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A Re-Evaluation of Early Christian Pilgramage

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004366/00001

Material Information

Title: A Re-Evaluation of Early Christian Pilgramage The Letters of Gregory of Nyssa, Jerome, and Egeria
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Cawlfield, Emma
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Pilgramage
Christianity
Late Antiquity
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: How did the earliest Christian pilgrims conceive of their practice? This thesis analyzes the motivations and interests of three fourth-century CE Christian pilgrims through a close reading of their surviving letters. The first chapter discusses the limitations of contemporary scholarship on pilgrimage and elaborates on the difficulties in treating these early pilgrims as a cohesive group. The second and third chapters provide close readings of the letters of Gregory of Nyssa, Jerome, and Egeria, illuminating the diverse and sometimes contradictory ways in which these three pilgrims conceived of their journeys.� Although each author consistently expresses a concern over personal piety, the individual experiences of these pilgrims during and after their pilgrimages led to a highly individualized conception of the pilgrimage enterprise. Acknowledging the variety of opinions presented in these letters allows us to gain a much richer understanding of this initial phase of Christian pilgrimage.
Statement of Responsibility: by Emma Cawlfield
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Marks, Susan

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 C38
System ID: NCFE004366:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004366/00001

Material Information

Title: A Re-Evaluation of Early Christian Pilgramage The Letters of Gregory of Nyssa, Jerome, and Egeria
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Cawlfield, Emma
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2011
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Pilgramage
Christianity
Late Antiquity
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: How did the earliest Christian pilgrims conceive of their practice? This thesis analyzes the motivations and interests of three fourth-century CE Christian pilgrims through a close reading of their surviving letters. The first chapter discusses the limitations of contemporary scholarship on pilgrimage and elaborates on the difficulties in treating these early pilgrims as a cohesive group. The second and third chapters provide close readings of the letters of Gregory of Nyssa, Jerome, and Egeria, illuminating the diverse and sometimes contradictory ways in which these three pilgrims conceived of their journeys.� Although each author consistently expresses a concern over personal piety, the individual experiences of these pilgrims during and after their pilgrimages led to a highly individualized conception of the pilgrimage enterprise. Acknowledging the variety of opinions presented in these letters allows us to gain a much richer understanding of this initial phase of Christian pilgrimage.
Statement of Responsibility: by Emma Cawlfield
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2011
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Marks, Susan

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2011 C38
System ID: NCFE004366:00001


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A R E E V A L U A T I O N O F E A R L Y C H R I S T I A N P I L G R I M A G E : T H E L E T T E R S O F G R E G O R Y O F N Y S S A J E R O M E A N D E G E R I A B Y E M M A C A W L F I E L D A T he s i s S ubm i t t e d t o t he D i vi s i on of H um a ni t i e s N e w C ol l e ge of F l or i da i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f o r t he de gr e e B a c he l or of A r t s U nde r t he s pons or s hi p of D r S us a n M a r ks S a r a s ot a F l or i da A pr i l 2011

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i i C o n te n ts A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I I I A B S T R A C T I V I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 C H A P T E R O N E : T H E L I M I T A T I O N S O F C O N T E M P O R A R Y P I L G R I M A G E S C H O L A R S H I P 1 1 C H A P T E R T W O : C O N T R A D I C T I O N A N D C O N V E R G E N C E I N T H E W R I T I N G S O F G R E G O R Y O F N Y S S A A N D J E R O M E 3 1 C H A P T E R T H R E E : E G E R I A S S I G H T S E E I N G A D V E N T U R E 5 6 C O N C L U S I O N 8 4 A P P E N D I X 8 8 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 9 0

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i i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n ts I a m i nde bt e d t o m a ny pe opl e f or t he c om pl e t i on of t hi s pr oj e c t T h r oughout m y e nt i r e l i f e m y f a m i l y ha s s uppor t e d m e i n a l l e nde a vor s M y pa r e nt s de s e r ve s p e c i a l r e c ogni t i on f or t e a c hi ng m e t he va l ue of pos s e s s i ng a s t r ong w or k e t hi c a nd a pos i t i ve a t t i t ude T he i r c ons t a nt e nc ou r a ge m e nt ke e ps m e m ot i va t e d a nd f oc us e d. J ul i a n a nd L i s a T hom s on w e l c om e d m e i nt o t he i r ho m e s u ppl yi ng c ount l e s s m e a l s a nd w a r m c onve r s a t i ons t ha t e a s e d t he s t r e s s of c ol l e ge l i f e a nd hom e s i c kne s s M y f r i e nds a t N e w C ol l e ge t a ught m e m a ny l e s s ons out s i de t he c l a s s r oom a nd m a de t he s e pa s t f our ye a r s unf or ge t t a bl e A ve r y T hom s on e ndur e d t he up s a nd dow ns of t hi s j our ne y w i t h m e H i s c om pa ni ons hi p m a de m y m a ny f a i l ur e s l e s s di f f i c ul t t o be a r a nd t he s uc c e s s e s e v e n s w e e t e r D ougl a s L a ngs t on, T hom a s M c C a r t hy, a nd D a vi d R ohr ba c he r s e r ve d on m y ba c c a l a ur e a t e c om m i t t e e a nd t a ught m y f a vor i t e c l a s s e s a t N e w C ol l e ge M y t h e s i s s pons or a nd a dvi s e r S us a n M a r k s c ont r i but e d a n i nc r e di bl e a m ount of w or k t o t hi s t he s i s H e r pa t i e nc e a nd e nt hus i a s m m a de t h e e nt i r e pr oc e s s a w onde r f ul l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e C ha r l e s C a r t e r T r oy K oni c ki a nd J e r e m y Z or n pr ovi de d va l ua bl e c r i t i que s of m y w r i t i ng a l ong t he w a y. B r i a n J ohns on pr oof r e a d t he f i na l dr a f t a nd of f e r e d a f r e s h pe r s pe c t i ve on m y w or k A ny e r r o r s t ha t r e m a i n a r e due t o m y ne gl i ge nc e a l one

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i v A b s tr a c t A R E E V A L U A T I O N O F E A R L Y C H R I S T I A N P I L G R I M A G E : T H E L E T T E R S O F G R E G O R Y O F N Y S S A J E R O M E A N D E G E R I A E m m a C a w l f i e l d N e w C ol l e ge of F l o r i da 2011 H ow di d t he e a r l i e s t C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m s c onc e i v e of t he i r p r a c t i c e ? T hi s t he s i s a na l yz e s t he m ot i va t i ons a nd i nt e r e s t s of t hr e e f our t h c e nt ur y C E C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m s t hr ough a c l os e r e a di ng of t he i r s ur vi vi ng l e t t e r s T he f i r s t c ha pt e r di s c us s e s t h e l i m i t a t i ons of c ont e m por a r y s c hol a r s hi p on pi l gr i m a ge a nd e l a bor a t e s on t he di f f i c ul t i e s i n t r e a t i ng t he s e e a r l y pi l g r i m s a s a c ohe s i ve gr oup. T he s e c ond a nd t hi r d c ha pt e r s pr ovi de c l os e r e a di ngs of t he l e t t e r s of G r e g or y of N ys s a J e r om e a nd E ge r i a i l l um i na t i ng t he di ve r s e a nd s om e t i m e s c ont r a di c t or y w a ys i n w hi c h t he s e t hr e e pi l gr i m s c onc e i ve d of t he i r j our ne ys A l t hough e a c h a ut ho r c ons i s t e nt l y e xpr e s s e s a c onc e r n ove r pe r s ona l pi e t y, t he i ndi vi dua l e xpe r i e nc e s of t he s e pi l gr i m s dur i ng a nd a f t e r t he i r pi l gr i m a ge s l e d t o a hi ghl y i ndi vi dua l i z e d c onc e pt i on of t he pi l gr i m a ge e n t e r pr i s e A c know l e dgi ng t he va r i e t y of opi ni ons p r e s e nt e d i n t he s e l e t t e r s a l l ow s us t o ga i n a m uc h r i c he r unde r s t a ndi ng o f t hi s i n i t i a l pha s e of C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge S us a n M a r ks D i vi s i on of H um a ni t i e s

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1 I n tr o d u c ti o n T he s ur vi vi ng e vi de nc e i ndi c a t e s t ha t ve r y f e w C h r i s t i a ns t r a ve l e d t o t he phy s i c a l l a nds of t he B i bl e be f or e t he f our t h c e nt u r y C E B e gi nni ng w i t h t he r e i gn of C ons t a nt i ne P a l e s t i ne a nd t he s ur r oundi ng r e gi ons e xpe r i e n c e d a dr a m a t i c i nc r e a s e i n C hr i s t i a n a c t i vi t y. R e m a r ka bl y, m ul t i pl e t e xt s w r i t t e n by pi l gr i m s f r om t he l a t e f ou r t h c e nt ur y s ur vi ve w hi c h a ugm e nt t he po s s i bi l i t y f or unde r s t a ndi ng t he m ot i va t i ons a nd i nt e r e s t s of t he s e e a r l y t r a ve l e r s T he va l ua bl e e vi de nc e t he s e t e xt ua l s our c e s pr ovi de s t a nds i n s t a r k c ont r a s t t o t he a va i l a bi l i t y of a r c ha e ol ogi c a l r e m a i ns f r om t h i s e a r l y pe r i od w hi c h t hough a l s o i m por t a nt a r e f a r s c a r c e r 1 E ye w i t ne s s a c c ount s of l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m a ge a s pr e s e r ve d i n t he w r i t i ngs e xa m i ne d i n t hi s t he s i s s uppl y t he be s t pa t h f or a na l yz i ng t he de ve l opm e nt of t hi s m ove m e nt T he r a pi d gr ow t h o f C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nds c oi nc i de d w i t h t he pr ogr e s s i on of t he r e l i gi on f r om one o f m a r gi na l i z e d s t a t us i nt o t he dom i na nt t r a di t i on w i t hi n t he R om a n E m pi r e T hi s t r a ns i t or y pe r i od c r e a t e s m a ny s e m a nt i c di f f i c ul t i e s f or s c hol a r s a s m a ny of t he t e r m s us e d t o de s c r i be r e l i gi ous l i f e a t t hi s t i m e o f t e n be c om e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l a t e r us e s F or e xa m pl e t he L a t i n w or ds of t e n t r a ns l a t e d i n E ngl i s h a s pi l gr i m a ge a nd pi l gr i m pe r e g r i na t i o a nd pe r e g r i nus r e s pe c t i ve l y or i gi na l l y r e f e r r e d t o t r a ve l a nd t r a ve l e r s i n t he ge ne r a l s e ns e ; onl y l a t e r a r e t he s e t e r m s s pe c i f i c a l l y a t t a c he d t o r e l i gi ous t r a ve l 2 E ge r i a one of t he be s t a va i l a bl e s our c e s f or l a t e a nt i que 1 E l s n e r 2005 412 415. 2 D i e t z 2004, 126; P ul l a n 2005 395

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2 pi l gr i m a ge e ve n us e s t he t e r m p e r e g r i nus t o de s c r i be a pe r s on s t udyi ng f or ba pt i s m 3 T he E ngl i s h l a ngua ge on t he ot he r ha nd, di s t i ngui s he s be t w e e n s e ve r a l di f f e r e nt t ype s of t r a ve l di s t i nc t i ons t ha t w e r e not a ppa r e nt l y m a de dur i ng l a t e a nt i qui t y. T he ve r y e m pl oym e nt of E ngl i s h a s t h e l a ngua ge of t h i s t he s i s t he r e f or e ne c e s s i t a t e s a c l e a r de f i ni t i on of w ha t i s m e a nt by pi l g r i m a ge a nd p i l gr i m G e or ge W i l l i a m s on de f i ne s pi l gr i m a ge a s a de s i r e t o w i t ne s s di vi ne pow e r or pr e s e nc e a s oppos e d t o w i t ne s s i ng na t ur a l or m a n m a de s i t e s 4 T hi s di s t i nc t i on s t i l l l e a ve s m uc h a m bi gui t y, f or di f f e r e nt t r a ve l e r s m a y ha ve va r yi ng opi ni ons a s t o w hi c h s i t e s c ount a s s a c r e d. A r e pl a c e s w he r e m i r a c l e s oc c ur t he onl y t r ue s a c r e d pl a c e s ? C a n one not w i t ne s s di vi ne pow e r i n na t ur a l phe nom e na s u c h a s r i ve r s or m ount a i ns or i n m a n m a de s t r uc t ur e s l i ke c hur c he s or t e m pl e s ? W i l l i a m s on a r gue s t ha t i f w e us e t he s e de f i ni t i ons a ny j our ne y c oul d pot e nt i a l l y be a pi l gr i m a ge I f s om e one e m ba r ks on a t our i s t t r i p, a nd a l ong t he w a y ha s a r e l i gi ous e xpe r i e nc e m a y w e c a l l t ha t a pi l gr i m a ge ? I f a j our ne y ha s bot h s e c ul a r a nd s a c r e d s t ops on i t s i t i ne r a r y, c a n w e pr ope r l y c a l l i t t our i s m ? T hi s pr obl e m a f f e c t s t he w a y s c hol a r s t r e a t s our c e s W i l l i a m s on's ow n c a s e s t udy a bout t he t r a ve l s of a f i r s t c e nt ur y R om a n gov e r nor na m e d M uc i a nus i l l us t r a t e s t hi s pr obl e m pe r f e c t l y. I n hi s N at ur al H i s t o r y P l i ny t he E l de r quot e s e xc e r pt s f r om M uc i a nus s t r a ve l s i n A s i a M i nor t ha t i nc l ude de t a i l s a bout bot h s e c ul a r a nd s a c r e d s i t e s 5 D e s pi t e hi s i nt e r a c t i on w i t h r e l i gi ou s s i t e s no one unt i l W i l l i a m s on e ve r s ugge s t e d t ha t M uc i a nus m e r i t s t he t i t l e of pi l gr i m W i l l i a m s on ope ns up t he l a be l of pi l gr i m t o i nc l ude a w i de r va r i e t y of pe opl e 3 P ul l a n 2005 396; C ha pt e r T hr e e e xc l us i ve l y di s c us s e s E ge r i a a nd he r pi l g r i m a ge t e xt 4 W i l l i a m s on 2005, 220. 5 W i l l i a m s on 2005, 221 222

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3 t ha n t he m a j or i t y of s c hol a r s hi p, w hi c h o f t e n f a v or s a c c ount s t ha t di s pl a y a de e pl y f e l t s e t of i nne r c onvi c t i ons a bout t he s a c r a l i t y o f t he i r j our ne y. 6 T hi s a ppr oa c h ne gl e c t s m a ny r e l i gi ous t r a ve l e r s w ho m i ght not s how s uc h f e r vor i n t he i r w r i t i ngs s uc h a s P l i ny s M uc i a nus B ot h pi l gr i m a ge i t s e l f a n d t he w a y pe opl e w r i t e a bout i t t a ke s m a ny f or m s a nd s c hol a r s m us t e xe r c i s e c a ut i on w he n d e s i gna t i ng j our ne ys a s ha vi ng a s a c r e d or s e c ul a r f oc us T he a m bi gui t y w e f i nd i n s t udyi n g pi l gr i m a ge a s a w hol e be c om e s e ve n m or e pr onounc e d w he n l ooki ng a t C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge i n pa r t i c ul a r C hr i s t i a n t r a di t i on ne ve r t ook a n of f i c i a l s t a nc e on pi l gr i m s de s pi t e t he va r i ous a ut hor i t i e s w ho voi c e d t he i r opi ni ons a bout t he pr a c t i c e dur i ng l a t e a nt i qui t y. W hi l e E us e bi us of C a e s a r e a a nd P a ul i nus of N ol a r e a c t e d pos i t i ve l y t o C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge J e r om e a ppe a r s m or e a m bi va l e nt on t he s ubj e c t a nd G r e gor y of N ys s a m a ke s s e ve r a l ne ga t i ve r e m a r ks pa r t i c ul a r l y r e ga r d i ng f e m a l e pi l gr i m s 7 S c hol a r l y di s c us s i ons of t he de v e l opm e nt of e a r l y C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge of t e n f oc us on i nt e r pr e t i ng t he s e pi l gr i m s a s a c ohe s i ve gr oup, but a n e xa m i na t i on of t he i r w r i t t e n c or r e s ponde nc e s r e ve a l s a m uc h m or e i ndi vi dua l i z e d f oc us f or t he e nt e r p r i s e t ha n pr e vi ous l y a c know l e dge d. A s f ur t he r di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r s O ne a nd T w o, t he m a i n di f f i c ul t y i n s t udyi ng l a t e a nt i que pi l g r i m a ge s t e m s f r om a di l e m m a c onc e r ni ng C hr i s t i a n doc t r i ne i t s e l f D o hol y pl a c e s e ve n e xi s t i n C hr i s t i a ni t y, a r e l i gi on t ha t e s pous e s t r a ns c e nde nc e ? T he N e w T e s t a m e nt pr om ot e s t h e i de a t ha t G od i s e ve r yw he r e ( A c t s 17: 24) ye t C hr i s t i a ns s t i l l f e l t a ne e d t o t r a ve l t o t he s pe c i f i c l oc a t i ons of B i bl i c a l e ve nt s de s pi t e t he a m bi guous a nd c ont r a di c t or y na t ur e f ound i n s c r i pt ur a l a nd t he ol ogi c a l m a t e r i a l A t t e m pt s t o pi n dow n a s i ngl e de f i ni t i on of w ha t pi l gr i m a ge m e a ns m a y r e s ul t 6 W i l l i a m s on 2005, 222. 7 P ul l a n 2005 400 401.

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4 i n a s i m i l a r p r obl e m o f ove r s i m pl i f i c a t i on, a s di f f e r e nt r e l i gi ons de ve l ope d uni que c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s c onc e r ni ng t r a ve l T he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n M uc i a nu s s f r a gm e nt s a n d C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge w r i t i ng, f o r e xa m pl e f a r out w e i gh t he s i m i l a r i t i e s I n de s c r i bi ng t he c ha nge e xhi bi t e d be t w e e n e a r l i e r G r e c o R om a n r e l i gi ous t r a ve l a nd C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge J ohn E a de a nd M i c ha e l S a l l now a r gue t ha t t he C hr i s t i a n t r a di t i on e nga ge d a pe r s on, pl a c e t e xt t r i a d, m e a ni ng t ha t s uc h j our ne ys not onl y i nvol ve d a n i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n a t r a ve l e r a nd a l oc a t i on, but a l s o be t w e e n t he t r a ve l e r t he pl a c e a nd s c r i pt ur e 8 T he B i bl e a f t e r a l l a c t e d a s a n i ni t i a l t r a ve l gui de f o r C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m s pr ovi di ng s t or i e s t ha t t he y t he n a s s i gne d t o t he vi s i bl e l a nds c a pe a s oppos e d t o p r e C hr i s t i a n t r a di t i ons t ha t r e l i e d m or e upon o r a l hi s t or y f or t he ba s i s of t he i r m e a ni ng. B e s i de s s i t e s m e nt i one d i n t he B i bl e l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a n s a l s o vi s i t e d s i t e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s a i nt s a nd m a r t yr s pl a c e s w hos e pe r c e i ve d i m por t a nc e a l s o r e l a t e d b a c k t o t e xt ua l t r a di t i ons 9 T hi s t r i a d be c om e s e ve n m or e he l pf ul w he n c ons i de r i ng l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m a ge na r r a t i ve s N ot onl y di d t he s e pi l g r i m s us e t e xt s a s gui de s f or t he i r t r a ve l s bu t t he y a l s o c r e a t e d t e xt s t he m s e l ve s w r i t i ng a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd s ha r i ng w i t h ot he r s t he i r opi ni ons a bout pi l gr i m a ge T hi s unde r s t a ndi ng be gs a n e nt i r e l y ne w que s t i on: ba s e d on t he f our t h c e nt ur y a c c ount s c a n w e f ur t he r gr oup t he s e pi l gr i m s t oge t he r a nd s p e a k of t he i r s ha r e d goa l s ? I n f a c t a n a na l ys i s of t he s ur vi vi ng e vi de nc e i ndi c a t e s t ha t a l t hough t he s e pi l gr i m s do a l l f i t unde r t he um br e l l a t e r m C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m t he i r w r i t i ngs pr e s e r ve a f a s c i na t i ng pl ur a l i t y of e xpe r i e nc e s a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i ons t ha t r e f l e c t t he c onc ur r e nt t r a ns i t i ons w i t hi n C hr i s t i a ni t y. M e a nw hi l e a s w e w i l l s e e i n C h a pt e r O ne t he 8 C ol e m a n 200 2, quot i ng E a de a nd S a l l now 1991, 3 60. 9 E ge r i a vi s i t s t w o s uc h s hr i ne s t ha t of S t T he kl a a nd t he t om b of K i ng A bga r ; s e e C ha pt e r T hr e e

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5 e xpl a na t i ons a s ye t pr opos e d by va r i ous s c hol a r s w he n a ppl i e d on t he i r ow n, do not a de qua t e l y de s c r i be t he uni que a s p e c t s of e a c h i ndi vi dua l pi l gr i m a ge t e xt I t t he r e f or e s e e m s a ppr opr i a t e f or t hi s t he s i s t o hi ghl i ght t hi s pl ur a l i t y a nd a r gue t ha t i n t hi s e a r l y pe r i od pi l gr i m a ge c ons i s t e d of a j ou r ne y unde r t a k e n f or t he e xpr e s s pur pos e of vi e w i ng t hos e pl a c e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a s i gni f i c a nt t e xt e i t h e r B i bl i c a l e ve nt s r e c or de d i n s c r i pt ur e or t he l i ve s of s a i nt s a nd m a r t yr s a c c om pa ni e d by t he be l i e f t ha t s uc h a n e xpe r i e nc e w oul d e nr i c h one s f a i t h. T hi s s houl d not be c onf us e d w i t h t he i de a t ha t pi l gr i m a ge i s ne c e s s a r y f or one s f a i t h; i t w i l l onl y a ugm e nt i t A s t he na r r a t i ve s of J e r om e G r e gor y o f N ys s a a nd E ge r i a de m on s t r a t e t he s e pi l gr i m s ne ve r a r t i c ul a t e t he be l i e f t ha t e ve r y C hr i s t i a n s houl d s e e t he pl a c e s of t he B i bl e 1 0 T he y do how e ve r e xpr e s s a c onc e r n ove r t he e f f e c t pi l gr i m a ge ha s on pe r s ona l pi e t y, one of t he onl y s i m i l a r i t i e s f ound t hr oughout a l l t hr e e a ut hor s 1 1 M a ny of t he que s t i ons I a s k i n r e ga r d t o t he i nt e nt i ons of t he a ut hor s of t he s e pi l gr i m a ge t e xt s a r e i nde bt e d t o t he s c hol a r s hi p of E l i z a be t h C l a r k, w ho a r gue s t ha t a dopt i ng c r i t i c a l t e c hni que s us e d i n l i t e r a r y s t udi e s pr ove s us e f ul f or l a t e a nt i qui t y be c a us e t he f i e l d r e l i e s s o h e a vi l y upon t e xt u a l s our c e s H i s t or i a ns a r e l i m i t e d t o t he i r a va i l a bl e e vi de nc e by t he ve r y na t ur e of t he i r e nt e r pr i s e unl i ke a nt hr opol ogi s t s be c a us e t he y c a nnot i nt e r vi e w t he i r s ubj e c t s or e xpe r i e n c e t he pa r t i c ul a r s oc i a l a t m os phe r e of t he i r w or k. I nde e d, a pa r t f r om t he l i m i t e d m a t e r i a l r e m a i ns f r om t he pe r i od s c hol a r s i nt e r e s t e d i n l a t e a nt i qui t y r e l y e nt i r e l y upon t he s ur vi vi ng t e xt ua l s our c e s T he s e t e xt s of t e n c ons i s t of t h e l e t t e r s m e m oi r s a nd ot he r pe r s ona l w r i t i ngs f r om t he i nt e l l e c t ua l 1 0 T hough J e r om e c om e s a w f ul l y c l os e i n hi s L e t t e r 46 ; S e e C ha pt e r T w o. 1 1 S e e C ha pt e r O ne

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6 e l i t e s ne c e s s i t a t i ng i nt e r pr e t a t i ons t ha t a c c oun t f or t he r he t or i c a l na t ur e of t he s e c om pos i t i ons 1 2 C l a r k f ound i n he r ow n w or k t ha t r e a di ng t he s e t e xt s m e r e l y a s e vi de nc e f or bur e a uc r a t i c pr a c t i c e s or hi s t or i c a l e ve nt s m i s s e s a gr e a t de a l of t he ot he r i nf l ue nc e s t ha t go i nt o w r i t i ng, w hi c h, i n t u r n, a f f e c t bot h w ha t t h e a ut hor i nc l ude s i n t he t e xt a nd how he or s he pr e s e nt s t ha t i nf or m a t i on. S he e xpl a i ns [ ] a m a l ga m a t i ng s oc i a l a n d i ns t i t ut i ona l pr a c t i c e s unde r t he r ub r i c of t e xt a l s o di m i ni s he s t he s pe c i a l pr ope r t i e s of hi gh l i t e r a r y w r i t i ngs t ha t r e f us e dom e s t i c a t i on, [ ] 1 3 T ha t i s r a t he r t ha n a na l yz i ng i nt e l l e c t ua l w r i t i ngs s uc h a s l e t t e r s by C hur c h F a t he r s onl y a s e vi de nc e f or s oc i a l de ve l opm e nt s a nd e ve nt s t ha t o c c ur r e d a t t he t i m e of c om pos i t i on, s c hol a r s s houl d r e a d t he t e xt a s a n a c t i on i n i t s e l f T he pr oc e s s w he r e by t e xt s c om e i nt o e xi s t e nc e i nvol ve s m uc h m or e t ha n s i m pl y r e c or di ng da t a : t he pe r s ona l i nt e r e s t s c onc e r ns a nd w r i t i ng s t yl e of e a c h a ut hor a f f e c t how t he y pr e s e nt i nf or m a t i on. C l a r k goe s on t o e xpl a i n t ha t t he s e l i t e r a r y t e xt s [ ] a ddr e s s a nd c ont e s t e ve n t he c om m onpl a c e i n e xc e pt i ona l w a y s t ha t s ubve r t a s w e l l a s r e i nf o r c e t r a di t i on 1 4 R e a di n g t he s e s our c e s of i nt e l l e c t ua l hi s t or y w i t h a n a ppr e c i a t i on f or t he l i t e r a r y c onc e r ns l i s t e d a bove yi e l ds i ns i ght s t ha t m i ght ot he r w i s e be ove r l ooke d. A s t he s ubs e que nt a na l y s e s t hr oughout t hi s t he s i s w i l l s how t he i nt e nde d a udi e nc e s of e a c h pi l gr i m a ge t e xt pl a ye d a huge r ol e i n how t he a ut hor s p r e s e nt e d t h e i r i nf or m a t i on. I n t he c a s e s of G r e gor y of N ys s a a nd J e r om e t he i r opi ni ons a bout 1 2 C l a r k 2004, 159. 1 3 C l a r k 2004, 165. 1 4 C l a r k 2004, 165.

