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Feeding behavior of wild vervet monkeys in Loskop Dam Nature Preserve

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004371/00001

Material Information

Title: Feeding behavior of wild vervet monkeys in Loskop Dam Nature Preserve
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Dean, Katherine
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Primate feeding ecology
vervet monkeys
self medication
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Studying the feeding behavior of nonhuman primates in the wild leads to a greater understanding of their behavioral ecology and has important implications for conservation. In this thesis, I documented the feeding behavior of three groups of wild vervet monkeys in Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, Mmpumalanga, South Africa from October 2009 to January 2010. I compared the diet of 51 individuals to their age, sex, rank, and endoparasitic richness. I found no significant correlations between diet and age, sex, and rank. There were significant positive correlations between feeding and endoparasites, suggesting that specific plant species are vehicles for parasites. I found significant negative correlations between feeding and endoparasites suggesting that the consumption of particular plant species treats for parasites. Vervet monkeys may have a preference for these particular plant species as a form of self-medication.
Statement of Responsibility: by Katherine Dean
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Weber, Diana

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 D28
System ID: NCFE004371:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004371/00001

Material Information

Title: Feeding behavior of wild vervet monkeys in Loskop Dam Nature Preserve
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Dean, Katherine
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Primate feeding ecology
vervet monkeys
self medication
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Studying the feeding behavior of nonhuman primates in the wild leads to a greater understanding of their behavioral ecology and has important implications for conservation. In this thesis, I documented the feeding behavior of three groups of wild vervet monkeys in Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, Mmpumalanga, South Africa from October 2009 to January 2010. I compared the diet of 51 individuals to their age, sex, rank, and endoparasitic richness. I found no significant correlations between diet and age, sex, and rank. There were significant positive correlations between feeding and endoparasites, suggesting that specific plant species are vehicles for parasites. I found significant negative correlations between feeding and endoparasites suggesting that the consumption of particular plant species treats for parasites. Vervet monkeys may have a preference for these particular plant species as a form of self-medication.
Statement of Responsibility: by Katherine Dean
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Weber, Diana

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 D28
System ID: NCFE004371:00001


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Feeding behavior of wild vervet monkeys in Loskop Dam Nature Reserve By Katharine Dean A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Natural Sciences New College of Florida In partial fulllment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Dr. Diana Weber Sarasota, FL April, 2011

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Acknowledgements A huge thanks to my family, friends, and thesis committee for making this thesis possible. ii

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Table of Contents ................................................................................................. List of Tables! v ............................................................................................... List of Figures! vi .................................................................................................. Introduction! 1 ................................................................................... Vervet monkeys! 2 .......................................... Feeding behavior and age, sex, and rank! 4 ................................................. Feeding behavior and endoparasites! 7 .............................................................. Loskop Dam Nature Reserve! 9 ................................................................................................... Study! 11 ......................................................................................................... Methods! 13 ............................................................................................ Study site! 14 .............................................................................. Sample population! 14 ............................................................................................. Locating! 15 ............................................................................................. Sampling! 15 ...................................................................... Dominance hierarchies! 16 ..................................................................................... Data analysis! 17 ........................................................................................................... Results! 18 ................................................................................. Dietary diversity! 19 ............................................................................... Feeding behavior! 19 ...................................................................................................... Discussion! 22 .......................................... Feeding behavior and age, sex, and rank! 23 ........................................................................................ Conclusions! 29 ..................................................................................................... References! 46 ................................................................................................... Appendix A! 49 iii

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................................................................................................... Appendix B! 75 ................................................................................................... Appendix C! 77 ................................................................................................... Appendix D! 96 ................................................................................................... Appendix E! 101 iv

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List of Tables 1. ................................................... Common plant secondary compounds!30 2. ....................................................... Composition of sample individuals!31 3. ......................................................... Composition of the sample troops!32 4. .................................................. Dominance hierarchy of the Bay troop!33 5. ........................................................ Dominance hierarchy Donga troop!34 6. ........................................... Dominance hierarchy of the Blesbok troop!35 7. ......... Summary of non-parametric tests used in the statistical analyses!36 8. .......................................................... Plant species consumed by group!37 9. ......................................................... Plant species consumed by family!38 10. .................................. Correlation between plant species and parasites!39 v

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List of Figures 1. ..................................................................... Factors of feeding ecology!40 2. ....................................................................................... Vervet monkey!41 3. ............................................... Distribution of vervet monkeys in Africa!42 4. ............................................................................... Map of South Africa!43 5. ..................................................... Map of Loskop Dam Nature Reserve!44 6. ........................................................... Home ranges of the study groups!45 vi

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Abstract !Studying the feeding behavior of nonhuman primates in the wild leads to a greater understanding of their behavioral ecology and has important implications for conservation. In this thesis, I documented the feeding behavior of three groups of wild vervet monkeys in Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, Mmpumalanga, South Africa from October 2009 to January 2010. I compared the diet of 51 individuals to their age, sex, rank, and endoparasitic richness. I found no signicant correlations between diet and age, sex, and rank. There were signicant positive correlations between feeding and endoparasites, suggesting that specic plant species are vehicles for parasites. I found signicant negative correlations between feeding and endoparasites suggesting that the consumption of particular plant species treats for parasites. Vervet monkeys may have a preference for these particular plant species as a form of self-medication. Dr. Diana Weber Division of Natural Sciences vii

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Introduction 1

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!Diet is fundamental to the ecology of any animal species. Studying the feeding ecology of wild populations is crucial for understanding the nutritional requirements of a species and the factors associated with food selection. As a result, our knowledge of feeding behavior is critical for species conservation both in the wild and in captivity. !Nonhuman primate feeding behavior is diverse and complex and classied into three interacting groups: environmental, individual, and social adaptation (Robbins and Hohmann 2006) (Fig. 1). Examples of environmental factors are food availability, nutritional content, and interspecic competition. Individual primate factors include body size, gut morphology, and cognitive abilities. Finally, social adaptations determine activity patterns, home range size, sociality, and habitat utilization. Understanding environmental, social, and individual interactions is the primary subject of primate feeding behavior studies and yields the greatest contributions to our knowledge of their ecology. In this study, I look at the feeding behavior of vervet monkeys, or Chlorocebus aethiops as it relates to environmental, social, and individual factors. Vervet monkeys Vervet monkeys have unique morphology, ecology, life histories, and behavior, which makes them interesting subjects for dietary studies. In general, this species is identied by greenish-brown fur on their backs and white fur on their undersides and around their faces (Fig.2). They have black skin on their faces, hands and feet, and blue skin on their abdomen (Skinner and Chimimba 2005). Male and female vervet monkeys are sexually dimorphic and have distinct appearances, in that the males are larger, averaging 490 mm in length and 5.5 kg weight, and are identiable by their colorful 2

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genitalia of a red penis and bright blue scrotum. In comparison, females are smaller, averaging 426 mm in length and 4.2 kg in weight. The average lifespan of vervet monkeys is not known for the wild populations, but it is approximately 13 years in captivity !The distribution of vervet monkeys is widespread as they inhabit most of the SubSaharan African continent (Fig. 3). Vervet monkeys are prevalent throughout the continent because they are highly adaptable and exploit a wide variety of environments from thick bushveld to urban centers (Skinner and Chimimba 2005) In part, this adaptability can be attributed to their ranging pattern and exible diet. In terms of ranging patterns, vervet moneys are semi-arboreal and semi-terrestrial, traveling on the ground to forage during the day and sleeping in trees at night. The diet of vervet monkeys is welldocumented and typical for an omnivore as they feed on both plants and animals based on seasonal availability. As habitat generalists they utilize food sources from farmland to bushveld, depending on availability, and feed predominantly on leaves, fruit, seed pods, and owers. The following plant genera, which are common throughout southern Africa, form the basis of their diet: Acacia, Diospyros, Berchemia, Sclerocarya, Ziziphus, Carcinia, Ximania, Grewia, Cholophspermum, Celtis, Vepris and Mimusops (Brain 1965, Van der Zee and Skinner 1977). While the content of the vervet monkey diet is known, the mechanisms and implications of their food selection are not well understood. Vervet monkeys adapt their ranges according to resource availability due to seasonal and environmental variation. !Dominance and sociality are important aspects of primate behavior and ecology. 3

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Similar to other old world monkeys, such as baboons ( Simia hamadryas ) and patas monkeys ( Erythrocebus patas ), vervet monkeys live in multi-male/multi-female groups or troops, consisting of 10-30 individuals (Skinner and Chimimba 2005) They display female natal philopatry, meaning that females remain in their natal groups and males migrate to another group when they reach adulthood. Groups have linear dominance hierarchies and have an alpha-male and several female lineages. Group composition and dominance play important roles in resource selection, ranging patterns, agonistic behaviors, and a host of other behaviors. Feeding behavior and age, sex, and rank The age, sex, and dominance rank of individual primates relates to their access to food resources. In general, age related differences are emphasized in primates because of their delayed sexual maturation compared to other vertebrates (Pereira and Altmann 1985). Sex differences alter feeding behavior due to gender-specic nutritional requirements, such as those of reproductive females (Lee 1987). Dominance rank determines access to preferred food resources, such that in female-bonded primate groups, female rank is directly linked to access and reproductive success (Wrangham 1980). These relationships are well documented among many primate species and but only a few notable studies have addressed these factors among vervet monkeys. !Only one study has considered sex differences in the feeding behaviors of wild vervet monkeys. Harrison (1983) studied the diet and feeding strategies of the green monkey ( Cercopithicus sabaeus ) as it relates to age and sex in Parc National du NiokoloKoba, Senegal. Harrison found that adult males consumed more rst choice foods' such 4

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as fruit and owers during the dry season, while adult females consumed more foliage during the wet season. These differences in the feeding behavior for males and females were attributed to their nutritional requirements and differences between lactating and non-lactating females during the wet season. However, his study found that there were no signicant sex differences in the feeding behavior of infant and juvenile monkeys. !As with sex differences, only one prior study considered the impact of age on feeding behavior, in particular the ontogeny of feeding behaviors among infant and juvenile vervet monkeys in Amboseli National Park, Kenya (Hauser 1993). The author studied feeding behavior as a measure of the likelihood of food patch abandonment, or the distance required between a high ranking individual to displace a lower ranked individual from a food resource. Hauser reported that feeding behavior differed between young and adult monkeys and infants followed a pattern of synchronous feeding with their mothers at an early age, which was followed by asynchronous feeding. During their rst three months, infants generally fed synchronously with their mothers, then from three months to the rst year, infants spent equal amounts of time feeding alone and with their mothers. Hauser found a positive correlation between age at death of infants and time spent feeding asynchronously with their mothers. !Studies have addressed the role of dominance in feeding behavior and drinking competition (Isabell et al. 1999; Whitten 1983; Wrangham 1981). Isabell et al. (1999) studied differences in rank and ecological behavior among patas and vervet monkeys in Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. Their study considered two types of habitat, Acacia xanthophloea and Acacia drepanolobium, which highlighted differences in feeding strategies. These researchers found that high-ranking vervet females consumed more 5

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fungi and miscellaneous plant items than low-ranking females, who consumed more fruit. In the Acacia xanthophloea habitat, high-ranking females spent more time feeding at one location while low-ranking females were often supplanted. However, the in Acacia drepanolobium habitat, high-ranking females spent more time traveling and eating food terrestrially. Notably, vervet females altered their feeding behavior to maximize their overall foraging efciency leading researchers to conclude that in both cases vervet females beneted from dominance in their feeding behavior. !Whitten (1983) studied the relationship between diet, dominance, and reproductive success in female vervet monkeys in northern Kenya. She found a positive correlation between rank and access to priority feeding sites in areas with clumped resource distribution. However, rank did not play a signicant role in determining access to priority feed sites in areas with random resource distribution. Overall, high-ranking females had greater reproductive success but there were no differences in infant survival rates across rank. !Finally, Wrangham (1981) studied the impact of rank on drinking competition (i.e., competition between individuals for water resources) in female vervet monkeys. He found signicant differences between the drinking strategies of males and females during water shortages. Females drank from alternate water sources, like tree holes, while males would travel into the ranges of neighboring troops for water. As with Whitten (1983), Wrangham (1981) found that high-ranking females had greater access to high-priority water holes. Additionally, he noted that mortality was higher in low ranking individuals of both sexes. 6

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!Multiple studies have documented the relationship of age, sex, and rank with feeding behavior of vervet monkeys. Overall, rank had a greater impact on feeding than age or sex. Harrison (1983) found differences in feeding behavior between males and females, which were attributed to the different nutritional requirements of the sexes. This is logical as vervet monkeys are sexually dimorphic. Hauser (1993) studied the ontogeny of feeding and noted the feeding strategy of infants changed as they aged. Isabell et al. (1999), Whitten (1983), and Wrangham (1981) found that high-ranking females had greater access to priority resources, greater reproductive success, and a higher survival rate. None of the studies, however, attempted to address causation for these positive correlations between rank, diet, and health. Fortunately, all of these studies above drew signicant conclusions, in light of many confounding variables. They highlight the importance of age, sex, and dominance to feeding strategies and primate behavioral ecology as a whole. Feeding behavior and endoparasites The relationships between animal, food, and parasites are complex. Food can act as a vehicle for parasites or it can be used medicinally to control infections. There is strong evidence for self-medication in nonhuman primates (Huffman 1997). Selfmedication adds a new dimension to the relationships between individual, food, and parasite. Understanding these relationships is crucial for prioritizing conservation efforts. Human health implications are important when considering interactions with nonhuman primates with whom they can spread and share diseases; this is especially true for vervet monkeys, which live in close proximity to people. 7

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!In general, non-human primate self-medication is dened as the consumption of food for medicinal value and is used to explain why several primate species eat foods with low nutritional content (Huffman 1997) The medicinal properties of plants that control parasitic infections can be chemical or mechanical. Plants produce chemicals as a defense mechanism against herbivores and insects. These chemicals are classied under plant secondary compounds, or compounds that are not required for basic metabolic functions in plants (Table 1). The consumption of plant secondary compounds forms the basis of most zoopharmacognosy (Glander 1982) Mechanical processes can also be used to control parasitic infections and can be viewed as analogous to chemical compounds. The mechanical properties, such as a rough leaf texture, have evolved in some plant species as defense mechanisms. !No research to date addresses self-medication in vervet monkeys. However, there are several interesting studies on self-medication in other primates and it has become a popular topic over the past two decades. The most well-documented cases of primate self-medication are bitter pith chewing and leaf swallowing in chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) (Huffman 1997) Self-medication through bitter pith chewing of the plant Veronia amygdalina (Del.) was rst observed by Huffman and Seifu (1989) in Mahale, Tanzania. Bitter pith was found to pharmacologically control intestinal nematode infections and gastrointestinal discomfort in chimpanzees (Huffman 1997). Later studies of chimpanzees in Gombe and Kahuzi-Biega corroborated the early observations of this behavior (Wrangham 1995 cited in Huffman 1997; Yumoto et al. 1994 cited in Huffman 1997). 8

