ourc e of t he t e xt m a t t e r, i f t he fi na l m e a s ure of a u t he n t i c i t y i s t h e pre s e n c e of t ha t t e x t i n a f i rm l y e s t a b l i s he d c o l l e c t i on? A s i s oft e n t he c a s e t he ov e rri di ng qu e s t i o n i s one of t e xt u a l i n t e rpr e t a t i on. In a s i m i l a r ve i n, t he M a h a ya na a l s o c a l l o n ot he r P l i s ourc e s s uc h a s t h e U t t ar av i pat t i s ut t a w hi c h a s s e rt s om e a m a l ga m a t i on of t he fol l ow i ng: a l l t h a t t h e B uddha s a i d i s a l l t ha t i s w e l l s a i d. 67 T he M a h a ya ni s t s vi e w e d t hi s a s a m b i guous c onc l ud i ng t ha t a l l t h a t i s w e l l s a i d i s t h e w ord of t he Bud dha In t hi s re ve rs a l t h a t w hi c h i s w e l l s p oke n i s t ha t w hi c h e m bodi e s t he Buddha s t e a c hi ngs or t ha t w hi c h i s i n a c c orda n c e w i t h t he t rut h. W i l l i a m s a c know l e dge s t h a t t h e a m bi gui t y of t h i s s t a t e m e nt c a rri e s forw a rd t o t he pra c t i c e of a ut he n t i c a t i on ; na m e l y, how t o de t e rm i ne w ha t qu a l i fi e s a s w e l l s poke n. A not he r va ri a t i on i n t he l i be r a l i n t e rpre t a t i on of buddhav ac ana i nc orpor a t e s t he pre M a ha ya n a c onc e pt of Buddha c e rt i fi e d ut t e ra n c e s a nd t he M a ha y a ni s t i d e a t h a t t he hi s t ori c a l Buddha i s not t he onl y Buddh a t ha t ha s ha d, or w i l l ha v e c ont a c t w i t h t hi s w orl d. It fol l ow s t ha t i f a Buddha i s i n c o nt a c t w i t h t he w orl d, t he n t h e re i s t he pos s i bi l i t y of t h e c re a t i on of a ne w m ys t i c a l l y a ut hori z e d c a non of s c ri p t ure s 68 A l t hough t he re h a d a l w a ys be e n di s a gr e e m e nt s ove r w hi c h t e xt s s houl d ri gh t ful l y be c ons i de re d buddha v ac ana e ve n i n Bud dhi s m s ve ry e a rl y d e ve l opm e n t t he i nt roduc t i on of t he M a h a ya n a s t ra s broug ht t he i s s ue t o a he a d, i n t e rm s of c rys t a l l i z i ng a t l e a s t one s c hool s pos i t i on on buddhav a c ana N e i t he r t he M a h a ya na s t r a s nor t h e 67 W i l l i a m s M ahay ana B uddhi s m D oc t r i nal 31. 68 I bi d. 29

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33 V a j ra ya na t a nt ra s c om pos e d i n Indi a w e r e a c c e p t e d a s buddhav ac ana by t h e T he r a v di n s ub t ra di t i on, g i vi ng ri s e t o a pri n c i p a l di s t i nc t i on a m ongs t e xt a n t Buddhi s t s c hool s (T he ra v da M a ha ya n a V a j ra y a na ). It i s unknow n w he t he r t he T h e ra v d i n re j e c t i o n of M a ha ya na s t ra s r e pre s e nt e d a pos i t i on of a gre e m e nt a m ong a l l r # v ak a y # na s c hool s or i f i t w a s a n a no m a l y. T he abhi dhar m a t e xt s w e re a not h e r poi nt of c ont e nt i on, bot h due t o t he i r re l a t i ve l y l a t e c o m pos i t i on a nd t he f a c t t ha t not a l l r # v ak a s c hool s re c ogni z e d t h e m a s t rue buddhav ac ana 69 N e ve rt h e l e s s t he t hi r d ba s ke t of t he T r i pi t ak a i s t h e A bhi dhar m a i l l us t ra t i ng t h a t t h e s c ri pt ur a l c ol l e c t i ons w e re not fi xe d qu i t e a s e a r l y a s t ra d i t i on a l l y he l d. In t hi s c a s e t he m os t c ons e rv a t i v e o f t he e xt a nt c o l l e c t i ons ul t i m a t e l y i n c l ude d a group of t e xt s abhi dhar m a t ha t w e r e not uni ve rs a l l y a c c e pt e d by t he e a rl y Buddh i s t t ra di t i on a s a w hol e A l t hough w e do not know a nd pe rha ps c a nno t know t he e n t i r e c ont e nt s of e a c h r # v a k a s c hool s s e t of t e xt s or t he de t a i l s of how t he y w e r e c o m pi l e d, t he Chi ne s e a nd T i b e t a n t ra ns l a t i ons ha v e pre s e rve d m a ny of t he Ind i a n S a ns kri t t e xt s t ha t di d no t s urvi ve 70 T he s e t r a ns l a t i ons i n form t he pi c t ure of t he pri m i t i ve Ind i a n t ra di t i on, b ut i t i s a dm i t t e dl y, s t i l l i n c om p l e t e T he a ppl i c a t i on of t h e buddhav a c ana c on c e pt ul t i m a t e l y yi e l de d m ore t h a n one s c ri pt ura l c orpus i n Buddhi s m a nd t hi s re f l e c t s va ry i ng i nt e rpre t a t i ons of w ha t i t m e a ns t o be t he w ord of t he Buddh a D e s pi t e m a ny l i nge r i ng qu e s t i ons a bout t he pri m i t i ve In di a n t ra di t i ons pos i t i on, i t i s fa i r t o c onc l ude t ha t e a r l y Buddhi s t s a gre e d on c e rt a i n funda m e nt a l t e a c hi ngs a nd re c ogni z e d s uc h t e xt s a s a ut h e nt i c a nd s a c re d, w hi l e ot he r t e a c h i ngs (t e xt s ) w e r e onl y a c c e p t e d by s o m e 69 C a be z on, S c r i pt ur e 70 H a r r i s on, C a non.

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34 R ol e of I n s ti tu ti on al S tr u c tu r e an d P ol i ti c al F a c tor s In a ddi t i on t o va ryi ng do c t ri n a l a pproa c h e s t o a ut he nt i c i t y, t he d e ve l opm e n t of m ul t i p l e s a c r e d t e x t c o l l e c t i ons w a s a l s o s ha pe d by t he l a c k of a c e nt ra l i z e d i ns t i t ut i on i n Buddhi s m i n t a nd e m w i t h i t s ge ogra ph i c s pre a d. W i l l i a m s e xpl a i ns t h a t t he re a re n o Buddhi s t pope s no c re e ds a nd a l t hough t he re w e re c ounc i l s i n t he e a rl y y e a rs no a t t e m pt s t o i m pos e uni form i t y of doc t ri ne ove r t he e n t i r e m ona s t i c l e t a l one l a y, e s t a bl i s hm e nt 71 W i t hou t a c e n t r a l a u t hori t y, t he re w a s no i ndi v i dua l or body of p e rs ons t o e s t a bl i s h a nd m a nd a t e on e pos i t i on (doc t ri ne s c ri p t ure e t c .) ov e r t he e nt i r e t ra d i t i on. W hi l e t he c o m m una l re c i t a t i ons (c oun c i l s ) offe re d a n opport un i t y for a s s e r t i ng a nd re c onfi rm i ng ge ne ra l c ons e ns us on s c ri pt u ra l m a t t e rs t h e l a c k of a c e nt r a l i z e d i ns t i t u t i on re nde re d t h e s e m a j ori t y opi ni ons i n e ffe c t u a l It s houl d be no t e d t h a t i t i s unc l e a r (or unknow n) w he t he r t he r e w a s e ve n a n i nt e nt i on or de s i re by s om e t o m a nda t e a p a rt i c ul a r s c ri pt ur a l c ol l e c t i on for t h e w hol e t r a di t i o n. T he re fore i n t h e pri m i t i v e Indi a n t ra di t i on di vi s i ons c ont i nu e d t o e m e rge a nd e v e nt u a l l y t h e t ra d i t i on gr e w i nt o num e rous s c ho ol s (oft e n re fe rr e d t o a s t he m a i ns t re a m Budd hi s t s c hool s ), e a c h r e c ogn i z i ng i t s ow n s e t of t e xt s 72 T he t ra ns m i s s i on of Buddhi s t s c ri pt ur e s i n t o ne w c ul t ur a l s phe r e s t he n proc e e de d i n a s i m i l a r pi e c e m e a l fa s hi on, w he r e i nde pe nde nt s e t s of t e xt s w e re r e c e i ve d, t r a ns l a t e d, a nd l a t e r orga n i z e d a nd a m a s s e d i nt o l a rge r c ol l e c t i ons F urt he r, w hi l e Buddhi s m s s t a t us i n a pa rt i c ul a r re g i on w a s a ffe c t e d a t t i m e s by rul i ng pol i t i c a l fi gur e s t hi s i nfl u e nc e w a s ge ne ra l l y l i m i t e d i n t e rm s of i t s e ffe c t on s c ri pt ura l c ol l e c t i ons or t h e pri nc i pl e s a t w ork i n a ut he n t i c a t i on. W he n f a vore d, Buddhi s m t e nde d t o fl ouri s h a nd po l i t i c a l i nvol v e m e nt 71 W i l l i a m s M ahay ana B uddhi s m D oc t r i nal 1. 72 H a r r i s on, C a non.