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7 pi l gr i m a ge pr a c t i c e s c h a nge a c c or di ng t o t he r e c i pi e nt s of t he i r l e t t e r s 1 5 T he de t a i l s i nc l ude d w i t hi n E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve di f f e r d r a m a t i c a l l y f r om t hos e di s c us s e d by t he C hu r c h F a t he r s a nd t hi s f a c t a l s o r e l a t e s ba c k t o E ge r i a s ow n uni que c i r c um s t a n c e s a s a n a ut hor a s w e l l a s t he i nt e r e s t s of he r m ys t e r i ous c or r e s ponde nt s 1 6 M y i ni t i a l que s t i on a bout t he s e t e xt s i nvol ve d a w i s h t o unde r s t a nd t h e m ot i va t i ons be hi nd e a r l y C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge a s e xpr e s s e d by a c t ua l pi l gr i m s I di s c ove r e d, a s I s e a r c he d f or hi s t or i c a l a nd t he or e t i c a l a r gum e nt s t o a i d m y a na l y s i s of t he s e t e xt s t ha t no s i ngl e pe r s pe c t i ve pr e s e nt e d by s c hol a r s a c c ur a t e l y c a pt ur e d e ve r yt hi ng I f ound w i t hi n t he m E a c h a r gum e nt t ha t I e nc ount e r e d c onvi nc i ngl y di s c us s e d va r i ous f a c t or s t ha t i nf l ue nc e d t he de v e l opm e nt of C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge : t he r ol e of C ons t a nt i ne a nd hi s bui l di ng pr oj e c t s i n P a l e s t i ne t he w i de s pr e a d s u c c e s s of t h e c ul t of t he m a r t yr s a nd t he gr ow t h of a C hr i s t i a n c ol l e c t i ve m e m or y a bout t he pa s t 1 7 I f ound e vi de nc e f or e a c h of t he s e i ns t a nc e s i n t he pi l gr i m a ge t e xt s r a t he r t ha n a pr e dom i na nc e of one t he or y i n pa r t i c ul a r E ve n m or e s t r i ki ng, I di s c ove r e d va r i ous ot he r m ot i va t i ons a nd c onc e r ns not e xpl or e d w i t hi n t he hi s t or i c a l s t udi e s a s w e l l a s di r e c t c ont r a di c t i ons f r om s om e of t he t he or i e s w i t hi n t he t e xt s of G r e gor y a nd J e r om e i n t he i r ne ga t i ve opi ni ons a bout t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of pi l gr i m a ge f or C hr i s t i a ns T he s e va r i a t i ons i ndi c a t e t ha t c onc e pt i ons of e a r l y C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge di d not de ve l op l i ne a r l y, w i t h a s t e a dy pr ogr e s s i on i nt o a s oc i a l l y a c c e pt a bl e pr a c t i c e but e nj oye d a m or e a m bi guous f l uc t ua t i ng s t a t us i n t he m i nds o f C hr i s t i a ns t he m s e l ve s 1 5 S e e C ha pt e r T w o. 1 6 S e e C ha pt e r T hr e e 1 7 O f f e r e d by S m i t h 1987 M a r kus 1994, a nd B i t t on A s hke l ony 1999; C ha pt e r O ne w i l l f ul l y di s c us s t he s e pe r s pe c t i ve s

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8 T hi s i s hi ghl i ght e d i n t he w r i t i ngs of s om e of t he pi l gr i m s G r e gor y, J e r om e a nd E ge r i a a l t hough be l ongi ng t o t he s a m e r e l i gi ou s t r a di t i on a nd t r a ve l i ng t o t he s a m e pl a c e s w r i t e a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s i n va s t l y di f f e r e nt w a ys G r e gor y s w r i t i ngs s how c a s e t he m os t ne g a t i ve r e a c t i on t o P a l e s t i ne of a l l t he t e xt s t hough he c ont r a di c t s hi m s e l f m ul t i pl e t i m e s r e ga r di ng hi s ow n m ot i v a t i on f or pi l g r i m a ge i n t he f i r s t pl a c e J e r om e i ni t i a l l y w r i t e s ve r y pos i t i ve l y of t he B i bl i c a l l a nds a nd e nc our a ge s ot he r s t o m a ke pi l gr i m a ge s t he r e t he n l a t e r a do pt s t he oppo s i t e opi ni on, onl y t o r e t ur n t o a pos i t i ve de pi c t i on of t he pr a c t i c e i n hi s f i na l pi l gr i m a ge l e t t e r E ge r i a a s a n a ut hor a nd pi l gr i m de f i e s e a s y c l a s s i f i c a t i on, a nd f ur t he r c om pl i c a t e s a ny ge ne r a l c onc e pt i on of t he m ot i va t i ons a nd de s i r e s of l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m s A c l os e e x a m i na t i on of t he s e t e xt s w i l l de m ons t r a t e t ha t e a r l y C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m s a r e be s t unde r s t ood a s i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r s r a t he r t ha n a c ohe s i ve gr oup. W hi l e uni t e d i n a n e xpr e s s e d f oc u s on pe r s ona l pi e t y, t he t hr e e a ut hor s e xa m i ne d i n t hi s t he s i s de ve l ope d hi ghl y uni que i nt e r p r e t a t i ons of t he pi l gr i m a ge pr a c t i c e w hi c h i n t ur n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e t o t he i r s pe c i f i c c i r c um s t a nc e s of c om pos i t i on. I n or de r t o pr e pa r e f or t hi s c l os e r e a di ng, t he f i r s t c ha pt e r pr e s e nt s a n a na l ys i s of pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i on s f or w hy C hr i s t i a ns s udde nl y be ga n t r a ve l i ng i n l a r ge num be r s t o P a l e s t i ne a nd t h e s ur r oundi ng r e gi ons dur i ng t h e f our t h c e nt ur y. A f t e r de s c r i bi ng t he s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kne s s e s of e a c h pr opos a l I of f e r a s ynt he s i s of t he d e ba t e s a nd a r gue t h a t C hr i s t i a ni t y s pr ogr e s s i on f r om a m i nor r e l i gi ous gr oup i nt o a n i m pe r i a l r e l i gi on pr ovi de d t he i m pe t us f or C hr i s t i a n a c t i vi t y i n t he B i bl i c a l l a nd s F ur t he r m or e ba s e d on t he w or k of s e v e r a l a nt hr opol ogi s t s I a r gue t ha t s t udyi ng l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m s a s i ndi vi dua l s r a t he r t ha n a s a uni f i e d gr oup, c a pt ur e s m uc h m or e s uc c e s s f ul l y t he

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9 m ot i va t i ons a nd i nt e r e s t s of t he s e t r a ve l e r s T hi s c onc l us i on l e a d s t o m y s ubs e que nt a na l ys e s of t he pi l gr i m a ge w r i t i ngs of G r e gor y of N ys s a J e r om e a nd E ge r i a B ot h G r e gor y a nd J e r om e t r a ve l e d t o P a l e s t i ne a nd w r ot e a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s l e a vi ng a f a s c i na t i ng a nd a t t i m e s vi vi dl y c ont r a di c t or y r e c or d of t he i r opi ni ons r e ga r di ng C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge T he s ur vi vi ng t e xt s t he s e m e n a ut hor e d pr ovi de t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r f or C ha pt e r T w o, i n w hi c h I a r gue t ha t r e ga r dl e s s of t he i nc ons i s t e nt s t a t e m e nt s pr oduc e d by G r e gor y a nd J e r om e e a c h a ut hor r e pe a t e dl y e m pha s i z e s t he i m por t a nc e of i ndi vi dua l pi e t y t o t he pi l gr i m a ge e nt e r pr i s e I c onc l ude t ha t t he m a i n c onc e r n f or t he s e t w o C h ur c h F a t he r s w a s t he pe r s on a l f a i t h a nd a c t i ons of t he i ndi vi dua l pi l gr i m r a t he r t ha n t he e f f e c t pi l gr i m a ge ha d on C hr i s t e ndom a s a w hol e or t h e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n C hr i s t i a ni t y a nd t he phys i c a l s i t e s of t he B i bl e I n t he t hi r d a nd f i na l c ha pt e r I t ur n t o t he pi l gr i m a ge na r r a t i ve of E ge r i a bui l di ng upon m y c onc l us i on r e ga r di ng G r e gor y a nd J e r o m e s f oc us on i ndi vi dua l pi e t y. E ge r i a s t e xt w hi c h s he c om pos e d a s a r e c or d of he r t r a ve l s f or he r f r i e nds ba c k hom e bo t h c oi nc i de s w i t h a nd di f f e r s f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve s f ound w i t hi n t he w r i t i ngs of G r e gor y a nd J e r om e T hr oughou t he r na r r a t i ve E ge r i a l a bor i ous l y s t r e s s e s he r pi e t y a s a pi l g r i m c ons t a nt l y r e f e r r i ng t o t he p r ope r a c t i ons s he pe r f or m e d a t e a c h B i bl i c a l l oc a t i on a nd he r gr a t i t ude t o G od f or a l l ow i n g he r pi l g r i m a ge t o t a ke pl a c e A t t he s a m e t i m e h i nt s w i t hi n t he t e xt i t s e l f s uppor t t ha t he r pur pos e a s a n a ut h or s e e m s t o be t o r e c or d t he s i g ht s s he w i t ne s s e s w hi l e on pi l gr i m a ge : i nc l udi ng not onl y s i t e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he B i bl e but a l s o e xt r a c a no ni c a l l oc a t i ons hol y m e n a nd w om e n, a nd a e s t he t i c qua l i t i e s of t he l a nds c a pe s a nd c i t i e s s he s e e s T hi s e m pha s i s on t he phys i c a l a c t of vi e w i ng, w hi l e not di r e c t l y c ont r a di c t i ng t he c onc e r ns of G r e gor y a nd J e r om e r e ga r di ng phys i c a l pl a c e ne ve r t he l e s s

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1 0 w i t ne s s e s a m uc h di f f e r e nt c onc e pt i on of t he pi l gr i m a ge e nt e r pr i s e t ha n t h a t e s pou s e d b y t he t w o C hur c h F a t he r s A s m y a na l ys i s of t he s e t hr e e a ut hor s s how s l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m s e xhi bi t e d a va r i e t y of m ot i va t i ons a nd c onc e r ns r e ga r di ng t he i r t r a ve l s t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nds T hi s s uppor t s m y e a r l i e r c onc l us i on t ha t s c hol a r s c a n be s t s t udy t hi s a r e a of C hr i s t i a n a c t i vi t y by a c c ount i ng f or t he hi ghl y i ndi vi dua l i z e d a nd pe r s ona l n a t ur e of pi l gr i m a ge r a t he r t ha n a t t e m pt i ng t o c ohe s i ve l y uni t e a l l of t he s e pi l gr i m s i nt o a s i ngl e gr oup. T hi s t he s i s w i l l s t a r t by a na l y z i ng t he s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kn e s s e s of t he hi s t or i c a l a nd a nt hr opol ogi c a l s c hol a r s hi p t ha t a t t e m pt s t o e xpl a i n t he m a j or i s s ue s of l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m a ge pr ovi di ng a s ol i d f ounda t i on t o ba s e t h e l a t e r e xpl or a t i ons i nt o t he w r i t i ngs of G r e gor y, J e r om e a nd E ge r i a

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1 1 C h a p te r O n e : T h e L i m i ta t i o n s o f C o n te m p o r a r y Pi l g r i m a g e Sc h o l a r s h i p T he de ve l opm e nt of C hr i s t i a n pi l g r i m a ge c oi n c i de d w i t h a pe r i od of gr e a t t r a ns i t i on t hr oughout t he R om a n w or l d, a s t he E m pi r e be c a m e e ve r m or e vul ne r a bl e t o i nt e r na l di vi s i ons a nd out s i de i nva s i ons T he f our t h c e nt ur y C E a ppe a r s now a s a w a t e r s he d t i m e pe r i od f or t he C hr i s t i a n f a i t h, w h e n t he pa t r ona ge of v a r i ous e m pe r or s t r a ns f or m e d t he r e l i gi on f r om i t s e a r l i e r m a r gi na l i z e d s t a t us i nt o a n i nc r e a s i ngl y pow e r f ul f or c e D ue t o t he f l uc t ua t i ng s oc i a l a nd pol i t i c a l c l i m a t e of t he e r a a n a na l ys i s of t he pr i m a r y a c c ount s w r i t t e n by e a r l y C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m s f i r s t ne c e s s i t a t e s a t hor ough unde r s t a ndi ng of t he w i de r c ha nge s e xpe r i e nc e d by t he C hr i s t i a n c om m uni t y i n l a t e a nt i qui t y. T he s udde n popul a r i t y of j ou r ne yi ng t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nds di d not a ppe a r e x n i h i l o but de pe nde d upon ot he r de ve l opm e nt s t h r o ughout t he R om a n E m pi r e S om e s c hol a r s ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o e xpl a i n t hi s c ha nge by c i t i ng va r i ous hi s t or i c a l f a c t or s s uc h a s t he e m pe r or C ons t a nt i ne s ow n i nt e r e s t i n J e r us a l e m t he e xpa ns i on of t he c ul t of t he m a r t yr s i nt o r i t ua l s t ha t f oc us e d on J e s u s t om b, a nd C hr i s t i a ns d e s i r e t o c onne c t t o t he pa s t 1 8 T he s e i nf l u e nc e s a l t hough pr ovi di ng va l ua bl e c ont e xt s i n w hi c h t o vi e w t he c om pos i t i on of t he s e t e xt s f a i l t o a c c ount f or t he uni que pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd i nc ons i s t e nt m ot i va t i ons e xpr e s s e d by e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt O t he r c om m e nt a t or s ha ve pr oduc e d va l ua bl e t ool s t ha t he l p t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he di ve r s e e xpe r i e nc e s r e c or de d i n t he w r i t i ngs of G r e gor y of N y s s a J e r om e a nd E ge r i a 1 9 A n a ppr e c i a t i on f or a l l of t he s e 1 8 O f f e r e d by J Z S m i t h R obe r t M a r kus a nd M a ur i c e H a l bw a c hs r e s pe c t i ve l y. S e e be l ow 1 9 O f f e r e d by V i c t or a nd E di t h T ur ne r J ohn E a de a n d M i c ha e l S a l l now S i m on C ol e m a n, a nd G l e nn B ow m a n. S e e be l ow

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1 2 s c hol a r l y e f f or t s ge ne r a t e s a m or e nua nc e d unde r s t a ndi ng of t he p r a c t i c e a s a w hol e one w hi c h a c know l e dge s t he m ul t i pl e c or r e c t obs e r va t i ons r a t he r t ha n r e l yi ng on one pe r s pe c t i ve or t he ot he r B y ut i l i z i ng t he s e pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd a ppl yi ng t he m t o t he t hr e e a ut hor s e xa m i ne d i n t hi s t he s i s I a c c ount f or bot h t he va r i e t i e s of opi ni ons a bout pi l gr i m a ge e xpr e s s e d w i t hi n t he t e xt s w hi l e a l s o unc ove r i ng t he s i ngl e f a c t or t ha t a ppe a r s a s t he pr i m a r y c onc e r n f or bot h G r e gor y, J e r om e a nd E ge r i a : t ha t C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m s c ons i s t e nt l y e xhi bi t pe r s ona l pi e t y w hi l e on pi l gr i m a ge C hr i s t i a n a c t i vi t y i n t he l a nds of t he B i bl e w a s s p a r s e a nd l a r ge l y undoc um e nt e d up unt i l t he f our t h c e nt ur y C E w he n a m a r ke d i nc r e a s e i n pi l gr i m a ge oc c ur r e d. W ha t ne c e s s i t a t e d, i n t he w or ds of R obe r t W i l ke n, t hi s s udde n e xpl os i on of t a c t i l e p i e t y ? 2 0 J Z S m i t h vi e w s t he e m pe r or s hi p of C ons t a nt i ne a s t he s t a r t i ng poi nt f or a n i de ol ogy of hol y pl a c e s w i t hi n C hr i s t i a ni t y. A f t e r ga i ni ng c ont r ol of t he f a r e a s t e r n l a nds w i t hi n t he R om a n E m pi r e C ons t a nt i ne ne e de d t o e s t a bl i s h bot h hi s pow e r a s r ul e r a s w e l l a s t he pow e r of hi s ne w l y a dopt e d r e l i g i on. C on s t a nt i ne s i nt e r e s t i n P a l e s t i ne r e s ul t e d i n m a ny bui l di ng pr oj e c t s i n t he a r e a w hi c h r e nova t e d n ot onl y t he c i t y of J e r us a l e m but a l s o s pe c i f i c s i t e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he l i f e of J e s us T he c ons t r uc t i on of t he C hur c h of t he H ol y S e pul c hr e a t t he s uppos e d l oc a t i on of J e s us t om b c r e a t e d a c e nt e r of C hr i s t i a n r i t ua l a c t i vi t y, one w hi c h w oul d e xe r c i s e r e m a r ka bl e i nf l ue nc e ove r t he J e r us a l e m l i t ur gy, w hi c h i n t ur n be c a m e t he b a s i c l i t ur gy c hur c he s a dopt e d t hr oughout C hr i s t e ndom C ongr e ga t i ons e l s e w he r e us e d t h e bui l di ng pl a n o f T he C hur c h of t he H ol y S e pul c hr e a s 2 0 W i l ke n 1992, 115.

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1 3 a n a r c hi t e c t ur a l m ode l f or t he i r ow n c hur c he s a nd r e pl i c a t e d t he H ol y S e pul c hr e i t s e l f on t he i r a l t a r s 2 1 T hi s r a pi dl y de ve l opi ng e m pha s i s on phy s i c a l i t y a nd pl a c e s e e m s di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o C ons t a nt i n e s c on s t r uc t i on pr oj e c t s i n P a l e s t i ne a nd l e a ds S m i t h t o c onc l ude t ha t t he s e bui l di ng pr oj e c t s a nd i m pe r i a l a t t e nt i on c r e a t e d a ne w m i nds e t w i t hi n C hr i s t i a n c onc e pt i ons of t i m e a nd pl a c e H e w r i t e s : C hr i s t i a n r i t ua l onc e br ought i nt o c ont a c t i n t he f ou r t h c e nt ur y C E w i t h t he l o c a s anc t a [ hol y pl a c e s ] of P a l e s t i ne t ur ne d f r om t he ve r t i c a l di m e ns i on of t he a s s o c i a t i ve t o a n e m pha s i s on na r r a t i ve s a nd t e m por a l r e l a t i ons 2 2 T ha t i s C hr i s t i a ns be ga n t o c onne c t t he i r hi s t or i c a l a nd s c r i pt ur a l t e xt s t o phys i c a l l y e xi s t i ng pl a c e s a nd t o r e pr e s e nt t hos e s t or i e s w i t h obj e c t s bui l di ngs a nd ot he r s i gni f i e r s T hi s m a r ks a de pa r t ur e f r om a p r i or p r e oc c upa t i on w i t h t he he a ve nl y ( ve r t i c a l ) r e a l m a t t he e xp e ns e of t he e a r t hl y ( l i ne a r ) r e a l m F or S m i t h, onc e C o ns t a nt i ne pr ovi de d a n out l e t f or pe opl e t o i nt e r a c t w i t h phys i c a l s i t e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he B i bl e a t ot a l t r a ns f or m a t i on of t hought oc c ur r e d. T he J e r us a l e m l i t ur gy be ga n t o r e f l e c t t e m po r a l a s s oc i a t i on s of e ve nt s w i t h pa r t i c ul a r r e a di ngs f r o m s c r i pt ur e r a t he r t ha n t he t r a di t i ona l l e c t ur a c on t i nua t ha t c ons i s t e d of a c ont i nuous r e a di ng of t he B i bl e f r om s t a r t t o f i ni s h. I n a ddi t i on t o t he s c r i pt ur a l r e a di ngs c or r e s pondi ng w i t h t i m e t he c ongr e ga t i on i t s e l f be ga n t r a ve l i ng t o s i t e s i n a nd a r ound J e r u s a l e m a c c or di ng t o t he c a l e nda r a nd i nc or por a t e d m ove m e nt s t o s hr i ne s a s a pa r t of t he i r w or s hi p s e r vi c e T he s e r i t ua l be ha vi or s r e pl i c a t e d t he m s e l ve s i n c hur c he s out s i de of P a l e s t i ne vi a t h e a dopt i on of t he J e r us a l e m l i t ur gy a nd t he f e s t a l c a l e nda r c e l e br a t i ons 2 3 2 1 S m i t h 1987, 87. 2 2 S m i t h 1987, 88. 2 3 S m i t h 1987, 92 94.

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1 4 A l t hough ne i t he r G r e gor y J e r om e nor E ge r i a d i r e c t l y s t a t e t ha t C ons t a nt i ne s bui l di ng pr oj e c t s or i nf l ue nc e ha d a ny e f f e c t on t he i r de s i r e s t o go on pi l gr i m a ge E ge r i a doe s m e nt i on hi m i n t he s e c t i on of he r na r r a t i ve t ha t r e c or ds t he de t a i l s of t he J e r us a l e m l i t ur gy: A nd w ha t c a n I s a y a bout t he de c or a t i on of t hi s bui l di ng [ t he C hur c h of t he H ol y S e pul c hr e ] w hi c h C ons t a nt i ne w i t h hi s m ot he r on ha nd, ha d e m be l l i s he d w i t h a s m uc h gol d, m os a i c s a nd m a r bl e a s t he r e s our c e s of hi s e m pi r e pe r m i t t e d not o nl y t he m a j or c hur c h, but t he A na s t a s i s a s w e l l a nd t he C r os s a nd t he ot he r hol y p l a c e s i n J e r us a l e m ? 2 4 E ge r i a s i nc l us i on of t hi s de t a i l one of t he onl y r e f e r e nc e s t o a pr ope r na m e i n he r e nt i r e na r r a t i ve i ndi c a t e s t ha t s he a c c or de d C ons t a nt i n e a nd hi s e ndow m e nt s a gr e a t d e a l of r e s pe c t a nd t ha t s he w i s he d f or he r r e a de r s t o un de r s t a nd hi s i m por t a nc e A l t hough t he s e c t i on of he r na r r a t i ve i n w hi c h s he pr e s um a bl y i nc l ude d de t a i l s a bout he r pi l gr i m a ge e xpe r i e nc e s i n J e r u s a l e m doe s not s ur vi ve i t c a n be c a ut i ous l y a s s um e d t ha t i n t ha t s e c t i on s he de s c r i be d t he C hur c h of t he H ol y S e pu l c hr e E ge r i a s r e i t e r a t i on of t he de t a i l s of t ha t s i t e a s w e l l a s he r s p e c i f i c r e f e r e nc e t o C o ns t a nt i ne pr ovi de s s uppor t f or S m i t h s c l a i m t ha t t he e m pe r or e xe r c i s e d e nor m ous pow e r ove r t he t r a ns f or m a t i on o f C hr i s t i a n i de ol ogy i nt o one c onc e r ne d w i t h phys i c a l l oc a t i o ns 2 5 H ow e ve r t he que s t i on of w he t he r C ons t a nt i ne s a c t i ons i n P a l e s t i ne de s e r ve r e c ogni t i on a s t he m os t i m por t a nt i nf l ue nc e on 2 4 E ge r i a t r a ns by G i ngr a s 1970 95 2 5 C ha pt e r T h r e e i nc l ude s a f ul l di s c us s i on of E ge r i a s i nt e r e s t i n pl e a s i ng a e s t he t i c s

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1 5 t he de ve l opm e nt of C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge a s S m i t h s ugge s t s de m a nds a f ul l a ppr e c i a t i on of ot he r pos s i bi l i t i e s s ugge s t e d by s c hol a r s I n oppos i t i on t o S m i t h s c onc l us i ons r e ga r di ng t h e i nf l ue nc e of C ons t a nt i ne a nd t he r e f ur bi s he d J e r us a l e m R obe r t M a r kus unde r s t a nds t he de v e l opm e nt of t he c ul t of t h e m a r t yr s a s t he dr i vi ng f o r c e be hi nd t he de ve l opm e nt of a C hr i s t i a n c onc e pt i on of hol y s pa c e H e f i nds t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n t he J e r us a l e m l i t ur gy a nd t he bi r t h of ho l y pl a c e s e l s e w he r e i n C hr i s t e ndom t o be unw a r r a nt e d: w hy w oul d t he r e c ogni t i on of hol y s i t e s i n P a l e s t i ne r e s ul t i n pe opl e c l a i m i ng s i t e s not m e nt i one d i n t he B i bl e a s hol y? M a r kus a l s o di s a gr e e s w i t h t he c l a i m t ha t C hr i s t i a ns s udde nl y r e or i e nt e d t he i r i de ol ogy f r om one f oc us e d on e s c ha t ol ogy ( t he e nd of t i m e ) t o one f oc us e d on hi s t or y a nd pl a c e H e gr a nt s t ha t a s hi f t c e r t a i nl y oc c ur r e d, but a r gue s f or a m uc h m or e s ubt l e i nt e r pr e t a t i on: T he c ha nge i n t he f our t h c e nt ur y C E w a s not f r om e s c ha t ol ogy t o hi s t or y, but f r om t he e s c ha t ol ogi c a l m e a ni ng of t he hi s t or i c a l na r r a t i ve s t o t he i r t opogr a phi c a l a s s oc i a t i ons 2 6 T ha t i s C hr i s t i a n i de ol ogy di d not e l i m i na t e i t s e m pha s i s on t he e nd t i m e s but a ppl i e d i t s pr e e xi s t i ng e s c ha t ol ogy t o phys i c a l pl a c e s r a t he r t ha n s i m pl y hi s t or i c a l c onc e pt i ons T he s e c ons i de r a t i on s c ha l l e nge S m i t h s pe r s p e c t i ve on l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a n r i t ua l a nd l e a d M a r kus t o r e a c h a di f f e r e nt c onc l us i on. H e c l a i m s t ha t C hr i s t i a n s a l w a y s pa i d a t t e nt i on t o t i m e a s t he s t or i e s of B i bl i c a l e ve nt s a nd t he l i f e c yc l e o f J e s us a f f e c t e d t he i r w or s hi p pa t t e r ns f r om t he be gi nn i ng of t he m ov e m e nt M a r kus i ns i s t s t ha t t he bi r t h of C hr i s t i a n hol y pl a c e s m us t be a t t r i bu t e d t o a de s i r e t o m a i nt a i n a c onne c t i on be t w e e n t he pow e r f ul i m pe r i a l l y s a nc t i one d f our t h c e nt ur y C E C hur c h a nd t he pr e vi ous c e nt ur i e s of m a r t yr dom s a nd pe r s e c ut i o n. T he c ul t of t he m a r t yr s w hi c h s t e m m e d f r om m uc h ol de r 2 6 M a r kus 1994, 267

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1 6 pr a c t i c e s of bur i a l m e m or i a l s pr ovi de d t he i ni t i a l de ve l opm e nt of C hr i s t i a n hol y pl a c e s w hi c h c oul d l a t e r be t r a ns f e r r e d t o t he t om b of J e s us hi m s e l f a nd ot he r s i t e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h B i bl i c a l e ve n t s P e opl e be ga n t r a ns l a t i ng t he r i t ua l s t he y pe r f or m e d a t f a m i l y gr a ve s t o t hos e of m a r t yr s s a i nt s a nd m a j o r i nf l ue nc e s w i t hi n t he hi s t or y of C hr i s t i a ni t y. 2 7 O ut of t he t hr e e a ut hor s e xa m i ne d i n t hi s t he s i s onl y J e r om e m e nt i ons t he c ul t of t he m a r t yr s i n r e l a t i on t o pi l gr i m a ge H i s L e t t e r 46 c ont a i ns a f a s c i na t i ng a s s o c i a t i on of C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge s t o J e r us a l e m w i t h t he c ul t of t he m a r t yr s : E ve r yw he r e w e ve ne r a t e t he t om bs of t he m a r t yr s ; w e a ppl y t he i r hol y a s h e s t o our e ye s ; w e e ve n t ouc h t he m i f w e m a y, w i t h our l i ps A nd ye t s om e t hi nk t ha t w e s houl d ne gl e c t t he t om b i n w hi c h t he L or d H i m s e l f i s bu r i e d. 2 8 T hi s c om pa r i s on s t r e ngt he ns M a r kus s a r gum e nt a s i t s how s t ha t J e r om e c or r e l a t e d m a r t yr s t om bs w i t h J e s u s t om b. J e r om e i m pl i e s t ha t i f r e ve r e nc e a nd r i t ua l a c t i vi t y a t m a r t yr s s hr i ne s a r e a c c e pt a bl e be ha vi or s f or C hr i s t i a n s t he n s i m i l a r a c t i vi t i e s m us t a l s o b e a ppr opr i a t e a t t he H ol y S e pul c hr e A l t hough i n t hi s s i ngl e l e t t e r M a r kus s c l a i m s f i nd a m pl e e vi de nc e none of t he ot he r pi l gr i m a ge l e t t e r s by a ny of t he t hr e e a ut hor s i nc l ude a ny de t a i l e d di s c us s i on of t he c ul t of t he m a r t yr s E ge r i a m e nt i ons t he c e l e br a t i on of f e a s t da ys i n he r l i t ur gi c a l s e c t i on, but G r e gor y f a i l s t o e ve n m e nt i on t he m a r t yr s a t a l l C om bi ne d w i t h J e r om e s s i l e nc e on t he m a t t e r a f t e r L e t t e r 46 ( hi s e a r l i e s t pi l gr i m a ge l e t t e r ) t hi s i ndi c a t e s t ha t t h e c onne c t i on be t w e e n t he c ul t of t he m a r t yr s a nd C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge t o t he B i bl i c a l s i t e s di d not pr i m a r i l y i nt e r e s t G r e gor y, J e r om e or E ge r i a T hi s f a c t doe s not di m i n i s h t he r ol e t ha t t he m a r t yr s c ul t s pl a ye d i n t he i ni t i a l de ve l opm e nt of s hr i ne s i n P a l e s t i ne no r s houl d i t s ugg e s t t h a t t he s e pi l gr i m s 2 7 M a r kus 1994, 268 271. 2 8 J e r om e L e t t e r 46 t r a ns by F r e e m a nt l e e t a l 1893.