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!Leaf swallowing is hypothesized to remove parasites both chemically and mechanically in chimpanzees. Researchers rst observed chimpanzees folding Aspilia leaves and subsequently saw folded leaves in fecal samples, suggesting that the leaves were consumed for medicinal value rather than nutritional value (Rodriguez et al. 1985). Early observations have indicated possible evidence of leaf swallowing in other great apes (Huffman 1997) Twelve years after the rst published observations, leaf swallowing has been documented in chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas at 10 different sites for over 30 different plant species. While Aspilia spp. were found to have an antibiotic secondary compound, the 30 plant species that were used in the practice of leaf swallowing all had a similar rough texture. This commonality led researchers to hypothesize that the rough texture on the leaves mechanically removed parasites from the digestive tract. !Bitter pith chewing and leaf swallowing in great apes are two famous examples of self-medication in primates (Huffman 1997) Together, these demonstrate two mechanisms of endoparasitic treatment that use chemical and mechanical defenses of plants. Furthermore, strong evidence of self-medication in great apes may indicate that the phenomenon occurs in lower primates as well. Loskop Dam Nature Reserve !Loskop Dam Nature Reserve (LDNR) (29¡15.00" E, 25¡34.00" S) to (29¡40.00" E, 25¡56.00" S ) is located in Mmpumalanga province, South Africa, approximately 55 km north of Middelburg (Fig. 4). LDNR was established to protect the area surrounding the Loskop Irrigation Dam. Together, the dam and reserve extend 23,174.9 hectares, which includes 2,350 hectares of water (Fig. 5) (Barrett et al 2010; Emery et al. 2002; 9

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Ferrar et al. 2007). The Loskop Irrigation Dam was completed in 1938 and is 30 km in length, which is the longest in the Southern Hemisphere. The reservoir is directly supplied by the rivers, the Olifants and the Krans Spruit, and these are indirectly supplied by their tributaries (Theron 1973 in Barrett 2009). The water from the dam is crucial for the irrigation of the agriculture communities downstream in Loskop, Groblersdal, Marble Hall and other surrounding areas (MTPB 2010). To protect these waters, the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996, section 24) proclaimed the dam a reserve in 1954, the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve (Administrators Notice 223 of 1954), and it is currently managed by the Mmpumalanga Tourism and Parks Agency (Barrett 2009, MTPB 2010). !The ecology of the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve is inuenced by topography and climate. The topography of LDNR includes dry undulating at highlands, dry mountainous hilly highlands, and dry mountainous hilly lowlands and altitude ranges from 991 m to 1420 m above sea level (Barrett 2009; Emery et al. 2002; Ferrar et al. 2007). The regional climate is classied as subtropical and has distinct wet and dry seasons. The reserve has two classications of vegetation: rocky highveld grassland and mixed bushveld. In the rocky highveld grassland type, vegetation occurs in open grassland and open woodland. Plant species that are characteristic for grassveld communities include common hook-thorn ( Acacia caffra), blue guarri (Euclea crispa), velvet bush willow (Combretum molle), wild pear (Dombeya rotundifolia), mountain karee (Rhus leptodictya), blue currant (Rhus zeyheri), common sugar bush (Protea caffra), transvaal milkplum (Englerophytum magalismontanum), wild medlar (Vangueria infausta), buffalo thorn (Ziziphus mucronata), dwarf buffalo thorn (Ziziphus zeyheriana), 10

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and small knobwood (Zanthoxylum capense) In comparison, a mixed bushveld vegetation community ranges from dense, short bushveld to open tree savanna and encompasses species such as, red bushwillow ( Combretum apiculatum), common hookthorn (Acacia caffra), large-fruited bushwillow (Combetum zeyheri), sickle bush (Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. africana), live long (Lannea discolor), marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra), raisin bush (Grewia vernicosa), velvet raisin (Grewia ava), donkey berry (Grewia monticola), mountain karee (Rhus leoptodictya), wild pepper tree (Kirkia wilmsii), small-leaved star-chestnut (Sterculia rogersii), wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. africana), grey cabbage tree (Cussonia transvaalensis), largeleaved rock g (Ficus abutifolia), silver cluster-leaf (Terminalia sericea), and wild seringa ( Burkea africana) (Schmidt et. al. 2002; Bredenkamp et. al. 1996). A complete list of plant species found in the LDNR is provided in Appendix A. !Many research projects have been conducted on all aspects of the ecology of Loskop Dam Nature Reserve. Several studies have been done on vervet monkeys with topics ranging from grooming patterns to social learning. A list of studies conducted at the LDNR is included in Appendix B. Study !In this study, I documented the feeding behavior of wild vervet monkeys in Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, an environment altered by human inuences, e.g., dam construction. I studied the relationship between endoparasitic richness and feeding behavior in vervet monkeys, a unique and unexplored topic in the published literature. To these ends, I investigated if the feeding behavior of vervet monkeys directly related to 11

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age, sex, or rank of individuals. Additionally, I examined if feeding on particular plant species would change the parasitic richness of an individual. I expected that age, sex, rank, and endoparasitic richness would relate to the feeding diversity and feeding frequency of individual vervet monkeys. 12

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Methods 13

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! This project was conducted with the approval of the University of South Africa's Applied Behavioural Ecology and Ecosystem Research Unit (UNISA ABEERU) and the Mmupulanaga Parks Board. Study site !The study site was located in the University of South Africa Applied Behavioral Ecology and Ecosystem Research Unit eld station, which is part of Loskop Dam Nature Reserve (29¡15.00" E, 25¡34.00" S) to (29¡40.00" E, 25¡56.00" S) (Fig. 4 and 5). The region is subtropical with an average temperature of 21C and average rainfall of 350-650mm per year. The vegetation at the reserve is indicative of a savannah biome, having mostly rocky highveld grassland and mixed bushveld (Bradenkamp et al. 1996). Sample population Researchers have studied vervet monkeys at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve for more than 5 years and have identied and habituated six of the groups in the reserve to humans. For my research, I selected three groups with contiguous home ranges to minimize environmental variations between study groups (Fig. 6). The groups were selected with respect to concurrent research, not at random. The three groups, Bay, Donga, and Blesbokvlgate (Blesbok), are named after dominant features in their home ranges: an inlet for the Bay' group, several deep dongas (gullies) for the Donga' group, and a T-junction in a road for the Blesbokvlgate' group. Among these three groups, I observed a total of 51 individuals during the study, which were only the individuals that were readily identiable. I based my identications 14

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on physical characteristics including sex, size, coloring, face shape, and other distinguishing characteristics (i.e. scars, ear notches and holes, broken ngers, irregular gaits). As a result of differing troop sizes and trouble with identications, the individuals were not evenly distributed among the three groups with 14 from the Bay, 20 from the Donga, and 17 from the Blesbok. The Blesbok was the only troop that was represented in its entirety due to size, level of habituation, and ease of identication. A complete composition of the total populations in included in Tables 2 and 3, which categorize individuals based on group, sex, and life history. Locating I conducted this study from October 2009 to January 2010. During this time, I attempted to locate individuals on 67 days, but I was only able to locate a group and collect data on 23 days. The groups were located opportunisticallythe rst group found on any given day was the rst group followedby hiking through their home ranges. If a particular group could not be found, I proceeded to search for another group and continued this process until noon or until the monkeys were found. After noon the monkeys were no longer traveling making it difcult to see or hear them. Sampling !Once a group was located, I identied an individual opportunistically and began a follow. I followed a single individual until either I was unable to see it or for a 30 minutes, using the focal sampling technique of Altmann (1974). During each focal sample, I recorded the following data on feeding behavior: 1) the species of food plant 15

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over 30 cm tall and 2) the time in seconds of each feeding bout. I dened feeding as an individual actively putting food into their mouths, because vervet monkeys often chew food over a long period of time. A feeding bout began when the rst bite was taken and continued until 30 seconds after the last bite was put in their mouths. During preliminary observations, I had determined that a 30-second interval allowed me to record accurate feeding bouts while accommodating frequent, short pauses in feeding. All of the follows were conducted during daylight hours, between 0500 and 1700 hours, cumulating in 91 hours of collected behavioral data. !I identied each plant species consumed by the monkeys during observation periods using two eld guides, Schmidt et al. (2007) and Van Wyk et al. (1997), and my identications were conrmed by the ecologist for the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve (J Coetzee, personal communication) using plant clippings taken from the eld. !Data for the endoparasitic richness of individuals used in this study was provided by B Wren (personal communication). Wren had determined the endoparasitic richness from fecal samples preserved in buffered formaldehyde using microscopy. Of the 51 individuals observed for this study, the endoparasitic richness of 31 monkeys was available for the months of the study period, October 2009 to January 2010. I averaged the parasites if more than one fecal sample was taken from a study individual during the targeted time period. Dominance hierarchies Prior researchers used behavioral observations to determine the linear dominance hierarchies for adults and sub-adults from the Bay, Donga, and Blesbok groups (Tables 4, 16

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5, & 6). Generally, rank is assigned by recording dominant/subordinate interactions between individuals and organizing them into a dominance matrix. For vervet monkeys, dominant/subordinate interactions include displacement, ghting, and displays between individuals. My own preliminary observations conrmed the hierarchy proposed by the prior researchers. Wrangham (1980) determined that vervet monkeys, in general, have stable social structures over many years. Data analysis Data was analyzed using non-parametric correlations because the data did not meet the distribution assumptions of parametric tests, which have greater efciency (Siegel and Castellan 1988). I used SAS (ver. 9.2) for all of my statistical analyses (Appendix D), which included Spearman rank correlations for comparing continuous data and pointbiserial correlations for comparing dichotomous data (Table 7). 17

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Results 18

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! The data used for statistical analyses is included in Appendix C. SAS output for statistical analyses is included in Appendix E. Dietary diversity !To determine feeding diversity, I observed the three troops for 91 hours, of which 34.8 hours were spent with the Blesbok group, 44.7 hours with the Donga group, and 11.5 hours with the Bay group. The ten most commonly consumed plant species from all the groups are as follows: Ficus sur, Berchemia zeyheri, Ziziphus mucronata, Acacia ataxacantha, Olea europea, Combretum zeyheri, Combretum apiculatum, Dovyalis zeyheri, Acacia robusta !In terms of feeding diversity, the feeding data revealed that the groups fed on 25 plant species from 14 different families that were over 30 cm in height (Table 8). The monkeys fed on leaves, owers, fruit, bark, and gum from various plant species and ate 40 different plant items in total. Along with the plants listed in Table 8, the vervet monkeys consumed earth from the salt lick, insects, lichen, and terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (i.e., grasses). I observed individuals from the Blesbok group feeding on 16 plant species, the Donga group feeding on 17 plant species, and the Bay group feeding on 8 plant species. Feeding behavior !To investigate the impact of age on feeding behavior, I compared age to both feeding diversity and food preference. I categorized the 51 study individuals into four age classes: adult (>5 years), sub-adult (3-5 years), juvenile (1-3 years), and infant (<1 year) (Struhsaker 1967). I observed adults for 46.7 hours, sub-adults for 24.9 hours, juveniles 19

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for 8.3 hours, and infants for 11.1 hours. I found no signicant correlation between age and both feeding diversity and food preference ( p > .05, Spearman rank correlation ). I examined the relationship between sex and food preference in adult and sub-adult monkeys. I observed 35 individuals, males for 36.8 hours and females for 34.8 hours. I found no signicant correlation ( p > .05, Spearman rank correlation ) between the sex of a monkey and the frequency they fed on a plant species. Similarly, I found no signicant correlation ( p> .05, Point-biserial correlation ) between lactation and the frequency 23 adult and sub-adult females fed on a plant species. To test the relationship between rank and feeding frequency, I observed 35 adult and sub-adult monkeys for 71.6 hours. I found no signicant correlation ( p < .05; Spearman rank correlation ) between the relative rank of a monkey and the frequency on which they fed on a plant species. In addition to rank, I considered the impact of familial associations on feeding behavior. To study the importance of matrilineal association on feeding behavior, I compared the most frequently consumed plants among each family of three or more, eight families in total (Table 9). To determine the relationship between feeding and endoparasitic richness I compared the presence/absence of a plant species to the endoparasitic richness of 31 individuals. Parasitic richness for eight endoparasites, Trichuris, Necatoriasis, Physaloptera, Oesophagostomum Strongyloides Entamoeba unknown' Entamoeba, and unknown' was obtained from B. Wren (unpublished data). I found signicant (p < 05; Spearman rank correlation ) positive and negative correlations between plant species and parasites (Table 10). A positive correlation suggests that consumption of a plant is directly proportional to the presence of a parasite, and a negative correlation infers that 20

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the consumption of a plant is directly proportional to the absence of a parasite. Signicant positive correlations were found between Physaloptera and consumption of A.burkei A. nilotica and B. zeyheri the unknown' Entamoeba and the consumption of Z. mucronata and the unknown' parasite and the consumption of A. burkei, A. caffra, C. aristata, E. crispa, F. burkei, and R. leptodictia ( p> .05, Point-biserial correlation ) Signicant negative correlations were found between Oesophagostomum and the consumption of P. capensis and Entamoeba and consumption of C. apiculatum and P. capensis ( p> .05, Point-biserial correlation ) 21

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Discussion 22

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! The purpose of this study was to document the relationship between the feeding behavior of wild vervet monkeys and their age, sex, rank, and endoparasitic richness. My results suggest that the feeding behavior of vervet monkeys was not dependent on their age, sex, or rank nor was there a relationship between feeding behaviors and these morphological and social factors. However, I found feeding behavior was related to increased and decreased endoparasitic richness in the vervet monkeys (Table 10). This suggests that the consumption of certain plant species may affect presence or absence of specic endoparasites. Feeding behavior and age, sex, and rank !Feeding behavior, as it relates to age, sex, and rank, in vervet monkeys has been studied in the past with some mixed results (Harrison 1983; Hauser 1993; Whitten 1983; Isabell et al. 1999). I found that feeding behavior was independent of age. Only two previous studies, Harrison (1983) and Hauser (1993), were focused on differences in feeding behavior between young and adult vervet monkeys. My results were consistent with Harrison (1983) who reported no age related differences in feeding behavior. In contrast, Hauser (1993) found differences in the feeding strategies of infants, as compared to juveniles and adults. However, his study focused on the likelihood of high priority food patch abandonment, which I did not consider. Interestingly, he did report that infants fed synchronously with their mothers up to three months of age, which I also observed in infants less than three months of age. All of the infants in my study were under three months of age because the beginning of this study coincided with the vervet birthing season. 23

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!As with age, my results indicated that feeding behavior is independent of sex. One other study (Harrison 1983) compared the feeding behavior of male and female vervet monkeys but found a signicant correlation between feeding behavior and sex. The author observed that males ate more fruit and owers in the dry season and females ate more foliage in the wet season. Harrison (1983) attributed the difference in feeding behaviors to the specic nutritional requirements of lactating females. For my study, I was only able to make observations during the wet season, which could account for the discrepancy between our results. In addition, I did not consider differences between lactating and non-lactating females, which could have affected my results. !Finally, I found no correlation between feeding behavior and dominance rank among the study individuals. Dominance rank among primates is generally assumed to have a signicant impact on mating, feeding, and other important resources. Two prior studies, Whitten (1983) and Isabell et al. (1999), examined the relationships between feeding behavior and female dominance rank among vervet monkeys and both found that high ranking females spent more time feeding on high-priority resources, like fruit. However, Whitten (1983) only found rank-related feeding differences for areas with clumped resource distribution. In comparison, Isabell et al. (1999) reported differences between high ranking and low ranking females with foraging efciency and the duration of time individuals spent feeding at one location without being supplanted. Both studies found signicant correlations between feeding behavior and rank but their specicities make them less compelling for an overarching mechanism or conclusion. When these published studies are compared with my results, the impact of rank-related differences on feeding behavior may be over emphasized in vervet monkeys. 24