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35 t ypi c a l l y a m ount e d t o pa t rona ge of s e l e c t m ona s t i c groups a nd c om m i s s i oni ng of ne w e di t i ons of t h e s c ri pt ur a l c o l l e c t i on. O t he r t i m e s pol i t i c a l f i gure s pe rs e c ut e d Buddh i s t s a nd t hi s re s ul t e d i n e i t he r e l i m i n a t i on of t h e t ra di t i on from a s pe c i fi c a re a or t e m por a ry s uppre s s i on of ope n pra c t i c e

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36 CH A P T E R T H RE E CA NO N IN BU D D H IS T S T U D IE S : O RI G IN A N A L Y S IS & A P P L ICA T IO N S e ve ra l ye a rs a ft e r I di d m y i ni t i a l r e s e a rc h i nt o t he s ubj e c t of c anon w i t hi n Buddhi s m t hi s i s s ue s urfa c e d i n t he on l i n e a c a d e m i c l i s t s e rv for Buddhi s t S t udi e s 73 T he fol l ow i ng i nform a t i on c onc e rn i ng t h e e a r l i e s t s c hol a rl y us a g e of t hi s t e rm i n t he c ont e xt of Buddhi s t s c ri pt ure i s de ri ve d fro m t ha t group di s c us s i on of l e a di ng s c ho l a rs i n t h e fi e l d. I n t h e m i d t o l a t e 19 t h c e nt ury, t h e re e m e rg e d a w a v e of W e s t e rn s c hol a rs hi p i n t he fi e l d of Buddhi s t s t udi e s a nd t hi s m a rk s w ha t i s c ons i de re d t o b e t h e fi rs t us a ge o f t he t e rm c anon or a E urop e a n l a ngua ge e qui v a l e nt t o de s c ri b e Buddhi s t s c ri p t ure s i n a form a l c on t e xt A n e a rl i e r us a ge r e fe rri n g t o t he c a noni c a l books of t he hol y s c r i p t ure i s found i n t he It a l i a n m i s s i ona ry Ippo l i t o D e s i de ri s w ri t i ngs on T i b e t i n t he e a rl y 1 8 t h c e nt ury, w hi c h w e re not a va i l a bl e unt i l t h e l a t e 19 t h c e n t ury. 74 D i s c u s s i on c ont ri but or M a t t he w K a ps t e i n t he r e fore s ugge s t s t he pos s i bi l i t y t h a t m i s s i ona ry w ri t i ngs of t h a t [18 t h c e nt ury] pe r i od m a y h a ve b e e n re s po ns i bl e for i nt rodu c i ng t h e c onv e nt i on of c a non t o re f e r t o Buddh i s t s c ri pt ur e 75 Re ga rdl e s s of i t s e x a c t o ri gi n, i t i s c l e a r t ha t t he e a rl i e s t W e s t e rn i nqu i ri e s i n t o Buddhi s m a ppl i e d t he not i on of c anon or a t l e a s t us e d t he t e rm i n r e l a t i on t o s a c re d t e xt s or s c ri p t ur e s 73 B i r gi t K e l l ne r Q U E R Y R E S U L T S F i r s t H i s t or i c a l U s e of c a non" ( W e s t e r n L a ngua ge s ) i n C ont e xt of B uddhi s m L i s t s e r v D i s c us s i on, N ove m be r 22, 20 10, H B uddhi s m ( B uddhi s t Sc hol ar s I nf or m at i on N e t w or k ) a c c e s s e d F e br ua r y 6, 2011. 74 M i s s i on t o T i be t : T he E x t r aor di nar y E i ght e e nt h C e nt ur y A c c ount of F at he r I ppol i t o D e s i de r i S. J T r a ns by M i c ha e l S w e e t E d by L e ona r d Z w i l l i ng ( B os t on: W i s dom P ubl i c a t i ons 2010 ) 420 quot e d i n K e l l ne r F i r s t H i s t or i c a l U s e 75 M a t t he w T K a ps t e i n, R e : Q U E R Y F i r s t H i s t or i c a l U s e of c a non" i n C ont e xt of B uddhi s m ? L i s t s e r v D i s c us s i on, N ove m be r 8 2010 H B uddhi s m ( B ud dhi s t Sc hol ar s I nf or m at i on N e t w or k ) a c c e s s e d F e br ua r y 6, 2011.

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37 F re nc h s c hol a r E ug e ne Burnouf us e s t h e t e rm s c anon a nd c anon i c a l t o de s c r i be s e ve ra l c o l l e c t i ons of Buddhi s t s c ri pt ur e s i n hi s Int r oduc t i on t o t he H i s t or y of Ind i an B uddhi s m publ i s he d i n 1844. H e e m pl oy s t he fol l ow i ng s pe c i fi c t e rm s : c a noni c a l books c a non of s a c r e d s c ri p t ure s a nd t he l a s t c ounc i l c ou l d ha v e i nt rodu c e d i n t o t he c a non s om e ne w books Burnoufs w ork w a s re vi e w e d i n 1847 by E E S a l i s bury i n t he J our nal of t he A m e r i c an O r i e nt a l Soc i e t y us i ng t e rm s s uc h a s S c ri p t ura l C a non of t he Buddhi s t s a nd Buddhi s t C a non. In 1850, Robe rt S pe nc e H a rdy not e s i n h i s w ork, E as t e r n Monac hi s m t ha t e s t a bl i s hi ng t he c a non of t h e s a c r e d c ode w a s a func t i on of t he fi rs t Buddh i s t c oun c i l A c c ordi ng t o di s c us s i on c on t ri but or G e offre y Ba rs t ow t he i m pl i c a t i on by S pe nc e H a rdy i s t ha t t h e c a non i n re f e re nc e w a s c l os e d, a l t hough i t i s no w c l e a r t ha t w a s not t h e c a s e hi s t ori c a l l y. 76 M a x M ul l e rs Int r oduc t i on t o t he Sc i e nc e of R e l i g i on publ i s he d i n 187 0, a ddre s s e s t he Buddhi s t c a non a nd, a c c or di ng t o c ont r i but or Bi rg i t K e l l ne r, hi s w or k [pl a c e s ] Buddhi s m a m ong t he a ri s t oc r a c y of book re l i gi ons 77 H e rm a nn O l d e nbe r g l i ke w i s e us e d t h e t e r m w he n di s c us s i ng B uddhi s t t e xt s i n D e r B uddha pub l i s he d i n 1881. W i l l i a m Ro c khi l l i n 1883, re f e rs t o t h e T i be t a n B k a gy ur a s c a non a nd t h e B s t an gy ur a s e xt ra c a noni c a l i n hi s U dNav ar ga: A Col l e c t i on of V e r s e s f r om t he B uddhi s t Ca non ; he a l s o re fe r e nc e s t he P l i c a non a nd T i be t a n c a non i n hi s l a t e r w ork, T he L i f e o f t he B uddha and t he E ar l y H i s t or y of H i s O r de r T he re a r e a t l e a s t four ot he r l a t e 19 t h c e n t u ry s c hol a rl y t e xt s t ha t i nc l ude on e of t he fol l ow i ng phr a s e s i n t he i r t i t l e s : Budd hi s t c a non, s a c r e d c a non of t he Buddhi s t s 76 G e of f r e y B a r s t ow R e : Q U E R Y F i r s t H i s t or i c a l U s e of c a non" i n C ont e xt of B uddhi s m ? L i s t s e r v D i s c us s i on, N ove m be r 6 2010 H B uddhi s m ( B ud dhi s t Sc hol ar s I nf or m at i on N e t w or k ) a c c e s s e d F e br ua r y 6, 2011. 77 K e l l ne r F i r s t H i s t or i c a l U s e