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1 7 w e r e di s i nt e r e s t e d w i t h t he c ul t of t he m a r t yr s i n ge ne r a l R a t he r i t i m pl i e s t ha t t he s e pi l gr i m s c ons i de r e d pi l gr i m a ge t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nd s a s e pa r a t e i s s ue I n a pr opos a l r e l a t i ng t o M a r kus i de a s r e ga r di ng l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a ns de s i r e t o c onne c t w i t h t he i r p r e de c e s s or s t he F r e nc h s oc i o l ogi s t M a ur i c e H a l bw a c hs a r gue s t ha t C hr i s t i a ns gr a dua l l y l oc a l i z e d t he s t or i e s f ound w i t hi n J e w i s h a nd C hr i s t i a n t e xt s a s pa r t of t he ne c e s s a r y de ve l opm e nt t ow a r ds a c ol l e c t i ve m e m or y. A s e xpl a i ne d by B i t t on A s hke l ony, H a l bw a c hs i nt e r pr e t e d t he de v e l op m e nt of C hr i s t i a n hol y pl a c e s a s t he pr oduc t of a c ol l e c t i ve m e m or y t ha t i t s e l f gr e w out of e a r l i e r J e w i s h c onne c t i on s t o bi bl i c a l s i t e s 2 9 C oi nc i di ng w i t h t he i r r e l i g i on s g r a dua l pr ogr e s s i on i nt o t he dom i na nt t r a di t i on w i t hi n t he R om a n E m pi r e C hr i s t i a ns be ga n de ve l opi ng c onc e pt i on s of t he i r pl a c e i n hi s t or y, a nd di d s o by c on c e i vi ng o f t he m s e l ve s a s pa r t of a n hi s t or i c a l m ove m e nt t ha t pr ogr e s s e d f r om e a r l i e r J e w i s h t r a di t i ons i nt o t he C hr i s t i a n f a i t h. T he i r m a ppi ng of J e w i s h a nd C hr i s t i a n s c r i pt ur e s ont o phys i c a l s i t e s pr ovi de d a n out l e t f or r i t ua l a c t i vi t y s uc h a s m a r t yr s s hr i ne s a nd pi l gr i m a ge t o P a l e s t i ne t ha t r e f l e c t e d t hi s c ol l e c t i ve m e m or y. H a l bw a c hs s p e r s pe c t i ve pr ove s e s pe c i a l l y us e f ul a s i t a l s o i nc or por a t e s C hr i s t i a n t r a ve l e r s f r om t he t hi r d c e nt ur y s uc h a s M e l i t o of S a r di s w ho a l t hough not e xhi bi t i ng t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f our t h c e nt ur y C E pi l gr i m s s t i l l f ound r e a s ons f or t r a ve l i ng t o t he pl a c e s of t he B i bl e 3 0 B y c ont r a s t M e l i t o e xpr e s s e d l i t t l e c onc e r n ove r pi ous l y i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h t he s i t e s of t he B i bl e but i ns t e a d pr of e s s e d hi s t or i c a l a nd e xe ge t i c a l i nt e r e s t s F or e x a m pl e M e l i t o, t he e a r l i e s t of a l l know n C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m s t r a ve l e d t o P a l e s t i ne i n t he e a r l y t hi r d c e nt ur y out o f a de s i r e t o c onve r s e w i t h t he J e w i s h c om m uni t y a bout t he 2 9 B i t t on A s hke l ony 1999, 188 189 3 0 B i t t on A s hke l ony 1999, 188 189

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1 8 s ha r e d or de r a nd num be r of S c r i pt u r e s be t w e e n t h e t w o t r a di t i ons not a s pe c i f i c i nt e r e s t i n s e e i ng B i bl i c a l l oc a t i ons 3 1 M e l i t o a nd ot he r t r a ve l e r s l i ke hi m w oul d ha ve e n c ount e r e d a f a r di f f e r e nt pr ovi nc e i n t he s e e a r l i e r c e nt ur i e s : one w i t h a c a pi t a l c a l l e d A e l i a C a pi t ol i na i ns t e a d of J e r us a l e m a nd one de voi d of m a ny of t he C hr i s t i a n l a ndm a r ks t ha t a ppe a r e d a c e nt ur y l a t e r J e r om e a ga i n i n L e t t e r 46 e xe m pl i f i e s H a l bw a c hs s a r gum e nt f or t he r ol e C hr i s t i a n c ol l e c t i ve m e m or y e xe r c i s e d ove r c on c e pt i ons of pi l gr i m a ge I n or de r t o r e f ut e t he i de a t ha t P a l e s t i ne s s pi r i t ua l i m por t a nc e be c a m e obs ol e t e i n t he C hr i s t i a n t r a di t i on, he c onne c t s t he J e w i s h r e ve r e nc e f or J e r us a l e m w i t h t he ve ne r a t i on o f J e s us t om b: A s r e ga r ds [ J e r us a l e m s ] s i t e l a ps e of t i m e ha s b ut i nve s t e d i t w i t h f r e s h gr a nde ur T he J e w s of ol d r e ve r e nc e d t he H ol y o f H ol i e s be c a us e of t he t hi ngs c ont a i ne d i n i t D oe s t he L or d s s e pul c hr e s e e m l e s s w or t hy of ve ne r a t i on? L ong be f or e t hi s s e pul c hr e w a s h e w n out by J os e ph, i t s gl or y w a s f or e t ol d i n I s a i a h s pr e di c t i on 3 2 J e r om e s e xa m pl e di r e c t l y r e l a t e s C hr i s t i a n t r a di t i on t o pr i o r J e w i s h a s s oc i a t i on s : bot h w i t h a B i bl i c a l r e f e r e nc e t o I s a i a h a nd a r i t ua l a s p e c t of t he J e w i s h T e m pl e H e i nt e r pr e t s t he J e r us a l e m of C hr i s t i a ni t y a s a di r e c t de s c e nde nt of t he e a r l i e r J e w i s h t r a di t i ons E ge r i a s pi l gr i m a ge na r r a t i ve a l s o r e f l e c t s t he c ohe s i on of J e w i s h hi s t or y w i t h C hr i s t i a n i de nt i t y. T he e xt a nt por t i ons of he r t e xt a pa r t f r om he r di s c us s i on of t h e J e r us a l e m l i t ur gy f oc us a l m os t e nt i r e l y upon pi l g r i m a ge s i t e s f r om t he J e w i s h s c r i pt ur e s T hi s not 3 1 W i l ke n 1992, 108 109 3 2 J e r om e L e t t e r 46 t r a ns by F r e m a nt l e e t a l 1892.

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1 9 onl y i ndi c a t e s E ge r i a s i nt e r e s t i n J e w i s h hi s t or y, but a l s o i m pl i e s t ha t s he f ound s uc h de t a i l s a ppr opr i a t e f or he r r e a de r s A l t hough G r e gor y of N ys s a s w r i t i ngs l a c k a ny r e f e r e nc e s t o a C hr i s t i a n c ol l e c t i ve m e m or y, t he p r e s e nc e of s uc h a r e c ol l e c t i on i n J e r om e a nd E ge r i a s l e t t e r s s uppor t s H a l bw a c hs s pr opos a l S m i t h, M a r kus a nd H a l bw a c hs a l l pr e s e nt t he or i e s t o e xpl a i n t he s udde n bur s t o f C hr i s t i a n a c t i vi t y a t t he B i bl i c a l s i t e s dur i ng t he f our t h c e nt ur y C E : w he t he r by c i t i ng t he c ons t r uc t i on a c t i vi t i e s of C on s t a nt i ne t he de ve l op m e nt of t he c ul t of t he m a r t yr s or t he i m por t a nc e of C hr i s t i a n c ol l e c t i ve m e m or y of t h e pa s t A l l of t he s e a ppr oa c he s s e e m de pe nde nt upon a s i ngl e e ve nt : t he r i s e of C hr i s t i a ni t y f r om a m i nor pe r s e c ut e d r e l i gi ous pr a c t i c e i nt o a s t a t e s a nc t i one d, i m pe r i a l l y p r om o t e d t r a di t i on. M a r kus s s ugge s t i on t ha t t he i nt e r e s t i n m a r t yr s a nd s a i nt s a r os e out of a de s i r e t o c onne c t w i t h t he e a r l i e r pe r s e c ut i ons i s i t s e l f de pe nde nt upon t he s i t ua t i on w he n C hr i s t i a ns ne e d e d t o a l i gn t he m s e l ve s w i t h t he pa s t : pr e c i s e l y w he n t h e R om a n e m pe r or s be gi nni ng w i t h C ons t a nt i ne c ha nge d t he i r pol i c i e s t o s uppor t a n d e ve n i m po s e C hr i s t i a ni t y. W hi l e t he c ul t of t he m a r t y r s a nd t he r i t ua l pr a c t i c e s t ha t de ve l ope d w i t h i t c l e a r l y i n f l ue nc e d C hr i s t i a n pr a c t i c e s a t t he t om b of J e s us i t s e e m s m or e a ppr opr i a t e t o pos i t i on t he de ve l opm e nt of C hr i s t i a n i nt e r e s t i n t he B i bl i c a l s i t e s w i t hi n t he w i de r c ont e xt of C hr i s t i a ni t y be c om i ng a n i m pe r i a l l y s uppor t e d r e l i gi on. C ons t a nt i ne s ove r a l l s uppor t of hi s ne w r e l i gi on not j us t hi s bui l di ng pr oj e c t s r e s ul t e d i n C hr i s t i a ni t y s de v e l opm e nt i nt o a dom i na nt pr e s e nc e i n t he R om a n w or l d, t h e r e by c r e a t i ng a ne e d t o c onne c t t o t h e pr e vi ous c e nt ur i e s t hr ough r i t ua l a nd c ol l e c t i ve m e m or y. T he hi s t or i c a l a ppr oa c he s di s c us s e d a bove pr e s e nt e d by S m i t h, M a r kus a nd H a l bw a c hs pr ovi de f a s c i na t i ng i ns i ght s i nt o t he m ot i va t i ons of e a r l y C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m s

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2 0 H ow e ve r t he i r obs e r va t i ons f a i l t o a r r i ve a t a ny i n f l ue nc e s t ha t a ppe a r i n a l l of t he l e t t e r s e xa m i ne d i n t hi s t he s i s T he r i s e of C hr i s t i a ni t y i nt o a n i m pe r i a l r e l i gi on, a nd t he c ha nge s t ha t c a m e a bout i n bot h t he s oc i a l a nd phys i c a l l a nds c a pe a s a r e s ul t of t hi s s hi f t do not e xpl a i n t he c ont r a di c t or y opi ni ons pr e s e nt e d by G r e gor y a nd J e r om e nor do t he y a c c ount f or t he hi ghl y unus ua l c ha r a c t e r of E ge r i a s pi l gr i m a ge na r r a t i ve A nt hr opol ogi c a l s t udi e s of pi l gr i m a ge ha ve r e s ul t e d i n a num be r of pe r t i ne nt f r a m e w or ks t ha t c om bi ne d w i t h t he hi s t or i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s pr e vi ou s l y di s c us s e d, pr ovi de a m uc h r i c he r unde r s t a ndi ng of w ha t m ot i va t e d l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a ns t o t r a ve l t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nds O nl y i n t he l a t e t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y di d t he or e t i c a l a ppr oa c he s t o pi l gr i m a ge s t udi e s be gi n t o a ppe a r w i t hi n a nt hr opol ogy. V i c t or a nd E di t h T ur ne r s 1978 s t udy, I m age and P i l gr i m age i n C hr i s t i an C u l t ur e r e vol ut i oni z e d t he s t udy of pi l gr i m a ge w i t h t he c on c e pt of c om m uni t as : t he i de a t ha t i ndi vi dua l pi l gr i m s de ve l op a s e ns e of c a m a r a de r i e w i t h t he i r f e l l ow t r a ve l e r s i n a w a y t ha t t r a ns c e nds s oc i a l bounda r i e s C om m uni t as s ha r e s m uc h i n c om m on w i t h l i m i na l i t y, a w or d of t e n us e d i n r e l i g i ous s t udi e s t o de s c r i be t he a l l e vi a t i on of s oc i a l c ons t r a i nt s w i t hi n a s pe c i f i c r i t ua l i z e d c ont e xt 3 3 W ha t s e t s c om m uni t as a pa r t f r om l i m i na l i t y i s i t s a ppa r e nt vol unt a r y na t ur e ; pi l gr i m s ( a t l e a s t i n C hr i s t i a n c ul t ur e ) a r e not r e qui r e d t o t r a ve l t o s a c r e d pl a c e s T he y w i l l i ngl y l e a ve t he i r hom e s of t he i r ow n a c c or d. L i m i no i d, or qua s i l i m i na l be c om e s t he T ur ne r s pr e f e r r e d t e r m f o r t hi s s pe c i f i c t ype of e xpe r i e nc e T he na t ur e of t he t e xt s di s c us s e d i n t hi s t he s i s c r e a t e s s om e di f f i c ul t y i n us i ng t he T ur ne r s i de a s a s none of t he pi l gr i m s m e nt i on c om m uni t as or a ny l i m i na l s t a t e w i t hi n t he i r w r i t i ngs J e r om e hi nt s a t a s om e w ha t l i m i na l s t a t e i n L e t t e r 46 but hi s de s c r i pt i ons 3 3 A l be r t V a n G e nne p, 1908 f i r s t de ve l ope d t he t e r m l i m i na l

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2 1 of t he pe opl e ga t he r e d a t J e r us a l e m de a l m or e w i t h pe opl e w ho a r e w or s hi pi ng i n J e r us a l e m r a t he r t ha n p e opl e on pi l gr i m a ge t hr oughout t he l a nds of t he B i bl e O n t h e ot he r ha nd, t he pi l gr i m s di d l e a ve s om e i ndi c a t i on of t he i r i de a s r e ga r di ng t he pur pos e of C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge t ha t c ont r a di c t t he T u r ne r s p e r s pe c t i ve di r e c t l y. T he T ur ne r s i ns i s t e nc e on c om m uni t as a n i de a not w e l l s uppor t e d i n t he l a t e a nt i que t e xt s ove r s ha dow s t he i r s ugge s t i on f or t he i m por t a nc e of i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r s w i t hi n C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge w hi c h t he t e xt s of G r e gor y, J e r om e a nd E ge r i a do e vi de n c e H ow e ve r one pa r t of t he T ur ne r s c l a i m ne e ds qua l i f i c a t i on i n r e s pe c t t o l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m a ge a f a c t t ha t s how c a s e s t he ne e d t o s i t ua t e a nt hr opol ogi c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s w i t hi n a pr ope r hi s t or i c a l a na l ys i s T he y w r i t e : I n t he pi l gr i m a ge s of t he hi s t or i c a l r e l i g i ons t he m or a l uni t i s t he i ndi vi dua l a nd hi s goa l i s s a l va t i on or r e l e a s e f r om t he s i ns a nd e vi l s of t he s t r uc t ur a l w or l d, i n pr e pa r a t i on f or pa r t i c i pa t i on i n a n a f t e r l i f e of pur e bl i s s 3 4 T he f i r s t pe r s on t e xt ua l s our c e s di s c us s e d i n t hi s t he s i s c oi nc i d e w i t h t he T ur ne r s s t a t e m e nt r e ga r di ng t he i m po r t a nc e of t he i ndi vi dua l t o C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge B ot h G r e gor y of N ys s a a nd J e r om e c ons i s t e nt l y e m pha s i z e t he i m por t a nc e of i ndi vi dua l pi e t y i n t he i r l e t t e r s a nd t he y por t r a y t he i de a l pi l gr i m a ge a s one unde r t a ke n onl y by a pi ou s i ndi vi dua l 3 5 E ge r i a s f i r s t pe r s on t r a ve l na r r a t i ve s uppor t s t hi s i de a a s w e l l i n t ha t s he pr e s e nt s he r s e l f a s a pi ou s pi l gr i m a nd ne gl e c t s t o i nc l ude a ny de t a i l s r e ga r di ng he r t r a ve l i ng c om pa ni ons 3 6 H ow e ve r none o f t he s e t e xt s s u ppor t t he T ur ne r s c onj e c t ur e r e ga r di ng t he m ot i va t i on be hi nd C h r i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge J e r om e a nd G r e gor y bot h de ny t he r e l e va nc e of pi l gr i m a ge t o s a l va t i on, a nd e nc o ur a ge t he i r r e a de r s not t o m i s t a ke nl y 3 4 T ur ne r a nd T ur ne r 1978, 8. 3 5 S e e C ha pt e r 2 f or a f u l l di s c us s i on of G r e go r y of N ys s a a nd J e r om e s pi l gr i m a ge l e t t e r s 3 6 S e e C ha pt e r 3 f or a f u l l di s c us s i on of E ge r i a s pi l gr i m a ge na r r a t i ve

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2 2 a s s um e t he ne c e s s i t y of pi l gr i m a ge t o t he B i bl i c a l s i t e s E ge r i a ne ve r e xpl i c i t l y m e nt i ons s a l va t i on or a ny of he r m ot i va t i ons t hough he r na r r a t i ve i ndi c a t e s t ha t he r c or r e s ponde nt s w oul d not be t r a ve l i ng t o P a l e s t i ne t he m s e l v e s I t t he r e f or e s e e m s unl i ke l y t ha t E ge r i a s r e a de r s or s he he r s e l f be l i e ve d pi l gr i m a ge t o be a m e a ns t o s a l va t i on. J ohn E a de a nd M i c ha e l S a l l now f ur t he r de ve l op t hi s c onc e pt of i ndi vi dua l i t y a nd uni que ne s s a m ong pi l gr i m s c ha l l e ngi ng t he i de a of c om m uni t as a s a n ove r s i m pl i f yi ng a nd unr e a l i s t i c de s c r i pt i on of t he pi l gr i m a ge e nt e r pr i s e R a t he r t ha n i nt e r pr e t i ng pi l gr i m a ge s i t e s a s a t t r a c t i ng uni f i e d a nd e ga l i t a r i a n ga t he r i ngs of pe opl e E a de a nd S a l l now a r gue f or t he s oc i a l di ve r s i t y a nd va r i e t i e s of be l i e f s f ound a t s i ngl e s i t e s T he y e m pha s i z e t he n e e d t o e va l ua t e e a c h pi l gr i m a g e i ndi v i dua l l y, r a t he r t ha n a ppl yi ng a bl a nke t t e r m s uc h a s c om m uni t as t o a l l i n s t a nc e s of pi l gr i m a ge r e ga r dl e s s of s pe c i f i c f a c t or s a f f e c t i ng e a c h pa r t i c ul a r j our ne y 3 7 C ont e s t a t i on r a t he r t ha n c om m uni t as pl a ys a c e nt r a l r ol e i n t he m e t hod of E a de a nd S a l l now a nd t hi s f r a m e w or k f i t s w e l l w i t h w ha t w e know a bout l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a ni t y, a s w e l l a s t he a va i l a bl e e vi de nc e i n t he t e xt s of G r e gor y, J e r om e a nd E ge r i a H ow e ve r t he t ype of c ont e s t a t i on de s c r i be d by E a de a nd S a l l now r e f e r s t o t he m ul t i pl i c i t y of m e a ni ngs t ha t di f f e r e nt pe opl e c a n a t t a c h t o t he s a m e pi l gr i m a ge s i t e w hi l e t he c ont e s t a t i on a ppa r e nt w i t hi n t he s e t e xt s r e l a t e s m or e t o t he s oc i a l di ve r s i t y a nd i nt e r e s t s of t he pi l g r i m s t he m s e l ve s B ot h G r e gor y a nd J e r om e w e r e w e l l e duc a t e d a n d e nj oye d a pr om i ne nt s t a t u s a s t he ol ogi a ns E ge r i a t hough ha r d t o c l a s s i f y i n a ny s e n s e a ppe a r s f l ue nt onl y i n L a t i n a n d l a c ks t he t ypi c a l w r i t i ng s t yl e o f t hos e c l a s s i c a l l y e duc a t e d. A f f l ue nc e w oul d ha ve pl a ye d no s m a l l r ol e i n t he pi l gr i m s e nt e r pr i s e a s i t a f f e c t e d t he l e ngt h a nd e xt e nt of t he 3 7 E a de a nd S a l l now 2000 1 15

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2 3 j our ne y. E a c h of t he pi l gr i m s di s c us s e d i n t hi s t he s i s a pp a r e nt l y ha d a c c e s s t o a m pl e f unds but e ve n t he s our c e s of t he i r f i na nc e s di f f e r e d. T he pr e c i s e de t a i l s of E ge r i a s s uppor t r e m a i ns unknow n, but s he r e m a i ne d on he r pi l gr i m a ge f or a t l e a s t t hr e e ye a r s a nd l e f t no e vi de nc e t ha t s he e ve r r e t ur ne d hom e 3 8 A f t e r t he i r i ni t i a l pi l gr i m a ge t hr ough t he B i bl i c a l l a nds J e r om e a nd hi s w e a l t hy be ne f a c t r e s s P a ul a be c a m e pe r m a ne n t r e s i de nt s of B e t hl e he m G r e gor y of N ys s a t houg h c om i ng f r om a w e a l t hy f a m i l y, di d not a ppa r e nt l y e nga ge i n l e ngt hy t r a ve l s t hr oughout t he B i bl i c a l l a nds H i s pi l gr i m a ge l a s t e d onl y a s hor t w hi l e a nd f oc us e d on J e r us a l e m a s op pos e d t o a w i de r a ngi ng i t i ne r a r y A l l of t he s e di f f e r e nc e s r e ve a l t he va r i e d na t u r e of l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a n pi l g r i m s L a r ge r di s a gr e e m e nt s be t w e e n f a c t i ons w i t hi n C h r i s t i a ni t y i t s e l f a l s o r e s ul t e d i n di f f e r e nt e xpe r i e nc e s f or G r e gor y, J e r om e a nd E ge r i a J a s E l s ne r s hi s t or i c a l s c hol a r s hi p on l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m a ge c oi nc i de s w i t h E a de a n d S a l l now s a r gum e nt f or c ont e s t a t i on. H e c i t e s t he m ul t i pl e he r e t i c a l c ont r ove r s i e s t ha t be ga n de ve l opi ng i n t he f our t h c e nt ur y C E s uc h a s t he de ba t e s ov e r O r i ge n, P e l a gi us a nd m onophys i t i s m 3 9 T he s e di s a gr e e m e nt s c r e a t e d f i e r c e di vi s i on s t ha t a f f e c t e d not onl y t he c hur c h hi e r a r c hy but a l s o t he m ona s t i c i n s t i t ut i ons of t he c hur c h. E ge r i a s pi l gr i m a ge na r r a t i ve c l e a r l y s t a t e s t ha t m ona s t e r i e s w e r e t he pr i m a r y s our c e of s he l t e r a n d gui de s f or r e l i gi ous t r a ve l e r s : one c a n ha r dl y f a i l t o i m a gi ne d i s c us s i ons of a pa r t i s a n na t ur e oc c ur r i ng be t w e e n hos t a nd gue s t O f e ve n m or e r e l e va nc e t o he r e t i c a l c ont r ove r s i e s a r e G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s l e t t e r s w hi c h bot h c ont a i n e xa m pl e s of w i de r C hur c h c on f l i c t s J e r om e s L e t t e r 58 i n c om pa r i s on t o hi s e a r l i e r L e t t e r 46 pr ovi de s a pe r f e c t e xa m pl e of t he i nf l ue nc e t he he r e t i c a l de ba t e s e xe r c i s e d ove r c onc e pt i ons of C hr i s t i a n 3 8 E ge r i a 1970, 75 a nd 88 3 9 E l s ne r 2005 426 429.