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Feeding behavior and endoparastic richness I found signicant correlations, both positive and negative, between feeding behavior and parasitic richness in the vervet monkeys. Positive correlations indicate that the consumption of a plant increased parasitic richness, while negative correlations suggest that the consumption of a plant decreased parasitic richness in the monkeys. Both positive and negative correlations are important because of the potential health implications, healthful or detrimental, for infected individuals. The consumption of several plants was shown to increase specic parasites in study individuals. There was one notable consistency among the positive correlations. The genus Acacia only yielded positive correlations, and three species correlated with one or both Physaloptera and unknown' Entamoeba parasites, which suggests that plants of the Acacia genus are vehicles for these endoparasites. This result is interesting because Acacia bark and gum has been documented for use in traditional medicine, including anti-parasitic treatments (Schmidt et al. 2007). Additionally, Acacia plants have high tannin production, which are secondary active compounds produced by plants as a defense mechanism and used by primates for self-medication (e.g. Wrangham and Waterman 1981). These contradictory ndings may suggest my results need further investigation. However, I did not record plant items consumed during each feeding bout, therefore it is possible that some parts of the Acacia, (e.g., bark and gum) have antiparasitic properties but other portions (e.g., leaves, pods, and thorns) have parasites. !I found several plants that did have a signicant relationship with consumption and parasites. In other words, the consumption of these plants decreased the presence of 25

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certain parasites among individuals. In particular, one of these plants, P. capensis reduced the occurrence of two parasites ( Oseo and Entam ), which suggests it may have anti-parasitic properties. P. capensis commonly known as a jacket-plum, is used in traditional medicine as a cure for ringworm, arthritis, gynecological problems, and as an aphrodisiac (Schmidt et al. 2007, Muthee et al. 2011, Ghirmai 2002, Bryant and Lomba 2004). The use of jacket-plum in local traditional medicine in humans for the treatment of ailments supports the suggestion that consumption of this plant species may be a potential treatment for parasites in vervet monkeys. !These conclusions about the relationships between feeding and parasites in vervet monkeys, though interesting, are tenuous without further studies and a larger sample size. Study limitations This study yielded some interesting results but the project design used had several limitations that affected the data. I made concessions with several aspects of the project from group selection to the manner in which I collected the feeding data. Therefore, it is important to consider these limitations when drawing conclusions from the results and comparing them to other research as well as undertaking similar projects. !My rst limitation was the time constraint of the project. I collected data from for only three months (October 2009 January 2010) and at the beginning of the rainy season, therefore, my data did not account for seasonal or yearly variations. This is not ideal because feeding behaviors change under different environmental stresses, and these may have be more pronounced in the dry season or comparatively between the wet and the dry seasons. I did not account for yearly variations, which may show large scale 26

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climatic changes that could account for altered feeding behavior (see Van Shaik and Brockman 2005). Additionally, a long-term study over several years would have allowed me to study changes (e.g., life history, dominance, or predation) in individual monkeys, as they relate to feeding. Although long-term studies are preferable for many reasons, they are not always practical as they take a signicant amount of time and are more expensive and difcult logistically. Logistical difculties accounted for biases introduced in this study,e.g., the selection of the three monkey troops was not random within the reserve. Instead, I selected groups with respect to concurrent research, ease of access, and level of habituation for the group. Randomized group selection would have required surveying the reserve for vervet monkey troops, selecting the groups based on a random number generator, habituating those groups, identifying individuals, and establishing a dominance hierarchy. This was obviously not possible with the time frame and resources I had available for this study. !The selection of the study individuals within each group was also biased based on my ability to make accurate identications. Ideally, I would have collected feeding data from all the individuals in each of the study groups, as this would have provided a more accurate assessment of group feeding dynamics and a larger sample size of individuals. However, it was very difcult to identify juveniles because they lacked distinguishing markers, and individuals that were not well habituated. It was necessary for me to remove these individuals from data collection to avoid making incorrect identications. !Limitations associated with data collection fell into two major categories: i ) my choice of methods to quantify feeding behavior and ii ) the concessions I made within that method. There are a multitude of ways feeding behavior has been studied in primates 27

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( Robbins and Hohmann 2006 ) and in this study, I chose to measure feeding behavior by simply recording the time they fed on a plant species. This method was simple and did not require expensive chemicals, equipment, or extensive training. However, feeding behavior could have been recorded by observations of the number of bites taken or the collection and analysis of fecal matter And the latter may be the most accurate indicator of amount and type of plant species consumed. A combination of observation and fecal collection is often used because it can be difcult to identify plant species from fecal samples (Dew 2003) Feeding behavior is described and quantied in different ways and the relative accuracy of each method has not been investigated. I chose the simplest method for studying feeding behavior but there are other methods I could have been used. !I used a simple method of data collection and I made concessions within my chosen method, which may have biased my data. My greatest limitation was collecting data on an opportunistic basis, meaning I did not randomly select the group or individuals I collected data for on a given day. I had a clear picture of the home ranges of the troops but they were very difcult to locate and a randomized collection would have been dependent on my ability to nd the appropriate group everyday. I did attempt to follow individuals within the group in a random order to avoid bias but I generally spent too much time trying to identify and locate the correct individual. Randomized follows would have been more realistic for a semi-captive population, which had less room to travel, a population that was tagged with tracking devices, or a long-term study. Without sufcient resources to do otherwise, opportunistic follows allowed me to collect more data though potentially biased for groups and individuals. It is impossible to know the extent that these biases presented in my study and ultimately affected my results. 28

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Conclusions The feeding behavior of vervet monkeys is related to many factors that span individual, social, and environmental levels. The study of the interaction between animal, food, and environment is complex but important for understanding primate behavior and ecology. The information gained from these types of studies can be used to promote the conservation of captive and wild populations. Captive populations can benet from observations of food availability, foraging strategies, and nutritional requirements, which can be used for enrichment. Understanding the feeding behavior of wild populations can benet conservation efforts because results from these studies can be used to identify keystone plant resources, which have direct health implications. 29

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Table 1. Common classes of plant secondary compounds. (Table from Huffman 1997) 30

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Table 2. Composition of the 51 sample individuals from three groups: the Bay, the Donga, and the Blesbok Bay Donga Blesbok Total Adult Males (>5 yrs) 2 5 3 11 Adult Females (>5 yrs) 4 5 3 12 Sub-adult Males (3-5 yrs) 1 1 3 5 Sub-adult Females (3-5 yrs) 3 2 5 Juvenile Males (1-3 yrs) 4 2 2 8 Juvenile Females (1-3 yrs) 1 1 Infants (<1 yr) 3 4 3 9 Total 14 20 17 51 Bay Donga Blesbok Total Adult Males (>5 yrs) 4 5 3 12 Adult Females (>5 yrs) 6 5 3 14 Sub-adult Males (3-5 yrs) 3 3 3 9 Sub-adult Females (3-5 yrs) 1 3 2 6 Juvenile Males (1-3 yrs) 6 2 2 10 Juvenile Females (1-3 yrs) 1 1 1 3 Infants (<1 yr) 3 4 3 10 Total 24 23 17 64 Group Group 31

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Table 3. Total known composition of the three troops from three groups: the Bay, the Donga, and the Blesbok as of January 2010. Bay Donga Blesbok Total Adult Males (>5 yrs) 2 5 3 11 Adult Females (>5 yrs) 4 5 3 12 Sub-adult Males (3-5 yrs) 1 1 3 5 Sub-adult Females (3-5 yrs) 3 2 5 Juvenile Males (1-3 yrs) 4 2 2 8 Juvenile Females (1-3 yrs) 1 1 Infants (<1 yr) 3 4 3 9 Total 14 20 17 51 Bay Donga Blesbok Total Adult Males (>5 yrs) 4 5 3 12 Adult Females (>5 yrs) 6 5 3 14 Sub-adult Males (3-5 yrs) 3 3 3 9 Sub-adult Females (3-5 yrs) 1 3 2 6 Juvenile Males (1-3 yrs) 6 2 2 10 Juvenile Females (1-3 yrs) 1 1 1 3 Infants (<1 yr) 3 4 3 10 Total 24 23 17 64 Group Group 32

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Table 4. Linear dominance hierarchy of adults and sub-adults from the Bay troop. Rank Male Female 1 Lyle Kira 2 Pompon Kenya 3 Jacob Zeta 4 Kous-kous Wicky 5 Dragon 6 Zorro Rank Male Female 1 Hobbs Boba 2 Samon Lostris 3 Wonka Ounooi 4 Elrond Jade 5 Ghost Agathe 6 Oscar Lulu 7 Joy 8 Frida Rank Male Female 1 Wooly Xena 2 Sparrow Unia 3 Barght Punky 4 Xuki Xara 5 Uranus Utopia 6 Xylo Individual Individual Individual 33

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Table 5. Linear dominance hierarchy of adults and sub-adults from the Donga troop. Rank Male Female 1 Lyle Kira 2 Pompon Kenya 3 Jacob Zeta 4 Kous-kous Wicky 5 Dragon 6 Zorro Rank Male Female 1 Hobbs Boba 2 Samson Lostris 3 Wonka Ounooi 4 Elrond Jade 5 Ghost Agathe 6 Oscar Lulu 7 Joy 8 Frida Rank Male Female 1 Wooly Xena 2 Sparrow Unia 3 Barght Punky 4 Xuki Xara 5 Uranus Utopia 6 Xylo Individual Individual Individual 34

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Table 6. Linear dominance hierarchy of adults and sub-adults from the Blesbok troop. Rank Male Female 1 Lyle Kira 2 Pompon Kenya 3 Jacob Zeta 4 Kous-kous Wicky 5 Dragon 6 Zorro Rank Male Female 1 Hobbs Boba 2 Samon Lostris 3 Wonka Ounooi 4 Elrond Jade 5 Ghost Agathe 6 Oscar Lulu 7 Joy 8 Frida Rank Male Female 1 Wooly Xena 2 Sparrow Unia 3 Barght Punky 4 Xuki Xara 5 Uranus Utopia 6 Xylo Individual Individual Individual 35

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Table 7 Summary of non-parametric correlations used in the data analyses. Variables Non-parametric test Age and Feeding frequency Spearman rank correlation Age and Feeding diversity Point-biserial correlation Sex and Feeding frequency Point-biserial correlation Lactation and Feeding frequency Spearman rank correlation Rank and Feeding frequency Spearman rank correlation Parasites and Feeding diversity Point-biserial correlation 36

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Table 8. Alphabetical list of plant species over 30 cm in height eaten by the Blesbok, Donga, and Bay groups in Loskop Dam Nature Reserve (October 2009-January 2010). Genus and species Plant foods Family Part eaten Blesbok Donga Bay Acacia ataxacantha Mimosaceae fr, b, g, l + + + Acacia burkei Mimosaceae + Acacia caffra Mimosaceae l + Acacia nilotica Mimosaceae g + Acacia robusta Mimosaceae b + + Berchemia zeyheri Rhamnaceae fr, l + + Celtis africana Celtidaceae fr, l + + Chaetachme aristata Celtidaceae l + Combretum apiculatum Combretaceae fr, g + Combretum erythrophyllum Combretaceae fr + Combretum zeyheri Combretaceae fr, l + + + Dovyalis zeyheri Flacourtiaceae fr, l + Euclea crispa Ebenaceae l + Ficus burkei Moraceae fr + + Ficus sur Moraceae fr, l + + Gymnoporia buxifolia Celastraceae l + Heteropyxis natalensis Heteropyxidaceae b, l + + Mimusops zeyheri Manilkara fr, l + + Olea europaea Oleaceae fr, l + + + Pappea capensis Sapindaceae l + + Pavetta gardeniifolia var. subtomentosa Rubiaceae l + Rhus leptodictia Ozoroa l + + Sclerocarya birrea Ozoroa b + Ximenia caffra Olacaceae fr, l + Ziziphus mucronata Rhamnaceae fr + + Group l = leaves, fr = fruit, = ower, b = bark, g = gum. 37

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Table 9. The rst, second, and third most commonly consumed plants, in descending order, by each family of three or more individuals. Matriline: Name of individual head of family Group: 1=Bay, 2=Donga, 3=Blesbok Size: Number of individuals in each family Matriline Group Size 1 2 3 Xena 1 7 Ficus sur Berchemia zeyheri Mimusops zeyheri Unia 1 4 Ficus sur Mimusops zeyheri Celtis africana Boba 2 3 Heteropyxis natalensis Acacia ataxacantha Pavetta gardeniafolia Jade 2 3 Combretum erythrophyllum Berchemia zeyheri Acacia burkei Lostris 2 3 Heteropyxis natalensis Pappea capensis Ounooi 2 3 Mimusops zeyheri Diospyros whyteana Celtis africana Zeta 3 3 Acacia ataxacantha Mimusops zeyheri Berchemia zeyheri Kira 3 6 Ziziphus mucronata Berchemia zeyheri Pappea capensis Commonly consumed plant species 38

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Table 10. Point-biserial correlation between presence/absence of plant species and parasites for signicant correlations ( p < .05, Spearman rank correlation) Within each cell, the top value is the Spearman correlation coefcient the middle is the pvalue and the bottom is the sample size. Phys Oeso Entam Uke Ukw 0.42293 0.69522 0.0178 <.0001 31 31 1 <.0001 31 0.40105 0.0254 31 0.38001 0.035 31 0.47434 0.007 31 -0.43724 0.0139 31 0.55777 0.0011 31 0.69522 <.0001 31 -0.3567 -0.44481 0.0489 0.0122 31 31 0.47434 0.007 31 0.37929 0.0353 31 Parasites Euclea crispa Ficus burkei Pappea capensis Rhus leptodictia Ziziphus mucronata Plant Species Acacia burkei Acacia caffra Acacia nilotica Berchemia zeyheri Chaetachme aristata Combretum apiculatum 39

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Figure 1. A schematic diagram of relationships between environment, primate, and responses of primate to environment as constrained by morphology and physiology. (Figure from Hohmann et al. 2006) 40

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Figure 2. Vervet monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops in Loskop Dan Nature Reserve. (Photo by Katharine Dean 2009) 41

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Figure 3. Distribution of C. pygerythrus, C. sabaeus, C. tantalus, and C. aethiops in Africa as highlighted in green. (From Skinner and Chimimba 2006) 42

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Figure 4. Map of South Africa. The push pin designates the location of Loskop Dam Nature Reserve ( 29¡15.00" to 29¡40.00" E, 25¡34.00" to 25¡56.00" S) 43

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Figure 5. Map of Loskop Dam Nature Reserve ( 29¡15.00" to 29¡40.00" E, 25¡34.00" to 25¡56.00" S ), outlined in green. 44

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Figure 6. Contiguous home ranges of the study groups: the Blesbok (green), the Donga (red), and the Bay (blue). 45