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38 or t he c a non of t he s out h e rn c hur c h (a r e fe re nc e t o t he P l i s c r i pt ure s ). 78 A ft e r t he 1875 publ i c a t i on of Robe r t Chi l d e rs P l i di c t i on a ry, t he t e rm P l i c a non b e c a m e pre va l e n t w i t hi n Buddh i s t s t udi e s It i s i m port a nt t o no t e t h a t wi t hi n t h e Budd hi s t t ra di t i on, how e ve r, t he r e i s not a t e rm for c anon or a n e qu i va l e nt c on c e pt i n a n i ndi ge nous l a ngua ge s u c h a s S a ns kri t P l i or T i be t a n. T he re i s no e v i de nc e of s uc h a t e rm pri or t o, c onc u rre nt w i t h, or fol l ow i ng t he a fore m e nt i one d p e ri od w he n W e s t e rn s c hol a rs be ga n s t udyi ng Buddh i s m i n A s i a G i ve n t he hi s t ory a nd de v e l opm e nt of t h e Buddhi s t s c ri pt ure s i t i s not t e rri bl y s urpri s i ng t ha t no s uc h t e rm e x i s t s e xc e p t pe rh a ps i n t he c a s e of t he P l i c ol l e c t i on. A l m os t a l w a ys re fe rre d t o a s t he P l i c a non, t hi s pa rt i c ul a r body of s c ri pt ure i s uni qu e a m ong t he e x t a nt c ol l e c t i ons i n t ha t i t i s c ons i d e re d c l os e d a nd c om pl e t e by one s e c t of Buddhi s t s t h e T he ra v di ns I w i l l l e a ve fur t he r di s c us s i o n of w he t he r t he P l i c ol l e c t i on c a n ri gh t f ul l y be c ons i de re d a c anon for l a t e r i n t h i s c ha pt e r, but t h e l a c k of a c om pa r a bl e t e rm i n P l i i s une xpe c t e d. In t hi s s pe c i a l c a s e i t s e e m s l i ke l y t ha t t he T h e ra v d i ns c ons e rva t i ve o r s t ri c t unde rs t a ndi ng of buddhav a c ana a s a m e a s ure of a t e xt s a ut h e nt i c i t y a nd a ut h ori t y, roughl y e qua t e s t o t he i de a of c anon 78 S a m ue l B e a l T e x t s f r om t he B uddhi s t c anon c om m onl y k now n as D ham m apada: w i t h ac c om pany i n g nar r at i v e s ( L ondon: T r bne r & C o 1878) E D R oot Sak y a B uddha : a v e r s i f i e d, annot at e d nar r at i v e of hi s l i f e and t e ac hi ngs ; w i t h an e x c ur s us c ont ai ni n g c i t at i ons f r om t he D ham m apada, or B uddh i s t c anon ( N e w Y or k: C ha r l e s P S o m e r by, 1880) H e nr y S t e e l O l c ot t A B uddhi s t c at e c hi s m : ac c or di ng t o t he c anon of t he s out he r n c hur c h ( L ondon: T r bne r & C o. 1 881) B unyi u N a nj i o, A C at al ogue of t he C hi ne s e T r ans l at i on of t he B uddhi s t T r i pi t ak a, T he Sac r e d C anon of t he B uddhi s t s i n C hi na and J apan ( O x f o r d: C l a r e ndon P r 1883 ) A s quot e d i n K e l l ne r F i r s t H i s t or i c a l U s e

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39 A n al ys i s of Can on U s age i n R e c e n t S c h ol ar s h i p In Buddhi s t S t udi e s i t i s di ffi c u l t t o f i nd a c l e a r, d e fi ni t i v e a nd de t a i l e d de s c ri pt i on of t he Buddhi s t s c r i pt ura l t r a di t i on c ont e nt s a nd hi s t ory a nd t hi s s i m p l y hi ghl i ght s t h e c om p l e xi t y of a s c ri p t ura l a r ra nge m e n t t ha t i s ne i t he r s i ngu l a r nor uni ve rs a l l y a c c e pt e d. I found i n m y r e s e a r c h t ha t i n ge ne r a l Buddhi s t s c ho l a rs pre s e nt t he s c ri pt ur a l t r a di t i on(s ) i n a v a ri e t y of w a ys w i t h one c om m on fe a t ure a nd one c o m m on re s ul t : us e of t h e t e r m c anon a nd l a c k of c l a ri t y, r e s pe c t i ve l y. It w oul d be unf a i r t o s ugge s t t ha t t h i s i s t rue of e v e ry c a s e but i t i s c e rt a i nl y t he pr e va i l i ng t r e nd. T he d e g re e of va ri a t i on, e s pe c i a l l y i n t e rm s of how c a non i s a ppl i e d, i s s t ri ki ng for t w o re a s ons F i rs t hi s t ori c a l l y grounde d a nd fa c t ba s e d de s c ri pt i ons of t h e Buddhi s t s c ri p t ura l t ra di t i on s houl d not di ff e r qui t e s o m uc h; s e c ond, c anon i s us e d i n c onf l i c t i ng w a ys s e e m i ngl y w i t hout m u c h re ga rd for i t s m e a ni ng a s a t e c hni c a l t e r m i n t h e fi e l d of re l i gi ous s t udi e s S c hol a rs a pproa c h t h e m a t t e r of c anon t o r e fe r t o Buddhi s t s c ri p t ura l c ol l e c t i ons i n t hre e g e ne r a l w a ys : 1) m od i fyi ng c anon w i t h ope n or c l os e d ; 2) r e de f i ni ng c anon ; a nd 3) us e w i t hou t qua l i fi c a t i on. I w i l l bri e f l y re vi e w s om e e x a m pl e s t ha t i l l us t ra t e t h i s poi nt S c hol a rs oft e n us e qua l i fi e rs w hi l e d e s c ri b i ng t he Buddhi s t s c r i pt ura l c ol l e c t i ons w i t h t he t e rm c anon In s om e c a s e s s c hol a rs re fe r t o on e or m ore of t he s c ri p t ura l c ol l e c t i ons i n Buddh i s m a s a n ope n c anon or a c l os e d c anon Rob e rt Bus w e l l J r., c i t i ng L e w i s L a nc a s t e r, no t e s t ha t unl i ke t h e Bi bl e t he Buddh i s t s c ri pt ur a l c o l l e c t i on w a s a n ope n c a non. 79 In hi s di s c us s i on of t he P l i c a non re c ogn i z e d by T he r a v di ns S t e ve n Col l i ns de fi n e s i t a s a c l os e d l i s t of s c ri p t ure s l a t e r not i ng t ha t w he n c o m pa re d w i t h 79 R obe r t E B us w e l l J r P r ol e gom e non t o t he S t ud y of B uddhi s t A poc r ypha l S c r i pt u r e s i nt r oduc t i o n t o C hi ne s e B uddhi s t A poc r y pha e d. R obe r t E B us w e l l J r ( H onol u l u: U ni ve r s i t y of H a w a i i P r e s s 1990 ) 4