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2 4 pi l gr i m a ge H e c om pos e d L e t t e r 46 i n 386 C E s h or t l y a f t e r hi s ow n a r r i va l i n P a l e s t i ne 4 0 I n t hi s l e t t e r he ove r w he l m i ngl y s uppor t s pi l gr i m a ge t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nds a nd e nc our a ge s hi s a s c e t i c c or r e s ponde nt M a r c e l l a t o m a ke s uc h a j our ne y a nd a c c om pa n y hi s pa t r one s s e s a nd hi m s e l f on pi l gr i m a ge : I f a f a m ous or a t or bl a m e s a m a n f or ha vi ng l e a r ne d G r e e k a t L i l yba e um i ns t e a d of a t A t he ns a nd L a t i n i n S i c i l y i ns t e a d of a t R om e c a n w e s uppo s e a C hr i s t i a n s e du c a t i o n c om pl e t e w ho ha s not vi s i t e d t he C hr i s t i a n A t he ns [ J e r us a l e m ] ? 4 1 B y t he t i m e he w r ot e L e t t e r 58 i n 395 C E J e r om e s opi ni on c om pl e t e l y s w i t c he d t o one of di s a ppr ova l a nd he s t r ongl y di s c our a ge d t he r e c i pi e nt of t he l e t t e r P a ul i nus of N ol a f r om j oi ni ng hi m i n P a l e s t i ne 4 2 H e pr ovi de s t he f ol l ow i ng s t a t e m e nt a s hi s goa l f or t he l e t t e r : T o a s s ur e you t ha t not hi ng i s l a c ki ng t o your f a i t h a l t hough you ha ve not s e e n J e r us a l e m [ ] 4 3 N ot i c e t ha t t he a bove c onf l i c t i ng s t a t e m e nt s s pe c i f i c a l l y c or r e s pond t o J e r us a l e m i n pa r t i c ul a r not t he l a nds of t he B i bl e a s a w hol e D ur i ng t he 390s J e r om e be c a m e e m ba t t l e d w i t h J ohn, t he bi s hop o f J e r us a l e m i n a c om pl i c a t e d di s a gr e e m e nt ove r t he doc t r i ne of O r i ge n. T he bi s hop of S a l a m i s E pi pha ni us ha d c om pi l e d a l i s t o f he r e t i c s t ha t i nc l ude d O r i ge n, i n di r e c t c onf l i c t w i t h J ohn a nd a ga i n s t t he m ona s t i c c om pl e x on t he M ount of O l i ve s he a de d by J e r om e s ol d a s c e t i c f r i e nds M e l a ni a a nd R uf i nus I n t he m i ds t of t he di s a gr e e m e nt J e r om e s i d e d w i t h E pi pha ni us a l i e na t i ng hi m bot h f r om t he bi s hop o f J e r us a l e m a s w e l l a s t he m onks on t he M ount of O l i ve s J ohn e ve nt ua l l y e xc om m uni c a t e d J e r om e i n 394 C E w hi c h ba r r e d hi m 4 0 J e r om e L e t t e r 46 t r a ns by F r e m a nt l e e t a l 1892. 4 1 J e r om e L e t t e r 46 4 2 J e r om e L e t t e r 58 t r a ns by F r e m a nt l e e t a l 1892. 4 3 J e r om e L e t t e r 58 t r a ns by F r e m a nt l e e t a l 1892.

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2 5 a m ong ot he r t hi ngs f r om e nt e r i ng t he c hu r c he s a nd s hr i ne s i n J e r us a l e m 4 4 A l l of t hi s oc c ur r e d one ye a r be f or e t he c om po s i t i on of L e t t e r 58 m a ki ng i t hi ghl y l i ke l y t ha t J e r om e s s e nt i m e nt s a ga i ns t J e r us a l e m r e l a t e d t o t hi s c ont r ove r s y. G r e gor y of N ys s a a l s o e xpe r i e nc e d a di f f i c ul t r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h J e r us a l e m l e a di ng i n a l l l i ke l i hood t o hi s de f a m a t or y r e m a r ks a bout t he c i t y a nd i t s c i t i z e ns i n hi s L e t t e r 2 H e i ni t i a l l y r e c or ds pos i t i ve f e e l i ngs t ow a r d s J e r us a l e m i n L e t t e r 3 c om pa r i ng t he t hr e e f e m a l e r e c i pi e nt s of t ha t l e t t e r t o t he hol y s i t e s i n t he c i t y. H ow e ve r l a t e r on he r e f e r s qui t e i m pr e c i s e l y t o a c onc e r n a bout J e r us a l e m s t a t i ng, F or i f t he ve r y s pot t ha t ha s r e c e i ve d t he hol y f oot pr i nt of t he t r ue L i f e i s i t s e l f not c l e a r e d o f e vi l t hor ns w ha t a r e w e t o t hi nk of ot he r pl a c e s w he r e pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he good ha s be e n s ow n m e r e l y by he a r i ng a nd pr e a c hi ng? 4 5 L a t e r i n t he l e t t e r he m e nt i on s a m ong hi s e ne m i e s bot h J e w s a nd C hr i s t i a ns w ho f ol l ow e d t he t e a c hi ng of A r i us ye t a not he r t he ol ogi a n d e e m e d h e r e t i c a l 4 6 G r e gor y c om pos e d t hi s l e t t e r i n 381 C E j us t a f t e r r e t ur ni ng f r om hi s ow n t r i p t o J e r us a l e m L e t t e r 2 s da t e of c om pos i t i on c a n onl y be e s t i m a t e d w i t hi n t he 380s C E but i t s e xpl i c i t s t a t e m e nt s a ga i ns t t he i nha bi t a nt s of J e r us a l e m a nd t he c i t y i t s e l f i ndi c a t e s a l a t e r da t e of c om po s i t i on t ha n L e t t e r 3 T he de t a i l s of t hi s l e t t e r w i l l r e c e i ve a f ul l a na l ys i s i n C ha pt e r T w o; f or now one e xa m pl e c a n pr ope r l y i l l um i na t e t he pr ogr e s s i on of G r e gor y s di s a ppr ova l of J e r us a l e m A ga i ns t t he pe opl e of t h e c i t y s pe c i f i c a l l y, G r e gor y c l a i m s : 4 4 B i t t on A s hke l ony 2005, 88 89 4 5 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 3 t r a ns by S i l va s 2007, 1 25. 4 6 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 3 126

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2 6 B ut a s i t i s t he r e i s no f or m of unc l e a nne s s t ha t i s not br a z e ne d a m ong t he m : f or ni c a t i ons a dul t e r i e s t he f t s i dol a t r i e s dr ugs e nvi e s m ur de r s T hi s l a s t ki nd of e vi l e s pe c i a l l y i s s o e nt r e nc h e d t ha t now he r e e l s e a r e pe opl e s o r e a dy t o m ur de r e a c h ot he r a s i n t hos e pl a c e s w he r e e ve n bl ood r e l a t i ve s a t t a c k e a c h ot he r l i ke w i l d be a s t s f or t he s a ke of l i f e l e s s pr of i t 4 7 C l e a r l y, G r e gor y s i m pr e s s i on of J e r us a l e m w or s e ne d i n t he i nt e r ve ni ng ye a r s be t w e e n t he c om pos i t i on of L e t t e r 3 a nd L e t t e r 2 B i t t on A s hke l ony r e m a r ks t ha t G r e gor y m e t oppos i t i on t o hi s C hr i s t ol ogi c a l opi ni ons w hi l e i n J e r us a l e m t hough he ne ve r e l a bor a t e s on t he s pe c i f i c na t ur e of t he c onf r ont a t i on. 4 8 T he di f f i c ul t r e l a t i ons hi p G r e gor y ha d w i t h t he c i t y m i r r or s J e r om e s e xpe r i e nc e s t he r e a s w e l l t hough i n G r e gor y s c a s e t he di s put e a ppe a r s not t o ha ve or i gi na t e d f r om a f a m ous w i d e r a ngi ng c ont r ove r s y s uc h a s J e r om e s O r i ge ni s t pr obl e m s E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve l a c ks a ny m e nt i on o f he r e t i c a l or ot he r w i s e t he ol ogi c a l c ont r ove r s i e s t hough s h e t r a ve l e d dur i ng t he s a m e pe r i od a s G r e gor y a nd J e r om e S he ne ve r e ve n i nc l ude s t he f i r s t na m e s of t he bi s hops s he s poke w i t h, a nd onl y r e f e r s t o one pe r s on by na m e t he de a c one s s M a r t ha na T he i m pl i c a t i ons of E ge r i a s di s i nt e r e s t i n c ont e m por a r y e ve nt s c a nnot r e c e i ve f ul l e l a bor a t i on unt i l C ha pt e r T hr e e but t hi s f a c e t of he r t e xt pr ovi de s f ur t he r e vi de nc e f or t he v a r i e t y of e xpe r i e nc e s e a c h i ndi vi dua l pi l gr i m e nc ount e r e d. G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s pos i t i ons w i t hi n t he C hur c h pe r ha ps i nc r e a s e d t h e l i ke l i hood t ha t t he y w oul d bot h e ndur e s uc h di s a gr e e m e nt s but E ge r i a s i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h m ona s t i c c om m uni t i e s t hr oughout t he E a s t s ur e l y br ought he r i n c l os e c ont a c t w i t h 4 7 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 2 t r a ns by S i l va s 2007, 1 20. 4 8 B i t t on A s hke l o ny 2007, 52.

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2 7 pe opl e of va r i ous t h e ol ogi c a l l e a ni ng s T he e xi s t e nc e of r e f e r e nc e s f or t he s e t ype s of de ba t e s w i t hi n t he t e xt s s e e m s de pe nde nt upon t he i ndi vi dua l c onc e r ns of t he a ut hor s G r e gor y a nd J e r om e r e s ponde d t o di r e c t que s t i ons a bout t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of pi l gr i m a ge pr a c t i c e s w hi l e E ge r i a s e e m s c onc e r ne d onl y w i t h r e c or di ng t he s i ght s s h e w i t ne s s e d f or h e r f r i e nds ba c k hom e T he s e f a c t or s c l e a r l y i nf l ue nc e d t he t ype of de t a i l s i nc l ude d w i t hi n e a c h pi l g r i m s w r i t i ngs T hus t he i ns i ght s of f e r e d by hi s t or i c a l a na l ys e s c om bi ne d w i t h t he f r a m e w or ks of f e r e d by a nt h r opol ogi s t s e l uc i da t e t he va r i e t y o f e xpe r i e nc e s a nd m ot i va t i ons a t t e s t e d by G r e gor y, J e r om e a nd E ge r i a I nc or po r a t i ng t hi s di ve r s i t y l e a ds t o be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of e a r l y C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge t ha n r e l yi ng on onl y one s c hol a r l y pe r s pe c t i ve E ve n E a de a nd S a l l now s t he or y of c ont e s t a t i on, t hough c o nc e i ve d of a s r e l i e vi ng t he T ur ne r s ove r s i m pl i f i e d m ode l i t s e l f be c om e s t oo s i m pl e i f a ppl i e d a s a bl a nke t t e r m A n a ppr oa c h t ha t c ons i de r s onl y di s c or d a nd di vi s i on s a m ong pi l gr i m a ge pa r t i c i pa nt s c a n be j us t a s unr e a l i s t i c a s one t ha t f oc us e s onl y on un i ons be t w e e n s oc i a l gr oups G r e gor y, J e r om e a nd E ge r i a de s pi t e t he d i f f e r e nc e di s c us s e d a bove di d s ha r e s om e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t he i r pr e s e nt a t i ons of pi l gr i m a ge t he m os t not a bl e of w hi c h i nvol ve s t he i r c ons i s t e nt e m pha s i s on pe r s ona l pi e t y. O t he r s c hol a r s ha ve not e d t he l i m i t a t i ons of e m pl oyi ng one t he or y a t t he e xpe ns e of a not he r S i m on C ol e m a n s ynt he s i z e s c om m uni t as a nd c ont e s t a t i on i n or de r t o be t t e r de s c r i be w ha t oc c ur s w he n pe opl e be c om e pi l g r i m s H e a r gue s t ha t w hi l e E a de a nd S a l l now c or r e c t l y i de nt i f i e d a c ont i nua t i on of di s t i nc t s oc i a l gr oups i n m a ny pi l gr i m a ge s t he s e gr oups do not n e c e s s a r i l y e nt e r c onf l i c t w i t h e a c h ot he r C o m m uni t as c a n oc c ur be t w e e n m ul t i pl e a s s oc i a t i ons of pe opl e w ho r e t a i n t he i r s pe c i f i c i de nt i t i e s but

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2 8 ne ve r t he l e s s i nt e r a c t pe a c e a bl y w i t h ot he r gr oups a t s hr i ne s C ol e m a n a r gue s t ha t bot h t he T ur ne r s l i m i na l i t y a nd E a de a nd S a l l now s di ve r s i t y a r e of t e n vi s i bl e c onc ur r e nt l y a t pi l gr i m a ge s i t e s ; a ki nd of c om m uni t as w i t hi n c ont e s t a t i on, or m or e a c c ur a t e l y t he e xi s t e nc e of ( r e l a t i ve ) f i xi t i e s of m e a ni ng t ha t c or r e l a t e s oc i a l l y di s c r e t e uni t s 4 9 T hi s i de a r e l a t e s t o G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s w r i t i ngs a s t he y bot h e xhi bi t s i m i l a r l y c on f l i c t i ng i de a s a bout t he i m por t a nc e of B i bl i c a l pi l gr i m a ge t o t he C hr i s t i a n f a i t h. J u s t a s bot h m e n a ppe a r a t one t i m e i n f a vor of C hr i s t i a ns t r a ve l i n g t o t he l a nds of t he B i bl e l a t e r t he y bot h a dopt t he oppos i t e s t a nc e W ha t t he y e xp e r i e nc e d bot h dur i ng t he i r t r a ve l s a nd a f t e r w a r ds r e f l e c t t he t ype of uni t s s ugg e s t e d b y C ol e m a n. R a t he r t ha n s i m pl y be i n g pi l gr i m s G r e gor y a nd J e r om e a l s o be l onge d t o t he ol ogi c a l c a m ps t ha t e xpe r i e nc e d oppos i t i on f r om ot he r g r oups E ge r i a s hi ghl y unus ua l t e xt s ha r e s l e s s i n c om m on w i t h G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s w r i t i ngs t ha n t he l a t t e r t w o do w i t h e a c h ot he r H ow e ve r one m a j or s i m i l a r i t y a ppe a r s t hr oughout a l l of t he l e t t e r s e x a m i ne d i n t hi s t he s i s : a c on s t a nt e m pha s i s on pi e t y. T hi s c or r e l a t e s t o t he s c hol a r s hi p of G l e nn B ow m a n, w ho a r gue s f or pe r s ona l pi e t y a s one of t he de f i ni ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of C hr i s t i a ni t y H e r e m a r ks on t he m ul t i p l i c i t y of r e l i gi ous gr oups w ho j our ne ye d t o J e r us a l e m a nd how t he i r va r i ous a nd o f t e n c onf l i c t i ng c onc e pt i ons of t ha t c i t y i m pl y t ha t w ha t m a ke s t he c i t y hol yi s not s om e t hi ng f ound i n t he c i t y but i ns t e a d, s om e t hi ng br ought f r o m t he out s i de 5 0 T hi s i nt e r pr e t a t i on e xhi bi t s a ne a r r e ve r s a l of E l i a de s ax i s m undi t he or y, i n w hi c h t he hol y pl a c e i t s e l f put s f or t h s a c r a l i t y r a t he r t ha n r e c e i vi ng i t f r om out s i d e s our c e s 5 1 O f e ve n gr e a t e r i m pa c t f or 4 9 C ol e m a n 2002, 360. 5 0 B ow m a n 1991, 98. 5 1 E l i a de 1959 162 164.

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2 9 C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge how e ve r i s t he de v e l opm e nt of pe r s ona l pi e t y a s t he hi ghe s t vi r t ue w i t hi n t he t r a di t i on. B ow m a n w r i t e s : E a r l y C hr i s t i a ni t y, by de f i ni ng i nc l us i on w i t hi n t he c hur c h a s a m a t t e r of e l e c t i on r a t he r t ha n of m e m be r s hi p w i t hi n a t e r r i t or i a l or ki ns hi p gr oup, r a di c a l l y t r a ns f or m e d t he J uda i c r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he l a nd, t he pe opl e a nd hi s t or y. C hr i s t i a ni t y a s s e r t e d t ha t s a l va t i on w a s a t t a i na bl e onl y t hr ough t he f or gi ng o f a pe r s ona l bond w i t h G od, t hus m ovi ng t he e m pha s i s of t he s a l va t or y pr oc e s s f r om a c ol l e c t i vi t y de f i ne d i n t e r m s of bl ood a nd na t i ona l i de nt i t y t o t he i ndi v i dua l 5 2 T hi s c onc l us i on i l l us t r a t e s t he pos s i bi l i t y of c oe xi s t i ng t he or i e s w i t hi n pi l gr i m a ge s t udi e s : w hi l e C hr i s t i a ns a s a gr oup m a y j our ne y t o P a l e s t i ne a de e pe r l ook i nt o i n t e r na l m ot i va t i ons e xpa nds t h e pur e l y s oc i a l f r a m e w or k i nt o one t ha t a l s o de pe nd s on pi l gr i m s i ndi vi dua l i de ol ogi e s T he t he or i e s pr e s e nt e d by a nt hr opol ogi s t s a nd hi s t or i a ns t o a c c ount f or t he s udde n e xpl os i on of a c t i vi t y i n t he l a nds of t he B i bl e a r e unhe l pf ul w he n a ppl i e d s e pa r a t e l y, but i f s ynt he s i z e d t he y of f e r a m or e c ohe s i ve pi c t ur e of t he c i r c um s t a nc e s t ha t br ought a bou t a w i de s pr e a d i nt e r e s t i n pi l gr i m a ge T he e xpa ns i ve s oc i a l de ve l opm e nt s of t he e a r l y f our t h c e nt ur y C E pa r t i c ul a r l y t he a c t i ons of C on s t a nt i ne t he s uc c e s s of t he c ul t of t he m a r t yr s a nd t he de ve l opm e nt of a C hr i s t i a n c ol l e c t i ve m e m or y, a l l l a i d t he f ounda t i ons f or C hr i s t i a n a c t i vi t y i n P a l e s t i ne a nd t he l a nds of t he B i bl e H ow e ve r t he s e hi s t or i c a l c ons i de r a t i ons f a i l t o a ddr e s s t he uni que a nd a t t i m e s c onf l i c t i ng a c c ount s of t he 5 2 B ow m a n 1991, 101.

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3 0 pi l gr i m a ge e xpe r i e nc e a s r e c or de d by G r e gor y of N ys s a J e r om e a nd E ge r i a R a t he r t ha n a t t e m pt i ng t o uni t e t he s e di f f e r e nt voi c e s a nd gi ve a s i ngl e e xpl a na t i on f or i n t e r e s t i n t he B i bl i c a l l a nds s c hol a r s s houl d a c c ount f or t he m ul t i t ude of pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t s ur vi ve f r om t he s e pi l gr i m s A s t he n e xt t w o c ha pt e r s w i l l s how a c c ount i ng f or t he pl ur a l i t y of e xpe r i e nc e s a nd be l i e f s r e c or de d w i t hi n t he pi l gr i m a ge t e xt s not onl y r e ve a l s t he di ve r s i t y of t he s e e a r l y pi l g r i m s but a l s o c l a r i f i e s w ha t f e a t ur e s t he y s ha r e i n c om m on

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3 1 C h a p te r T w o : C o n tr a d i c ti o n a n d C o n v e r g e n c e i n t h e W r i ti n g s o f G r e g o r y o f N y s s a a n d J e r o m e B ot h G r e gor y of N ys s a a nd J e r om e c om pl e t e d pi l gr i m a ge s t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nds dur i ng t he l a t e f our t h c e nt ur y C E T he i r uni que pe r s pe c t i ve s a s i m por t a nt c hur c h l e a de r s c om bi ne d w i t h t he i r ow n e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h pi l gr i m a ge m a ke t he i r opi ni ons pa r t i c ul a r l y r e l e va nt t o t hi s t he s i s A n a na l ys i s of t he i r t hought s w i l l s how how t w o hi ghl y e duc a t e d m e m be r s of t he C hur c h c onc e i ve d of t he pi l gr i m a ge e nde a vor T hr e e l e t t e r s s ur vi ve f r om e a c h a ut hor i n w hi c h t he y p r e s e nt va l ua bl e i nf or m a t i on r e ga r di ng pi l gr i m a ge p r a c t i c e s a nd t he i r c l e r i c a l c onc e r ns a bout i t P e r ha ps m or e i nt r i gui ng, bot h a ut hor s di r e c t l y c ont r a di c t t he i r ow n s t a t e m e nt s m ul t i pl e t i m e s r e ga r di ng de t a i l s a bout t he i r ow n pi l gr i m a ge a nd t he i r opi ni on a bout i t s a ppr opr i a t e ne s s f or ot he r C hr i s t i a ns T he s e i nc ons i s t e nc i e s r e ve a l t he a m bi guous pos i t i on e a c h m a n t ook on t he m a t t e r but of e ve n m or e i nt e r e s t a r e t he f a c t or s t h a t a ppe a r c ons i s t e nt l y de s pi t e t he c onf l i c t i ng s t a t e m e nt s pr e s e nt e d by e a c h a ut hor G r e gor y of N ys s a a nd J e r om e s l e t t e r s a bout pi l gr i m a ge a l w a ys e m pha s i z e t he i m por t a nc e of pi e t y on t he pa r t of t he i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r a nd a l s o a ppe a r qui t e r e a dy t o c ha nge t he i r a r gum e nt s a bout t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of t he pr a c t i c e b a s e d o n w he n a nd t o w hom t he y a r e w r i t i ng. T he s e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i ndi c a t e t ha t f or t he s e t w o pi l gr i m s a nd t he ol ogi a ns t he a ns w e r t o t he que s t i o n ove r t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge de pe nde d upon e a c h i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r a nd s i t ua t i on, not on t he C hr i s t i a n c om m uni t y a s a w hol e A f t e r a b r i e f bi og r a phi c a l s ke t c h, t he l e t t e r s c ont a i ni ng e a c h a ut hor s t hought s a bout pi l gr i m a ge w i l l be e xa m i ne d i n de t a i l A l t h ough G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s l e t t e r s a r e be s t a na l yz e d s e pa r a t e l y, s i m i l a r c ont r a di c t i ons a nd c ons i s t e nc i e s w i l l be c om e a ppa r e nt

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3 2 a s w e vi e w t he s e a ut hor s s i d e by s i de : a n a m bi guous a t t i t ude t ow a r ds C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge i n ge ne r a l a t e nde nc y t o s hi f t t he i r opi ni ons de pe ndi ng on t he t i m e pe r i od a nd i nt e nde d r e c i pi e nt s of e a c h l e t t e r a nd a c ons t a nt c onc e r n ove r t he e f f e c t pi l gr i m a ge w i l l ha ve on t he pi e t y of t he i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r T h e s e di s c ove r i e s i l l um i na t e t he ne e d t o unde r s t a nd l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge a s a hi ghl y i ndi vi dua l i z e d p r a c t i c e r a t he r t ha n i nt e r pr e t i ng a l l pi l g r i m s of t hi s e r a a s a uni f i e d gr oup. G r e gor y of N y s s a: L e t t e r 2 L e t t e r 3, an d t h e L i f e of M ac r i n a A na t i ve of t he C a ppa doc i a r e gi on i n A s i a M i nor G r e gor y s i nf l ue nc e w i t hi n t he C hur c h a s a bi s hop a nd pr om i ne nt t he ol ogi a n e a r n e d hi m a pl a c e a m ong t he C a ppa doc i a n F a t he r s G r e gor y c a m e f r om one of t he m os t w e l l know n C hr i s t i a n f a m i l i e s i n t he G r e e k s pe a ki ng w or l d: hi s younge r br ot he r B a s i l t he G r e a t a l s o be c a m e a bi s hop a s w e l l a s a C a ppa doc i a n f a t he r a nd hi s ol de r s i s t e r M a c r i na e s t a bl i s he d a f a m ous m ona s t i c c om m uni t y a t t he i r f a m i l y hom e T he t w o m a i n t e xt s e xa m i ne d i n t hi s s e c t i on ut i l i z e A nna M S i l va s t r a ns l a t i on of a nd c om m e nt a r y on G r e gor y s l e t t e r s t he m os t r e c e nt t r a ns l a t i on a va i l a bl e i n E ngl i s h. T he br i e f quot a t i on f r om G r e gor y s L i f e o f M a c r i na r e l i e s on L ow t he r C l a r ke s E ngl i s h t r a ns l a t i on. L e t t e r 2 e xi s t s i n a t l e a s t t hi r t e e n m a nus c r i pt s t he e a r l i e s t of w hi c h w a s pr oduc e d i n t he l a t e t e nt h c e nt ur y w hi l e onl y one a nc i e nt c od e x pr e s e r ve s L e t t e r 3 5 3 G r e gor y c om pos e d a l l t hr e e w or ks w i t hi n a f e w ye a r s of e a c h ot he r be t w e e n 380 382 C E 5 3 S i l va s 2007, 115, 123.