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References Altmann J. 1974. Observational study of behavior sampling methods. Behavior ( 49) : 227-267. Barrett A. 2009. Spatial and temporal patterns in resource dispersion and the structure of range use and co-existence in a social omnivore Chlorocebus aethiops Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of South Africa. Barrett A, Brown L, Barrett L, Henzi P. 2010. A oristic description and utilisation of two home ranges by vervet monkeys at the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa. Koedoe, 52 ( 12). Bredenkamp G, Granger J, Van Rooyen N. 1998. Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. 2nd ed. Pretoria: Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Brain C. 1965. Observations on the behavior of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus !aethiops). Zool Afr 1: 13-27. Bryant C, Lomba B. 2004. African trees: a photographic exploration. Cape Town (SA): !Double Storey. Dew JL. 2003. Feeding ecology and seed dispersal. In: Setchell JM, Curtis DJ. Field and !laboratory methods in primatology: a practical guide. United Kingdom: !Cambridge UP, p. 174-183. Emery A, Lotterm M, Williamson S. 2004. Determining the conservation value of land in Mpumalanga. Nelspruit: Mpumalanga Tourism and Parks Board. Ferrar T, Lotter M 2007. Mpumalanga biodiversity conservation plan handbook. Nelspruit: Mpumalanga Tourism and Parks Board. Ghirmai S. 2002. Traditional use of traditional medicinal plants in the Highland Region of Eritrea. Unpublished MSc thesis. Agricultural University of Norway. Glander H. 1987. The impact of plant secondary compounds on primate feeding behavior. !Yearbook of Phys Anth 25: 1-18. Harrison M. 1982. Age and sex differences in the diet and feeding strategies of the green !monkey, Chercopithecus sabaeus. Anim Beh 31 (4): 969-977. Hauser MD. 1993. Ontogeny of foraging behavior in wild vervet monkeys !(Cercopithecus aethiops): social interactions and survival. J Comp Psyc 107 (3): !276-282. 46

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Huffman MA. 1997. Current evidence for self-medication in primates: a multidisciplinary !perspective. Yearbook of Phys Anth 40: 171-200. Huffman MA, Seifu M. 1989. Observations on the illness and consumption of a possibly !medicinal plant Vernonia amygdalina (Del.), by a wild chimpanzee in the Mahale !Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Primates 30 (1): 51-63. Isbell LA, Pruetz JD, Lewis M, Young TP. 1999. Rank differences in ecological behavior: !A comparative study of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets !(Cercopithecus aethiops). Lee PC. 1987. Nutrition, fertility, and maternal investment in primates. J Zool 213 (3): !409-422. Munthee JK, Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Kareru PG, Mulei CM, Njonge FK. 2011. !Ethnobotanical study of anthelmintic and other medicinal plants traditionally used !in Loitoktok district of Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol ( in press ): 1-7. MTPB. 2010. Loskop Dam Nature Reserve (Online). Nelspruit: Mpumalanga Tourism and Parks Board. Available: http://www.mpumalanga.com/index.php?wildlife +1781 [Accessed 19 Dec 2010]. Pereira ME, Altmann J. 1985. Development of social behavior in free-living nonhuman !primates. In: Watts ES. Nonhuman primate models for human growth and !development. New York: Alan R. Liss, p. 217-309. Robbins MM, Hohmann G. 2006. Primate feeding ecology: an integrative approach. In: !Hohmann G, Robbins MM, Boesch C. Feeding ecology in apes and other !primates. New York (NY): Cambridge UP, p. 1-13. Rodriguez E, Aregullin M, Nishida T, Uehara S, Wrangham R, Abramowski Z, Finlayson !A, Towers G. Thiarubrine A, a bioactive constituent of Aspilia (Asteraceae) !consumed by wild chimpanzees. Experientia 41: 419-420. Schmidt E, Lotter M, McCleland W. 2007. Trees and Shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park. Johannesburg (SA): Jacana Media. Siegel S, Castellan NJ. 1988. Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. New York (US): McGraw-Hill. Skinner JD, Chimimba CT. 2006. The mammals of the southern african sub-region. 3rd !ed. Cape Town (SA): Cambridge UP, p. 224-227. Struhsaker TT. 1967. Social structure among vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). !Behavior 29 (2/4): 83-121. 47

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Theron G. 1973. An ecological study of the vegetation of the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Pretoria: University of Pretoria. UNISA ABEERU. 2010. Research (Online). Pretoria: University of South Africa Applied Behavioral Ecology and Ecosystem Research Unit. Available: http:// www.unisa.ac.za/default.asp?Cmd=ViewContent&ContentID=19852 [Accessed 19 Dec 2010]. Van der Zee D, Skinner JD. 1977. Preliminary observations on samango and vervet !monkeys near Lake Sibayi. S Afr J Sci 73: 381-382. van Shaik CP, Brockman DK 2005. Seasonality in primate ecology, reproduction, and life !history: an overview. In: Brockman DK, van Shaik CP. Seasonality in !primates: studies of living and extinct human and non-human primates. New York !(NY): Cambridge UP, p. 1-19. Van Wyk B, Palgrav KC, Van Wyk P. 1997. Field guide to trees of southern Africa. !Johannesburg (SA): Struik Publishers. Whitten P. 1983. Diet and dominance among female vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus !aethiops). Amer J Prim 5: 139-159. Wrangham R.1995. Relationship of chimpanzee leafswallowing to a tapeworm infection. !Am J Phys Primatol 37: 297303. Wrangham R. 1980. An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour !75 (3/4): 262-300. Wrangham R. 1981. Drinking competition in vervet monkeys. Anim Behv 29 (3): !904-910. Wrangham, R, Waterman, P. 1981. Feeding behaviour of vervet monkeys on Acacia !tortilis and Acacia xanthphloea: with special reference to reproductive strategies !and tannin production. J Anim Behv 50 (3): 715-731. Yumoto T, Yamagiwa J, Mwanza N, and Maruhashi T. 1994. List of plant species !identied in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaire. Tropics 3: 295308. 48

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Appendix A List of the plant species in Loskop Dam Nature Reserve as of June 2007 adapted from Barrett (2010). !""#$%&'(! ( List of the plant species in Loskop Dam Nature Reserve as of June 2007 adapted from Alan S. Barret t 's thesis, Spatial and temporal patterns in resource dispersion and the structure of range use and co existence in a social omnivore Chlorocebus aethiops ." Family Genus Species Subspecies Acanthaceae Barleria crossandirformis Acanthaceae Barleria elegans Acanthaceae Barleria galpinii Acanthaceae Barleria lancifolia Acanthaceae Barleria mackenii Acanthaceae Barleria macrostegia Acanthaceae Barleria obtusa Acanthaceae Barleria pretoriensis Acanthaceae Barleria rotundifolia Acanthaceae Blepharis saxatilis Acanthaceae Blepharis maderaspatensis Maderaspatensis Acanthaceae Blepharis subvolubilis var. subvolubilis Acanthaceae Blepharis transvaalensis Acanthaceae Chaetacanthus burchellii Acanthaceae Chaetacanthus setiger Acanthaceae Crabbea angustifolia Acanthaceae Crabbea hirsuta Acanthaceae Crossandra greenstockii Acanthaceae Dicliptera clinopodia Acanthaceae Dyschoriste transvaalensis Acanthaceae Hypoestes aristata var. aristata Acanthaceae Hypoestes forskaolii Acanthaceae Isoglossa grantii Acanthaceae Justicia anagalloides Acanthaceae Justicia betonica Acanthaceae Justicia flava Acanthaceae Justicia odora Acanthaceae Justicia protracta protracta Acanthaceae Lepidagathis scabra Acanthaceae Ruellia cordata Acanthaceae Ruellia patula Acanthaceae Scleronchiton triacanthus Acanthaceae Thunbergia atriplicifolia Acanthaceae Thunbergia natalensis Aizoaceae Corbichonia decumbens 49

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Aizoaceae Gisekia pharnacioides var. pharnacioides Aizoaceae Limeum viscosum viscosum var. kraussii Aizoaceae Mollugo nudicaulis Aizoaceae Psammotropha mucronata var. foliosa Alliaceae Agapanthus nutans Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera var. aspera Amaranthaceae Aerva leucura Amaranthaceae Alternanthera pungens Amaranthaceae Alternathera sessilis Amaranthaceae Amaranthus thunbergii Amaranthaceae Gomphrena celosioides Amaranthaceae Kyphocarpa angustifolia Amaranthaceae Pupalia lappacea var. lappacea Amaryllidaceae Boophane disticha Amaryllidaceae Crinum bulbispermum Amaryllidaceae Crinum lugardiae Amaryllidaceae Haemanthus humilis hirsutus Amaryllidaceae Scadoxus puniceus Anacardiaceae Lannea discolor Anacardiaceae Lannea edulis var. edulis Anacardiaceae Ozoroa insignis reticulata Anacardiaceae Ozoroa paniculosa paniculosa Anacardiaceae Ozoroa paniculosa salicina Anacardiaceae Ozoroa sphaerocarpa R. & A. Fern Anacardiaceae Rhus dentata Anacardiaceae Rhus gerrardii Anacardiaceae Rhus gracillima var. gracillima Anacardiaceae Rhus leptodictya Anacardiaceae Rhus magalismontana magalismontana Anacardiaceae Rhus montana Anacardiaceae Rhus pyroides var. pyroides Anacardiaceae Rhus zeyheri Anacardiaceae Sclerocarya birrea caffra Anemiaceae Mohria caffrorum Anemiaceae Mohria vestita Anthericaceae Chlorophytum aridum Anthericaceae Chlorophytum bowkeri 50

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Anthericaceae Chlorophytum cooperi Apiaceae Alepidea setifera Apiaceae Annesorhiza flagellifolia Apiaceae Centella asiatica Apiaceae Heteromorpha trifoliata Apiaceae Polemanniopsis marlothii Apiaceae Sium repandum Apocynaceae Acokanthera oppositifolia Apocynaceae Ancylobothrys capensis Apocynaceae Carissa bispinosa bispinosa Apocynaceae Diplorhynchus condylocarpon Apocynaceae Rauvolfia caffra Apocynaceae Stropanthus speciosus Aquifoliaceae Ilex mitis var. mitis Araceae Stylochiton natalensis Araliaceae Cussonia peniculata paniculata Araliaceae Cussonia spicata Araliaceae Cussonia transvaalensis Arecaceae Phoenix reclinata Asclepiadaceae Asclepias aurea Asclepiadaceae Asclepias brevipes Asclepiadaceae Asclepias burchellii Asclepiadaceae Ceropegia ampliata var. ampliata Asclepiadaceae Duvalia polita var. parviflora Asclepiadaceae Gomphocarpus fructicosus Asclepiadaceae Gomphocarpus glaucophyllus Asclepiadaceae Gomphocarpus tomentosus Asclepiadaceae Gymnema sylvestre Asclepiadaceae Orbeopsis melanantha Asclepiadaceae Pachycarpus schinzianus Asclepiadaceae Pentarrhiunum insipidum Asclepiadaceae Periglossum angustifolium Asclepiadaceae Periglossum kassnerianurn Asclepiadaceae Sarcostemma viminale Viminale Asclepiadaceae Secamone alpini Asclepiadaceae Secamone filiformis Asclepiadaceae Stapelia gigantea Asclepiadaceae Tenaris chlorantha Asclepiadaceae Tenaris rubella Asparagaceae Asparagus africanus Asparagaceae Asparagus angusticladus Asparagaceae Asparagus buchananii Asparagaceae Asparagus cooperi Asparagaceae Asparagus densiflorus 51

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Asparagaceae Asparagus suaveolens Asparagaceae Asparagus transvaalensis Asparagaceae Asparagus virgatu Asphodelaceae Aloe arborescens Asphodelaceae Aloe castanea Asphodelaceae Aloe greatheadii var. davyana Asphodelaceae Aloe marlothii marlothii Asphodelaceae Aloe zebrina Asphodelaceae Anthericum cooperi Asphodelaceae Anthericum longistylum Asphodelaceae Bulbine angustifolia Asphodelaceae Bulbine capitata Asphodelaceae Haworthia koelmaniorum Asphodelaceae Haworthia macmurtryi Asphodelaceae Kniphofia ensifolia ehsifolia Asphodelaceae Trachyandra saltii var. sallii Aspleniaceae Aspleniurn aethiopicum Aspleniaceae Ceterach cordatum Asteraceae Achyrocline stenoptera Asteraceae Adenostemma caffrum Asteraceae Ambrosia artemisiifolia Asteraceae Arternisia afra Asteraceae Aster bakerianus Asteraceae Athrixia elata Asteraceae Berkheya densifolia Asteraceae Berkheya insignis Asteraceae Berkheya radula Asteraceae Bidens formosa Asteraceae Bidens pilosa Asteraceae Blumea mollis Asteraceae Brachylaena rotundata Asteraceae Callilepis laureola Asteraceae Callilepis leptophylla Asteraceae Cineraria britteniae Asteraceae Cineraria canescens Asteraceae Cineraria parvifolia Asteraceae Conyza albida Asteraceae Conyza attenuata Asteraceae Conyza bonariensis Asteraceae Conyza pinnata Asteraceae Conyza podocephala Asteraceae Conyza scabrida Asteraceae Conyza ulmifolia Asteraceae Cotula anthemoides Asteraceae Denekia capensis 52

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Asteraceae Dicoma anomala Asteraceae Dicoma galpinii Asteraceae Dicoma zeyheri zeyheri Asteraceae Eclipla prostrata Asteraceae Emilia transvaalensis Asteraceae Ethulia conyzoides conyzoides Asteraceae Euryops pedunculatus Asteraceae Felicia fascicularis Asteraceae Felicia mossamedensis Asteraceae Felicia muricata muricata Asteraceae Gazanis krebsiana serrulata Asteraceae Geigeria brachycephala Asteraceae Gerbera ambigua Asteraceae Gerbera jamesonii Asteraceae Gerbera viridifolia viridifolia Asteraceae Gnaphaliurn confine Asteraceae Helichrysum aargyrosphaerum Asteraceae Helichrysum athrixiifolium Asteraceae Helichrysum cephaloideurn Asteraceae Helichrysum coriaceurn Asteraceae Helichrysum difficile Asteraceae Helichrysum harveyanum Asteraceae Helichrysum nudifolium Asteraceae Helichrysum oxyphyllurn Asteraceae Helichrysum pallidum Asteraceae Helichrysum setosum Asteraceae Helichrysum rugulosum Asteraceae Kleinia stapeliiformis Asteraceae Lactuca inermis Asteraceae Laggera crispata Asteraceae Lopholaena coriifolia Asteraceae Nidorella anomala Asteraceae Nidorella hottentotica Asteraceae Nidorella resedifolia resedifoiia Asteraceae Nolletia rarifolia Asteraceae Pegolettia senegalensis Asteraceae Pseudofnaphalium oligandrum Asteraceae Pseudofnaphalium undulatum Asteraceae Pulicaria scabra Asteraceae Schistostephium crataegifolium Asteraceae Schkuhria pinnata Asteraceae Senecio barbertonicus Asteraceae Senecio burchellii Asteraceae Senecio erubescens var. erubescens Asteraceae Senecio inaequidens 53