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40 ot he r e xt a nt c o l l e c t i ons of s c ri pt ure s i n Bu ddhi s m t he P a l i c a non i s uni que i n b e i n g a n e xc l us i ve c l os e d l i s t 80 H e l a t e r goe s on t o offe r t he fol l ow i ng t w o de fi n i t i ons for c a non: T he W ord c a non, i n r e l a t i on t o t e xt u a l m a t e ri a l s c a n us e ful l y b e t a k e n i n t w o w a ys : fi rs t i n a ge n e ra l s e ns e a s a n e qui va l e n t t o s c ri p t ure (or a l or w ri t t e n). U s e d i n t h i s w a y, t he t e rm do e s not s pe c i fy t h a t t h e c ol l e c t i on of t e xt s s o de s i gna t e d c ons t i t ut e s a c l os e d l i s t ; i t m e re l y a s s i gns a c e r t a i n a ut hori t y t o t he m w i t hout e xc l ud i ng t he p os s i bi l i t y t h a t ot h e rs c oul d be or m a y c om e t o be i nc l ud e d i n t he c o l l e c t i on. In t he s e c ond s e ns e how e v e r, t he i de a of a c a non c on t a i ns pre c i s e l y s u c h a n e xc l us i vi s t s pe c i fi c a t i on t ha t i t i s t hi s c l os e d l i s t of t e xt s a nd no o t he rs w hi c h a re t h e founda t i ona l doc um e nt s 81 It i s e vi de n t by t he us e of qu a l i f i e rs t h a t c anon a l one i s not a de qua t e t o c onve y t he c om pl e x s t a t us or c a t e gor i z a t i on of Buddh i s t s c ri pt ure s Cl e a rl y, t he r e i s a n a t t e m pt t o di ffe re nt i a t e be t w e e n c o l l e c t i ons i n Buddh i s m t ha t h a ve l e ft t h e door ope n for t he a ddi t i on of a ut he n t i c t e xt s a nd o t he rs t h a t ha ve not T h i s di ffe re n t i a t i on i s v a l i d, but t he t e rm ope n c anon i s probl e m a t i c b e c a us e i t s ugge s t s t ha t c l os ure i s a n opt i on a l fe a t ur e M os t i m port a nt l y, how e ve r, t h i s m odi fi c a t i on s ugge s t s a de s i re t o r e de fi n e c anon or us e t he s e c ul a r de fi n i t i on a s a re l i gi ous t e rm b e c a us e c anon a l on e i nvol v e s c l os ure by vi rt ue of i t s de fi ni t i on i n t he c on t e xt of s c r i pt ure T hi s m odi fi c a t i on a nd/ or r e de f i ni t i on i s ne c e s s a ry, be c a us e c anon i s be i ng us e d he re a s a s ynonym for a c ol l e c t i on of s c ri pt u re s ra t he r t h a n a c anon of s c ri pt ur e s 80 C ol l i ns P a l i C a non, 89, 91. 81 C ol l i ns P a l i C a non, 90.

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41 It i s i m port a nt t o no t e t h a t s om e s c ho l a rs a t t e m p t t o m a ke a no t he r d i s t i nc t i on be t w e e n s c ri p t ura l c ol l e c t i ons i n Buddhi s m w i t h t he t e rm s c anon a nd Canon a l t ho ugh t he e xa c t i m pl i c a t i on i s unc l e a r. E ve n i n c ont e xt i t i s di ffi c ul t t o di s c e rn how Cano n i s di ffe re nt fro m c anon A not he r popul a r m od i fi c a t i on of c anon i s s e e n i n J a ne t G ya t s os s t a t e m e nt W i t h i n t he bro a d group of Buddhi s t s a c r e d s c ri pt ure s l oos e l y c ha r a c t e ri z e d a s t he c a non of t he M a ha ya n a 82 T hi s onl y i nfor m s us t ha t t he r e e xi s t s a b ody of s a c re d s c r i pt ur e s t ha t i s or c a n be l oos e l y c ha ra c t e r i z e d a s t he c a non for a s pe c i fi c s c hoo l w i t hi n Buddhi s m a s a w hol e T h e i de a t h a t c ano n onl y w orks i n t hi s c ont e x t i n a l oos e s e ns e s ugge s t s t ha t s om e t h i ng a bout c anon doe s not qui t e m a t c h up w i t h t h e s c ri pt u ra l c ol l e c t i on i n re f e re nc e G ya t s o how e ve r f a i l s t o e xpound on t he i s s ue O t he r s c hol a rs ne i t he r m odi fy t h e t e r m no r re de fi ne i t for t h e i r purpos e s In T he Wor l d of B uddhi s m buddhol ogi s t Ri c ha rd G om bri c h s t a t e s t ha t T h e c a non a c c e p t e d by a l l Buddhi s t s c ons i s t e d of T hre e Ba s ke t s (t ri pi t a ka ) of t e xt s a l a rge c ol l e c t i on w hi c h i s t he e qui v a l e n t of t he B i bl e fo r Chri s t i a ns or t he K ora n for M us l i m s 83 N ot onl y i s t h e re not a s c ri pt ur a l c o l l e c t i on re c ogn i z e d by t he w hol e of Buddhi s m but h i s c om pa r i s on t o t he Bi bl e gros s l y m i s re pre s e n t s t he n a t ure of t he Buddhi s t s c ri p t ura l body. G om br i c hs furt he r a c c ount hi n t s a t s om e of t he nu a nc e s t ha t e m e rg e d i n t h e s c ri pt ur a l t r a di t i on. H e a t t e m pt s t o di s t i ngui s h be t w e e n de s i gna t i o ns of c a noni c a l c om m e n t a ri a l a nd ps e ud o c a noni c a l c a l l i ng t h e S t ra a nd V i n a ya P i t ak as t he m ore c e nt r a l pa r t of t he C a non 84 a nd he t he n s e p a ra t e s t he C a non i nt o a s h a re d c or e a nd a di v e rge nt p e ri phe ry, ba s e d 82 J a ne t G ya t s o, S i gns M e m or y, a nd H i s t or y: A T a n t r i c B uddhi s t T he or y of S c r i pt u r a l T r a ns m i s s i on, J our nal of t he I nt e r nat i onal A s s oc i at i on of B uddhi s t St udi e s 9, no 2 ( 1986) : 7 83 G om br i c h, B uddhi s m i n A nc i e nt I ndi a 77 84 I bi d. 79

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42 on c om pa ri s ons be t w e e n s urvi vi ng v e rs i o ns of t e xt s 85 H e s ugge s t s t ha t onl y t hos e t e xt s from t he S t ra a n d V i na ya P i t ak as w hi c h c a n be da t e d t o t he f i rs t c ounc i l a r e c a non i c a l a nd t he A bh i dhar m a i n t he d i ve rg e nt pe r i phe ry i s c a non i c a l for s om e bu t not a l l s ub t ra di t i ons F urt he rm ore G om br i c h us e s t he t e rm s ps e udo c anon i c a l a nd apoc r y pha l bot h i n oppos i t i on t o c anoni c al t o r e fe r t o t he Buddhi s t t a nt ra s a nd e a r l y M a ha ya n i s t w ri t i ngs 86 It i s di ffi c ul t t o gra s p w ha t he e x a c t l y i nt e nds t o c onve y w i t h t he t e rm c ano n W hi l e i t i s c e rt a i nl y t h e c a s e t ha t di ffe r e nt t ra di t i ons w i t hi n Buddhi s m do h a ve va ry i ng a pproa c he s t o s c ri pt ur a l bodi e s hi s t re a t m e nt of t he t opi c do e s not bri ng m or e c l a ri t y t o t he s i t ua t i on. S c hol a r D ona l d L op e z J r. s t a t e s t ha t Bud dhi s m ha s a va s t s a c r e d c a non a nd l a t e r r e fe rs t o t he M a h a ya na c a non a nd t he Chi n e s e Buddhi s t c a non, b ut h e doe s not offe r furt he r de t a i l s 87 In m y re s e a r c h, I found onl y one a c c oun t or de s c ri pt i on of t he Buddhi s t s c r i pt ura l c ol l e c t i ons t h a t i n c l ud e d a ny m e nt i on of c ont e nt s Robe rt V a n V oors t de s c r i be s t hr e e c a nons w i t hi n Buddhi s m : t he P l i c a non, t he M a ha ya na o r Chi ne s e c a non, a nd t he T i be t a n c a non. 88 It i s of s pe c i a l i nt e r e s t t ha t G om bri c h de s i gna t e s t he T hr e e Ba s ke t s or T r i pi t ak a a s a s t a nd a rd de s c r i pt i on of t he Buddhi s t c a non; l i k e w i s e Rona l d D a v i ds on 85 S om e c om pa r i s ons ha ve be e n m a de w i t h S a nkr i t v e r s i ons of t e xt s b ut f e w o f t he s e ve r s i ons r e m a i n. 86 G om br i c h, B uddhi s m i n A nc i e nt I ndi a 79 80. 87 D ona l d S L ope z J r O n t he I nt e r p r e t a t i on o f t he M a ha ya na S ut r a s i n B uddh i s t H e r m e ne ut i c s e d. D ona l d S L ope z J r S t udi e s i n E a s t A s i a n B uddhi s m 6 ( H onol ul u: U ni ve r s i t y of H a w a i i P r e s s 1992) 2. 88 R obe r t E V a n V oor s t A nt hol ogy o f W or l d Sc r i pt ur e s ( B e l m ont : W a ds w or t h P ubl i s hi ng, 2000) 71