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3 3 W hi l e no pr e c i s e d a t e s ur vi ve s f or L e t t e r 2 w e c a n c onc l ude f r om i t s c ont e nt t ha t G r e gor y c om pos e d t hi s l e t t e r a f t e r hi s ow n j ou r n e y t o J e r us a l e m i n 381 C E 5 4 T he m a i n t he m e of t he t e xt r e vol ve s a r ound t he a ppr opr i a t e n e s s of pi l gr i m a ge f or m onks a nd nuns P r e s um a bl y t he r e c i pi e nt of L e t t e r 2 a m a n c a l l e d K e ns i t or s ought a dvi c e f r om G r e gor y on t hi s i s s ue t o w hi c h G r e gor y r e s ponde d w i t h a de c i de dl y ne ga t i ve t on e T he l e t t e r c ont a i ns num e r ous a r gum e nt s a s t o w hy pi l gr i m a g e i s unne c e s s a r y f or m ona s t i c pr a c t i c e s pe c i f i c a l l y r e ga r di ng w om e n. G r e gor y c i t e s e vi de nc e f r om t he B i bl e a s w e l l a s hi s ow n e xpe r i e nc e s i n J e r us a l e m t o j us t i f y hi s opi n i on. G r e gor y w r i t e s t ha t a s c e t i c s s houl d l ook t o t he C h r i s t i a n s c r i pt ur e s a s a m ode l f or t he i r l i ve s H e r e f e r s t o t he G o s pe l a s a c or r e c t a nd unbe nt r ul e w hi c h s houl d gui de t he a c t i ons of a l l w ho de di c a t e t he i r l i ve s t o t he f a i t h. 5 5 G r e gor y a c kno w l e dge s t ha t s om e a s c e t i c s vi e w pi l gr i m a ge a s a ne c e s s i t y, but t he a b s e nc e of a ny di r e c t c om m a nd r e ga r di ng t he pr a c t i c e i n t he G os pe l s i nf or m s hi s opi n i on t o t he c ont r a r y. H e w r i t e s : W he n t he L or d i nvi t e s t h e bl e s s e d t o t he i r i nhe r i t a nc e i n t he ki ngdom of he a ve n ( c f M t 25 34 36) j ou r ne yi ng t o J e r us a l e m i s not l i s t e d a m ong t he i r good de e ds W he n he pr oc l a i m s t h e bl e s s e d l i f e ( c f M t 5. 3 12, L k 6. 20 22) he doe s not i nc l ude a ny s uc h obj e c t o f z e a l 5 6 F or G r e gor y t he C hr i s t i a n s c r i pt ur e s pr ov i de t he a bs ol ut e f r a m e w or k f o r a s c e t i c l i f e : t he pr a c t i c e s e xc l ude d f r om t hos e s c r i pt ur e s a r e s upe r f l uous 5 4 S i l va s 2007, 115. 5 5 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 2 t r a ns by S i l va s 117 5 6 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 2 118.

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3 4 G r e gor y a c know l e dge s t ha t hi s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons c oul d be c ha l l e nge d by ot he r B i bl i c a l ve r s e s A n e pi s od e i n A c t s s e e m s t o pr e s e nt J e s us a s c om m a ndi ng hi s di s c i pl e s t o s t a y c l os e t o J e r us a l e m ( c f A c t s 1. 4; 2. 1) Y e t G r e gor y r e m a i ns unc onvi nc e d t ha t t hi s a ppl i e s t o a l l C hr i s t i a n s e ve r yw he r e ; r a t he r he i ns i s t s t ha t t hos e c om m e nt s pe r t a i ne d onl y t o t he A pos t l e s H e pr ovi de s a not he r e xa m pl e f r om J ohn, w hi c h s t a t e s t ha t t he S pi r i t bl o w s w he r e H e w i l l s ( c f J n 3 8) 5 7 H e c onc l ude s t ha t phys i c a l l oc a t i on r e m a i ns i r r e l e va nt t o t he C hr i s t i a n f a i t h. N ot e t he e m pha s i s on t he f a i t h of t he i ndi vi dua l i n G r e gor y s di s c us s i on. R a t he r t ha n f oc us i ng on t he na t u r e of p l a c e a nd l oc a l i t y, G r e gor y e x pr e s s e s m or e c onc e r n ove r t he e f f e c t t ha t pi l gr i m a ge w i l l ha ve on t he i ndi v i dua l t r a ve l e r T he ne ut r a l e f f e c t t ha t pi l gr i m a ge ha s on one s f a i t h l e a ds G r e gor y t o de e m t he pr a c t i c e i r r e l e va nt G r e gor y doe s a ddr e s s t he i s s u e of hol y pl a c e s but he f i nds no r e a s on t o c on s i de r t he phy s i c a l l oc a l e s of t he B i bl e a ny m or e i m por t a nt t ha n ot he r l a nds ; i n f a c t he a r gue s t o t he c ont r a r y: I s i t t ha t t he L or d s t i l l l i ve s i n t he body t oda y i n t hos e pl a c e s a nd h a s s t a ye d a w a y f r om our r e gi ons ? O r i s i t t ha t t he H ol y S p i r i t a bounds a m ong t he i nha bi t a nt s of J e r us a l e m but i s una bl e t o c o m e t o us ? R e a l l y, i f i t i s pos s i bl e t o i nf e r G od s p r e s e nc e f r om t he t h i ngs t ha t a ppe a r one m i ght m or e j us t l y c ons i de r t ha t he dw e l t i n t he na t i on o f t he C a ppa doc i a ns t ha n i n pl a c e s e l s e w he r e 5 8 5 7 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 2 122. 5 8 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 2 119.

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3 5 G r e gor y e m pha s i z e s a m e t a phys i c a l unde r s t a ndi n g of C hr i s t i a ni t y: t he phys i c a l pl a c e s of t he B i bl e a r e i r r e l e va nt t o f a i t h. H e be l i e ve s t ha t G od m a y r e a c h a nyone t hr oughout t he w or l d, w he t he r t he y a r e i n J e r us a l e m or no t G r e gor y be l i e ve s hi s ow n r e gi on, C a ppa doc i a t o be m or e pi ous t ha n t h e a r e a w he r e J e s u s l i ve d. H e c l a i m s t ha t J e r us a l e m s i nha bi t a nt s e xhi bi t a m ul t i t ude o f vi c e s a nd c onc l ude s : [ ] i f gr a c e w e r e gr e a t e r i n t he vi c i ni t y of J e r us a l e m t ha n a nyw he r e e l s e s i n w o ul d not be s o e nt r e nc h e d a m ong t ho s e w ho dw e l l t he r e 5 9 G r e gor y s a t t i t ude t ow a r ds J e r us a l e m s t e m s f r om a pa r a doxi c a l e ve nt : he hi m s e l f j our ne ye d t o J e r us a l e m a nd vi s i t e d s e ve r a l pi l gr i m a ge s i t e s I t w oul d s e e m t h a t G r e gor y m i ght be e xhi bi t i ng s om e hypoc r i s y on t h e m a t t e r of pi l gr i m a ge s i nc e he pa r t i c i pa t e d i n a s i m i l a r j o ur ne y. B ut G r e gor y de f e nds hi m s e l f s t a t i ng t ha t he w a s on of f i c i a l bus i ne s s t o unde r t a ke t he c or r e c t i on of t he c hur c he s i n A r a bi a a nd t ha t he s t oppe d i n J e r us a l e m be c a u s e i t s c ongr e ga t i ons a l s o ne e de d he l p H e pr e s e nt s hi s r e t i nue a s on e of t he ut m os t pi e t y, s i n gi ng ps a l m s a nd f a s t i ng t hr oughout t he e nt i r e j our ne y. G r e gor y a r gue s t ha t hi s f i r s t ha nd e xpe r i e nc e of pi l gr i m a ge s houl d l e nd c r e de nc e t o hi s c l a i m t ha t t he pr a c t i c e i s unne c e s s a r y. H e s t a t e s t ha t hi s f a i t h w a s not i nc r e a s e d by a ny m e a n s dur i ng t he pi l gr i m a ge : he a l r e a dy be l i e ve d t he G os pe l a nd s e e i ng P a l e s t i ne onl y c onf i r m e d t ha t hi s hom e l a n d w a s f a r hol i e r 6 0 G r e gor y be l i e ve s a pl a c e t o b e hol y i f t he pe opl e l i vi ng t he r e e xhi b i t pi e t y, r a t he r t ha n t he phy s i c a l s i t e s t he m s e l ve s H e r e a ga i n t he e m pha s i s r e s t s on i ndi vi dua l s r a t h e r t ha n pl a c e s G r e gor y de e m s J e r us a l e m unf i t f or pi l gr i m a ge be c a us e t he i nha bi t a nt s a r e s i nne r s w hi l e pl a c e oc c upi e s a s e c onda r y r ol e i n hi s a r gum e nt R e ga r dl e s s of t he i r a s s o c i a t i ons w i t h s c r i pt ur e t he 5 9 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 2 120. 6 0 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 2 121.

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3 6 c ha r a c t e r ( or l a c k t he r e of ) of t he pe opl e a t t ho s e l oc a t i on s de t e r m i ne s i t s w or t h f or C hr i s t i a ns S i nc e G r e gor y i nt e r pr e t s s c r i pt ur e i n s uc h a w a y a s t o s uppor t t he i r r e l e va nc e of phys i c a l pl a c e he a l s o f i nds pi l g r i m a ge unne c e s s a r y. A l t hough G r e gor y s L e t t e r 2 de m e a n s t he hol i n e s s of t he J e r us a l e m s i t e s hi s s e nt i m e nt s on pi l gr i m a ge do not a l w a ys a ppe a r s o ne ga t i ve I n L e t t e r 3 he r e c ount s hi s ow n j our ne y t o P a l e s t i ne w i t h a m uc h m or e f a v or a bl e out l ook, a nd e ve n de s c r i be s t h e p l a c e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h J e s u s l i f e a s hol y. G r e g or y w r ot e t hi s l e t t e r s oon a f t e r hi s t r i p t o J e r us a l e m pr oba bl y i n 382 C E w hi c h m a ke s i t r oughl y c ont e m por a r y t o L e t t e r 2 T he r e c i pi e nt s f or t hi s l e t t e r w e r e t h r e e f e m a l e a s c e t i c s c a l l e d E us t a t hi a A m br o s i a a nd B a s i l i s s a T he s e w om e n a l s o a ppa r e nt l y a s ke d G r e gor y f o r a dvi c e m i r r o r i ng t he i ns pi r a t i ons f or t he c om pos i t i on of L e t t e r 2 W hi l e t he bul k of t he l e t t e r c onc e r ns ot he r m a t t e r s t w o s t a t e m e nt s r e m a i n pa r t i c ul a r l y i m por t a nt f or our s t udy of p i l gr i m a ge I n L e t t e r 3 s be gi nni ng s e c t i on G r e gor y w r i t e s a bo ut t he e xpe r i e nc e of a f e s t i va l i n J e r us a l e m w hi c h c oul d pos s i bl y r e f e r t o E a s t e r H e t e l l s hi s a ddr e s s e e s of t he j oy he f e e l s [ ] w he n I m e e t w i t h s oul s i n w hom s uc h s i gns of t he L or d s gr a c e a r e s o s pi r i t ua l l y di s c e r ni bl e t ha t one unde r s t a nds t ha t B e t hl e he m a nd G ol got ha a nd O l i ve t a nd t he A na s t a s i s a r e t r ul y i n t he he a r t t ha t pos s e s s e s G od. 6 1 H e goe s on t o a ppl y t hi s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c t o hi s r e c i pi e nt s : [ ] w he n I s a w t he hol y pl a c e s w i t h t he s e n s e s a nd s a w t oo t he s i gns of t he s e pl a c e s m a ni f e s t e d i n you, I w a s f i l l e d w i t h a j oy s o g r e a t t ha t i t c a nnot be de s c r i be d i n w or ds 6 2 H e r e a ga i n he e m pha s i z e s t he i ndi vi dua l pe r s on: G r e gor y c l a i m s t o s e e hol y pl a c e s e xhi bi t e d t hr ough t he l i ve s of C hr i s t i a n s s pe c i f i c a l l y 6 1 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 3, t r a ns by S i l va s 2007, 124. 6 2 G r e gor y o f N ys s a L e t t e r 3 125.

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3 7 t he f e m a l e r e c i pi e nt s of hi s l e t t e r P hys i c a l pl a c e oc c upi e s a s e c onda r y r ol e t o i ndi vi dua l pi e t y, m i r r or i ng G r e gor y s s e nt i m e nt s i n L e t t e r 2 A n a ppa r e nt c ont r a di c t i on r e ga r di ng G r e gor y s r e a s ons f or goi ng t o P a l e s t i ne e xi s t s be t w e e n L e t t e r 2 a nd a not he r of G r e gor y s c om pos i t i ons t he L i f e o f M a c r i na w r i t t e n i n 380 C E R e c a l l t ha t i n L e t t e r 2 G r e gor y e xpl i c i t l y c l a i m e d t ha t he w e nt t o J e r us a l e m on of f i c i a l bus i ne s s a s pa r t of hi s j our ne y t o a s s i s t t he c hur c h i n A r a bi a H e s t a t e d t ha t t he c hur c h i n J e r us a l e m a l s o ne e de d hi s he l p, w hi c h ne c e s s i t a t e d hi m vi s i t i ng J e r us a l e m I n t he L i f e o f M a c r i na c om pos e d by G r e gor y a bout hi s s i s t e r a f t e r he r de a t h i n 380, he pr e s e nt s a di f f e r e nt r e a s on. H e w r i t e s t h a t hi s vi s i t t o J e r us a l e m w a s [ ] i n or de r t o s e e t he r e l i c s of t he L or d s s oj our ni ng i n t he f l e s h on t h e a c t ua l s pot s 6 3 T he s e i nc ons i s t e nt m ot i ve s t ha t G r e gor y gi ve s f or hi s pi l gr i m a ge a r e di f f i c ul t t o r e c t i f y, bu t t he y do hi ghl i ght a m a j or i s s ue f ound t hr oughout a l l t hr e e of G r e gor y s l e t t e r s : t he r ol e t he i nt e nde d a udi e nc e pl a ys i n t he ove r a l l c ont e nt o f e a c h l e t t e r G r e gor y s r e m a r k i n t he L i f e o f M a c r i na i s onl y a s i de not e i n hi s i nt r oduc t or y a ddr e s s t o t he r e c i pi e nt of t ha t w or k, t he m onk O l ym pi us H i s r e a s oni ng be hi nd hi s pi l gr i m a ge s e e i ng t he a c t ua l s pot s of J e s u s l i f e a ppe a r s i n s t a r k c ont r a s t t o G r e gor y s s t a t e m e nt s i n L e t t e r 2 w he r e he p r e s e nt s hi s t r i p t o P a l e s t i ne a s one of ne c e s s i t y, m ot i va t e d by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l dut i e s I f onl y L e t t e r 2 ha d s ur vi ve d t o t he pr e s e nt da y, i t w oul d be ha r d t o c a l l G r e gor y s j our ne y a pi l gr i m a ge us i ng m y de f i ni t i on. H ow e ve r hi s r e m a r ks i n t he L i f e o f M a c r i na i ndi c a t e t ha t a t l e a s t i n s om e c i r c um s t a nc e s G r e gor y vi e w e d hi s t r i p a s ha vi ng a s pe c i f i c a l l y r e l i gi ous ove r t one T he s e c onf l i c t i ng r e a s ons s e e m de pe nd e nt upon t he a udi e nc e of e a c h l e t t e r I n L e t t e r 2 G r e gor y c l e a r l y 6 3 G r e g o r y of N y s s a L i f e o f M a c r i na t r a ns l a t e d by C l a r k 1919, 1.

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3 8 t r i e s t o di s s ua de hi s r e c i pi e nt K e n s i t or a ga i ns t pi l gr i m a ge w hi l e i n t he L i f e o f M a c r i na G r e gor y i s m e r e l y a s ki ng O l ym pi u s t o r e c a l l t he t i m e pe r i od a r ound G r e gor y s j our ne y t o P a l e s t i ne ne ve r m e nt i oni ng pi l gr i m a ge a ga i n i n t ha t t e xt T he pa r t i c ul a r r e c i pi e nt s of t he s e t w o l e t t e r s r e c e i ve d a di f f e r e nt e xpl a na t i on f or G r e gor y s pi l gr i m a ge T he i nt e nde d a udi e nc e s a l s o a f f e c t t he di f f e r i ng t one s i n G r e gor y s w r i t i ng. I n L e t t e r 3 w h e n G r e gor y w r i t e s t o t hr e e f e m a l e a s c e t i c s he a dopt s a m uc h m or e pos i t i ve t one r e ga r di ng t he pl a c e s of t he B i bl e G r e gor y f i r s t m a de t he a c qua i nt a nc e of t he s e w om e n w he n he w a s i n J e r us a l e m a nd t he y pr e s um a bl y w e r e s t i l l t he r e w he n G r e gor y c om pos e d t he l e t t e r 6 4 T he w om e n s c ont i nue d pr e s e nc e i n t he c i t y c oul d ha ve a f f e c t e d G r e gor y s t one r e ga r di ng hi s de s c r i pt i on of J e r us a l e m a nd t he s ur r oundi ng a r e a s f or he c ont i nua l l y pr a i s e s t he i r pi e t y a nd e ve n c om pa r e s t he m t o t he hol y pl a c e s J uxt a pos e t hi s pos i t i ve de s c r i pt i on w i t h L e t t e r 2 i n w hi c h he de m e a ns t he hol i ne s s of t hos e s a m e pl a c e s i n hi s a t t e m pt t o di s c our a ge K e ns i t or f r om t he j ou r ne y. K e ns i t or ha d no c onne c t i ons w i t h t he B i bl i c a l l a nds ot he r t ha n hi s que r y a bout pi l gr i m a ge s o G r e gor y s de m e a ni ng r e m a r ks a bout t he r e gi on r i s ke d no of f e nc e R e gi ona l pol i t i c s pr oba bl y pl a ye d s om e r ol e i n t he f or m a t i on of G r e gor y s c onc e pt i on of pi l gr i m a ge H i s j our ne y t o P a l e s t i ne l e d hi m i nt o t he m i ds t of m a ny c ont r ove r s i e s pa r t i c ul a r l y a m ongs t t he J e r u s a l e m popul a t i on. A t t hi s t i m e i n t he f our t h c e nt ur y C E t he va r i ous C hr i s t i a n di o c e s e s w e r e be gi nni ng t o gr ow i n pow e r a nd t h e bi s hop of J e r us a l e m C yr i l ha d pr om ot e d t he i d e a t ha t t he c i t y of J e r us a l e m de s e r ve d s pe c i a l r e c ogni t i on due t o i t s r ol e i n t he B i bl e 6 5 G r e gor y di s a gr e e d w i t h C yr i l t hough no e vi de nc e s ur vi ve s f r om a ny di r e c t de ba t e s be t w e e n t he t w o m e n. I n L e t t e r 2 G r e gor y 6 4 S i l va s 2007, 123. 6 5 S e e W i l ke n 1992 B i t t on A s hke l ony 1999.

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3 9 c l e a r l y pr om ot e s hi s ow n r e gi on of C a ppa doc i a a bove P a l e s t i ne a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y a t t a c ks t he c i t i z e ns of J e r us a l e m f or t he i r s i nf ul be ha vi or H ow e ve r t he r e gi ona l s t r i f e doe s not e xpl a i n t he c ont r a di c t or y r e a s ons G r e gor y gi ve s f or hi s pi l gr i m a ge nor hi s i ns t a nc e of pr a i s e f or t he B i bl i c a l s i t e s i n L e t t e r 3 T he s e i nc ons i s t e nc i e s s e e m be s t unde r s t ood a s di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t he r e c i pi e nt s of e a c h l e t t e r a s pr e vi ous l y di s c us s e d. T hr oughout bot h l e t t e r s G r e go r y i ns i s t s on t he s upr e m a c y of i nt e r na l pi e t y ove r t he t ype of out w a r d pi e t y e xhi bi t e d on pi l g r i m a g e a nd c l a i m s t he pl a c e s of J e s us l i f e s houl d not r e c e i ve a hi ghe r s t a t us t ha n a nyw h e r e e l s e i n C hr i s t e ndom R a t he r t he f a i t h of t he pe opl e a t t hos e pl a c e s m a t t e r s t he m os t G r e gor y s a ni m us t ow a r d t he c i t i z e ns of J e r us a l e m pr oba bl y a r o s e bot h f r om r e gi ona l pol i t i c s a nd hi s ow n c onf r ont a t i ons t he r e but t he i ndi vi dua l r e c i pi e nt s of e a c h of hi s t hr e e l e t t e r s a l s o a f f e c t e d hi s va r i ous s t a t e m e nt s a nd t one s r e ga r di ng C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge T he i nc ons i s t e nt opi ni ons a bout t he hol y pl a c e s a s w e l l a s hi s ow n j our ne y w i t hi n G r e gor y s w r i t i ngs i l l us t r a t e hi s s t r uggl e w i t h de t e r m i ni ng a n opi ni on on t he m a t t e r D e s pi t e t he m a ny c ont r a di c t i ons G r e gor y doe s e m pha s i z e pe r s ona l pi e t y t hr oughout a l l t hr e e t e xt s : i n t he L i f e o f M a c r i na he i nc l ude s hi s ow n pi e t y a s t he r e a s on be hi nd hi s t r i p t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nds t he n i n L e t t e r 3 he l i nks t he pi e t y of hi s f e m a l e r e c i pi e nt s t o t he hol y pl a c e s t he m s e l ve s onl y t o t he n r e j e c t pi l gr i m a ge f or t he r i s k i t pos e s t o pi e t y i n L e t t e r 2 T hi s c onc e r n ove r pe r s ona l pi e t y, c om bi ne d w i t h G r e gor y s de ve l opm e nt of a ne ga t i ve out l ook on C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge a s w e l l a s hi s di r e c t c ont r a di c t i ons p op out a s t he dom i na nt t he m e s i n hi s l e t t e r s J e r om e a not he r c ont e m por a ne ous C hur c h F a t he r t o G r e gor y e xhi bi t s ve r y s i m i l a r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i n hi s w r i t i ngs a bout pi l gr i m a ge A na l yz i ng hi s l e t t e r s a nd c om pa r i ng hi s

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4 0 s e nt i m e nt s w i t h G r e gor y s w i l l i l l um i na t e f a s c i na t i ng c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n e a c h a ut hor s pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he pi l g r i m a ge e nt e r pr i s e J e r om e : L e t t e r s 46, 58 an d 108 J e r om e a l t hough ha i l i ng f r om a l e s s i nf l ue nt i a l ba c kgr ound t ha n G r e gor y of N ys s a s t udi e d i n R om e a nd l a t e r e s t a bl i s he d a m ona s t i c c om m uni t y i n B e t hl e he m J e r om e c a m e t o be r e ga r de d a s a L a t i n F a t he r of t he C hur c h due t o hi s t he ol ogi c a l a c t i vi t i e s m os t not a bl y hi s w or k on t h e s t a nd a r d L a t i n t r a ns l a t i on of t he B i bl e t he V ul ga t e T he t hr e e l e t t e r s c ont a i ni ng J e r om e s o pi ni ons a bout pi l gr i m a ge w i l l e xhi bi t s i m i l a r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s r e ga r di ng a udi e nc e s c r i pt ur a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on a nd pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e a s w e f ound i n t he w r i t i ngs of G r e gor y of N ys s a a nd J e r om e s opi ni on a bou t pi l gr i m a ge w i l l a l s o c h a nge dr a m a t i c a l l y ove r t i m e T he da t e s of J e r om e s l e t t e r s a r e m uc h f a r t he r s e pa r a t e d t ha n G r e gor y s w i t h L e t t e r 46 c om po s e d i n 386 C E L e t t e r 58 i n 395 C E a nd L e t t e r 104 i n 404 C E J e r om e s w r i t i n gs s ur vi ve d r e m a r ka bl y w e l l c om pa r e d t o G r e gor y s a nd f e w va r i a t i ons a p pe a r b e t w e e n m a nus c r i pt s 6 6 S i m i l a r i t i e s be t w e e n J e r om e s opi ni ons a nd G r e gor y s w i l l be a ppa r e nt t hr oughout t he a na l ys i s L i ke G r e gor y J e r om e s t hr e e c om pos i t i ons c ons i s t e nt l y e m pha s i z e t he pi e t y of t he i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r a s t he m os t i m por t a nt va r i a bl e i n que s t i ons r e ga r di ng t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of pi l g r i m a ge J e r om e s m a i n pur pos e i n L e t t e r 46 i s t o c onvi nc e hi s f r i e nd M a r c e l l a t o e m ba r k on pi l gr i m a ge A s a n a dde d e f f e c t he s t yl e s t he l e t t e r a s t hough P a ul a a nd E us t oc hi um hi s pa t r one s s e s a nd a s c e t i c f ol l ow e r s a r e a c t ua l l y t he a ut hor s of t he t e xt a l t hough t he w or k c l e a r l y c a m e f r o m J e r om e hi m s e l f H e us e s t he B i bl e a s e vi de nc e f or t he 6 6 F r e e m a nt l e e t a l 1892

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4 1 a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of pi l gr i m a ge t o P a l e s t i ne c i t i ng t he s t or y of A br a ha m l e a vi ng hi s hom e l a nd, t ha t he m a y dw e l l i n a l a n d o f p r om i s e t he s t or y of M a r y l e a vi ng he r hom e a nd t he t r a di t i on t ha t A da m di e d i n J e r us a l e m 6 7 J e r om e i nt e r pr e t s t he phys i c a l m ove m e nt s of t he s e B i bl i c a l f i gur e s a s e vi d e nc e f or t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of phy s i c a l j our ne ys f or c ont e m por a r y be l i e ve r s A l t ho ugh he i nc l ude s t he w hol e pr ovi nc e o f P a l e s t i ne a s w or t hy of ve ne r a t i on, J e r om e e m pha s i z e s t he a t t r i but e s of J e r us a l e m e s pe c i a l l y: T o s p e a k m or e t e r s e l y, t he gl or y of t he pr ovi nc e i s de r i ve d f r om i t s c a pi t a l ; a nd w ha t e ve r f a m e t he m e m be r s pos s e s s i s i n e v e r y c a s e due t o t he he a d. 6 8 H e c l a i m s t ha t t he t hr e e na m e s of J e r us a l e m pr ove t he doc t r i ne of t he t r i ni t y, a nd c a l l s t he c i t y t hi s hol y pl a c e 6 9 J e r om e l e a ve s l i t t l e doubt a s t o hi s b e l i e f i n t he s a c r a l i t y o f J e r us a l e m H e r e s ponds t o po s s i bl e c r i t i c i s m s of hi s opi ni on a b out t he c i t y by a ga i n c i t i ng s c r i pt ur e c l a i m i ng t ha t w i t h t he a r r i va l of J e s u s a l l t he s pi r i t ua l i m por t a nc e of J uda e a a nd i t s ol d i nt i m a c y w i t h G od w e r e t r a ns f e r r e d by t he a pos t l e s t o t he na t i ons 7 0 J e r om e vi e w s t he C hr i s t i a n t r a di t i on a s i nhe r i t i ng t he t r a di t i ona l hol y l a nd of t he J uda i s m a nd i nt e r pr e t s t he hi s t or y of J e r us a l e m a s a m e t a phor f or t he hi s t o r y of t he J e w i s h a nd C hr i s t i a n f a i t hs I n J e r om e s opi ni on J e s us a c t i ons pr ovi de e vi de n c e f or t he s a nc t i t y of J e r us a l e m : T he L or d w e pt f o r t he f a l l o f J e r us a l e m ( L uke 1 9: 41) a nd he w oul d not ha ve done s o i f H e di d not l ove i t 7 1 H e a r gue s t ha t a l t hough t he c i t y ha s s uf f e r e d num e r ous de s t r uc t i ons s i nc e t he t i m e of C hr i s t t he s a nc t i t y of t he pl a c e r e m a i ns : T he t r ut h i s t ha t i t w a s t he 6 7 J e r om e L e t t e r 46 t r a ns W H F r e e m a nt l e e t a l 18 92. 6 8 J e r om e L e t t e r 46. 6 9 J e r om e L e t t e r 46. 7 0 J e r om e L e t t e r 46. 7 1 J e r om e L e t t e r 46.