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Asteraceae Senecio inornatus Asteraceae Senecio isatidioides Asteraceae Senecio microglossus Asteraceae Senecio oxyriifolius Asteraceae Senecio venosus Asteraceae Senecio vimineus Asteraceae Sonchus dregeanus Asteraceae Sonchus oleraceus Asteraceae Stoebe vulgaris Asteraceae Tarchonanthus camphoratus Asteraceae Vernonia fastigiata Asteraceae Vernonia natalensis Asteraceae Vernonia oligocephala Asteraceae Vernonia poskeana botswanica Asteraceae Vernonia staehelinoides Asteraceae Vernonia steetziana Asteraceae Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae Zinnia peruviana Bignoniaceae Jacaranda mimosifolia Blechnaceae Blechnum punctulatum var. punctulaturn Boraginaceae Cynoglossum lanceolatum Boraginaceae Ehretia obtusifolia Boraginaceae Ehreia rigida Boraginaceae Myosotis sylvatica Boraginaceae Trichodesma physaloides Brassicaceae Lepidium bonariense Brassicaceae Rorippa fluviatilis var. fluviatilis Buddlejaceae Buddleja salviifolia Buddlejaceae Gomphostigrna virgatum Buddlejaceae Nuxia congesta Buddlejaceae Nuxia oppositifolia Burseraceae Commiphora africana var. africana Burseraceae Commiphora angolensis Burseraceae Commiphora glandulosa Burseraceae Commiphora marlothii Burseraceae Commiphora neglecta Burseraceae Commiphora pyracanthoides Burseraceae Commiphora schimperi Buxaceae Buxus macowanii Cabombaceae Brasenia schreberi Cactaceae Cereus jamacaru Cactaceae Opuntia ficus indica Campanulaceae Wahlenbergia undulata 54

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Capparaceae Boscia albitrunca var. albitrunca Capparaceae Capparis tomentosa Capparaceae Cleome hirta Capparaceae Cleome maculata Capparaceae Cleome monophylla Capparaceae Maerua rubella Capparaceae Maeura angolensis Capparaceae Maerua cafra Capparaceae Maeura rosmarinoides Caryophyllaceae Dianthus mooiensis kirkii Caryophyllaceae Dianthus zeyheri zeyheri Caryophyllaceae Polycarpaea corymbosa corymbosa Celastraceae Cassine aethiopica Celastraceae Cassine burkeana Celastraceae Cassine transvaalensis Celastraceae Gymnosporia albata Celastraceae Gymnosporia buxifolia Celastraceae Gymnosporia deflexa Celastraceae Gymnosporia polyacantha Celastraceae Gymnosporia tenuispina Celastraceae Mystroxylon aethipicum Celastraceae Pleurostylia cpensis Celastraceae Pterocelastrus echinatus Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium ambrosioides Chrysobalanaceae Parinari capensis capensis Colchicaceae Gloriosa superba Combretaceae Combretum apiculatum apiculatum Combretaceae Combretum erthrophyllum Combretaceae Combretum hereroense hereroense var. hereroense Combretaceae Combretum kraussii Combretaceae Combretum moggii Combretaceae Combretum molle Combretaceae Combretum zeyheri Combretaceae Terminalia brachystemma Combretaceae Terminalia sericea Commelinaceae Aneilema hockii Commelinaceae Commelina africana var. lancispalha Commelinaceae Commelina erecta Commelinaceae Cyanotis lapidosa Commelinaceae Floscopa glomerata Convolvulaceae Convolvulus farinosus Convolvulaceae Convolvulus thunbergii 55

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Convolvulaceae Evolvulus alsinoides var. linifolius Convolvulaceae Ipomoea albivenia Convolvulaceae Ipomoea bolusiana Convolvulaceae Ipomoea crassipes Convolvulaceae Ipomoea gracilisepala Convolvulaceae Ipomoea hochstetteri Convolvulaceae Ipomoea magnusiana Convolvulaceae Ipomoea obscura var. fragilis Convolvulaceae Ipomoea ommaneyi Convolvulaceae Ipomoea papilio Convolvulaceae Ipomoea purpurea Convolvulaceae Ipomoea sinensis blepharosepala Convolvulaceae Ipomoea transvaalensis Convolvulaceae Merremia kentrocaulos Convolvulaceae Merremia tridentata angustifolia var. angustifolia Convolvulaceae Seddera capensis Convolvulaceae Seddera suffruticosa Convolvulaceae Turbina oblongata Crassulaceae Andromischus umbraticola umbraticola Crassulaceae Cotyledon barbeyi Crassulaceae Crassula alba var. alba Crassulaceae Crassula capitella nodulosa Crassulaceae Crassula setulosa selulosa Crassulaceae Crassula swaziensis swaziensis var. swaziensis Crassulaceae Kalanchoe brachyloba Crassulaceae Kalanchoe paniculala Crassulaceae Kalanchoe rotundifolia Cucurbitaceae Citrullus lanatus Cucurbitaceae Coccinia adoensis Cucurbitaceae Corallocarpus bainesii Cucurbitaceae Cucumella bryoniifolia Cucurbitaceae Cucumella cinerea Cucurbitaceae Cucumis anguria Cucurbitaceae Cucumis hirsutus Cucurbitaceae Cucumis zeyheri Cucurbitaceae Momordica boivinii Cucurbitaceae Zehneria scabra scabra Cyatheaceae Cyathea dregei Cyperaceae Bulbostylis burchellii Cyperaceae Bulbostylis hispidula Cyperaceae Bulbostylis humilis Cyperaceae Bulbostylis oritrephes 56

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Cyperaceae Carex cognata var. drakensbergensis Cyperaceae Carex spicato paniculata Cyperaceae Coleochloa setifera Cyperaceae Cyperus albostriatus Cyperaceae Cyperus denudatus Cyperaceae Cyperus distans Cyperaceae Cyperus esculentus var. esculentus Cyperaceae Cyperus lalifolius Cyperaceae Cyperus leptocladus Cyperaceae Cyperus margaritaceus Cyperaceae Cyperus marginatus Cyperaceae Cyperus obstusiflorius var. flavissimus Cyperaceae Cyperus rupestris var. rupeslris Cyperaceae Cyperus sexangularis Cyperaceae Cyperus sphaaerospermus Cyperaceae Fimbristylis dichotoma Cyperaceae Fimbristylis squarrosa Cyperaceae Fuirena leptostachya Cyperaceae Fuirena pubescens Cyperaceae Fuirena stricta var. stricta Cyperaceae Isolepis costata var. costata Cyperaceae Isolepis fluitans Cyperaceae Kyllinga alba Cyperaceae Kyllinga erecta var. erecta Cyperaceae Kyllinga melanosperma Cyperaceae Lipocarpha chinensis Cyperaceae Lipocarpha nana Cyperaceae Mariscus albomarginatus Cyperaceae Mariscus dregeanus Cyperaceae Mariscus indecorus var. indecorus Cyperaceae Mariscus rehmannianus Cyperaceae Pycreus flavenscens Cyperaceae Pycreus macranthus Cyperaceae Pycreus polystachyos var. polystachyos Cyperaceae Pycreus pumilus Cyperaceae Pycreus rehmannianus Cyperaceae Rhynchospora brownii Cyperaceae Schoenoplectus brachyceras 57

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Cyperaceae Schoenoplectus muricinux Cyperaceae Schoenoplectus lehmannii Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridium aquilinum Dichapetalaceae Dichapetalum cymosum Dicranaceae Compylopus robillardei Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea dregeana Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea sylvantica bevipes Dipsacaceae Scabiosa columbaria Dracaenaceae Sansevieria aethipica Ebenaceae Dioscorea sylvatica Ebenaceae Diospyros lycoides guerkei Ebenaceae Diospyros lyciodes sericea Ebenaceae Diospyros whyteana Ebenaceae Euclea crispa crispa Ebenaceae Euclea linearis Ebenaceae Euclea natalensis natalensis Ebenaceae Euclea undulata myrtina Elatinaceae Elatine triandra Eqyusetaceae Equisetum ramosissimum Ericaceae Erica drakensbergensis Eriocaulaceae Eriocaulon abyssinicum Eriocaulaceae Eriocaulon maculaturn Eriospermaceae Eriospermam cooperi var. cooperi Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum pictum Euphorbiaceae Acalypha angustata Euphorbiaceae Acalypha indica var. indica Euphorbiaceae Acalypha segetalis Euphorbiaceae Acalypha villicaulis Euphorbiaceae Bridelia mollis Euphorbiaceae Chamaesyce neopolycnemoides Euphorbiaceae Clutia pulchella var. pulchella Euphorbiaceae Croton gratissimus var. gratissimus Euphorbiaceae Croton gratissimus var. subgratissimus Euphorbiaceae Dalechampia capensis Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia cooperi var. cooperi Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia ingens Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia pseudotuberosa Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia schinzii Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia tirucalli 58

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Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia trichadenia var. trichadenia Euphorbiaceae Flueggea virosa virosa Euphorbiaceae Jatropha capensis Euphorbiaceae Jatropha lagarinthoides Euphorbiaceae Jatropha latifolia var. latifolia Euphorbiaceae Jatropha natalensis Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus reticulatus Euphorbiaceae Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia var. maprouneifolia Euphorbiaceae Spirostachys africana Euphorbiaceae Suregada africana Euphorbiaceae Synadenium cupulare Euphorbiaceae Tragia rupestris Exormothecaceae Exormotheca pustulosa Fabaceae Abrus laevigatus Fabaceae Acacia ataxacantha Fabaceae Acacia burkei Fabaceae Acacia caffra Fabaceae Acacia dealbata Fabaceae Acacia decurrens Fabaceae Acacia gerrardii gerrardii var. gerrardii Fabaceae Acacia goetzei microphylla Fabaceae Acacia karoo Fabaceae Acacia mearnsii Fabaceae Acacia nigrescens Fabaceae Acacia nilotica kraussiana Fabaceae Acacia robusta robusta Fabaceae Acacia sieberiana woodii Fabaceae Acacia tortilis heteracantha Fabaceae Argyrolobium megarrhizum Fabaceae Argyrolobium nigrescens Fabaceae Argyrolobium speciosum Fabaceae Argyrolobium transvaalense Fabaceae Bauhinia galpinii Fabaceae Bolusanthus speciosus Fabaceae Burkea africana Fabaceae Canavalia virosa Fabaceae Chamaecrista absus Fabaceae Chamaecrista biensis Fabaceae Chamaecrista mimosoides Fabaceae Crotalaria globifera Fabaceae Crotalaria podocarpa 59

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Fabaceae Crotalaria sphaerocarpa sphaerocarpa Fabaceae Decorsea galpinii Fabaceae Dichilus strictus Fabaceae Dichrostachys cinerea africana var. africana Fabaceae Dichrostachys cinerea nyassana Fabaceae Dolichos trilobus transvaalicus Fabaceae Elaphantorrhiza burkei Fabaceae Elaphantorrhiza elephantina Fabaceae Eriosema cordatum Fabaceae Eriosema psoraleoides Fabaceae Erythrina lysistemon Fabaceae Indigofera arrecta Fabaceae Indigofera alternans Fabaceae Indigofera daleoides var. daleoides Fabaceae Indigofera filipes Fabaceae Indigofera heterotricha Fabaceae Indigofera hilaris var. hilaris Fabaceae Indigofera ingrata Fabaceae Indigofera lydenburgensis Fabaceae Indigofera melanodenia Fabaceae Indigofera nebrowniana Fabaceae Indigofera oxytropis Fabaceae Indigofera setiflora Fabaceae Indigofera sordida Fabaceae Indigofera spicata var. spicata Fabaceae Indigofera tristoides Fabaceae Lotononis calycina Fabaceae Lotononis eriantha Fabaceae Lotononis listii Fabaceae Mundulea sericea Fabaceae Neonotonia wightii Fabaceae Neorautanenia ficifolius Fabaceae Ophrestia oblongifolia var. oblongifolia Fabaceae Otholobium polyphyllum Fabaceae Pearsonia cajanifolia cryptantha Fabaceae Pearsonia sessilifolia marginata Fabaceae Pearsonia sessilifolia sessilifolia Fabaceae Pearsonia uniflora Fabaceae Peltophorum africanum Fabaceae Psoralea pinnata Fabaceae Pterocarpus rotundifolia rotundifolia Fabaceae Rhynchosia albissima 60

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Fabaceae Rhynchosia caribaea Fabaceae Rhynchosia confusa Fabaceae Rhynchosia komatiensis Fabaceae Rhynchosia minima var. minima Fabaceae Rhynchosia monophylla Fabaceae Rhynchosia nervosa var. nervosa Fabaceae Rhynchosia nitens Fabaceae Rhynchosia reptabunda Fabaceae Rhynchosia sordida Fabaceae Rhynchosia spectabilis Fabaceae Rhynchosia totta var. totta Fabaceae Senna bicapsularis Fabaceae Senna italica arachoides Fabaceae Sesbania punicea Fabaceae Sesbania sesban sesban var. nubica Fabaceae Sphenostylis angustifolia Fabaceae Stylosanthes fruticosa Fabaceae Tephrosia burchellii Fabaceae Tephrosia elongata var. elongata Fabaceae Tephrosia longipes longipes var. longipes Fabaceae Tephrosia lupinifolia Fabaceae Tephrosia macropoda var. macropoda Fabaceae Tephrosia multijuga Fabaceae Tephrosia polystachya var. latifolia Fabaceae Tephrosia rhodesica var. evansii Fabaceae Tephrosia semiglabra Fabaceae Vigna frutescens Fabaceae Zornia linearis Fissidentaceae Fissidens rufescens Flacourtiaceae Dovyalis zeyheri Flacourtiaceae Flacourtia indica Flacourtiaceae Scolopia zeyheri Gentianaceae Chironia purpurascens humilis Gentianaceae Sebaea exigua Gentianaceae Sebaea grandis Gentianaceae Sebaea leiostyla Geraniaceae Monsonia angustifolia Geraniaceae Monsonia burkeana 61

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Geraniaceae Pelargonium alchemilloides Geraniaceae Pelargonium luridum Geraniaceae Pelargonium multicaule multicaule Gesneriaceae Streptocarpus polyanthus comptonii Gesneriaceae Streptocarpus vandeleurii Gleicheniaceae Gleichenia polypodioides Heteropyxidaceae Heteropyxis natalensis Hippocrateaceae Salacia rehmannii Hycinthaceae Albuca angolensis Hycinthaceae Albuca glauca Hycinthaceae Bowiea volubilis Hycinthaceae Dipcadi marlothii Hycinthaceae Dipcadi rigidifolium Hycinthaceae Dipcadi viride Hycinthaceae Drimia ciliaris Hycinthaceae Drimiopsis atropurpurea Hycinthaceae Drimiopsis burkei Hycinthaceae Eucomis autumnalis autumnalis Hycinthaceae Ledebouria cooperi Hycinthaceae Ledebouria inquinata Hycinthaceae Scilla nervosa Hycinthaceae Urginea epigea Hycinthaceae Urginea modesta Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis angustifolia var. angustifolia Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis hemerocallidea Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis iridifolia Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis rigidula var. rigidula Icacinaceae Apodytes dimidiata dimidiata Icacinaceae Cassinopsis ilicifolia Illecebraceae Corrigiola litoralis litoralis var. litoralis Illecebraceae Paronchia brasiliana var. pubescens Illecebraceae Pollichia campestris Iridaceae Babiana hypogea var. hypogea Iridaceae Freesia grandiflora Iridaceae Freesia laxa laxa Iridaceae Gladiolus crassifolius Iridaceae Gladiolus elliotii Iridaceae Gladiolus permeabilis edulis Iridaceae Gladiolus pole evansii Iridaceae Gladiolus sericeovillosus calvatus Iridaceae Gladiolus woodii 62