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43 re fe rs t o t h e c om p i l a t i on of t h e Buddhi s t c a n on, t he T ri pi t a k a 89 T hi s i s i n oppos i t i on t o V a n V oors t s a c c ount of t h e T r i pi t ak a a s s ol e l y a de s i gna t i on for t h e P l i c a non. 90 A not he r s c hol a r, L e w i s L a n c a s t e r, a ddre s s e s t he i s s ue of c anon by a s s e rt i ng t ha t i n Buddhi s m not on e but a m ul t i t ude of s e pa ra t e c a nons ha v e be e n a s s e m bl e d. 91 H e furt he r s ugge s t s t ha t t he re i s no Buddhi s t Ca non, but i ns t e a d e a c h t ra di t i on or l i ne a ge ha s i t s ow n c a non. P a ul W i l l i a m s a l s o i nd i c a t e s t he e x i s t e n c e of di ff e re nt c a nons w i t hi n Buddhi s m 92 L a nc a s t e r a nd W i l l i a m s a ppr oa c h t o t h i s i s s ue i s t he l e a s t obs c ur e but s t i l l ra i s e s que s t i ons i n i t s us e of t he t e rm c ano n A p p l yi n g We s te r n N oti on s of Can o n to th e M ai n Bu d d h i s t S c r i p tu r al C ol l e c ti o n s T a ki ng t h e di s c us s i on of t he W e s t e rn not i on of c anon a s a t e c hni c a l t e rm i n re l i gi ous s t udi e s I w i l l now e xa m i ne w h e t he r t he t hr e e m a i n Buddh i s t s c ri pt ur a l c ol l e c t i ons fi t i nt o t hi s unde rs t a nd i ng of c anon F or t hi s purpos e I w i l l e m p l oy U l ri c hs de fi ni t i on of c anon a s a de fi n i t i v e c l os e d l i s t of t he books t h a t c ons t i t ut e t he a ut he n t i c c ont e nt s of s c ri p t ure w hi c h foc us e s s pe c i fi c a l l y on us a ge a s a t e c hni c a l t e rm t o c ha ra c t e r i z e s c r i pt ure 93 T he P l i c o l l e c t i on of s c r i pt ur e s c om m on l y re fe rre d t o a s t he P l i c a non or t he T r i pi t ak a i s re c ogn i z e d by t he T h e ra v d i n s a s a c orpus of s a c re d t e xt s t ha t w a s fi xe d i n t he 1 s t c e nt ury B.C.E a nd a c c e p t e d a s nor m a t i v e for t hi s group of Buddhi s t s T h e re fore 89 R ona l d M D a vi ds on, A n I nt r oduc t i on t o t he S t a n da r ds of S c r i p t ur a l A ut he nt i c i t y i n I ndi a n B uddhi s m i n C hi ne s e B uddhi s t A po c r y pha e d R obe r t E B us w e l l J r ( H onol ul u: U ni ve r s i t y o f H a w a i i P r e s s 19 90) 4. 90 I w oul d l i ke t o not e t ha t G om br i c h s a r e a of s pe c i a l t y i s B uddhi s m w hi l e V a n V oor s t s i s C hr i s t i a ni t y. T hi s i s a f a c t or t o c ons i de r w he n e xa m i ni ng c ont r a di c t i ons be t w e e n t he t w o. 91 L e w i s L a nc a s t e r B uddhi s t L i t e r a t ur e : I t s C a nons S c r i be s a nd E di t or s i n T he C r i t i c al St udy of Sa c r e d T e x t s e d. W e ndy O F l a he r t y ( B e r ke l e y: G r a dua t e T he ol ogi c a l U ni on, 1978) 215 92 W i l l i a m s M ahay ana B uddhi s m D oc t r i nal 7. 93 U l r i c h, N ot i on of C a non, 34

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44 i t i s a c c ura t e t o d e s c ri be t hi s c ol l e c t i on a s a c anon be c a us e i t e xe m pl i f i e s t he pr e c i s e unde rs t a ndi ng of t h e t e r m e s pous e d by U l r i c h. T he Chi ne s e c ol l e c t i on of Buddhi s t s c ri p t ure s oft e n re fe r re d t o a s t he Chi n e s e c a non, M a ha ya n a c a non, or Chi ne s e M a h a ya na c a non, r e pre s e n t s a body of s a c re d t e xt s t ha t w a s ne ve r d e l i m i t e d, a l t hough i t i s c o m pos e d of i ndi vi du a l l y a ut hori t a t i ve s c r i pt ura l w orks T hi s i s di s t i nc t from a n a ut hor i t a t i ve c ol l e c t i on of s a c r e d t e x t s w he re i n a u t h ori t y i s be s t ow e d on a s e t of t e xt s a s a w hol e It l a c ks w ha t U l ri c h w oul d c a l l re fl e c t i ve j udgm e nt w he re i n nor m a t i ve a nd a ut hor i t a t i ve s c r i pt ure s a re purpos e ful l y c odi f i e d i nt o a s i ngl e body of t e x t s F urt he r, w i t hout t hi s proc e s s a c ol l e c t i on of t e xt s re m a i ns ope n a nd fl ui d. A s s uc h, t he Chi ne s e c ol l e c t i on c a n not be c ha r a c t e ri z e d a s a c anon L i ke t h e Chi ne s e c ol l e c t i on, t h e T i b e t a n b ody of s c ri pt ure s i s not m ono l i t h i c ; i ns t e a d, i t re pre s e nt s a t r a di t i on t ha t e nc o m pa s s e s va ri ous s c hool s w i t h s om e t i m e s di ve rge nt i de a s a bout w hi c h Buddh i s t t e x t s a re a ut he n t i c W hi l e t h e re i s a pr i m a ry T i be t a n c ol l e c t i on, t he O l d s Nar t hang c on s i s t i ng of t he B k a gy u r a nd B s t an g y ur i t doe s not re pre s e nt t he e nt i r e t y of t h e s c ri p t ure s a c c e pt e d by a l l T i b e t a n Buddh i s t s T ha t i s t o s a y, i t i s not a c om pr e he ns i ve d e l i m i t e d c ol l e c t i on of e v e ry a u t he nt i c a u t hori t a t i ve s a c re d t e x t i n T i be t a n Buddhi s m F or e x a m pl e t h e re a re T i be t a n t a n t ra s re c ogn i z e d a s a ut he nt i c s c ri p t ure by t he Ny i ngm a s c hool t ha t a r e not i n c l ud e d. M a ye r s t re s s e s t he c om pl e x i t y of t h e T i b e t a n c a s e po i nt i ng o ut t ha t t he B k a gy ur i s s i m u l t a n e ous l y i nt e rpre t e d by s om e g roups a s a n ope n c a n on a nd by ot he rs a s a c l os e d c a non, w i t h a w i de va ri e t y of i nt e rm e di a t e pos i t i ons be i ng he l d a s w e l l 94 S c hol a rs a re s t i l l re f i ni n g t he i r unde rs t a ndi ng of t h i s c ol l e c t i on, i t s hi s t ori c a l de ve l opm e n t a nd t he pe rs pe c t i v e s di ffe re nt T i be t a n s c hool s m a y ha v e t a k e n on t he m a t t e r. T he f a c t t ha t t he O l d s Nar t hang 94 M a ye r A nc i e nt T ant r a C ol l e c t i on 14.