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4 2 pe opl e w ho s i nne d a nd not t he pl a c e 7 2 J e r om e c onc e i ve s of J e r us a l e m a s a s a c r e d c i t y, r e ga r dl e s s of c ur r e nt s oc i a l or pol i t i c a l c l i m a t e A l t hough J e r om e pl a c e s m uc h e m pha s i s on t he i nhe r e nt hol i ne s s of pl a c e f ound i n J e r us a l e m he a l s o de s c r i be s t he ho l y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he pe opl e w ho t r a ve l t o t he H ol y L a nd. H e c l a i m s t h a t pe opl e h a ve j our ne ye d t o P a l e s t i ne f r om a f e e l i ng t ha t t h e i r de vot i on a nd know l e dge w oul d b e i nc om pl e t e a nd t he i r vi r t ue w i t hout t he f i ni s hi ng t ouc h, unl e s s t he y a dor e d C hr i s t i n t he ve r y s pot w he r e t he go s pe l f i r s t f l a s he d f r om t he gi bbe t 7 3 H e r e J e r om e e m pha s i z e s t h e i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n phys i c a l pl a c e a nd s pi r i t ua l i t y. H e c om pa r e s t he C hr i s t i a n e duc a t i on t o t ha t of l i ngui s t i c e duc a t i on: I f a f a m ous or a t or bl a m e s a m a n f or ha vi ng l e a r ne dL a t i n i n S i c i l y i ns t e a d of R om e c a n w e s uppos e a C hr i s t i a n s e duc a t i on c om pl e t e w ho ha s not vi s i t e d t he C hr i s t i a n A t he n s ? 7 4 J e r om e c onc e i ve s of a j our ne y t o t he H ol y L a nd a s a vi t a l c om pone nt of t he de ve l op m e nt of C hr i s t i a n f a i t h. L e t t e r 46 a l s o c ont a i n s m a ny r e f e r e nc e s t o t he vi r t ue s of t hos e w ho e m ba r k on pi l gr i m a ge J e r om e w r i t e s of t he m u l t i t ude of t r a ve l e r s c om i ng f r om m a ny di ve r s e r e gi ons Y e t a m i d t hi s gr e a t c onc our s e t he r e i s no a r r oga nc e no di s da i n of s e l f r e s t r a i nt ; a l l s t r i ve f o r hum i l i t y s e ns ua l i t y a nd e xc e s s a r e f a r r e m ove d f r om us 7 5 H i s c om m e nt s l e a ve no doubt t ha t C hr i s t i a n s w i l l b e ne f i t f r om t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s i n P a l e s t i ne a s bot h t he l a nd i t s e l f a nd t ho s e w ho ga t he r t he r e e x e m pl i f y hol i ne s s J e r om e s uppor t s t he i de a t ha t P a l e s t i ne i t s e l f i s hol y, a s w e l l a s t h e pe opl e w h o l i ve t he r e H ow e ve r he doe s r e m a i n c a r e f ul not t o c ont r a di c t t he uni ve r s a l i t y o f t he C hr i s t i a n f a i t h. H e w r i t e s w e do not m e a n t o de ny t ha t t h e ki ngdom of G od i s w i t hi n us ( L uke 17: 21) or t o s a y t ha t t he r e a r e 7 2 J e r om e L e t t e r 46. 7 3 J e r om e L e t t e r 46 7 4 J e r om e L e t t e r 46 7 5 J e r om e L e t t e r 46

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4 3 no hol y m e n e l s e w he r e ; w e m e r e l y a s s e r t i n t he s t r onge s t m a nne r t ha t t hos e w ho s t a nd f i r s t t hr oughou t t he w o r l d a r e he r e ga t he r e d s i de by s i de 7 6 J e r om e e m pha s i z e s t he a m ount of hol i ne s s pr e s e nt i n J e r us a l e m i n c om pa r i s on t o ot he r c i t i e s F o r e xa m pl e he gr a nt s t ha t R om e a l s o ha s a hol y c hur c h a nd s i t e s t ha t w i t ne s s e d t he w or ks of t he a pos t l e s a nd m a r t yr s but he l a m e nt s t he u r ba n na t ur e o f R om e t he di s pl a y, pow e r s i z e of t he c i t y, a s w e l l a s t he ne c e s s i t y of f a c i ng s o gr e a t a t hr ong e ve n w he n one i s l e a s t i n t he m ood t o do s o 7 7 T he s e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s he c ont r a s t s w i t h t he a t m os ph e r e of B e t hl e he m : i n t he c ot t a ge of C hr i s t a l l i s s i m pl e a nd r us t i c : a nd e xc e pt f or t he c ha nt i ng of ps a l m s t he r e i s c om pl e t e s i l e n c e 7 8 J e r om e s c om m e nt s e xhi bi t bot h a n unf a vor a bl e opi ni on of R om e w hi l e a l s o e s pou s i ng t he di s a dva nt a ge of ur ba n l i f e i n ge ne r a l T hi s pr om ot i on o f l oc a l r ur a l l i f e a s oppos e d t o r e gi ona l a f f i l i a t i on a nd c i t i e s w i l l a ppe a r a ga i n i n J e r om e s ot he r l e t t e r s T he i de a s s uppor t e d by J e r om e i n L e t t e r 46 pr ovi de a n ove r w he l m i ngl y pos i t i ve out l ook on pi l gr i m a ge S c r i pt u r a l e xa m pl e s of j o ur ne ys t o a nd w i t hi n P a l e s t i ne pr ovi de t he ba s i s f or hi s a r gum e nt a bout t he hol i ne s s of t he l a nd. H e f i nds P a l e s t i ne a n d J e r us a l e m t o be i nhe r e nt l y hol y r e ga r dl e s s of t h e c ur r e nt s t a t e of hum a n a f f a i r s T he pi l gr i m s w ho ga t he r t he r e e xhi bi t s t r ong C hr i s t i a n vi r t ue s a nd t he e xpe r i e nc e i n hi s opi ni on, w i l l pr ovi de num e r ous be ne f i t s f o r one s f a i t h. A l l o f t he s e c onc e pt i ons of t he B i bl i c a l l a nds s t a nd i n s ha r p c ont r a s t t o a l a t e r l e t t e r i n w hi c h J e r om e s opi ni on on pi l gr i m a ge c ha nge s dr a m a t i c a l l y. J e r om e s L e t t e r 58 w r i t t e n a bout ni ne ye a r s a f t e r hi s l e t t e r t o M a r c e l l a t a ke s a de c i d e dl y ne ga t i ve s t a n c e on t he pr a c t i c e of pi l gr i m a ge J e r om e 7 6 J e r om e L e t t e r 46 7 7 J e r om e L e t t e r 46 7 8 J e r om e L e t t e r 46

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4 4 w r ot e t hi s l e t t e r a t t he r e qu e s t of P a ul i nus of N ol a t he n onl y be gi nni ng hi s a s c e t i c pr a c t i c e s w ho i nqui r e d t o J e r om e a bout w he t he r or not he s houl d m a ke a pi l gr i m a ge t o P a l e s t i ne O nc e a n e nt hu s i a s t i c pi l gr i m J e r om e now w r i t e s unf a vor a bl y a bout t he pr a c t i c e a nd a t t e m pt s t o di s s ua de P a ul i nus J e r om e now i ns i s t s t ha t pi l gr i m a ge i s not a ne c e s s a r y pr a c t i c e f or a C hr i s t i a n. H e w r i t e s not hi ng i s l a c ki ng t o your f a i t h a l t houg h you ha ve not s e e n J e r us a l e m a nd I a m none t he be t t e r f or l i vi ng w he r e I do. 7 9 H e e m pha s i z e s L uke 17: 21, w h i c h h e a l s o r e f e r e nc e d i n L e t t e r 46 ; but he r e t he ve r s e pl a ys a bs ol ut e pr om i ne nc e t he ki ngdom o f G od i s w i t hi n you. J e r om e i ns i s t s t ha t l i vi ng a C h r i s t i a n l i f e w he r e ve r one m a y be i s of f a r gr e a t e r i m po r t a nc e t ha n s e e i ng t he s i t e s of t he B i bl e H e a dd r e s s e s t he a pp a r e nt c ont r a di c t i on be t w e e n hi s e a r l i e r s e nt i m e nt s a bout pi l gr i m a ge a nd hi s c ur r e nt opi ni on on t he pr a c t i c e J e r om e t e l l s P a ul i nus : I n s pe a ki ng t hus I a m not l a yi ng m ys e l f ope n t o a c ha r ge of i nc ons i s t e nc y or c onde m ni ng t he c ou r s e w hi c h I ha ve m ys e l f t a ke n. I t i s not I be l i e ve f or not hi ng t ha t I l i ke A br a ha m ha ve l e f t m y ho m e a nd pe opl e B ut I do not pr e s um e t o l i m i t G od s om ni pot e nc e or t o r e s t r i c t t o a na r r ow s t r i p of e a r t h H i m w hom t he he a ve n c a nnot c ont a i n. E a c h be l i e ve r i s j udge d not by hi s r e s i de n c e i n t hi s pl a c e or i n t ha t but a c c or d i ng t o t he de s e r t s of hi s f a i t h 8 0 7 9 J e r om e L e t t e r 58 t r a ns W H F r e e m a nt l e G L e w i s a nd W G M a r t l e y, 1893. 8 0 J e r om e L e t t e r 58

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4 5 I n t hi s pa s s a ge J e r om e a l l ude s a ga i n t o t he s t or y o f A br a ha m j us t a s w e s a w i n L e t t e r 46 H e s e e s hi m s e l f a s f ol l ow i ng a n e xa m pl e f r om s c r i pt ur e but he i ns i s t s t ha t t hi s i s onl y one pos s i bl e pa t h. J e r om e e nc our a ge s P a ul i nus t o f oc us on hi s ow n pe r s ona l f a i t h, r a t he r t ha n s e e i ng t he phys i c a l s i t e s of t he B i bl e H e r e s pi r i t ua l i t y doe s not di r e c t l y c onne c t t o phys i c a l s pa c e J e r om e c l a i m s t ha t onl y one a l r e a dy hol y i n s pi r i t w i l l be ne f i t f r om s e e i ng t he s i t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he B i bl e a nd e ve n t he n pi l gr i m a ge i s not n e c e s s a r y. H e r e f e r s t o a l l t he m onks i n E gyp t w ho ha ve ne ve r vi s i t e d P a l e s t i ne a s w e l l a s t he m a ny m a r t yr s w ho ne ve r vi s i t e d J e r us a l e m J e r om e c l a i m s t ha t H i l a r i on, a na t i ve of P a l e s t i ne onl y vi s i t e d J e r us a l e m f or one da y, not w i s hi ng on t h e on e ha nd w h e n he w a s s o ne a r t o n e gl e c t t he hol y pl a c e s nor ye t on t he ot he r t o a ppe a r t o c onf i ne G od w i t hi n l oc a l l i m i t s 8 1 A l l of t he s e e x a m pl e s uppor t J e r om e s opi ni on t h a t P a ul i nus s houl d not t r oubl e hi m s e l f t o c om e t o t he H ol y L a nd. J e r om e doe s not e m pha s i z e t he i nhe r e nt hol i ne s s o f P a l e s t i ne a nd J e r us a l e m a s he e a r l i e r di d i n L e t t e r 46 H e r e f e r s t o t he ye a r s a f t e r t he de s t r uc t i on of t he T e m pl e w he n pa ga n s t a t ue s m a r ke d t he l a nds c a pe of P a l e s t i ne E ve n B e t hl e he m w hi c h J e r om e r e f e r s t o a s t ha t m os t ve ne r a bl e s pot i n t he w hol e w or l d, w i t ne s s e d t h e de ve l opm e nt of R om a n c ul t s on s i t e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h B i bl i c a l s t or i e s 8 2 J e r om e c l a i m s t ha t t he R om a ns be l i e ve d t he y w oul d w e a ke n t h e f a i t h of be l i e ve r s by e r e c t i ng pa ga n s hr i ne s on hol y pl a c e s 8 3 H e de ni e s t ha t t he i r a i m s uc c e e d e d. N e ve r t he l e s s J e r om e i ns i s t s t ha t t he pl a c e s t he m s e l ve s 8 1 J e r om e L e t t e r 58 8 2 J e r om e L e t t e r 58 8 3 J e r om e L e t t e r 58

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4 6 s houl d not be vi e w e d a s a n i nt e gr a l pa r t of t he C hr i s t i a n f a i t h. S t a t ue s of V e nus i n t he C a ve of t he N a t i vi t y a r e i r r e l e va nt t o t he s pi r i t ua l m e a ni ng of t he s i t e s 8 4 J e r om e a ppe a r s e s pe c i a l l y c onc e r ne d w i t h t he e f f e c t of u r ba n e nvi r onm e nt s on m ona s t i c l i f e H e t e l l s P a ul i nus : I nde e d, i f I a m f r a nkl y t o e xpr e s s m y ow n f e e l i ngs w he n I t a ke i nt o c ons i de r a t i on your vow s a nd t he e a r ne s t ne s s w i t h w hi c h you ha ve r e nounc e d t he w or l d, I hol d t ha t a s l ong a s you l i ve i n t he c ount r y one pl a c e i s a s good a s a not he r 8 5 T hi s c om m e nt ha r ke ns ba c k t o J e r om e s s t a t e m e nt s i n L e t t e r 46 a bout l i f e i n R om e H e l a m e nt e d t he c r ow ds of t he c i t y, a nd now c l a i m s t ha t t hos e c r ow ds e xi s t i n J e r us a l e m a l s o: M e n r us h h e r e f r om a l l qua r t e r s of t he w or l d, t he c i t y i s f i l l e d w i t h pe opl e of e ve r y r a c e a nd s o g r e a t i s t he t h r ong of m e n a nd w om e n t ha t he r e you w i l l ha v e t o t ol e r a t e i n i t s f ul l di m e ns i on s a n e vi l f r o m w hi c h you de s i r e d t o f l e e w he n you f ound i t pa r t i a l l y de ve l ope d e l s e w he r e 8 6 J e r om e s e a r l i e r m i s gi vi ngs a bout R om e a r e now pr e s e nt i n J e r us a l e m H e e n c our a ge s P a ul i nus i f he de s i r e s t he m ona s t i c l i f e t o s e e k out a r u r a l l oc a l e a nd t o a voi d t he c i t y l i f e T hough J e r om e w r ot e no m or e l e t t e r s s pe c i f i c a l l y de di c a t e d t o t he t opi c of pi l gr i m a ge he doe s i nc l ude a pos i t i ve a nd de t a i l e d de s c r i pt i on of P a ul a s pi l gr i m a ge i n t he e ul ogy he c om pos e d f or he r i n 404 C E L e t t e r 108 T he i nt e nde d r e c i pi e nt f or t hi s l e t t e r w a s E us t oc hi um P a ul a s d a ught e r w ho s ha r e d he r m ot he r s a s c e t i c pr a c t i c e s a nd l i ve d w i t h he r a t B e t hl e he m W i t hi n t hi s bi ogr a p hy J e r om e r e c ount s P a ul a s pi l gr i m a ge t hr oughout t he B i bl i c a l l a nds i n e xt e n s i ve de t a i l e m pha s i z i ng he r r e a c t i ons t o t he pl a c e s 8 4 J e r om e L e t t e r 58 8 5 J e r om e L e t t e r 58 8 6 J e r om e L e t t e r 58

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4 7 s he vi s i t e d. A l t hough he c om pos e d t hi s t e xt l a s t of a l l t hr e e l e t t e r s hi s de s c r i pt i ons o f t he B i bl i c a l pl a c e s r e s e m bl e m or e c l os e l y hi s e a r l i e r s e nt i m e nt s e xpr e s s e d i n L e t t e r 46 J e r om e de s c r i be s P a ul a a s a n e a ge r a nd e xc i t e d pi l gr i m : [ ] s o gr e a t w a s t he pa s s i on a nd t he e nt hus i a s m s he e xhi bi t e d f or e a c h t ha t s he c oul d ne ve r ha v e t or n he r s e l f a w a y f r om one ha d s he not be e n e a ge r t o vi s i t t he r e s t 8 7 H e i nc l ude s no hi nt of hi s e a r l i e r r e s e r va t i ons a bo ut pi l gr i m a ge t o P a l e s t i ne or hi s qua l m s w i t h t he c i t y of J e r us a l e m P a ul a a ppe a r s qui t e pi ou s a s w oul d be e xpe c t e d i n a ny por t r a ya l of a pi l gr i m a nd a s J e r om e de s c r i be s he r s h e e xhi bi t e d a s t r ong c onne c t i on t o t he s i t e s s he vi s i t e d. H e r a c t i ons a t t he pl a c e s s pe c i f i c a l l y c onne c t e d t o J e s us l i f e s how a n e xt r e m e f or m o f t a c t i l e pi e t y: 8 8 B e f or e t he C r os s s he t hr e w he r s e l f dow n i n a dor a t i on a s t hough s he be he l d t he L or d ha ngi ng upon i t : a nd w he n s he e nt e r e d t he t om b w hi c h w a s t he s c e ne of t he R e s ur r e c t i on s he ki s s e d t he s t one w h i c h t he a nge l ha d r ol l e d a w a y f r om t he doo r o f t he S e pul c hr e I nde e d s o a r de nt w a s he r f a i t h t ha t s he e ve n l i c k e d w i t h he r m out h t he ve r y s pot on w hi c h t he L or d s body ha d l a i n, l i ke one t hi r s t y f o r t he r i ve r w hi c h he ha s l onge d f or I n t he s e e pi s ode s P a ul a phys i c a l l y i nt e r a c t s w i t h t he pi l gr i m a ge s i t e s l e a vi ng no doubt t ha t t he pl a c e s m e r i t e d s p e c i a l a t t e nt i on a nd be ha vi or T he s e a c t i ons a r e a l l c onne c t e d t o P a ul a s pe r s ona l pi e t y, a s J e r om e us e d t he s e s c e ne s t o a ugm e nt he r pr e s e nt a t i on a s a n i de a l C hr i s t i a n. N ow he r e doe s he m e nt i on a nyt hi ng a bout pi l gr i m a ge i n g e ne r a l but hi s 8 7 J e r om e L e t t e r 108 t r a ns by F r e e m a nt l e e t a l 189 2. 8 8 W i l ke n 1992, 115.

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4 8 por t r a ya l of P a ul a s j ou r ne y c e r t a i nl y gi ve s t he i m pr e s s i on t ha t he r a c t i ons w e r e c om m e nda bl e a nd a ppr opr i a t e A f t e r a l l t hi s l e t t e r s e r ve d a s a e ul ogy f o r P a ul a a nd J e r om e ha r dl y w oul d ha ve i nc l ude d de t a i l s t ha t he c ons i de r e d de gr a di ng t o he r pi e t y. T hi s f i na l l e t t e r e xpos e s t he c om pl e x na t ur e of J e r om e s opi ni ons a bou t pi l gr i m a ge T he de t a i l s di s c us s e d a bove r e f l e c t onl y a s m a l l por t i on of t he e xt e ns i v e de s c r i pt i on of P a ul a s j ou r ne y r e c or de d by J e r om e w hi c h i nc l ude s he r t r a ve l s t hr oughout P a l e s t i ne a nd E gypt I f go i ng on pi l g r i m a ge w a s a n i na ppr opr i a t e or unde s i r a bl e a c t i vi t y f or a C hr i s t i a n r ol e m ode l t he n t he i nc l us i on of s uc h a de t a i l e d a c c ount w i t hi n P a ul a s e ul ogy w oul d be unl i ke l y. T he ve r y l e ngt h of t hi s s e c t i on i n t he na r r a t i ve e vi de n c e s t he pi l gr i m a ge s i m por t a nc e not onl y t o J e r om e but a l s o t o J e r om e s c onc e pt i on of w ha t t he r e a de r s of hi s l e t t e r E us t oc hi um a nd c e r t a i nl y o t he r s w oul d f i nd i m por t a nt P a ul a s r e a c t i ons t o t he pi l gr i m a ge s i t e s i m pl y a r e c i pr oc a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n bot h t he p i l gr i m a nd t he l oc a l e s : he r pi e t y a l l ow s s uc h e m ot i ona l e nc ount e r s w i t h t he s i t e s but t he s i t e s t he m s e l ve s a l s o a f f e c t he r f a i t h. T hi s pr e s e nt a t i on l a c ks a ny i ndi c a t i on t ha t J e r om e f ound pi l gr i m a ge a de t r i m e nt t o a n a s c e t i c l i f e s t yl e a s he s ugge s t e d i n L e t t e r 58 I ns t e a d he i nc l ude s onl y pos i t i ve de t a i l s e m pha s i z i ng how a t a l l t i m e s P a ul a r e m a i ne d e nt i r e l y pi ous i n he r a c t i ons a nd r e a c t i on s w hi l e t r a v e l i ng. J e r om e s us e of he r pi l gr i m a ge a s e vi de nc e f or he r pi e t y l e a ds t o t he c onc l us i on t ha t r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r or not h e be l i e ve d pi l gr i m a ge t o be a ne c e s s i t y f or a l l a s c e t i c s P a ul a s pi l gr i m a ge w a s a n i m por t a nt m i l e s t one i n he r l i f e a nd w or t hy o f r e m e m be r i ng a f t e r he r de a t h T he s e nt i m e nt s e xpr e s s e d i n t hi s l e t t e r c l os e l y r e s e m bl e J e r om e s pos i t i ve de s c r i pt i on of pi l gr i m a ge i n L e t t e r 46 w r i t t e n e i ght e e n ye a r s pr i o r

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4 9 L e t t e r s 46, 58, a nd 108 r e f l e c t t he de ve l opm e nt of J e r om e s opi ni on a bout pi l gr i m a ge t o t he l a nds of t he B i bl e T he r e c i pi e nt s f or e a c h l e t t e r c e r t a i nl y a f f e c t e d bot h J e r om e s pr e s e nt a t i on of hi s a r gum e nt a s w e l l a s hi s ge ne r a l a t t i t ude on t he m a t t e r H e c om pos e d L e t t e r 46 i n or de r t o pe r s ua de M a r c e l l a t o l e a ve he r pr e s e nt e nvi r onm e nt a n d j oi n P a ul a E us t oc hi um a nd hi m s e l f on pi l gr i m a ge i n P a l e s t i ne L e t t e r 58 a c t e d a s a n a ns w e r t o t he que s t i ons of P a ul i nus a f e l l ow m onk w ho w a s c onc e r ne d a bout t he ne c e s s i t y of pi l gr i m a ge i n r e ga r ds t o a C hr i s t i a n l i f e I n L e t t e r 108 J e r om e p r e s e r ve s a de t a i l e d a c c ount of P a ul a s l i f e f or he r da ught e r E us t oc hi um pos s i bl y a s a n a t t e m pt t o pr om ot e t he m ona s t i c i ns t i t ut i ons a t B e t hl e he m a s pi l gr i m a ge s i t e s t he m s e l ve s 8 9 T he di f f e r e nt pur pos e s f or t he s e l e t t e r s c l e a r l y pl a ye d a r ol e i n hi s di f f e r e nc e of opi ni on, a f a c t or c l os e l y r e l a t e d t o t he i nt e nde d a udi e nc e s : L e t t e r 46 t o c onvi nc e a f e l l ow R om a n t o l e a ve t he c i t y a nd j oi n J e r om e i n P a l e s t i ne ; L e t t e r 58 t o a dvi s e a young a s c e t i c on w he t he r pi l gr i m a ge w a s a ne c e s s a r y e xpe r i e nc e f or pi ous i ndi vi dua l s ; L e t t e r 108 t o gl or i f y t he l i f e of hi s pa t r on f or he r s ur vi vi ng da ug ht e r A s i de f r om t he i nt e nde d a udi e nc e s t he r e l a t i ve l y l ong l a ps e i n t i m e be t w e e n t he c om pos i t i ons of t he l e t t e r s a l s o i m pa c t e d J e r om e s opi ni on a bout J e r us a l e m a nd t he B i bl i c a l pi l gr i m a ge s i t e s W he n he c om pos e d L e t t e r 46 he ha d l i ve d i n t he a r e a f or onl y a f e w ye a r s a nd w a s s t i l l f e e l i ng t he e f f e c t s of hi s r e c e nt e xi l e f r om R om e A de c a de l a t e r t he de ve l opi ng O r i ge ni s t c ont r ove r s y ha d gr i ppe d P a l e s t i ne a nd i n t he m i ds t of a l l of t h e c o m pl i c a t e d he r e t i c a l he a r s a y be t w e e n t he t he ol ogi a ns i n t he r e gi on, t he pa t r i a r c h of J e r us a l e m e xc om m uni c a t e d J e r om e a m e r e ye a r be f or e he c om pos e d L e t t e r 58 9 0 I n l i gh t 8 9 S e e C a i n, 2010 9 0 S e e H a l e 2006, 284 286

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5 0 of t hi s pol i t i c a l c l i m a t e J e r om e pr oba bl y f e l t l e s s i nc l i ne d t o e nc our a ge a not he r a s c e t i c t o vi s i t P a l e s t i ne unl i ke hi s e a r l i e r s e nt i m e nt s t o M a r c e l l a i n L e t t e r 46 A pa r t f r o m t he s e t w o l e t t e r s t he t i m e f r a m e of L e t t e r 108 s c om pos i t i on s e e m s l e s s l i ke l y t o ha ve pl a ye d a bi g r ol e i n J e r om e s pr e s e nt a t i on of P a ul a s pi l gr i m a ge H e r e t he l e t t e r s e e m s de voi d of a ny c ur r e nt i s s ue s a nd i ns t e a d c ont a i ns onl y pe r s ona l de t a i l s r e l e va nt t o P a ul a s l i f e R e ga r dl e s s of t he r e a s ons f or J e r om e s c ha nge i n opi ni on, he c ons i s t e nt l y e m pha s i z e d i ndi vi dua l f a i t h a nd e xpe r i e nc e i n a l l t h r e e l e t t e r s H e c i t e s e xa m pl e s of how pl a c e r e l a t e s t o t he pi e t y of t he pi l gr i m a nd a l t hough he s e e m s t o s w i t c h s om e of hi s be l i e f s on t he i nhe r e nt hol i ne s s of J e r u s a l e m be t w e e n t h e c om p os i t i on of L e t t e r 46 a nd L e t t e r 58 he s t i l l m a i nt a i ns hi s f oc us on t he pi e t y o f t he i ndi v i d ua l r e c i pi e nt of t he l e t t e r s C om p a r i n g G r e gor y an d J e r om e A c l os e r e a di ng of J e r om e a nd G r e gor y of N ys s a s l e t t e r s r e ve a l s s e v e r a l s t r i ki ng s i m i l a r i t i e s : t he i nf l ue nc e of c ont e m por a r y c hur c h pol i t i c s on t he i r va r i ous opi ni ons ; c onc e r n ove r t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a s c e t i c i s m a nd pi l gr i m a ge ; t he r ol e o f t he r e c i pi e nt s a nd a udi e n c e s of e a c h l e t t e r ; t he c o ns i s t e nt a nd ove r a r c hi ng e m pha s i s on pe r s ona l pi e t y f or e a c h i ndi vi dua l pi l gr i m G r e gor y s L e t t e r 2 a nd J e r om e s L e t t e r 58 pr ovi de t he m os t di r e c t e vi de nc e f or t he pol i t i c a l t e ns i ons pr e va l e nt dur i ng t he i r r e s pe c t i ve pe r i ods of w r i t i ng. E a c h a ut hor a t t e m pt s t o di m i ni s h t h e i m por t a nc e of J e r us a l e m a nd P a l e s t i ne i n r e s pe c t t o ot he r r e gi o ns t hr oughout t he E m pi r e w hi l e a t t he s a m e t i m e pr om ot i ng t he i r ow n pa r t i c ul a r l oc a l e G r e gor y pr om ot e d hi s hom e l a nd of C a ppa doc i a w hi l e J e r om e e xa l t e d hi s ne w f ound m ona s t i c hom e i n B e t hl e he m B r ur i a B i t t on A s hke l ony a r gue s t ha t t he c or e of G r e gor y s r e s e r va t i ons a bout pi l gr i m a ge s t e m