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Iridaceae Moraea stricta Iridaceae Tritonia nelsonii Juncaceae Juncus dregeanus Juncaceae Juncus exsertus exsertus Juncaceae Juncus oxycarpus Lamiaceae Acrotome hispida Lamiaceae Aeollanthus buchnerianus Lamiaceae Aeollanthus rehmannii Lamiaceae Becium obovatum obovatum var. obovatum Lamiaceae Hemizygia canescens Lamiaceae Hemizygia petrensis Lamiaceae Hemizygia pretoriae pretoriae Lamiaceae Hemizygia transvaalensis Lamiaceae Leonotis ocymifolia var. ocymifolia Lamiaceae Leucas neuflizeana Lamiaceae Ocimum gratissimum gratissimum var. gratissimum Lamiaceae Orthosiphon fruticosus Lamiaceae Orthosiphon suffrutescens Lamiaceae Plectranthus dinteri Lamiaceae Plectranthus hadiensis var. tomentosus Lamiaceae Plectranthus mutabilis Lamiaceae Pycnostachys reticulata Lamiaceae Scutellaria racemosa Lamiaceae Stachys natalensis var. galpinii Lamiaceae Tetradenia riparia Lamiaceae Teucrium trifidum Lentibulariaceae Utricularia arenaria Lentibulariaceae Utricularia gibba Linaceae Linum thunbergii Lobeliaceae Cyphia assimilis var. assimilis Lobeliaceae Cyphia elata var. elata Lobeliaceae Lobelia erinus Lobeliaceae Lobelia flaccidia mossiana Lobeliaceae Monopsis decipiens Loranthaceae Eriathemum ngamicum Loranthaceae Tapinanthus kraussianus kraussianus Loranthaceae Tapinanthus leendertziae Loranthaceae Tapinanthus natalitius zeyheri Loranthaceae Tapinanthus oleifolius Loranthaceae Tapinanthus rubromarginatus 63

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Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium cernium Lythraceae Nasaea cordata Malpighiaceae Sphedamnocarpus pruriens galphimiifolius Malpighiaceae Sphedamnocarpus transvalicus Malpighiaceae Triaspis hypericoides nelsonii Malvaceae Anisodontea scabrosa Malvaceae Cienfuegosia gerrardii Malvaceae Hibiscus calyphyllus Malvaceae Hibiscus cannabinus var. cannabinus Malvaceae Hibiscus engleri Malvaceae Hibiscus meyeri transvaalensis Malvaceae Hibiscus micranthus var. micranthus Malvaceae Hibiscus microcarpus Malvaceae Hibiscus pusillus Malvaceae Hibiscus vitifolius vitifolius Malvaceae Hibiscus vitifolius vulgaris Malvaceae Pavonia burchellii Malvaceae Pavonia columella Malvaceae Pavonia transvaalensis Malvaceae Sida alba Malvaceae Sida cordifolia Meliaceae Melia azedarach Meliaceae Turraea obtusifolia Menispermaceae Cissampelos torulosa Menyanthaceae Nymphiodes indica occidentalis Mesembryanthemaceae Aptenia cordifolia var. cordifolia Mesembryanthemaceae Delosperma gracile Mesembryanthemaceae Delosperma herbeum Moraceae Ficus abutilifolia Moraceae Ficus cordata salicifolia Moraceae Ficus craterostoma Moraceae Ficus glumosa Moraceae Ficus ingens var. ingens Moraceae Ficus natalensis Moraceae Ficus sur Moraceae Ficus thonningii Myricaceae Myrica serrata Myrothamnaceae Myrothamnus flabellifolius Myrsinaceae Myrsine africana Myrsinaceae Myrsine pillansii Myrtaceae Psidiurn guajava Nymphaeaceae Nymphaea lotus 64

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Nymphaeaceae Nymphaea nouchali var. caerulea Ochnaceae Ochna arborea var. occonnorii Ochnaceae Ochna holstii Ochnaceae Ochna inermis Ochnaceae Ochna natalitia Ochnaceae Ochna pretoriensis Ochnaceae Ochna pulchra Ochnaceae Ochna serrulata Olacaceae Ximenia americana var. americana Olacaceae Ximenia caffra var. caffra Olacaceae Ximenia caffra var. natalensis Oleaceae Chrionanthus foveolatus foveolatus Oleaceae Chrionanthus foveolatus major Oleaceae Jasminum breviflorum Oleaceae Jasminum quinatum Oleaceae Jasminum stenolobum Oleaceae Menodora africana Oleaceae Olea capensis enervis Oleaceae Olea europaea africana Oliniaceae Olinia emarginata Onagraceae Ludwigia adscendens Onagraceae Ludwigia octovalvis Onagraceae Ludwigia palustris Onagraceae Oenothera jamesii Onagraceae Oenothera rosea Orchidaceae Eulophia angolensis Orchidaceae Eulophia ovalis ovalis Orchidaceae Eulophia speciosa Orchidaceae Eulophia streptopetala Orchidaceae Eulophia welwitschii Osmundacea Osmunda regalis Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae Oxalis depressa Oxalidaceae Oxalis obliquifolia Papilionoideae Robinia pseudoacacia Passifloraceae Adenia digitata Pedaliaceae Ceratotheca triloba Pedaliaceae Dicerocaryum eriocarpum Pedaliaceae Dicerocaryum senecioides senecioides Pedaliaceae Pterodiscus speciosus Pedaliaceae Sesamum alatum 65

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Pedaliaceae Sesamum triphyllum var. triphyllum Perioplocaceae Cryptolepis cryptolepioides Perioplocaceae Cryptolepis oblongifolia Perioplocaceae Cryptolepis transvaalensis Perioplocaceae Raphionacme galpinii Perioplocaceae Stomatostemma monteiroae Phytolaccaceae Lophiocarpus polystachyus Phytolaccaceae Lophiocarpus tenuissimus Piperaceae Peperomia retusa var. bachmannii Pittosporaceae Pittosporum viridiflorum Plumbaginaceae Plumbago zeylanica Poaceae Agrostis lachnantha var. lachnantha Poaceae Alloteropsis semialata semialata Poaceae Andropogon chinensis Poaceae Andropogon eucomus Poaceae Andropogon huillensis Poaceae Andropogon schirensis Poaceae Anthephora pubescens Poaceae Aristada adscensionis Poaceae Aristada canescens canescens Poaceae Aristada congesta barbicollis Poaceae Aristada congesta congesta Poaceae Aristada diffusa burkei Poaceae Aristada junciformis junciformis Poaceae Aristada meridionalis Poaceae Aristada pilgeri Poaceae Aristada scabrivalvis scabrivalvis Poaceae Aristada stipitata graciliflora Poaceae Aristada transvaalensis Poaceae Bambus balcooa Poaceae Bewsia biflora Poaceae Bothriochloa baldhii Poaceae Bothriochloa insculpta Poaceae Bothriochloa radicans Poaceae Brachiaria brizantha Poaceae Brachiaria deflexa Poaceae Brachiaria nigropedata Poaceae Cenchrus ciliaris Poaceae Chloris virgata Poaceae Cymbopogon excavatus Poaceae Cymbopogon plurinodis Poaceae Cymbopogon validus Poaceae Cynodon dactylon 66

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Poaceae Dactyloctenium australe Poaceae Diandrochloa namaquensis Poaceae Digitaria argyrograpta Poaceae Digitaria brazzae Poaceae Digitaria debilis Poaceae Digitaria diagonalis var. diagonalis Poaceae Digitaria eriantha Poaceae Digitaria eylesii Poaceae Digitaria longiflora Poaceae Digitaria milanjiana Poaceae Digitaria monodactyla Poaceae Digitaria sanguinalis Poaceae Digitaria scalarum Poaceae Digitaria velutina Poaceae Diplachne eleusine Poaceae Echinochloa haploclada Poaceae Echinochloa jubata Poaceae Echinochloa stagnina Poaceae Eleusine coracana africana Poaceae Elionurus muticus Poaceae Enneapogon cenchroides Poaceae Enneapogon pretoriensis Poaceae Enneapogon scoparius Poaceae Enteropogon macrostachyus Poaceae Eragrostis aspera Poaceae Eragrostis barbinodis Poaceae Eragrostis barrelieri Poaceae Eragrostis capensis Poaceae Eragrostis chloromelas Poaceae Eragrostis cilianensis Poaceae Eragrostis curvula Poaceae Eragrostis cylindriflora Poaceae Eragrostis fummiflua Poaceae Eragrostis heteromera Poaceae Eragrostis hierniana Poaceae Eragrostis lappula Poaceae Eragrostis lehmanniana Poaceae Eragrostis micrantha Poaceae Eragrostis nindensis Poaceae Eragrostis pallens Poaceae Eragrostis pilosa Poaceae Eragrostis plana Poaceae Eragrostis pseudosclerantha Poaceae Eragrostis racemosa Poaceae Eragrostis rigidior 67

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Poaceae Eragrostis rotifer Poaceae Eragrostis superba Poaceae Eragrostis trichophora Poaceae Eragrostis virescens Poaceae Eustachys paspaloides Poaceae Fingerhuthia africana Poaceae Heteropogon contortus Poaceae Hyparrhenia dregeana Poaceae Hyparrhenia filipendula filipendula Poaceae Hyparrhenia filipendula pilosa Poaceae Hyparrhenia gazensis Poaceae Hyparrhenia hirta Poaceae Hyparrhenia tamba Poaceae Hyparrhenia variabilis Poaceae Hyperthelia dissoluta Poaceae Imperata cylindrica Poaceae Ischaemum fasciculatum Poaceae Leersia hexandra Poaceae Leptocarydion vulpiastrum Poaceae Loudetia flavida Poaceae Loudetia simplex Poaceae Melinis nerviglumis Poaceae Melinis repens repens Poaceae Miscanthus junceus Poaceae Monocybium ceresiiforme Poaceae Mosdenia leptostachys Poaceae Oplismenus hirtellus Poaceae Panicum coloratum var. coloratum Poaceae Panicum deustum Poaceae Panicum dregeanum Poaceae Panicum maximum Poaceae Panicum natalense Poaceae Panicum schinzii Poaceae Panicum subalbidum Poaceae Paspalum dilatatum Poaceae Paspalum distichum Poaceae Paspalum scrobiculatum Poaceae Pennisetum clandestinum Poaceae Pennisetum macrourum Poaceae Perotis patens Poaceae Phragmiles australis Poaceae Pogonarthria squarrosa Poaceae Schizachyrium jeffreysii Poaceae Schizachyrium sanguineum Poaceae Schmidtia pappophoroides 68

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Poaceae Setaria appendiculata Poaceae Setaria incrassata Poaceae Setaria lindenbergiana Poaceae Setaria megaphylla Poaceae Setaria nigrirostris Poaceae Setaria plicatilis Poaceae Setaria sphacelate var. sericea Poaceae Setaria ustilata Poaceae Setaria verticillata Poaceae Sorghastrum friesii Poaceae Sorghastrum stipoides Poaceae Sorghum bicolor arundinaceum Poaceae Sorghum halepense Poaceae Sporobolus africanus Poaceae Sporobolus consimilis Poaceae Sporobolus fimbiatus Poaceae Sporobolus pectinatus Poaceae Sporobolus pyramidalis Poaceae Sporobolus stapfianus Poaceae Themeda triandra Poaceae Trachypogon spicatus Poaceae Tragus berteronianus Poaceae Tricholaena monachne Poaceae Tricholaena grandiglumis var. grandiglumis Poaceae Triraphis andropogonoides Poaceae Tristachya biseriata Poaceae Tristachya rehmannii Poaceae Urelytrum agropyroides Poaceae Urochloa oligotricha Polygalaceae Polgala africana Polygalaceae Polgala amatymbica Polygalaceae Polgala hottentotta Polygalaceae Polgala producta Polygalaceae Polgala rehmannii Polygalaceae Polgala sphenoptera var. sphenoptera Polygonaceae Oxygonum delagoense Polygonaceae Oxygonum dregeanum canescens var. linearifolium Polygonaceae Oxygonum sinuatum Polygonaceae Persicaria lapathifolia Polygonaceae Persicaria senegalenss Polygonaceae Persicaria serrulata Polygonaceae Polygonum aviculare 69

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Polygonaceae Polygonum meisnerianum Polygonaceae Polygonum plebeium Portulacaceae Anacampseros subnuda lubbersii Portulacaceae Portulaca kermesina Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea Portulacaceae Portulaca quadrifida Potamogetonaceae Potamogeton octandrus Proteaceae Faurea saligna Proteaceae Grevillea robusta Proteaceae Protea caffra caffra Proteaceae Protea welwitschii welwitschii Pteridaceae Actiniopteris dimorpha Pteridaceae Actiniopteris radiata Pteridaceae Adiatum capillus veneris Pteridaceae Cheilanthes hirta var. hirta Pteridaceae Cheilanthes viridis var. glauca Pteridaceae Doryopteris concolor Pteridaceae Pellaea boivinii Pteridaceae Pellaea calomelanos var. calomelanos Pteridaceae Pellaea pectiniformis Pteridaceae Pteris friesii Pteridaceae Pteris vittata Ranunculaceae Clematis brachiata Ranunculaceae Ranunculus multifidus Rhamnaceae Berchemia discolor Rhamnaceae Berchemia zeyheri Rhamnaceae Helinus integrifolius Rhamnaceae Ziziphus mucronata mucronata Rhamnaceae Ziziphus zeyheriana Ricciaceae Riccia natalensis Ricciaceae Riccia stricta Rosaceae Cliffortia linearifolia Rosaceae Rubus pinnatus Rosaceae Rubus rigidus Rubiaceae Agathisanthemum bojeri bojeri Rubiaceae anthospermum hispidolum Rubiaceae Canthium gilfillanii Rubiaceae Canthium mundianum Rubiaceae Fadogia homblei Rubiaceae Galopina circaeoides Rubiaceae Hyperacanthus amoenus Rubiaceae Kohautia cynanchica Rubiaceae Kohautia virgata Rubiaceae Oldenlandia herbacea var. herbacea 70

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Rubiaceae Otiophora calycophylla verdcourtii Rubiaceae Otiophora cupheoides Rubiaceae Pachystigma thamnus Rubiaceae Pavetta gardeniifolia var. gardeniifolia Rubiaceae Pavetta lanceolata Rubiaceae Pavetta zeyheri Rubiaceae Pentanisia angustifolia Rubiaceae Pentanisia prunelloides prunelloids Rubiaceae Psydrax livida Rubiaceae Psydrax obovata elliptica Rubiaceae Pygmaeothamnus zeyheri var. zeyheri Rubiaceae Rothmannia capensis Rubiaceae Sperrnacoce natalensis Rubiaceae Tapiphyllum pravifolium Rubiaceae Tricalysia lanceolata Rubiaceae Vangueria infausta infausta Rubiaceae Vangueria madagascariensis Rutaceae Calodendrum capense Rutaceae Vepris lanceolata Rutaceae Vepris reflexa Rutaceae Zanthoxylum capense Salicaceae Populus alba var. alba Salicaceae Salix mucronata woodii Santalaceae Osyris langeolata Santalaceae Thesium burkei Santalaceae Thesium costatum var. costatum Santalaceae Thesium junceum var. junceum Santalaceae Thesium magalismontanum Santalaceae Thesium resedoides Santalaceae Thesium transvaalense Sapindaceae Cardiospermum corindum Sapindaceae Cardiospermum halicacabum var. halicacabum Sapindaceae Dodonaea angustifolia Sapindaceae Pappea capensis Sapotaceae Englerophytum magalismontanum Sapotaceae Mimusops zeyheri Scrophulariaceae Alectra orobanchoides Scrophulariaceae Alectra sessiliflora var. sessiliflora Scrophulariaceae Aptosimum elongatum 71