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45 i s ge ne ra l l y not c ons i d e re d a n e xc l us i ve l y c l os e d c ol l e c t i on i nd i c a t e s t h a t i t s houl d n ot be re fe rre d t o a s a c anon G i ve n a l l t ha t i s know n a bout t he Buddh i s t s c ri pt ura l t ra d i t i on, I h a ve c onc l ud e d t ha t us a ge of t he t e rm c anon a c t ua l l y m i s r e pre s e nt s Buddhi s m i n a l l c a s e s e x c e pt w i t h re s pe c t t o t he T h e ra v d i n P l i c o l l e c t i on. It i s w i t h re ga rd t o t hi s s i ngl e body of t e x t s out of a m ul t i t ude of c ol l e c t i ons t ha t c anon i s a ppropri a t e l y a ppl i e d. H ow e ve r, e ve n i f c anon a c c ur a t e l y de s c r i be s t he P l i s c ri pt u ra l c ol l e c t i on, s c hol a rs m us t be c a re fu l t o c ont e xt u a l i z e t h i s uni que c a s e w i t h i n t he t ra di t i on a s a w hol e O t h e rw i s e t he r i s k i s t ha t by w a y of c anon t he P l i c ol l e c t i on i s e l e va t e d i n a m a nn e r t h a t di m i ni s h e s t h e ot he r s c ri pt ura l c ol l e c t i ons oft e n w i t h t he i m pl i c a t i on t ha t t he y a re s om e how s e c ond a ry o r l e s s i m port a n t T hi s ri s k i s m a de re a l w he n t h e P l i c a non or T r i pi t ak a i s de s c r i be d a s t he Buddhi s t c a non, i m pl yi ng t ha t i t i s a c c e p t e d a s norm a t i ve by t h e e n t i re t ra di t i on, w h e n i t i s i n fa c t no t It i s s om e w ha t of a n h i s t ori c a l fl uk e t h a t W e s t e rn s c hol a rs i ni t i a l l y e n c ount e r e d t he T he r a v di n s e c t of Buddhi s m t h e onl y e xt a nt t ra di t i on of t h e Indi c s c hool s a nd t ha t t hi s c om m un i t y ha d a n i nt a c t body of s a c r e d l i t e ra t ur e M ore ove r, t hi s c ol l e c t i on ha ppe ne d t o l e gi t i m a t e l y fi t i nt o t h e pre c o nc e i ve d c a t e gory of s c ri p t ure t h a t W e s t e rn s c hol a rs us e d, c anon T he c onc l us i on w a s t he n dra w n t ha t t he P l i c a non w a s e s s e nt i a l l y t he Buddhi s t c a non, a l t hough t ypi c a l l y t h e re w a s s om e a c know l e dge m e nt of ot h e r out s i de t e xt s s uc h a s t h e M a ha y a na s t r a s S om e s c hol a rs l i k e L a n c a s t e r a nd W i l l i a m s ha v e m a d e a n e ffort t o prov i de a n a c c ur a t e de s c ri p t i on of t h e s t a t us of Bu ddhi s t s c ri pt ura l c ol l e c t i ons but t h e re a r e s t i l l l i n ge ri ng m i s c on c e pt i ons F or e xa m pl e i n t he

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46 E nc y c l ope di a o f B uddhi s m one e nt ry re f e rs t o t he Buddhi s t c a non a s t he T r i pi t ak a 95 T hi s be l i e s t he fa c t t h a t t h e T r i pi t a k a i s but one of m a ny s c r i pt ura l c o l l e c t i ons e a c h de e m e d a ut h e nt i c for a pa r t i c u l a r group. A n e rror s uc h a s t hi s i n a s t a nd a rd re f e re n c e w ork i s of gre a t c onc e rn. W i t h T h e ra v d a a s t he on l y e xt a nt r # v ak ay # na s c hool a nd t h e P l i c a non a s t h e onl y e xt a n t c om p l e t e s c ri p t ura l c ol l e c t i on i n a n Indi c l a ngua g e i t i s t e m pt i ng t o a s s um e t ha t t h i s c ol l e c t i on i s re pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he pri m i t i ve Indi a n Buddhi s t t r a di t i on, bot h i n t e rm s of c ont e nt a nd a pproa c h (c l os ure ). I t i s i m port a nt t o r e m e m be r t h a t t hi s i s not ne c e s s a ri l y t he c a s e ; t he re for e a c c ount s o f Buddhi s m s houl d honor t he di v e rs i t y of a s c ri pt ura l t ra di t i on c ons i s t i ng of m a ny s a c re d t e xt c ol l e c t i ons T he Buddhi s t t r a di t i on i s be s t re pr e s e nt e d by c onc e i v i ng of i t s s a c r e d t e xt s t hrough t he l e ns of Buddhi s m s ow n hi s t ory a nd i nt e rn a l fr a m e w ork, i n w hi c h hi ghl y va ri a bl e a nd fl u i d c o l l e c t i ons of t e xt s w e re t ra ns m i t t e d, w i t hou t m uc h c ons i de r a t i on f or e xc l us i vi t y a s fa r a s w e know e x c e pt i n t h e c a s e of t h e P l i c a non de l i m i t e d by t he T he ra v di n Buddh i s t s Can on as a Te c h n i c al Te r m i n R e l i g i ou s S tu d i e s In t he c ont e xt of s c ri p t ure c anon ha s una r gua bl y Chri s t i a n ori gi ns but i t i s now i ngra i ne d i n t he f i e l d of r e l i gi ous s t udi e s a s a t e c hni c a l t e r m It i s t h e re fore i m port a n t for s c hol a rs t o be c ogn i z a nt of t h e i m p l i c a t i on s of us i ng l a ngua ge i m port e d fro m t he o l og y t o de s c ri be a l l r e l i g i ons T he fi e l d of re l i gi o n or re l i gi ous s t udi e s t ha t e m e rg e d i n t he m i d t o l a t e 19 t h c e n t ury gre w out of t h e ol ogy a nd re s ol ve d t o ground t he s t udy of r e l i g i o n i n 95 B ond, B uddha va c a na ( W or d of t he B uddha )

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47 a n obj e c t i ve a nd i m p a rt i a l s c i e nt i fi c a ppro a c h. Re fe rr i ng t o t h e s e e a rl y s c i e nt i s t s of re l i gi on, J udi t h Be rl i ng not e s t h a t t h e y s h a re d a c o m m i t m e nt t o t he ri gorous s t udy o f re l i gi on b a s e d on e xt e ns i ve know l e dg e of re l i gi ous t e xt s a nd broa d l y a na l yz e d pa rt i c u l a r r e l i g i ons us i ng c a t e gori e s ba s e d on W e s t e rn a nd Chr i s t i a n c ul t ure a s i ns t a nc e s of t he de ve l opm e n t of re l i gi ons (s i ngul a r) i n hum a n c i vi l i z a t i on. 96 It i s unde rs t a nda b l e t ha t W e s t e rn s c hol a rs w he n a p proa c hi ng t he s t udy of A s i a n re l i g i ons s ought t o unde rs t a nd t he m from t h e pe rs pe c t i v e of t he i r pre e x i s t i ng c a t e gori e s Bi a s i s t he pl i ght of t he i nve s t i ga t or i n a ny fi e l d of s t udy, re l i gi on be i ng no di ffe r e nt Be rl i ng poi n t s out t ha t t he c om pa r a t i ve s t u di e s of w orl d re l i g i ons t ha t e m e rge d e s s e nt i a l l y l i m i t e d t he i r i nqui r i e s t o s a c re d t e xt s E a r l y W e s t e rn c o m pa ra t i vi s t s ha d a founda t i on i n Chr i s t i a n i t y, a r e l i g i ous t ra d i t i on t h a t w a s de fi n e d l a rg e l y i n t e r m s of i t s book of s c ri pt ure s a nd, t h e re for e t h e y w e r e i nc l i ne d t o u t i l i z e a hype r t e xt u a l a ppro a c h i n unde rs t a ndi ng Buddhi s m a nd ot he r for e i g n re l i gi ons N e ve r t he l e s s i n re t ros pe c t s c hol a rs m us t a dm i t t h a t t h e pra c t i c e of a p pl yi ng a t h e ol ogi c a l fr a m e w ork t o t he non t he ol ogi c a l s t udy of w orl d r e l i g i o ns how e ve r w e l l i n t e nt i one d, m a y ha v e yi e l de d i n va l i d, i na c c ur a t e i nc o m pl e t e or m i s l e a d i ng port ra ya l s of ot he r r e l i g i ons L i k e w i s e s c hol a rs s houl d c ons i de r w he t he r t hi s t he o l ogi c a l f ra m e w ork t ha t s ha pe d t he e a rl i e s t W e s t e rn s t udi e s of ot he r re l i gi ons s uc h a s Buddhi s m i s s t i l l b e i ng pe rp e t ua t e d. Canon e xe m pl i fi e s t h i s poi nt Indi s c r i m i n a t e us a ge of t he t e rm w i t hi n t h e fi e l d of re l i gi on c ont i nu e s t he l ongs t a ndi ng pr a c t i c e of pl a c i ng t he fr a m e w ork of c anon ont o ot he r re l i gi ons T h i s s ugge s t s a n unde rl yi ng a s s um pt i on t h a t s a c r e d t e x t s or s c ri pt ur e s houl d be c ha ra c t e r i z e d i n t he s a m e w a y, or t h a t r e l i gi ons s t ruc t ure t h e i r s c ri p t ura l c ol l e c t i ons 96 J udi t h A B e r l i ng, U nde r s t andi ng O t he r R e l i gi ous W or l ds : a G ui de f or I nt e r r e l i gi ous E duc at i on ( M a r yknol l N Y : O r bi s B ooks 2004 ) 35 36.