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5 1 not f r om di s a ppr ova l of pr a c t i c e a s a w hol e but f r om a c onc e r n ove r J e r us a l e m e xhi bi t i ng s upr e m a c y a s a pi l gr i m a ge l oc a t i on due t o i t s hi s t or i c a l a s s oc i a t i ons 9 1 G r e gor y s uppor t e d t he c ul t of t he m a r t yr s a nd pi l g r i m a ge t o t hos e s hr i ne s but di d not s uppor t t he a ppr opr i a t i on of J e r us a l e m a s t he c e nt e r of C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge T hi s he s i t a nc e ove r J e r us a l e m r e l a t e s t o G r e gor y s ow n e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he c i t y a s w e l l a s hi s obvi ous bi a s t ow a r ds C a ppa doc i a B i t t on A s hke l ony s obs e r va t i on a l s o a ppl i e s t o J e r om e s s t a ndpoi nt H i s pr om ot i on of B e t hl e he m r a t he r t ha n J e r us a l e m i n L e t t e r 58 r e f l e c t s t he s a m e he s i t a t i ons t ha t G r e gor y voi c e d i n L e t t e r 2 a l t hough J e r om e s c onc e r ns c oi nc i de m or e w i t h a t e ns i o n be t w e e n ur ba n a nd r ur a l l oc a l e s t ha n r e gi ona l a f f i l i a t i ons H e r e f e r s t o B e t hl e he m a s t ha t m os t ve n e r a bl e s pot i n t he w hol e w or l d i n L e t t e r 46 w hi l e t e l l i ng hi s r e c i pi e nt t ha t i n J e r us a l e m [ ] you w i l l ha v e t o t ol e r a t e i n i t s f ul l di m e ns i ons a n e vi l f r om w hi c h yo u de s i r e d t o f l e e w he n you f ound i t pa r t i a l l y de ve l ope d e l s e w he r e 9 2 T he a r gum e nt f or B e t hl e he m a s a s upe r i or t ow n t o J e r us a l e m i n L e t t e r 58 m i r r o r s hi s e a r l i e r di s a ppr ova l of R om e i n L e t t e r 46 C oupl e d w i t h J e r om e s r e t ur n t o a pos i t i ve de s c r i pt i on of P a ul a s pi l gr i m a ge i n L e t t e r 108 t he s e s t a t e m e nt s i ndi c a t e t ha t J e r om e s m a i n qua l m w i t h t he de ve l opm e nt of C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge r e vol ve s a r ound t he pos s i bi l i t y of J e r us a l e m s a ppr opr i a t i on a s t he m os t i m po r t a nt pi l g r i m a ge s i t e w hi c h i n t ur n r e l a t e s t o hi s ove r a l l c onde m na t i on of ur ba n l i f e s t yl e s J e r om e s c onc e r n a bout c i t y l i f e di r e c t l y r e l a t e s t o a not he r m a j or a s pe c t of hi s l e t t e r s : hi s opi ni ons a bout pi l gr i m a ge c or r e s pond e xpl i c i t l y t o how t he p r a c t i c e a f f e c t s 9 1 B i t t on A s hke l ony 1999, 200 201 9 2 J e r om e L e t t e r 46

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5 2 a s c e t i c l i f e s t yl e s A l l of hi s a ddr e s s e e s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n a s c e t i c i s m t o s om e de gr e e a nd J e r om e be l i e ve d t ha t ur ba n a r e a s w e r e un f i t f o r s uc h e xe r c i s e s a s he e xpr e s s e d t o M a r c e l l a i n L e t t e r 46 a nd P a ul i nus i n L e t t e r 58 G r e gor y a l s o s ha r e s t hi s f oc us H i s r e c i pi e nt s w e r e a l l pr a c t i c i ng a s c e t i c s a nd hi s c onde m na t i on of pi l gr i m a ge i n L e t t e r 2 s pe c i f i c a l l y c or r e l a t e s t o a s c e t i c m e n a n d w om e n. M a r i be l D i e t z a r gue s t ha t G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s c r i t i que s of pi l gr i m a ge a s w e l l a s t hos e of ot he r C hur c h F a t he r s s houl d be r e ga r de d not a s c onde m na t i on s of pi l gr i m a ge a s a w hol e but of a s c e t i c pi l gr i m a ge i n pa r t i c ul a r S he poi nt s out t he t he n i n c r e a s i ngl y c om m on pr a c t i c e of i t i ne r a nt s pi r i t ua l i t y i n w hi c h a s c e t i c s w oul d t r a ve l a s a r e l i gi ous a c t r e m a i ni ng on t he i r j our ne ys i nde f i ni t e l y a s t he y j our ne ye d t hr oughout t he B i bl i c a l l a nds a nd t he r e s t of C hr i s t e ndom 9 3 T he s e t r a ve l e r s s om e t i m e s be l ong e d t o m ona s t i c hous e s but not i n a l l c i r c um s t a nc e s a f a c t t ha t r e f l e c t s t he f l ui di t y of m ove m e nt a va i l a bl e t o m a n y m onks dur i ng t hi s e a r l y pe r i od. 9 4 D i e t z c or r e c t l y i de nt i f i e s G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s c onc e r n a bout a s c e t i c s goi ng on pi l gr i m a ge H ow e ve r t he l e t t e r s e xa m i ne d a bove s how t ha t t he s e m e n bot h e xpl i c i t l y a nd i m pl i c i t l y a ddr e s s e d i s s ue s be yond j u s t a s c e t i c t r a ve l T he pr e vi ous l y di s c us s e d pol i t i c a l t e ns i ons r e l a t i ng t o J e r us a l e m ha v e l i t t l e t o do w i t h a ny de ba t e s ove r m ona s t i c t r a ve l E a c h a ut hor s a ppr ova l or di s a ppr ova l of pi l gr i m a ge s e e m s ve r y de pe nd e nt on t h e i nt e nde d r e c i pi e nt s of t he i r w r i t i ngs W hi l e G r e gor y c l e a r l y e xpr e s s e d hi s opi ni ons on a s c e t i c t r a ve l i n L e t t e r 2 he pr ovi de s c ont r a di c t or y r e a s ons f or hi s ow n j our ne y t o 9 3 S e e D i e t z 2004 a nd 2005. 9 4 C odi f i e d r ul e s f o r m ona s t i c l i f e s uc h a s t hos e c r e a t e d by B a s i l of C a e s a r e a ( G r e gor y s ol de r br ot he r ) a nd B e ne di c t of N ur s i a gr e a t l y l i m i t e d s uc h e a s e of t r a ve l f or m ona s t i c s r e s ul t i ng i n a m uc h m or e s e t t l e d l i f e s t yl e f o r m onk s a nd nuns T he s e r ul e s di d not be c om e w i de l y e nf or c e d unt i l t he e a r l y m e di e va l pe r i od, a s B a s i l be ga n de ve l opi ng hi s r ul e s dur i ng t he l a t e f ou r t h c e nt ur y C E a nd B e ne di c t di d not c om e a l ong unt i l t he s i xt h c e nt ur y C E

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5 3 J e r us a l e m be t w e e n L e t t e r 2 a nd t he L i f e o f M a c r i na W ha t s m or e i n L e t t e r 3 he pr a i s e s hi s t hr e e f e m a l e r e c i pi e nt s a s c e t i c vi r t ue s by c om pa r i ng t he m t o t he hol y s i t e s i n P a l e s t i ne T he s e i nc ons i s t e nc i e s poi nt t ow a r d a m or e a m bi guous c onc e r n w i t h a s c e t i c pi l gr i m a ge t ha n D i e t z a c c ount s f or i n G r e gor y s w r i t i ngs J e r om e s l e t t e r s r e ve a l t hi s s a m e t ype of i nc ons i s t e nc y r e ga r di ng a s c e t i c t r a ve l I n L e t t e r 46 he a t t e m pt s t o c onvi nc e a f e m a l e f e l l ow a s c e t i c t o e m b a r k on a pi l gr i m a ge t o P a l e s t i ne l e d by J e r om e a nd hi s f e m a l e pa t r ons T he n i n L e t t e r 58 he s t r ongl y di s c our a ge s P a ul i nus of N ol a f r o m goi ng on s u c h a j our ne y, onl y t o l a t e r i nc l ude a n i nc r e di bl y de t a i l e d a c c ount of P a ul a s pi l g r i m a ge a s a w a y t o ve ne r a t e he r pi e t y i n L e t t e r 108 A s i n t he c a s e of G r e gor y, t he s e di s a g r e e m e nt s w i t hi n t he t e xt s how t ha t J e r om e s opi ni on a bout a s c e t i c s goi ng on pi l gr i m a ge w a s ne i t he r c ons i s t e nt nor t he m a i n f oc us of hi s w r i t i ngs on t he s ubj e c t T he s e c ons i de r a t i ons l e a d t o t he t w o c ons t a nt t h e m e s t hr oughout bot h G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s ve r y i nc om pa t i bl e s t a t e m e nt s a bout pi l gr i m a ge E a c h di f f e r e nt r e c i pi e nt of t he l e t t e r s r e c e i ve d di s t i nc t i ve pr e s e nt a t i ons r e ga r di ng bot h t he a ut hor s ow n p i l gr i m a ge s a nd t he i r c or r e s pondi ng opi ni ons a bout t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of s uc h pr a c t i c e s T he r ol e t he s e a udi e nc e s ha d i n t he a t t i t ude s a dopt e d by e a c h a ut hor i n e a c h di f f e r e nt c i r c um s t a nc e s houl d not be ove r l ooke d. O f pe r ha ps m or e i nt e r e s t l a ys t he f a c t t ha t i n bot h G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s l e t t e r s t he f e m a l e r e c i pi e nt s a l w a ys r e c e i ve d pos i t i ve out l ooks on pi l gr i m a ge w hi l e t he m a l e s a l w a ys r e c e i ve d a ne ga t i ve vi e w A l t hough t hi s ge nde r di v i s i on c a nnot be m or e f ul l y di s c us s e d i n t hi s t he s i s t he c l e a r e f f e c t t ha t t he i nt e nde d a udi e nc e s ha d on t he di f f e r e nt r e s pons e s of t he a ut hor s m us t be r e c ogni z e d a s a vi t a l c om pone nt i n t he f or m a t i on o f G r e go r y a nd J e r om e s s t a ndpoi nt s

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5 4 T he one c ons i s t e nt f a c t or pr e s e nt t hr oughout t he e xt a nt w r i t i ngs i s t he i m por t a nc e of t he i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r s pi e t y i n r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he pi l gr i m a ge e nt e r pr i s e R e ga r dl e s s of t he pos i t i ve or ne ga t i ve opi ni on a bout pi l gr i m a ge a s a w hol e e a c h a ut hor e m pha s i z e s i n e ve r y l e t t e r t he a bs ol ut e ne c e s s i t y of pe r s ona l pi e t y f or t he i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r I n G r e gor y s de c i de dl y ne ga t i ve out l ook on pi l gr i m a ge i n L e t t e r 2 t he r e a s oni ng be hi nd hi s a r gum e nt i s t he ha r m f ul a f f e c t s s uc h a j our ne y w i l l ha ve on t he pe r s on a l pi e t y of t he t r a ve l e r W he n he a dm i r e s t he pi e t y o f t he t h r e e f e m a l e r e c i pi e nt s of L e t t e r 3 he c om pa r e s t he m t o t he pi l gr i m a ge s i t e s i n J e r u s a l e m T he L i f e o f M a c r i na c ont a i ns G r e gor y s s t a t e m e nt t ha t he hi m s e l f w e nt t o P a l e s t i ne a s a n a c t of pi e t y. I n J e r om e s L e t t e r 46 hi s r e a s oni ng be hi nd c onvi nc i ng M a r c e l l a t o c om e t o P a l e s t i ne r e s t s on w ha t a m e a ni ngf ul a nd pos i t i ve e f f e c t t he t r i p w i l l ha ve f or M a r c e l l a s pi e t y. W he n he t r i e s t o di s s ua de P a ul i nus f r om m a ki ng s uc h a j ou r ne y i n L e t t e r 58 he a ga i n r e f e r s t o pe r s ona l pi e t y, onl y t hi s t i m e he a r gue s t ha t pi l gr i m a ge w i l l ne ga t i ve l y a f f e c t P a ul i nus j us t a s G r e gor y s ugge s t e d t o K e ns i t or i n L e t t e r 2 I n P a ul a s e ul ogy, L e t t e r 108 J e r om e i nc l u de s a l e ngt hy l i s t o f pi ous de e ds t ha t P a ul a e xhi bi t e d w hi l e on he r ow n pi l g r i m a ge E ve r y s i ngl e l e t t e r e xa m i ne d i n t hi s c ha pt e r e m pha s i z e s t he pi e t y of t he i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r T h i s a s pe c t s t a nd s i n s ha r p c ont r a s t t o t he r a m pa nt i nc ons i s t e nc i e s f ound t hr oughout G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s w r i t i ngs a bout pi l gr i m a ge a nd t a ke n t oge t he r w i t h t he i nf l ue nc e i ndi vi dua l r e c i pi e nt s e xe r c i s e d ove r t h e a ut hor s va r i ous opi ni ons t he s e t w o c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s r e ve a l t he m a i n c onc e r n put f or t h by G r e gor y a nd J e r om e A l t hough t h e i r ow n pe r s ona l s t a t e m e nt s r e ga r di ng t he i r pe r s ona l pi l gr i m a ge s a nd t he i r opi ni ons on t he pr a c t i c e a s a w hol e s hi f t be t w e e n l e t t e r s t he i r c ons t a nt e m pha s i s on t he pi e t y of i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r s i ndi c a t e s t ha t t hi s w a s t he i r g r e a t e s t c onc e r n.

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5 5 T he s i m i l a r i t i e s a s w e l l a s t he i nc ons i s t e nc i e s b e t w e e n G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s l e t t e r s r e ve a l m uc h a bout e a c h on e s unde r s t a ndi n g of C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge R a t he r t ha n a dopt i ng a f i r m s t a ndpoi nt on t he m a t t e r t he y c r e a t e d a di f f e r e nt i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f t he pr a c t i c e de pe nd i ng on t he a udi e nc e t he y w r ot e f or C hur c h pol i t i c s e xe r t e d not a s m a l l i nf l ue nc e ove r t he i r a ppr ova l of J e r us a l e m a s a pi l gr i m a ge s i t e a nd t he c i r c um s t a nc e s of e a c h l e t t e r s c om pos i t i on a f f e c t e d i t s ove r a l l t one a nd a r gum e nt E ve n t he i r ow n pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s of pi l gr i m a ge r e c e i v e d m ul t i pl e c on f l i c t i ng i nt e r pr e t a t i ons F or t he s e t w o C hur c h F a t he r s t he que s t i on a bout pi l gr i m a ge t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nd s w he t he r i t w a s a n a ppr opr i a t e pr a c t i c e di r e c t l y a ppl i e d t o e a c h i n di vi dua l t r a ve l e r not t o t he C hr i s t i a n c om m uni t y a s a w hol e T he r ol e of t he i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r i n l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge be c om e s e ve n m or e vi vi d w he n e xa m i ne d i n t he na r r a t i ve of E ge r i a a f e m a l e pi l g r i m w ho t r a ve l e d t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nds i n t he l a t e f our t h c e nt ur y C E a nd r e c or de d a di a r y of he r t r a ve l s f or he r f r i e nds ba c k hom e T hi s t r a ve l di a r y pr ovi de s one of t he m os t va l ua bl e t e xt ua l s our c e s f or pi l gr i m a ge dur i ng t hi s e r a E ge r i a bot h a s a n a ut hor a nd a s a pi l g r i m de f i e s e a s y c l a s s i f i c a t i on, a nd he r w r i t i ng unde r s c or e s t he c o nc e r ns a ddr e s s e d by G r e gor y of N ys s a a nd J e r om e : t he r ol e e a c h i ndi vi dua l pi l gr i m pl a ye d on t he e xpe r i e nc e of pi l gr i m a ge a nd t he e f f e c t t ha t p i l gr i m a ge ha d on p e r s ona l pi e t y.

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5 6 C h a p te r T h r e e : E g e r i a s Si g h ts e e i n g A d v e n tu r e T he I t i n e r a r i um E g e r i a e or T r a ve l s of E ge r i a pr e s e r ve s a vi vi d a c c ount of on e of t he e a r l i e s t C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge s t o t he pl a c e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h B i bl i c a l s t or i e s S c hol a r l y i nt e r e s t of t e n f oc us e s on que s t i ons c onc e r ni ng t he pe r s ona l i de nt i t y of t he na r r a t o r r e s ul t i ng i n c onc l us i ons t ha t de pe nd upon i nf e r e n c e s a nd a s s um pt i ons r a t he r t ha n di r e c t r e f e r e nc e s i n t he t e xt i t s e l f M or e ove r t he s e i s s ue s a r e be yond t he a va i l a bl e s c ope of t hi s t he s i s 9 5 O f m or e va l ue i s t o r e a d E ge r i a s w r i t i ng f or w ha t de t a i l s a r e i nc l ude d, w hi c h r e ve a l bot h t he i nt e nt i on of t he a ut hor a s w e l l a s h e r ow n a s s um pt i ons a bout he r r e a d e r s i nt e r e s t s A c l os e r e a di ng of t he t e xt i n t hi s m a nn e r not onl y di s pl a y s E ge r i a s f ondne s s f or a e s t he t i c qua l i t i e s a nd i nt e r e s t i n e xt r a c a noni c a l s i t e s but a l s o he r c l o s e i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he hol y m e n a nd w om e n s he e nc ount e r e d t hr oughout he r j our ne y. T a ke n t oge t he r t he s e t he m e s e xpos e a n i m por t a nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve : t ha t s he c ons i s t e nt l y e m pha s i z e s t he pe opl e a nd pl a c e s s he vi e w e d he r s e l f w hi l e a ppe a r i ng di s i nt e r e s t e d i n ot he r de t a i l s s uc h a s d e s c r i bi ng t he s pe c i f i c a l l y hol y s i t e s or pr ovi di ng a ny w i s dom s h e l e a r ne d t hr oughout he r c onve r s a t i ons w i t h hol y pe opl e A s a n a ut hor E ge r i a f oc us e s on r e c or di ng t he s i g h t s of he r t r a ve l s a s oppos e d t o c ons t r a i ni ng he r a c c ount t o i nc l udi ng onl y t he s i t e s T ha t i s r a t he r t ha n l i m i t i ng he r na r r a t i ve t o de s c r i pt i ons of B i bl i c a l l oc a t i ons E ge r i a w r i t e s a b out e ve r yt hi ng s he s e e s w he t he r i t be a l a ndm a r k, a pi l gr i m a ge s i t e hol y pe opl e o r a gr i c ul t ur e B e f or e di v i ng i nt o t he t e xt i t s e l f a l ook a t pr e vi ous s c hol a r s pe r s pe c t i ve s on E ge r i a s pos s i bl e m ona s t i c a s s o c i a t i ons a nd s oc i a l s t a t us w i l l pr ovi de a he l pf ul poi nt of 9 5 F or E ge r i a s pos s i bl e na t i ona l i t i e s s e e P a l m e r 199 4, S i va n 1988b, W e be r 1989.

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5 7 or i gi n f or t he s ubs e que nt a na l ys i s I t w i l l be c om e a ppa r e nt t ha t E ge r i a w a s no or di na r y pi l gr i m a nd he r uni que t r a ve l ogue pr e s e nt s a n a ut hor w ho doe s not e a s i l y f i t i nt o a ny pa r t i c ul a r c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on. N e ve r t he l e s s a s t udy o f E ge r i a s c hoi c e s a s a n a ut hor r e ve a l s m uc h a bout w ha t s he de e m e d i m por t a nt f or he r r e a de r s w hi c h i n t ur n a f f e c t s our unde r s t a ndi ng of l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m a ge a s a w hol e M an u s c r i p t H i s t or y O nl y one m a nus c r i pt c opy of E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve s ur vi ve s a n e l e ve nt h c e nt ur y c ode x di s c ove r e d i n 1884 a t t he l i br a r y of t he B r ot he r hood of S t M a r y i n A r e z z o. B ot h t he be gi nni ng a nd e nd of t he m a nus c r i pt a r e m i s s i ng, a l ong w i t h a m a j or l a c una i n t he s ur vi vi ng por t i ons E i t he r E ge r i a he r s e l f o r a l a t e r e di t or or ga ni z e d t he na r r a t i ve a s w e ha ve i t i nt o t w o di s t i nc t s e c t i ons : one r e c ount i ng he r t r a ve l s t hr oughout E gypt a nd t he N e a r E a s t t he ot he r de s c r i bi ng t he C hr i s t i a n l i t ur gi c a l ye a r i n J e r us a l e m T he f r a gm e nt a r y na t ur e of t hi s doc um e nt gr e a t l y l i m i t s our know l e dge of bot h a ut hor a nd he r i nt e nde d a udi e nc e W i t h r e l a t i ve c e r t a i nt y t he a ut hor of t he t e xt w a s f e m a l e t hough t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t l a t e r e di t or s a da pt e d t he na r r a t i ve t o s ui t t he i r ow n ne e ds c a nnot e nt i r e l y be r ul e d out S he w r ot e he r na r r a t i ve t o a gr oup of w om e n t o w hom s he f e l t s om e s or t of c onne c t i on. T he e xt a nt po r t i ons do not i nc l ude a ny of he r s pe c i f i c pe r s ona l de t a i l s s uc h a s a ge na m e c ount r y of o r i gi n, or t he da t e s of he r j our ne ys U s i ng c l ue s w i t hi n t he t e xt a s w e l l a s ot he r m a nus c r i pt s t ha t a l l ude t o i t s c hol a r s ha ve ge ne r a l l y a gr e e d t ha t t he na m e o f t hi s pi l gr i m w a s E ge r i a ( or s om e t hi ng c l os e t o t ha t ) a nd t ha t s he t r a ve l e d t hr oughout P a l e s t i ne a nd t he N e a r E a s t be t w e e n 381 384 C E 9 6 9 6 S e e W i l s on K a s t ne r 1981, 71 72; H unt 2000 34 3 6.

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5 8 T he s ubs e que nt a na l ys i s w i l l ut i l i z e t he G i ngr a s t r a ns l a t i on of E ge r i a t he m os t l i t e r a l t r a ns l a t i on c ur r e nt l y a va i l a bl e i n E ngl i s h. H ow e ve r t he a c c e pt e d pos i t i ons r e ga r di ng a pa r t i c ul a r a s pe c t of E ge r i a s pe r s o na l l i f e ha ve c ha nge d s i nc e G i ngr a s c om pos e d hi s ve r s i on i n 1970. H e e l e c t e d t o t r a n s l a t e af f e c t i o v e s t r a a s Y our C ha r i t y a s he a s s um e d E ge r i a u s e d t hi s phr a s e t o a ddr e s s a s i ngl e p e r s on i n p a r t i c ul a r pr oba bl y he r s upe r i or i n a m ona s t i c c om m uni t y. C ur r e nt s c hol a r s hi p t e nds t o t r a ns l a t e t hi s phr a s e a s be l ove d one s or c he r i s he d one s a nd c onne c t s i t t o E ge r i a s r e a de r s a s a gr oup r a t he r t ha n a s i ngl e pe r s on. 9 7 T hi s l a t t e r t r a ns l a t i o n r e s ul t s f r om t he c ur r e nt l y a c c e pt e d not i on t ha t E ge r i a m or e c l os e l y r e s e m bl e s a l a yp e r s on r a t he r t ha n a m ona s t i c D ur i ng t he t i m e pe r i od of G i ngr a s c om pos i t i on, t he m a j or i t y of s c hol a r s pl a c e d E ge r i a w i t h i n a s t r i c t l y m ona s t i c voc a t i on. G i ng r a s hi m s e l f s uppor t s t hi s opi ni on i n t he i nt r oduc t i on t o h i s t r a ns l a t i on. 9 8 T hi s c ha pt e r w i l l a da pt G i ng r a s t r a n s l a t i on t o r e f l e c t t hi s de ve l opm e nt i n s c hol a r s hi p. D e b at e s o ve r M on a s t i c i s m an d S oc i a l S t at u s D e s pi t e t he s c a nt de t a i l s pr e s e nt w i t hi n he r t e xt i t s e l f s c hol a r s ha ve pr e s e nt e d num e r ous pos s i bi l i t i e s f or E ge r i a s voc a t i on a nd s oc i a l m i l i e u. W hi l e t he que s t i on a bout t he pe r s ona l de t a i l s of E ge r i a s l i f e m i gh t not s e e m pa r t i c ul a r l y r e l e va nt t he s e a r c h f o r a ns w e r s t o t he s e m a t t e r s r e ve a l s t he gr e a t e r i s s ue s a t s t a ke w he n a na l yz i ng f e m a l e l i ve s i n l a t e a nt i qui t y. I n t he f our t h c e nt ur y C E di vi s i ons be t w e e n m ona s t i c a nd s e c ul a r l i f e do not ye t a ppe a r a s c l e a r l y de f i ne d a s t he y w i l l i n t he l a t e r m e di e va l pe r i od E xpl o r i ng t he a va i l a bl e out l e t s f or E ge r i a s a f f i l i a t i ons w i t h t he C hur c h e xpo s e s t he v a r i ous c ont e xt s 9 7 R a ul i ng 2004, 249. 9 8 G i ngr a s 1970, 11.