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Scrophulariaceae Aptosimum procumbens var. elongatum Scrophulariaceae Buchnera glabrata Scrophulariaceae Cycnium adonense adonense Scrophulariaceae Cycnium tubulosum Scrophulariaceae Halleria lucida Scrophulariaceae Ilysanthes dubia Scrophulariaceae Jamesbrittenia burkeana Scrophulariaceae Manulea parviflora var. parviflora Scrophulariaceae Mimulus gracilis Scrophulariaceae Namesia fructicans Scrophulariaceae Rhamphicarpa brevipedicellata Scrophulariaceae Sopubia cana var. cana Scrophulariaceae Striga asiatica Scrophulariaceae Striga bilabiata var. bilabiata Scrophulariaceae Striga gesnerioides Scrophulariaceae Sutera burkeana Scrophulariaceae Sutera palustris Scrophulariaceae Zaluzianskya microsiphon Selaginellaceae Selaginella dregei Selaginellaceae Selaginella mittenii Solanaceae Datura sp. Solanaceae Nicotiana glauca Solanaceae Physalis peruviana Solanaceae Solanum aculesis var. hadiensis Solanaceae Solanum coccineum Solanaceae Solanum giganteum Solanaceae Solanum incanum Solanaceae Solanum panduriforme Solanaceae Solanum retroflexum Solanaceae Solanum rigescens Solanaceae Withania somnifera Sterculiaceae Dombeya rotundifolia var. rotundifolia Sterculiaceae Hermannia antonii Sterculiaceae Hermannia boraginiflora Sterculiaceae Hermannia parvula Sterculiaceae Hermannia staurostemon Sterculiaceae Hermannia tomentosa Sterculiaceae Melhania acuminata var. acuminata Sterculiaceae Melhania prostrate Sterculiaceae Sterculia rogersii 72

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Sterculiaceae Waltheria indica Strychanaceae Strychnos cocculoides Strychanaceae Strychnos madagascariensis Strychanaceae Strychnos pungens Strychanaceae Strychnos usambarensis Thelypteridaceae Thelypteris confluens Thelypteridaceae Thelypteris gueinziana Thelypteridaceae Thelypteris pulchra Thymelaeaceae Gnidia caffra Thymelaeaceae Gnidia capitata Thymelaeaceae Gnidia kraussiana var. kraussiana Thymelaeaceae Gnidia microcephala Thymelaeaceae Gnidia sericocephala Tiliaceae Corchorus asplenifolius Tiliaceae Corchorus tridens Tiliaceae Grewia bicolor var. bicolor Tiliaceae Grewia flava Tiliaceae Grewia flavescens var. flavescens Tiliaceae Grewia monticola Tiliaceae Grewia occidentalis var. occidentalis Tiliaceae Grewia retinervis Tiliaceae Grewia rogersii Tiliaceae Grewia subspathulata Tiliaceae Triumfetta annua Tiliaceae Triumfetta pentandra var. pentandra Tiliaceae Triumfetta pilosa var. effusa Tiliaceae Triumfetta sonderi Turneraceae Tricliceras glanduliferum Typhaceae Typha capensis Ulmaceae Celtis africana Ulmaceae Chaetachme aristata Ulmaceae Trema orientalis Urticaceae Girardinia diversifolia Urticaceae Laportea grossa Urticaceae Obetia tenax Urticaceae Pouzolzia mixta Vahliaceae Vahlia capensis capensis Velloziaceae Xerophyta retinervis Velloziaceae Xerophyta viscosa Verbenaceae Chascanum hederaceum var. hederaceum 73

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Verbenaceae Chascanum pinnatifidum var. pinnatifidum Verbenaceae Clerodendrum glabrum var. glabrum Verbenaceae Clerodendrum louwalbertsii Verbenaceae Clerodendrum myricoides Verbenaceae Clerodendrum suffruticosum var. suffruticosum Verbenaceae Clerodendrum ternatum var. turnatum Verbenaceae Clerodendrum triphyllum var. triphyllum Verbenaceae Duranta erecta Verbenaceae Lantana camara Verbenaceae Lantana rugosa Verbenaceae Lippia javanica Verbenaceae Lippia wilmsii Verbenaceae Priva meyeri var. meyeri Verbenaceae Verbena bonariensis Verbenaceae Vitex rehmannii Viscaceae Viscum combreticola Viscaceae Viscum rotundifolium Vitaceae Cissus quadrangularis var. quadrangularis Vitaceae Cyphostemma cirrhosum transvaalense Vitaceae Cyphostemma puberulum Vitaceae Cyphostemma puberulum Vitaceae Cyphostemma sandersonii Vitaceae Cyphostemma woodii Vitaceae Rhoicissus revoilii Vitaceae Rhoicissus tridentata cuneifolia Xyridaceae Xyris capensis Zamiaceae Encephalartos eugene maraisii middelburgensis Zygophyllaceae Tribulus terrestris 74

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Appendix B List of research projects conducted at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve adapted from UNISA ABEERU (2011). Project Researcher(s) Year Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Resource Dispersion and the Structure of Range use and co-existence in a Social Omnivore Chlorocebus aethiops Brandi Wren In Progress Collection of Vegetation Data on the Bakenveld Area of Loskopdam Nature Reserv Selina Nkosi In Progress Long-Term Monitoring of Giraffe Social Structure and Feeding Ecology at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve Victoria Davis and Victoria Ratcliffe In Progress The long-term effects of the annual burning of re-breaks on the plant diversity in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve Laura Bachnier In Progress The effects of environmental stress and increased metal concentrations related to reduced water quality in Loskop Dam on Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Jacqeline Brown In Progress Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Resource Dispersion and the Structure of Range use and co-existence in a Social Omnivore Chlorocebus aethiops Alan Barrett 2010 A vegetation classication and management plan for the Hondekraal section of the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve N Filmalter 2010 Spatial and Temporal patterns of Leopard Predation Risk Faced by Chacma Baboons Laura Bidner 2009 How to negotiate without language? Grooming markets in vervet monkeys Erica van de Waal 2006 Traditions in vervet monkeys in a human-modied environment NoŽmie Lamon 2009 Master project on the "social model hypothesis" (de Waal 2005) on six groups of vervet monkeys in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve Nathalie Renevey 2010 Master Project about stress behaviour of vervet monkeys in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve Laura Walther 2009 75

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Project Researcher(s) Year Master project: Conict management linked to the genetic relatedness a comparison between six groups of wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) Favre Camille 2009 Master's Study : Dispersal patterns and the inuence of social status on paternity success of six free-ranging vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) groups Josephine Hula 2009 Is harem size correlated to male attributes in impala? Jessica Smallcombe 2009 How is large herbivores spatial distribution correlated to the availability of food resources? Gertjan Verlinde 2009 Conict management in 6 Groups of wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) AmŽlie Piller 2009 Baby Market and mechanisms controlling negotiation during grooming exchanges Martina Sinelli 2008 La NŽgociation lors de l'allotoilettage et de l'accouplement chez le singe vert (Chlorocebus aethiops) ElŽonore Hellard 2008 Handedness in six groups of wild vervet monkeus (Cercopithecus Aethiops) during natural and experimentally induces foraging Virginia Tournier 2009 Is the Diet of Wild Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus Aethiops) determined by the Ecology or by some curltural traits? Emilie Tournier 2009 Fractal complexity of behaviours in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) Ya‘lle Bouquet 2009 76

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Appendix C Complete list of feeding and parasite data for the 51 study individuals. 77

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Ind Name Group Age Class Sex Rank Acacia ataxacantha Acacia burkei Acacia caffra 1 Barfight 1 4 M 3 0 0 0 2 Punky 1 4 F 3 1 0 0 3 Pam 1 2 F 0 0 0 4 Sparrow 1 4 M 2 1 0 0 5 Unia 1 4 F 2 0 0 0 6 U-turn 1 1 M 0 0 0 7 Uranus 1 3 M 5 0 0 0 8 Utopia 1 3 F 5 1 0 0 9 Ulyss 1 2 M 0 0 0 10 Xena 1 4 F 1 1 0 0 11 Xerox 1 1 M 0 0 0 12 Xuki 1 3 M 4 0 0 0 13 Xara 1 3 F 4 1 0 0 14 Xavier 1 1 M 1 0 0 15 Xylo 1 3 M 6 1 0 0 16 Xocco 1 2 M 0 0 0 17 Wooly 1 4 M 1 0 0 0 18 Agathe 2 4 F 5 0 0 0 19 Aldous 2 1 M 0 0 0 20 Boba 2 4 F 1 0 0 0 21 Bogart 2 1 M 0 0 0 22 Beru 2 2 M 1 0 0 23 Elrond 2 4 M 4 1 1 1 24 Frida 2 3 F 0 0 0 25 Ghost 2 4 M 5 0 1 0 26 Hobbs 2 4 M 1 0 0 0 27 Jade 2 4 F 4 0 0 0 28 Jedi 2 2 M 0 1 0 29 Joy 2 3 F 7 0 1 0 30 Lostris 2 4 F 2 0 0 0 31 Lulu 2 3 F 6 0 0 0 32 Luna 2 1 F 0 0 0 78

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Ind Name Group Age Class Sex Rank Acacia ataxacantha Acacia burkei Acacia caffra 33 Ounooi 2 4 F 3 0 0 0 34 Oryx 2 1 M 0 0 0 35 Oscar 2 3 M 6 0 0 0 36 Samsom 2 4 M 2 0 0 0 37 Wonka 2 4 M 3 0 0 0 38 Dragon 3 3 M 5 0 0 0 39 Jacob 3 4 M 3 0 0 0 40 Kenya 3 4 F 2 0 0 0 41 Kerala 3 1 F 0 0 0 42 Kira 3 4 F 1 0 0 0 43 Kuzco 3 1 F 0 0 0 44 Kous-Kous 3 3 F 4 0 0 0 45 Knack 3 2 F 0 0 0 46 Lyle 3 4 M 1 0 0 0 47 Pompon 3 4 M 2 0 0 0 48 Wicky 3 4 F 4 0 0 0 49 Zeta 3 4 F 3 0 0 0 50 Zigzag 3 1 M 0 0 0 51 Zorro 3 3 M 6 1 0 0 79

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Ind 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Acacia nilotica Acacia robusta Berchemia zeyheri Celtis africana Chaetachme aristata Combretum apiculatum Combretum erythrophyll um Combretum zeyheri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80

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Ind 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Acacia nilotica Acacia robusta Berchemia zeyheri Celtis africana Chaetachme aristata Combretum apiculatum Combretum erythrophyll um Combretum zeyheri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81

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Ind 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Diospyros whyteana Dovyalis zeyheri Euclea crispa Ficus burkei Ficus sur Gymnopsori a buxifolia Heteropyxis natalensis Mimusops zeyheri 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 82

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Ind 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Diospyros whyteana Dovyalis zeyheri Euclea crispa Ficus burkei Ficus sur Gymnopsori a buxifolia Heteropyxis natalensis Mimusops zeyheri 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83

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Ind 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Olea europea Pappea capensis Pavetta gardeniifolia Rhus leptodictia Sclerocarya birrea Ximenia caffra Ziziphus mucronata Acacia ataxacantha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.082037296 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.003348455 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.017575758 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.015114873 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.017043785 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.009756098 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0.004813767 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.011697631 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.001809384 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 84

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Ind 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Olea europea Pappea capensis Pavetta gardeniifolia Rhus leptodictia Sclerocarya birrea Ximenia caffra Ziziphus mucronata Acacia ataxacantha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.061616162 85

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Ind 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Acacia burkei Acacia caffra Acacia nilotica Acacia robusta Berchemia zeyheri Celtis africana Chaetachme aristata Combretum apiculatum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.034200634 0.003685413 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.017051362 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.019445464 0.002777923 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.024316109 0 0 0 0 0 0.029927449 0.016021765 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.018485391 0.090836812 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.149280047 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.085449958 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.003369637 0 0.001805163 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.073497537 0.005254516 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.005049442 0 0 0.047338523 0.007532085 0.000925731 0 0 0 0 0 0.048262165 0.002581927 0 0 0.019166667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.005748228 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.015187803 0 0.004089024 0 0 0 0.016244923 0 0.057169634 0 0 0 0.068157614 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 86

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Ind 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Acacia burkei Acacia caffra Acacia nilotica Acacia robusta Berchemia zeyheri Celtis africana Chaetachme aristata Combretum apiculatum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01155909 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.041944444 0.248055556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.087212092 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.107409925 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.020689655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.021493821 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 87

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Ind 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Combretum erythrophyll um Combretum zeyheri Diospyros whyteana Dovyalis zeyheri Euclea crispa Ficus burkei Ficus sur Gymnopsori a buxifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.280555556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.048278912 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.028093645 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.099589544 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.187149095 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.020441323 0 0 0 0.003406887 0.030504743 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.214090909 0.017424242 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.057294833 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.036729141 0.061064087 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.058636454 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.328827505 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.006728343 0 0 0.034899813 0 0 0 0 0.012756484 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.100558659 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.002843217 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.089943969 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.008584052 0.003408374 0.005512308 0 0 0.004965243 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001927683 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.077955272 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 88

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Ind 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Combretum erythrophyll um Combretum zeyheri Diospyros whyteana Dovyalis zeyheri Euclea crispa Ficus burkei Ficus sur Gymnopsori a buxifolia 0 0 0.033169533 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.010079527 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.062250879 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.015125765 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.04759973 0 0 0.005138607 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 89

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Ind 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Heteropyxis natalensis Mimusops zeyheri Olea europea Pappea capensis Pavetta gardeniifolia Rhus leptodictia Sclerocarya birrea Ximenia caffra 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.032947593 0.00243076 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.066969108 0.003348455 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.089836994 0.007547565 0 0 0.006184811 0 0 0 0.004545455 0.01 0 0 0 0.008030303 0 0 0.013981763 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.028264813 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.006161797 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.077872465 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.018334735 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.003610326 0.033275167 0.002467056 0 0 0 0.003369637 0.02358746 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.020426929 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00509165 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.003047282 0 0 0 0 0.004226875 0 0 0 0.053229539 0 0 0 0.006353882 0 0 0 0.010923535 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.006016707 0.03282902 0.011098779 0 0 0.026286582 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.015277172 0 0 0.003491925 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 90

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Ind 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Heteropyxis natalensis Mimusops zeyheri Olea europea Pappea capensis Pavetta gardeniifolia Rhus leptodictia Sclerocarya birrea Ximenia caffra 0 0.097512285 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.148152591 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.033333333 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.055555556 0 0 0 0 0 0 91

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Ind 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Ziziphus mucronata Total # of plants Trich Nec Phys Oeso Stron Entam 0 1 0.027272057 7 0 0 0 0.5 0 1 0.006911929 2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 1 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.010605115 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0.333333333 0 1 0 4 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 0 0.5 1 0 1 0 6 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.067978533 5 0 4 0.666666667 0.333333333 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 10 0.5 0 0 0.25 0 0.75 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0.5 0.5 1 0.25 0.75 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 4 0.5 0 0 1 0 1 0 11 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.2 1 0 4 1 0.333333333 0.666666667 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 7 1 0 0.5 1 0 0.5 0 3 0.5 0 1 1 0 0.5 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 92