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48 a c c ordi ng t o a uni v e rs a l t e m p l a t e S m i t h s t a t e s t h a t t he not i on of c a noni s pri m a ri l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t h e w e s t e rn P e o pl e s of t he Book (J uda i s m Chr i s t i a n i t y, I s l a m a nd M a ni c ha e i s m a nd ot he r Ir a ni a n t ra di t i ons ) a nd he goe s on t o de s c ri be c a non a s a n a ppa re nt l y r e l a t i ve l y ra re ph e nom e non w i t hi n t h e hi s t ory of re l i gi ons e v e n a m ong l i t e r a t e groups 97 T he no t i on of c anon a nd de fi ni ng a r e l i g i on i n t h e s e t e rm s i s a c ons t ruc t t h a t s ui t s Chri s t i a ni t y a nd pe rh a ps ot he r P e opl e s of t h e Book, but i t doe s not a ppl y t o t h e w hol e of t h e Buddhi s t t r a di t i o n. In ge ne ra l s c ho l a rs ha v e re c e nt l y b e gun t o c ri t i c a l l y a s s e s s t he i r a pproa c h t o re l i gi on. B e rl i ng a c know l e dge s t ha t t he r e i s a t re nd e m e rgi ng a w a y fro m t he s e a r c h for gra nd pa t t e rns i n t he d e ve l opm e n t of r e l i gi on, r e c ogni z i ng t h a t t he y fa i l t o do j us t i c e t o pa rt i c ul a r re l i gi ons i n t he i r h i s t o ri c a l a nd c ul t ur a l c ont e xt s 98 T hi s i s a prom i s i ng s t e p for t h e fi e l d, w hi c h w i l l ho pe ful l y bri ng m ore a t t e n t i on t o t he prop e r us e of c anon a s a t e c hni c a l t e rm i n re l i gi on. T he re i s c e r t a i nl y a n e e d for Buddhi s t s c ho l a rs t o c ri t i c a l l y e x a m i ne t h e i r ow n us a ge of t h e t e rm a nd w he t h e r i t i s dri ve n by c onv e nt i on ra t he r t h a n a c c ura c y. In t he pro c e s s of w ri t i ng t h i s t he s i s t he s ubj e c t of W e s t e rn s c hol a rs us a ge of c anon t o d e s c ri b e Budd hi s t s c ri pt ure w a s ra i s e d on t h e pre m i e re a c a de m i c forum for Buddhi s t S t udi e s a nd a l t houg h t h e i s s ue i s j us t now be i ng e xpl o re d, I a m c onfi d e nt t h a t m y f i ndi ngs w i l l b e s upport e d by t he i r ow n i nqui ri e s O ve rc om i ng 150 ye a rs of c onve n t i on w i t h i n re l i g i ous s t udi e s m a y how e v e r be a s i gni fi c a n t c ha l l e ng e be c a us e t h e re i s a c o nt i nue d e ffor t t o re t a i n us a g e of t h i s t e rm a s a c a t c h a l l for s c ri pt ur a l c o l l e c t i ons a s e v i d e nc e d by S he ppa rd s t re a t m e n t of t he s ubj e c t i n t he E nc y c l op e di a o f R e l i gi on H i s re v i e w of t he i s s ue poi nt s out m a ny probl e m s w i t h 97 S m i t h I m a gi ni ng R e l i g i on 44. 98 B e r l i ng, O t he r R e l i gi ous W or l ds 36.

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49 c anon but he ul t i m a t e l y c i rc um v e nt s t he s e obs t a c l e s by prom ot i ng t he us e of c anon i n t he c ont e xt of s c ri p t ure t o c onve y ru l e / s t a nda rd/ a ut hor i t y (c a non 1), a f i xe d c o l l e c t i on of t e xt s (c a non 2), or a ny i n t e rm e di a t e m e a ni ng be t w e e n t h e t w o. H e offe rs num e rous e xa m pl e s of how c anon c a n e s s e nt i a l l y fi t e ve ry w orl d re l i gi ons s c ri p t ura l t ra di t i on by a l l ow i ng t h e t e r m t o m e a n a nyt hi ng on h i s broa d e t ym o l ogy ba s e d s pe c t rum S he ppa rd e ve n goe s s o fa r a s t o a s s e rt t h a t us e of t he t e rm c anon d e s pi t e i t s a s s oc i a t i on w i t h Chri s t i a ni t y, c a n prov e t o be a n i l l u m i n a t i ng h e uri s t i c de v i c e i n de s c ri bi ng ot h e r w orl d re l i gi ons a nd t he i r pri nc i pa l t e x t s s uc h t e rm i nol ogy c a n be he l pful i n und e rs t a ndi ng a s pe c t s of E a s t e r n re l i gi ons 99 In t he ne x t pa r a gra ph, he off e rs a n e xa m p l e of t h i s a ppl i c a b i l i t y by e xpl a i n i ng t he ro l e of l a ngu a ge a nd c ul t ure i n c a noni c a l di s t i n c t i ons w i t hi n Buddhi s m H e s t a t e s t ha t a nc i e n t t ra d i t i ons w e r e c om b i ne d i n S out h A s i a t o form w ha t i s pre s e nt l y c a l l e d t h e P a l i c a non.A c e n t ury or s o l a t e r, a d i ffe r e nt c a noni c a l l i t e ra t ur e de ve l ope d i n Ind i a w ri t t e n i n S a ns kri t a nd e ve nt ua l l y t r a ns l a t e d i n t o Chi ne s e a nd T i b e t a n, w hi c h b e c a m e founda t i ona l for M a ha ya n a Buddhi s m In c ont ra s t t o a dhe r e nt s of t he P a l i c a non, t he s e Buddh i s t s re ga rd e d t he s ut r a s of t he M a ha ya n a (gre a t ve hi c l e ) a s a n a l t e rna t i ve c a non, t he on l y t rue a ut hor i t y re g a rdi ng w ha t t he Buddha hi m s e l f t a ught 100 S he ppa rds a pproa c h i s probl e m a t i c be c a us e i t i s t a n t a m oun t t o un de f i ni ng c anon i n t ha t a t e rm t ha t i s t oo va gu e a nd unc l e a r h a s no func t i ona l m e a ni ng, a nd hi s a t t e m p t t o de m ons t ra t e i t s us e ful n e s s i s not pe rs ua s i v e w he n he e m p l oys i t t o gros s l y m i s re pre s e nt 99 S he ppa r d, C a non. 100 S he ppa r d, C a non.

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50 t he Buddhi s t s c ri p t ura l t ra di t i on. W h i l e I a ppre c i a t e t he d e s i re t o s i m pl i fy d e s c ri pt i o ns i n ba s i c or i nt rodu c t ory c ont e x t s t hrough us e of a c onve nt i ona l t e r m ove r s i m p l i fi c a t i o n t ha t ve e rs i nt o i n a c c ura c y on l y prom ot e s m i s u nde rs t a ndi ng a nd i m pe d e s re a l i nt e r re l i gi ous di s c ours e a nd c om p a ra t i ve s t udy. In c onc l us i on, t h e re i s a ne e d for s c ho l a rs t o e xa m i ne w he t h e r c anon s houl d b e t he uni ve rs a l t e r m for m a ki ng a ny c o m m e nt a bout groups of s a c re d t e xt s Ce rt a i nl y, w i t h re ga rd t o Buddhi s m i t i s not a ppropri a t e t o a ppl y t he t e rm i ndi s c ri m i n a t e l y. Ra t h e r, i t i s l a rge l y t he c a s e i n Buddh i s m t ha t ot he r d e s i gna t i ons s uc h a s c ol l e c t i on of s c r i p t ur e s or body of s c r i pt ur e s m o re a c c u ra t e l y re pr e s e nt t h e t ra d i t i on a nd s houl d be us e d i ns t e a d. T he i s s ue of c anon w i t h i n Buddhi s t S t ud i e s i l l us t r a t e s t h e de gr e e t o w hi c h a n uni nt e nt i ona l O ri e nt a l i s t a pp roa c h by W e s t e rne rs t o t h e e a rl y s t udy of Buddhi s m h a s s ha pe d m i s l e a di ng port r a ya l s of t he s c ri p t ura l t ra d i t i on ; na m e l y, t h e e x i s t e nc e of a Buddhi s t c a non w he n t h e re i s non e S t ri ki ngl y, t he l e xi c a l e n t ry for C a non i n t he E nc y c l ope di a o f B uddhi s m be g i ns w i t h t h e s t a t e m e nt T h e re i s no s uc h t h i ng a s t he Buddhi s t c anon 101 H a rri s o n c ont i nue s t h i s e nt ry by a c know l e dgi ng t h e di ffi c ul t y of us i ng t hi s t e rm i n Buddhi s m but d e s pi t e h i s ow n a dm i s s i on, he s t i pul a t e s a Buddh i s t fri e ndl y l oos e de f i ni t i on of c anon t h a t w a ve rs on t he a s pe c t of c l os ure G i ve n t hi s provi s i ona l de f i ni t i on, H a rri s on c a n now di s c us s t he m ul t i t ude of s o c a l l e d Buddhi s t c a nons re pre s e n t i ng va r i ous s c hool s a nd t r a di t i ons It i s re m a rk a bl y t e l l i ng t h a t a l t ho ugh t he re i s no Buddhi s t c a non, t h e re i s a l e ng t hy e nt ry i n t h e E nc y c l ope di a o f B uddhi s m a bout c anon T he p robl e m s s urroundi ng t he us a g e of c a non a re ne i t he r n e w nor uni que t o Buddhi s m In fa c t U l r i c h poi n t s out t ha t 18 t h c e nt ury G e rm a n t he o l ogi a n J oha nn 101 H a r r i s on, C a non.