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Ind 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Ziziphus mucronata Total # of plants Trich Nec Phys Oeso Stron Entam 0 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 1 0 0 0 3 0.5 0 0.5 1 0 0.5 0 1 0 2 1 0.5 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 0 0.5 0 1 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0 2 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 1 0.262222222 2 0 3 0.5 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.027272727 3 1 0 1 1 0 1 93

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Ind 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Uke Ukw Tricho Parasite Sample # Parasites 0 0 0 4 1.5 0 0 0 2 3 0.333333333 0 0 3 1.333333333 1 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 3 1.333333333 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 2 2.5 0 0 0 2 1.5 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 4 1.5 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 2 2.5 0.2 0.2 0 5 3.6 0.333333333 0 0 3 4.333333333 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 1 0 94

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Ind 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Uke Ukw Tricho Parasite Sample # Parasites 0 0 0 2 3.5 0 0 0 2 2.5 0 0 0 2 4.5 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 2 1.5 0 0 0 2 2.5 0 0 0 2 1.5 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 4 95

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Appendix D SAS code for the statistical tests used in this study. *SAS Code*; PROC CONTENTS DATA =Kdean POSITION ; RUN ; *Age and feeding diversity correlation*; PROC CORR Data =Kdean; VAR Age Total_#_of_plant_species ; RUN ; *Age and feeding frequency correlation*; PROC CORR Data =Kdean; VAR Acacia_ataxacantha Acacia_burkei Acacia_caffra Acacia_nilotica Acacia_robusta Berchemia_zeyheri Celtis_africana Chaetachme_aristata Combretum_apiculatum Combretum_erythrophyllum Combretum_zeyheri Diospyros_whyteana Dovyalis_zeyheri Euclea_crispa Ficus_burkei Ficus_sur Gymnopsoria_buxifolia Heteropyxis_natalensis Mimusops_zeyheri Olea_europea Pappea_capensis Pavetta_gardeniifolia Rhus_leptodictia Sclerocarya_birrea Ximenia_caffra Ziziphus_mucronata Age 96

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; RUN ; *Sex and feeding frequency correlation*; PROC CORR Data =Kdean; VAR Acacia_ataxacantha Acacia_burkei Acacia_caffra Acacia_nilotica Acacia_robusta Berchemia_zeyheri Celtis_africana Chaetachme_aristata Combretum_apiculatum Combretum_erythrophyllum Combretum_zeyheri Diospyros_whyteana Dovyalis_zeyheri Euclea_crispa Ficus_burkei Ficus_sur Gymnopsoria_buxifolia Heteropyxis_natalensis Mimusops_zeyheri Olea_europea Pappea_capensis Pavetta_gardeniifolia Rhus_leptodictia Sclerocarya_birrea Ximenia_caffra Ziziphus_mucronata Sex ; RUN ; *Lactation and feeding frequency correlation*; PROC CORR Data =Kdean; VAR Acacia_ataxacantha Acacia_burkei Acacia_caffra Acacia_nilotica Acacia_robusta Berchemia_zeyheri Celtis_africana 97

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Chaetachme_aristata Combretum_apiculatum Combretum_erythrophyllum Combretum_zeyheri Diospyros_whyteana Dovyalis_zeyheri Euclea_crispa Ficus_burkei Ficus_sur Gymnopsoria_buxifolia Heteropyxis_natalensis Mimusops_zeyheri Olea_europea Pappea_capensis Pavetta_gardeniifolia Rhus_leptodictia Sclerocarya_birrea Ximenia_caffra Ziziphus_mucronata Lactation; BY Sex ; RUN ; *Rank and feeding frequency correlation*; PROC CORR Data =Kdean; VAR Acacia_ataxacantha Acacia_burkei Acacia_caffra Acacia_nilotica Acacia_robusta Berchemia_zeyheri Celtis_africana Chaetachme_aristata Combretum_apiculatum Combretum_erythrophyllum Combretum_zeyheri Diospyros_whyteana Dovyalis_zeyheri Euclea_crispa Ficus_burkei Ficus_sur Gymnopsoria_buxifolia Heteropyxis_natalensis Mimusops_zeyheri Olea_europea 98

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Pappea_capensis Pavetta_gardeniifolia Rhus_leptodictia Sclerocarya_birrea Ximenia_caffra Ziziphus_mucronata Rank ; RUN ; *Feeding frequency and parasite richness correlation*; PROC CORR Data =Kdean; VAR Acacia_ataxacantha Acacia_burkei Acacia_caffra Acacia_nilotica Acacia_robusta Berchemia_zeyheri Celtis_africana Chaetachme_aristata Combretum_apiculatum Combretum_erythrophyllum Combretum_zeyheri Diospyros_whyteana Dovyalis_zeyheri Euclea_crispa Ficus_burkei Ficus_sur Gymnopsoria_buxifolia Heteropyxis_natalensis Mimusops_zeyheri Olea_europea Pappea_capensis Pavetta_gardeniifolia Rhus_leptodictia Sclerocarya_birrea Ximenia_caffra Ziziphus_mucronata Trich Nec Phys Oeso Stron Entam Uke 99

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Ukw Tricho ; RUN ; 100

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Appendix E Point-biserial correlation between presence/absence of plant species and parasites. Trich Nec Phys Oeso Stron Entam Uke Ukw -0.11455 -0.15303 -0.13640 -0.11453 0.08596 0.24911 -0.00317 0.28545 0.5395 0.4111 0.4644 0.5395 0.6457 0.1766 0.9865 0.1196 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.03659 -0.11585 0.42293 0.06052 0.07651 -0.03264 0.05425 0.69522 0.8451 0.5348 0.0178 0.7464 0.6825 0.8616 0.7719 <.0001 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.04754 -0.02816 0.18700 -0.05761 0.15313 0.11801 0.13252 1.00000 0.7995 0.8805 0.3138 0.7582 0.4108 0.5272 0.4773 <.0001 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.00333 -0.13293 0.40105 0.14176 -0.04674 -0.16340 -0.05708 -0.03333 0.9858 0.4759 0.0254 0.4468 0.8028 0.3798 0.7604 0.8587 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.16378 -0.00284 0.19201 0.02467 -0.06724 -0.03264 -0.08211 -0.04795 0.3787 0.9879 0.3008 0.8952 0.7193 0.8616 0.6606 0.7978 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.05933 0.01115 0.38001 0.10858 -0.08890 0.12838 0.21119 0.18856 0.7512 0.9525 0.0350 0.5610 0.6344 0.4913 0.2541 0.3097 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 -0.06489 -0.16447 0.22905 0.08935 0.05177 0.17070 0.04480 0.33806 0.7287 0.3766 0.2152 0.6327 0.7821 0.3585 0.8109 0.0629 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.03032 -0.22502 0.22905 -0.17838 0.00680 0.02631 -0.02042 0.47434 0.8714 0.2236 0.2152 0.3370 0.9711 0.8883 0.9132 0.0070 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 -0.15420 -0.00284 -0.19284 0.20390 -0.06724 -0.43724 -0.08211 -0.04795 0.4075 0.9879 0.2986 0.2712 0.7193 0.0139 0.6606 0.7987 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.00702 -0.18821 0.09462 -0.07330 -0.09854 -0.12200 0.04620 -0.07027 0.9701 0.3106 0.6126 0.6951 0.5979 0.5132 0.8051 0.7027 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.22440 0.12898 0.13349 -0.10746 -0.04674 0.11801 -0.05708 -0.03333 0.2249 0.4892 0.4740 0.5650 0.8028 0.5272 0.7604 0.8587 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.00479 -0.19120 -0.00041 0.20390 -0.06724 -0.03264 -0.08211 -0.04795 0.9796 0.3028 0.9982 0.2712 0.7193 0.8616 0.6606 0.7978 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.03239 -0.17571 0.11141 -0.01390 0.03564 -0.12478 0.01097 0.55777 0.8627 0.3444 0.5507 0.9407 0.8490 0.5036 0.9533 0.0011 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 -0.12241 -0.11585 0.03807 -0.17846 0.07651 0.16975 0.05425 0.69522 0.5518 0.5348 0.8389 0.3368 0.6825 0.3613 0.7719 <.0001 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 -0.18332 -0.00250 -0.17595 -0.16340 -0.13097 0.25849 0.27880 0.22973 0.3236 0.9904 0.3437 0.3798 0.4825 0.1603 0.1288 0.2138 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 -0.15420 0.18553 -0.19284 0.02467 -0.06724 -0.03264 -0.08211 -0.04795 0.4075 0.3177 0.2986 0.8952 0.7193 0.8616 0.6606 0.7978 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 Acacia ataxacantha Acacia burkei Acacia caffra Acacia nilotica Combretum apiculatum Combretum zeyheri Diospyros whyteana Acacia robusta Berchemia zeyheri Celtis africana Chaetachme aristata Dovyalis zeyheri Euclea crispa Ficus burkei Ficus sur Parasites Plant species Gymnopsoria buxifolia Within each cell, the top value is the correlation coefcient ( Point-biserial ), the middle is the p-value and the bottom is the sample size. Shaded cells highlight signicant ( p < .05 ) correlations between plants and parasites. 101

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(continued) Point-biserial correlation between presence/absence of plant species and parasites. Trich Nec Phys Oeso Stron Entam Uke Ukw Parasites Plant species 0.00702 -0.28023 -0.14162 -0.16087 -0.09854 -0.27032 -0.12034 -0.07027 0.9701 0.1268 0.4473 0.3873 0.5978 0.1414 0.5190 0.7072 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 -0.10313 -0.12892 -0.14162 -0.16340 -0.13097 0.25849 0.04955 0.22973 0.5809 0.4894 0.4473 0.3798 0.4825 0.1603 0.7912 0.2138 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 -0.07851 0.21788 0.00093 -0.12909 -0.05012 0.04032 -0.05680 -0.10768 0.6746 0.2390 0.9960 0.4889 0.7889 0.8295 0.7615 0.5642 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 -0.21774 -0.13293 -0.13407 -0.35667 -0.04674 -0.44481 -0.05708 -0.03333 0.2393 0.4759 0.4721 0.0489 0.8028 0.0122 0.7604 0.8587 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.22440 -0.13293 -0.13407 0.14176 -0.04674 0.11801 -0.05708 -0.03333 0.2249 0.4759 0.4721 0.4468 0.8028 0.5272 0.7604 0.8587 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.03032 -0.22502 0.02760 0.01864 0.00680 0.10047 -0.02042 0.47434 0.8714 0.2236 0.8828 0.9207 0.9711 0.5907 0.9132 0.0070 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 -0.15420 0.18553 -0.19284 -0.06495 -0.06724 0.06855 -0.08211 -0.04795 0.4075 0.3177 0.2986 0.7285 0.7193 0.7140 0.6606 0.7978 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.00333 -0.13293 -0.13407 -0.23206 -0.04674 -0.02269 -0.05708 -0.03333 0.9858 0.4759 0.4721 0.2090 0.8028 0.9035 0.7604 0.8587 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 -0.10950 0.13388 0.14041 0.03616 -0.09854 0.24879 0.37929 -0.07027 0.5576 0.4727 0.4512 0.8469 0.5979 0.1771 0.0353 0.7072 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 Mimusops zeyheri Olea europea Ximenia caffra Ziziphus mucronata Pappea capensis Pavetta gardeniifolia Rhus leptodictia Sclerocarya birrea Heteropyxis natalensis Within each cell, the top value is the correlation coefcient ( Point-biserial ), the middle is the p-value and the bottom is the sample size. Shaded cells highlight signicant ( p < .05 ) correlations between plants and parasites. 102

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Correlations between feeding frequency and age, sex, lactation, and rank of individuals. Within each cell, the top value is the correlation coefcient ( Spearman or Point-biserial ), the middle is the p-value and the bottom is the sample size. Age Sex Lactation Rank 0.09857 0.09099 -0.12817 -0.1189 0.4913 0.6032 0.56 0.503 51 35 23 35 0.04201 0.11354 -0.18699 -0.19726 0.7698 0.516 0.3929 0.2635 51 35 23 35 0.1289 -0.17647 -0.15867 0.3673 0.3105 0.3701 51 35 35 -0.11458 0.4234 51 0.17469 -0.10642 0.24309 0.10138 0.2202 0.5429 0.2637 0.5683 51 35 23 35 0.11552 0.02322 0.154757 -0.24013 0.4195 0.8946 0.4831 0.1713 51 35 23 35 -0.0193 -0.13062 0.01589 -0.29385 0.893 0.4545 0.9426 0.0916 51 35 23 35 0.14626 0.04454 -0.18699 -0.24161 0.3058 0.7995 0.3929 0.1686 51 35 23 35 0.15588 -0.21386 0.05897 0.2747 0.2174 0.7404 51 35 35 0.00716 0.16667 -0.18699 -0.15867 0.9602 0.3386 0.3929 0.3701 51 35 23 35 0.09637 -0.28507 -0.18699 0.08329 0.5056 0.0969 0.3929 0.6396 51 35 23 35 0.1289 0.16667 0.24309 -0.00881 0.3673 0.3386 0.2637 0.9605 51 35 23 35 -0.11332 -0.17647 -0.15867 0.4285 0.3105 0.3701 51 35 35 Plant species Feeding factors Dovyalis zeyheri Celtis africana Chaetachme aristata Combretum apiculatum Combretum erythrophyllum Combretum zeyheri Diospyros whyteana Acacia ataxacantha Acacia burkei Acacia caffra Acacia nilotica Acacia robusta Berchemia zeyheri 103

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( continued) Correlations between feeding frequency and age, sex, lactation, and rank of individuals. Within each cell, the top value is the correlation coefcient ( Spearman or Point-biserial ), the middle is the p-value and the bottom is the sample size. Age Sex Lactation Rank 0.10513 0.0056 -0.18699 -0.12802 0.4628 0.9745 0.3929 0.4706 51 35 23 35 0.09721 -0.25332 -0.22787 0.4974 0.142 0.1949 51 35 35 0.14628 0.07935 0.19337 -0.09451 0.3057 0.6505 0.3767 0.5949 51 35 23 35 0.12659 0.20762 0.18468 0.2381 0.3761 0.2314 0.3989 0.1751 51 35 23 35 0.14417 0.17633 -0.24635 0.038 0.3128 0.3109 0.2572 0.831 51 35 23 35 0.20244 -0.03069 0.27268 -0.22509 0.1543 0.8611 0.2081 0.2006 51 35 23 35 0.16146 -0.14991 0.02333 -0.06743 0.2577 0.3901 0.9158 0.7048 51 35 23 35 -0.10073 0.16667 -0.20643 0.14104 0.4818 0.3386 0.3446 0.4263 51 35 23 35 0.1289 0.16667 0.24309 0.29089 0.3673 0.3386 0.2637 0.0951 51 35 23 35 0.13611 0.07929 -0.18699 -0.22535 0.3409 0.6507 0.3929 0.2 51 35 23 35 0.00944 0.08631 -0.18699 -0.20998 0.9476 0.622 0.3929 0.2333 51 35 23 35 0.00716 -0.17647 -0.15867 0.9602 0.3105 0.3701 51 35 35 -0.09335 -0.13685 -0.20185 -0.18083 0.5147 0.4331 0.3557 0.3061 51 35 23 35 Ximenia caffra Ziziphus mucronata Plant species Feeding factors Mimusops zeyheri Olea europea Pappea capensis Pavetta gardeniifolia Rhus leptodictia Sclerocarya birrea Euclea crispa Ficus burkei Ficus sur Gymnopsoria buxifolia Heteropyxis natalensis 104


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