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51 E i c hhorn ha d on c e s t a t e d t ha t i t w oul d h a ve be e n de s i r a bl e i f one h a d ne ve r e ve n us e d t he t e r m c a non. 102 Cl e a rl y, h e s ym pa t h i z e s w i t h E i c hhorns s e nt i m e n t but U l ri c h w i s e l y m a i nt a i ns t ha t t h e c on c e pt i s ri c h a nd i m port a nt a nd p e rha ps i t w oul d b e be t t e r t o s a y t ha t i t w oul d be de s i r a bl e i f e v e ryone us e d t he t e r m prope rl y. 103 A t a m i ni m um i t i s i m pe ra t i ve t ha t s c ho l a rs be g i n t o a s s e s s t h e w e i ght a nd m e a ni ng c onv e ye d by t h e t e r m s t he y us e a nd a c know l e dg e t ha t by a ppl y i n g W e s t e rn not i ons of c anon t o t h e Buddhi s t s c ri pt ura l t ra di t i on a n i na c c ura t e a c c ount ha s be e n, a nd c on t i nu e s t o be pe rp e t ua t e d 102 U l r i c h, N ot i on of C a non, 30 103 I bi d.

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52 A P P EN D I X A : P al i C an on L i s t of pri m a ry di vi s i ons i n e a c h of t he t hr e e ba s ke t s E a c h d i vi s i on re pr e s e nt s a va r i a bl e num be r of t e x t s V i nay a 1. Sut t a v i bhanga 2. Khandhak a 3. P ar i v ar a Sut t a 1. D i gha ni k ay a 2. Maj j hi m a ni k a y a 3. Sam y ut t a ni k a y a 4. A ngut t ar a ni k a y a 5. Khuddak a ni k ay a A bhi dh am m a 1. D ham m a s angani 2. V i bhanga 3. D has t u Kadha 4. P uggal a pannat t i 5. Y am ak a 6. P at t ham a *S ourc e : T a b l e 3.1 i n Rob e rt E V a n V oors t A nt hol ogy o f Wor l d Sc r i pt ur e s (Be l m o nt CA : W a ds w ort h P ubl i s hi ng, 2000), 70.

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53 A P P EN D I X B: Ed i ti on of a C h i n e s e C ol l e c ti on S an T s an g L i s t of s e c t i ons m a ny of w hi c h r e pre s e n t t w o or m ore vol um e s a nd nu m e rous t e xt s T hi s l i s t i s not c o m pre he ns i v e a s s om e c on t e n t s a re not c a t a l ogue d i n a s e c t i on. 1. A gam a 2. J at ak as 3. P r aj na P ar am i t a 4. S addhar m a P undar i k a 5. A v at am s ak a 6. R at nak ut a 7. Mahapar i ni r v ana 8. S $ t r a P i t ak a 9. T ant r a 10. V i nay a 11. A bhi dhar m a 12. Madhy am i k a 13. Y ogac ar a *S ourc e : T a b l e 3.2 i n Rob e rt E V a n V oors t A nt hol ogy o f Wor l d Sc r i pt ur e s (Be l m o nt CA : W a ds w ort h P ubl i s hi ng, 2000), 72.

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54 A P P EN D I X C : Ti b e tan C ol l e c ti on L i s t of m a i n di vi s i ons e a c h w i t h m o re t h a n one vol um e a nd num e rous t e xt s Kanj ur (108 vol um e s ) 1. D ul ba 2. She s r ab k y i pha r ol t u ph y i n pa 3. P hal c he n 4. dKon br t s e gs 5. m D o 6. My a ngan das 7. r G y ud T anj ur (225 vol um e s ) 1. m D o 2. r G y ud *S ourc e : T a b l e 3.3 i n Rob e rt E V a n V oors t A nt hol ogy o f Wor l d Sc r i pt ur e s (Be l m o nt CA : W a ds w ort h P ubl i s hi ng, 2000), 73.

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55 BI BLI O G R A P H Y B a rs t o w G e offr e y Re : Q U E R Y F i rs t H i s t o ri c a l U s e of c a non" i n Con t e xt of Buddh i s m ? L i s t s e rv D i s c us s i on. N ove m b e r 6, 2010. H Buddhi s m (Buddh i s t S c h o l a rs Inform a t i on N e t w ork). A c c e s s e d F e bru a r y 6, 2011. B e r l i n g J udi t h A U nde r s t and i ng O t h e r R e l i g i ous Wo r l d s : a G ui d e f or Int e r r e l i g i ou s E du c a t i on M a r y k nol l N Y : O rbi s Book s 2004. Bond, G e or g e D E n c y c l op e d i a o f B uddh i s m E d i t e d b y Robe r t E Bus w e l l J r. N e w Y o rk : M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e n c e U S A 2004. Br a ndon, S .G F A D i c t i onar y o f Com pa r a t i v e R e l i g i on E d i t e d b y S .G F Bra ndon. N e w Y o rk : Ch a r l e s S c r i bn e r s S ons 1970. Bu s w e l l J r., Robe r t E P rol e g o m e non t o t he S t ud y of Buddhi s t A p oc r y p ha l S c r i p t ur e s In t roduc t i on t o Chi n e s e B uddh i s t A p o c r y p ha e d i t e d b y Robe r t E Bus w e l l J r., 1 29. H onol u l u : U ni v e rs i t y of H a w a i i P re s s 1990. C a b e z on, J o s e I g n a c i o. E n c y c l op e d i a o f B u ddh i s m E d i t e d b y Robe r t E Bus w e l l J r. N e w Y o rk : M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e n c e U S A 2004. Co l l i ns S t e v e n. O n t he V e r y Ide a of t he P a l i C a non." J our nal o f t h e P a l i T e x t So c i e t y X V (1990) : 89 126. Co x Co l l e t t E n c y c l op e d i a o f B uddh i s m E d i t e d b y Robe r t E Bus w e l l J r. N e w Y ork : M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e n c e U S A 2004. D a r g ya y E v a M T he R i s e o f E s o t e r i c B ud dh i s m i n T i b e t D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a rs i d a s s 1977. D a v i ds on, Rona l d M A n In t roduc t i on t o t he S t a nd a rds of S c r i p t u ra l A u t he n t i c i t y i n Ind i a n Buddh i s m ." In Ch i n e s e B uddh i s t A po c r y pha e d i t e d b y Robe r t E Bus w e l l J r., 291 325. H onol u l u : U ni v e rs i t y of H a w a i i P re s s 1990. E n c y c l op e d i a o f B uddh i s m E d i t e d b y Robe r t E Bus w e l l J r. N e w Y ork : M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e n c e U S A 2004. D a v i ds on, Rona l d M a nd Ch a r l e s O r z e c h E n c y c l op e d i a o f B uddh i s m E d i t e d b y Ro b e r t E Bus w e l l J r. N e w Y ork : M a c m i l l a n R e f e r e n c e U S A 2004. G om br i c h, R i c h a rd. Buddh i s m i n A nc i e n t Ind i a : T he E vo l u t i on of t he S a n g h a ." In T h e

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