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5 9 t ha t m a y ha ve i nf l ue nc e d he r t r a ve l s w hi c h i n t ur n w i l l e nr i c h l a t e r e xpl or a t i ons i nt o he r goa l s a s a w r i t e r A r a r e a nd v a l ua bl e l a t e a nt i que s our c e w hi c h r e f e r e nc e s E ge r i a e xi s t s i n a l e t t e r by V a l e r i us a s e ve nt h c e nt ur y S pa ni s h m onk w ho c om m e nd s E ge r i a t o hi s br e t hr e n a s a n e xa m pl e of a t r ul y pi ous C hr i s t i a n. V a l e r i us i d e nt i f i e d E ge r i a a s a nun, pr e s um a bl y be c a us e s h e r e f e r s t o he r a ddr e s s e e s a s s o r o r e s ( L a t i n f or s i s t e r s ) S i va n he s i t a t e s t o a c c e pt V a l e r i us i nt e r pr e t a t i on, a s i t w a s qui t e c o m m on i n t he f our t h c e nt ur y f or bot h C hr i s t i a ns a nd pa ga n s t o c a l l e a c h ot he r s i s t e r r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r a f f i l i a t i on w i t h t he c hur c h. 9 9 T he r e i s no r e a s on t o a s s um e m ona s t i c c onne c t i ons a s s he e a s i l y c oul d ha ve be e n a nobl e w om a n or s om e one m o r e l oos e l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t he C hur c h a s m ona s t i c pr a c t i c e s e xhi bi t e d m uc h m or e v a r i e t y i n t he f our t h c e nt ur y t ha n i n t he l a t e r M i ddl e A ge s 1 0 0 S i va n t a c kl e s t hi s que s t i on by e xa m i ni ng t he na r r a t or s s ubj e c t m a t t e r w hi c h gi ve s pl e nt y of i ns i ght s i nt o he r s o c i a l ba c kgr o u nd. E ge r i a s l a c k of know l e dge a bout pa ga ni s m a nd c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t ur e a l l poi nt t o a s oc i e t y w he r e C hr i s t i a ni t y ha d be e n pr e s e nt f or s om e t i m e w hi c h w oul d e x c l ude G a l i c i a out r i ght T hi s w oul d a l s o e xc l ude a r ur a l e nvi r onm e nt a s t he m a j or i t y of t he F r e n c h c ount r ys i de i n t he f our t h c e nt ur y s t i l l s uppor t e d pa ga ni s m 1 0 1 E ge r i a s w r i t i ng s t yl e a l s o l e a d s S i va n t o m a k e i nf e r e nc e s a bout he r po s s i bl e s oc i a l s t a t u s S he c om pa r e s E ge r i a s pi l gr i m a ge a c c ount w i t h t hos e of know n a r i s t oc r a t i c f e m a l e pi l gr i m s s uc h a s M e l a ni a t h e E l de r a f a m ous R om a n a s c e t i c a nd P a ul a t he pa t r one s s of J e r om e : F r om E ge r i a s pr os e s t yl e w i t h i t s f r e que nt r e pe t i t i ons di s r e ga r d 9 9 S i va n, 1988b, 63. 1 0 0 D i e t z 2004, 126. 1 0 1 S i va n 1988b 65

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6 0 f or r ul e s of c l a s s i c a l gr a m m a r a nd c l um s y s ynt a x i t i s c l e a r t ha t he r e duc a t i on w a s not w ha t a r i s t oc r a t i c R om a n l a di e s r e c e i ve d. 1 0 2 M e l a ni a a nd P a ul a w e r e w e l l know n f or t he i r s ki l l s i n G r e e k a nd L a t i n, a nd m a y ha ve s t udi e d H e br e w a s w e l l E ge r i a s a ppa r e nt i gnor a nc e of a ny l a ngua ge ot he r t ha n L a t i n i n di c a t e s t ha t s he di d not r e c e i ve t he e duc a t i on t ha t a r i s t oc r a t i c w om e n di d N one t he l e s s t he f a c t t ha t s he w a s l i t e r a t e i m pl i e s a c c e s s t o r e l a t i ve a f f l ue nc e T he l e ngt h of E ge r i a s j our ne y w hi c h l a s t e d a t l e a s t t hr e e ye a r s a nd doubt l e s s l y r e qui r e d s ubs t a nt i a l f unds a l s o i ndi c a t e s E ge r i a s e xpos ur e t o a de gr e e o f w e a l t h. T hi s e vi de nc e w oul d a ppe a r t o s uppor t t he c onc l us i on t ha t E ge r i a w a s a nun, a s m a ny s c hol a r s ha ve c onc l ude d. B ut S i va n i s s t i l l not c onvi nc e d, pr i m a r i l y be c a us e of t he t ype of pi l gr i m a ge E ge r i a c om pl e t e d: s he ha d no s e t i t i ne r a r y, but w a nde r e d a b out a s s he pl e a s e d, ne ve r c onc e r ne d a bout how m uc h t i m e s he s pe nt a t one pl a c e E ge r i a a ppe a r s t o be unc onc e r ne d w i t h t he l e ngt h of he r j ou r ne y, a nd w a s i n no hur r y t o go hom e 1 0 3 S i va n be l i e ve s t ha t t he s e c ons i de r a t i ons e xc l ude E ge r i a f r om a m ona s t i c i ns t i t ut i on. I t i s hi ghl y unl i ke l y t ha t a n a bbe s s or a nun w oul d ha ve be e n a bl e t o t r a ve l s o e xt e ns i ve l y f or s o l ong a pe r i od of t i m e T he f un di ng r e qui r e d f o r s uc h a j our ne y w oul d ha ve be e n out s i de t he m e a n s of m os t m ona s t i c e s t a bl i s hm e nt s 1 0 4 C onc e r n s r e ga r di ng t he l e ngt h of E ge r i a s j our ne y w i l l be f ur t he r e l a bor a t e d upon be l ow a s m ul t i pl e s c hol a r s pos i t opi ni ons on t hi s m a t t e r T hi s i s s ue t a ke n w i t h t he a bove c om m e nt s l e a d s S i va n t o a r gue t ha t E ge r i a w a s a l a ype r s on r a t he r t ha n a nun 1 0 2 S i va n 1988b 66 67. 1 0 3 S i va n 1988b 70 1 0 4 S i va n 1988b 70.

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6 1 S i va n f ur t he r e l a bor a t e s on a pos s i bl e s oc i a l gr oupi ng f or E ge r i a s r e a de r s by r e m a r ki ng on t he unus ua l s ubj e c t m a t t e r of t he l e t t e r i n f i r s t de t a i l i ng E ge r i a s t r a ve l s t o hol y pl a c e s a nd t he n de s c r i bi ng t he l i t ur gi c a l c e r e m oni e s i n J e r us a l e m S he poi nt s out s e ve r a l pl a c e s i n t he t e xt w he r e E ge r i a m a ke s unc om m on r e m a r ks f o r a pi l g r i m s uc h a s s ke pt i c i s m t ow a r ds he r gui de s a nd h e r di s c us s i o n of how t he pi l l a r of s a l t ( o r i gi na l l y L ot s w i f e ) w a s no l onge r pr e s e nt a l ong t he D e a d S e a T hi s l a s t r e m a r k i s pa r t i c ul a r l y i m por t a nt t o not e a s bot h J e w i s h a nd C hr i s t i a n t r a di t i ons a l i ke pr om ot e d t he i de a t ha t i t w a s s t i l l vi s i bl e a nd t w o s i xt h c e nt ur y pi l gr i m a ge a c c ount s c l a i m t ha t t he y vi e w e d i t 1 0 5 A pe r s on of m ona s t i c pr of e s s i on w oul d ha ve be e n u nl i ke l y t o be s o a da m a nt on de s c r i bi ng t he l a c k of e vi de nc e f or a s pe c i f i c B i bl i c a l e ve nt a c c or di ng t o S i va n. E ge r i a s de s c r i pt i on of t he l i t ur g i c a l ye a r i n J e r us a l e m pr ovi de s i ns i ght s i nt o he r c i r c l e a s w e l l S he c ons t a nt l y e m pha s i z e s how t he pr a ye r s a nd s c r i pt ur a l r e a di ngs i n J e r us a l e m c or r e s pond t o t he pa r t i c ul a r da y of t he ye a r w hi c h l e a ds t o t he c onc l us i on t ha t a s i m i l a r pr a c t i c e w a s not obs e r ve d i n he r ho m e t ow n. E ge r i a goe s t o g r e a t l e ngt hs t o de s c r i be t he pr oc e s s of ba pt i s m t o he r r e a de r s i nf or m i ng t he m of r i t ua l s a nd t r a i ni ng t ha t oc c u r be f or e ba pt i s m w hi c h a l s o gi ve t he i m pr e s s i on t ha t s uc h pr a c t i c e s w e r e unf a m i l i a r t o E ge r i a s f r i e nds ba c k hom e 1 0 6 A t t he s a m e t i m e E ge r i a a nd he r r e a de r s c l e a r l y f e l t c om f or t a bl e r e a di ng t he B i bl e t he m s e l ve s S i va n hypot he s i z e s t ha t E ge r i a w a s pa r t of a c i r c l e of w om e n w ho r e a d s c r i pt ur e t oge t he r a s a g r oup, a nd s ugge s t s t ha t t hi s gr oup m a y ha ve s uppor t e d E ge r i a m one t a r i l y on he r pi l gr i m a g e 1 0 7 1 0 5 S i va n 1988a 528 9 1 0 6 S i va n 1988a 530. 1 0 7 S i va n 1988a 531.

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6 2 B a s e d on t he c r ude ne s s of h e r w r i t i ng s t yl e c o upl e d w i t h t he l a c k of m i r a c l e s t or i e s or c onve r s a t i ons w i t h m onks S i va n a r gue s a ga i ns t E ge r i a s m ona s t i c a f f i l i a t i on. E ge r i a s a c c ount c ont a i n s ne i t he r a di s c us s i on of m ona s t i c l i f e i n t he E a s t nor a s i ngl e m i r a c l e s t or y, w hi c h l e a ds S i va n t o c onc l ude t h a t s he w a s not w r i t i ng f or a m ona s t i c a udi e nc e 1 0 8 B a s e d on he r unus u a l e duc a t i on S i va n a r gue s t ha t E ge r i a m us t ha ve be l onge d t o a non a r i s t oc r a t i c c i r c l e a nd r e f e r s t o J e r om e ( a c ont e m por a r y of E ge r i a s ) f o r a n e xa m pl e of pi ous non m ona s t i c f e m a l e l i ve s J e r om e w r ot e hi s L e t t e r 117 t o a m ot he r a nd da ught e r w ho l i ve d i n G a ul a nd pur s ue d a r e l i gi ous l i f e w i t hi n t he i r ow n hous e hol ds w i t h a pe r s ona l pr i e s t t o gui de t he m 1 0 9 I n a di f f e r e nt l e t t e r L e t t e r 123 J e r om e w r i t e s t o a w e a l t hy nobl e w om a n a nd t r i e s t o pe r s ua de he r t o r e m a i n a w i dow W ha t i s pa r t i c ul a r l y f a s c i na t i ng a bou t t hi s l e t t e r i s t ha t t he w om a n s e e m s t o l i ve w i t h o t he r w i dow s un m a r r i e d w om e n, a nd vi r gi ns 1 1 0 E ge r i a c oul d ha ve be l on ge d t o a s i m i l a r c om m uni t y. T he c onne c t i on be t w e e n E ge r i a s c or r e s ponde nt s a nd t he t ype s of c om m uni t i e s J e r om e r e f e r s t o m a y be ha r d t o p r ove c onc r e t e l y but ne ve r t he l e s s t he i de a r e m a i ns a pl a us i bl e a l t e r na t i ve t o m ona s t i c i s m I f E ge r i a di d i nde e d be l ong t o a c om m uni t y s i m i l a r t o t he w om e n J e r om e kne w t he n he r na r r a t i ve w oul d p r ovi de one of t he e a r l i e s t e xa m pl e s of i nde pe nde nt f e m a l e l i f e M a r i be l D i e t z c ont r i but e s he r ow n i nt e r pr e t a t i on r e ga r di ng one por t i on of E ge r i a s l e t t e r t ha t a dds f ur t he r i ns i ght i nt o E ge r i a s voc a t i ona l que s t i on. I n t he m i d s t of he r pi l gr i m a ge E ge r i a r e c e i ve s c opi e s of a f a m ous t e xt f r om a bi s hop. E ge r i a w r i t e s : 1 0 8 S i va n 1988a 531. 1 0 9 S i va n 1988a 534. 1 1 0 S i va n 1988a 534.

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6 3 A nd t hi s w a s e s pe c i a l l y gr a t i f yi ng t o m e t ha t I r e c e i ve d f r om t he s a i nt l y bi s hop c opi e s of t he l e t t e r s w hi c h h e ha d r e a d t o u s bot h A bga r s l e t t e r t o t he L or d a nd t he L or d s l e t t e r t o A bga r A l t hough I ha d c opi e s of t he m a t hom e I w a s c l e a r l y ve r y p l e a s e d t o a c c e pt t he m f r om hi m i n c a s e t he c opy w hi c h ha d r e a c he d us a t hom e ha ppe ne d t o be i nc om pl e t e ; f or t he c opy w hi c h I r e c e i ve d w a s c e r t a i nl y m o r e e xt e ns i ve 1 1 1 T he f a c t t ha t E ge r i a ha d c opi e s of t he m a t h om e ne c e s s i t a t e s a c e r t a i n de gr e e of a f f l ue nc e a nd i t i s c l e a r t ha t E ge r i a ha d a c c e s s t o a l i br a r y of s om e s or t W ha t i s e ve n m or e e xc i t i ng a bout t hi s pa s s a ge i s E ge r i a s c hoi c e of w or ds : s he s a ys I ha d c opi e s of t he m a t hom e D oe s t hi s m e a n E ge r i a he r s e l f o w ne d t he m ? D i e t z i nc l ude s t he or i gi na l L a t i n i n t he f oot not e f o r t hi s pa s s a ge : E t l i c e t i n pa t r i a e x e m p l ar i a i ps a r u m habe r e m T he ve r b habe o he r e c l e a r l y i ndi c a t e s a s i ngul a r s ub j e c t w hi c h s houl d be t r a ns l a t e d a s I ha ve D i e t z c or r e c t l y t r a ns l a t e d t h e phr a s e but i n he r a na l ys i s s he s e e m s t o i g nor e t h e m e a ni ng. I f E ge r i a s c om m uni t y pos s e s s e d t he l e t t e r s s he m i ght ha ve us e d a pl ur a l s ubj e c t t o d e s c r i be t hi s ow ne r s hi p. H e r c hoi c e t o s t a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t ha t s he ha d c opi e s a t hom e l e a ve s t he i s s ue s a m bi guous f or s he m a y ha ve us e d t hi s c ons t r uc t i o n s i m pl y a s pa r t of he r l i t e r a r y s t yl e a nd not a s a r e f l e c t i on o f r e a l i t y. I n l i ght of t he s e c l a i m s f or o r a ga i ns t m ona s t i c i s m t he pr obl e m a r i s e s t ha t de s c r i bi ng a ny t ype of m ona s t i c w om e n be f or e t he a dve nt of c odi f i e d r ul e s f or nuns pr e s e nt s num e r ous s e m a nt i c pr obl e m s s uc h a s us i ng t he w or d nun o r m ona s t i c M ona s t i c i s m t e nd s t o i m pl y a l a t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he t e r m w he n r ul e s r e ga r di ng t he 1 1 1 E ge r i a 1970, 81.

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6 4 l i ve s of nuns a nd m onks w e r e f a r s t r i c t e r t ha n t he y w e r e dur i ng t he be gi nni ng s t a ge s T he s e l a t e r c om m uni t i e s w e r e of t e n pa r t i a l l y ( or f ul l y) c ut of f f r om t he r e s t of s oc i e t y, i n a s pe c i f i c s e t of bui l di ngs us e d e xc l us i ve l y f or r e l i gi ous pur pos e s R udge a r gue s t ha t e a r l y m e di e va l w om e n di d not l i ve i n a n e nvi r onm e nt t ha t w oul d f i t t he a bove de s c r i pt i on. 1 1 2 I f i nde e d E ge r i a w e r e a nun t he n s he w oul d be a pe r f e c t e xa m pl e of t he t ype of f l ui d i t y of e nvi r onm e nt e xpe r i e nc e d by de di c a t e d r e l i gi ous f e m a l e s ( a s R udge pr e f e r s t o r e f e r t o t he m ) 1 1 3 S he c l e a r l y ha d f r e e dom of m ove m e nt a nd t he e xt e nt of he r t r a ve l s i m pl i e s s ub s t a nt i a l f i na nc i a l c onne c t i on s R e ga r dl e s s of he r voc a t i ona l a f f i l i a t i on, s he s t i l l f i t s i nt o t hi s f r a m e o f l oos e l y c ons t r uc t e d f e m a l e r e l i gi ous gr oups E ge r i a s pr i m a r y m ot i va t i on f or t r a ve l w a s r e l i gi on, a nd he r f r i e nds a nd be ne f a c t or ba c k hom e s ha r e d he r e nt hus i a s m f or l e a r ni ng a bout t he l a nd of t he B i bl e E ge r i a w a s obvi ous l y pa r t of s om e s or t o f C hr i s t i a n o r ga ni z a t i on, a nd c oul d b e c a l l e d a de di c a t e d r e l i gi ous f e m a l e O t he r s c hol a r s ha ve r e a c he d di f f e r e nt c onc l us i on s a bout E ge r i a s voc a t i on. H e r na r r a t i ve i nc l ude s a f a s c i na t i ng e nc ount e r w i t h M a r t ha na i n J e r us a l e m a de a c one s s a t t he s hr i ne of S t T he kl a : A t t he hol y c hur c h ( of S t T he kl a ) t he r e i s not hi n g but c ount l e s s m ona s t i c c e l l s f or m e n a nd w om e n. I m e t t he r e a ve r y de a r f r i e nd of m i ne a nd a pe r s on w hos e w a y of l i f e e ve r yone i n t he E a s t be a r s w i t ne s s t he hol y de a c one s s M a r t ha na w hom I ha d m e t i n J e r us a l e m w he r e s he ha d c om e t o pr a y. S he gove r ns t he s e m ona s t i c c e l l s of a p u t a c t i t a e or vi r gi ns W oul d 1 1 2 R udge 2006 10 11 1 1 3 R udge 2006, 10.

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6 5 I e ve r be a bl e t o de s c r i be how gr e a t w a s h e r j oy a nd m i ne w he n s he s a w m e ? 1 1 4 A ndr e w P a l m e r c l a i m s t ha t E ge r i a s m e e t i n g w i t h M a r t ha na di s pr ove s S i va n s c onj e c t ur e t ha t t r a ve l i ng f o r m ona s t i c l e a de r s w a s l i m i t e d, a s M a r t ha na l e f t he r pos t a t T he kl a s s hr i ne i n I s a ur i a t o p r a y i n J e r us a l e m F o r P a l m e r M a r t ha na s a bi l i t y t o t r a ve l t o J e r us a l e m pr ove s S i va n s a r gum e nt a bout m ona s t i c t r a ve l w r ong. H e f ur t he r m or e c l a i m s t ha t E ge r i a s i nc l us i on of M a r t ha na s na m e a nd n o one e l s e s s uppor t s t he a r gum e nt t ha t E ge r i a he r s e l f ha i l e d f r om a m ona s t i c ba c kgr ound. 1 1 5 H ow e ve r E ge r i a s s t a t e m e nt s r e ga r di ng he r e nc o unt e r w i t h M a r t ha na do not h i ng t o s uppor t P a l m e r s a r gum e nt M a r t ha na t r a ve l e d t o J e r us a l e m f r om A s i a M i nor a c ons i de r a bl y s m a l l e r di s t a nc e t h a n f r om E ge r i a s w e s t e r n E ur ope a n hom e l a nd. M or e ove r M a r t ha na r e t ur ne d t o h e r pos t a t t he s hr i ne be f or e E ge r i a w e nt t he r e a s E ge r i a w r i t e s t ha t s he m e t M a r t ha na i n J e r us a l e m pr i or t o s e e i ng he r a ga i n a t T he kl a s s hr i ne T hi s m e a n s t ha t M a r t ha na s t a ye d i n J e r us a l e m f or a c ons i de r a bl y s hor t e r pe r i od t ha n E ge r i a a s t he l a t t e r t our e d P a l e s t i ne a nd t he s ur r oundi ng r e gi on s f or ove r t hr e e ye a r s I f a nyt hi ng, t he c ont r a s t pr ovi de d by t he i ns t a nc e of M a r t ha na i n E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve s uppor t s S i va n s a r gum e nt r a t he r t ha n P a l m e r s T he pa uc i t y of a va i l a bl e e vi de nc e r e ga r di ng M a r t ha na s t r a ve l s l i m i t s a ny de f i ni t i ve c onc l us i on. P a l m e r s hypot he s i s of a l o ng pi l gr i m a ge c oul d i nde e d be t r ue but w e ha ve no i ndi c a t i on of t hi s i n E ge r i a s t e xt I f M a r t ha na ha d be e n m a ki ng a pi l gr i m a ge s i m i l a r t o t ha t of E ge r i a one a nt i c i pa t e s E ge r i a w oul d m e nt i on t hi s i n t he t e xt e s pe c i a l l y 1 1 4 E ge r i a 1970, 87. 1 1 5 P a l m e r 1994 41 42.

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6 6 s i nc e M a r t ha na s e e m s t o be s u c h a n i m por t a nt pe r s on t o he r I ns t e a d, E ge r i a s a ys onl y t ha t s he c a m e t o J e r us a l e m t o pr a y, a nd ha d r e t ur ne d t o t he S hr i ne of S t T he kl a be f or e E ge r i a a r r i ve d t he r e P a l m e r w r i t e s : I t i s obvi ous t ha t E ge r i a i de nt i f i e s w i t h M a r t ha na m or e t ha n w i t h a nyone e l s e s he m e t on he r j our ne ys P e r ha ps t he y ha d m or e i n c om m on t ha n t he i r f e m a l e s e x, t he i r s e xua l a bs t i ne nc e a nd t he i r de s i r e t o pr a y i n t he H ol y P l a c e s 1 1 6 C l e a r l y E ge r i a f e l t a s pe c i a l f r i e nds hi p f or M a r t ha na bu t a ga i n w e c a nnot a s s um e t ha t M a r t ha na i s t he m os t i m por t a nt pl a ye r f or E ge r i a I t a ppe a r s s o i n t he s ur vi vi ng doc um e nt s but t he ve r y f r a gm e nt e d na t ur e of t he t e xt l i m i t s w ha t w e c a n s a y a bout t hi s f r i e nds hi p. T he s ha r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s P a l m e r l i s t s m a ke hi s unw a r r a nt e d a s s um pt i on e ve n m or e vi vi d, f or c l e a r l y t he y ha d a l ot i n c om m on a l r e a dy. W e ne e d not a s s um e t ha t t he y ha d t o s ha r e a nyt hi ng e l s e f or E ge r i a t o f e e l a s e ns e of c a m a r a de r i e w i t h t he de a c one s s T he que s t i on s t i l l r e m a i ns a s t o w hy M a r t ha na i s t he onl y pe r s on i n E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve t o be c a l l e d by na m e C l e a r l y s he w a s a de a r f r i e nd t o E ge r i a but t hi s a l one doe s not m e a n t ha t E ge r i a he r s e l f w a s a de a c one s s or a m e m b e r of t he m ona s t i c c om m uni t y. R e gr e t t a b l y no r e c or d o f M a r t ha n a s ur vi ve s e xc e pt i n E ge r i a s di a r y. P e r ha ps s he di d t r a ve l m or e e xt e ns i ve l y. B ut t he f a c t t ha t E ge r i a s a ys t ha t s he c a m e t o J e r us a l e m t o pr a y, c om bi ne d w i t h t he f a c t t ha t s he w a s a bl e t o w e l c om e E ge r i a t o T he kl a s s hr i ne m a ke s i t ha r d t o be l i e ve t ha t M a r t ha na s t r a ve l s w e r e e ve n c l os e t o m a t c hi ng t he gr ound c ove r e d by E ge r i a A l t hough E ge r i a ne ve r e xpl i c i t l y r e f e r s t o he r ow n s oc i a l m i l i e u, s he doe s s e e m pa r t i c ul a r l y i nt e r e s t e d i n M a r t ha na e ve n t hou gh s he m e e t s m a ny ot he r m ona s t i c 1 1 6 P a l m e r 1994 42

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6 7 i ndi vi dua l s t hr oughout he r t r a ve l s T he l e ngt h of E ge r i a s ow n j our ne y r e m a i ns a m ys t e r y. D i e t z c l a i m s t ha t E ge r i a e ve nt ua l l y r e t ur ns hom e ; 1 1 7 t hi s i s qui t e a c l a i m c ons i de r i ng t he na r r a t i ve e nds w i t h E ge r i a i n C ons t a nt i nopl e pr e pa r i ng f or a not he r e xc ur s i on. S he w r i t e s : A s I s e nd t hi s l e t t e r t o you, r e ve r e nd l a di e s i t i s a l r e a dy m y i nt e nt i on t o go, i n t he na m e of C hr i s t our G od, t o A s i a t ha t i s t o E phe s us t o pr a y a t t he s hr i ne of t he hol y a nd bl e s s e d a po s t l e J ohn. I f a f t e r t hi s I a m s t i l l l i vi ng, I w i l l e i t he r t e l l you, c he r i s he d one s i n pe r s on i f G od w i l l de i gn t o gr a nt t ha t a bout w ha t e ve r ot he r pl a c e s I s h a l l ha ve c om e t o know or c e r t a i nl y I w i l l w r i t e you of i t i n l e t t e r s i f t he r e i s a nyt hi ng e l s e I ha v e i n m i nd. Y ou, m y s i s t e r s m y l i ght ki nd l y r e m e m b e r m e w he t he r I l i ve or di e 1 1 8 T hi s s t r i ki ngl y a m bi va l e nt c om m e nt r e ga r di ng he r r e t ur n hom e w e a ke ns E ge r i a s c onne c t i on t o he r c om m uni t y. S he a da m a nt l y s t a t e s t ha t he r t r a ve l s a r e not ove r a nd pr om i s e s t o w r i t e m or e l e t t e r s i f s h e f a i l s t o t e l l he r s t or i e s i n pe r s on. T he r e i s n o e vi de nc e w ha t s oe ve r t o s uppor t D i e t z s c l a i m t ha t E ge r i a r e t u r ne d hom e T hi s s pont a ne ous i t i ne r a r y l e a ds bot h M a r a va l a nd S i va n t o t hi nk E ge r i a ha d a c c e s s t o r e l a t i ve l y a f f l ue nt f undi ng, w a s unc on c e r ne d w i t h t i m e c on s t r a i nt s a nd t r a ve l e d m or e c om f or t a bl y t ha n a ve r a ge P a l m e r di s a gr e e s ; he c l a i m s t ha t E ge r i a w a s c onc e r ne d a bout t i m e a s s he c a r e f ul l y e xpl a i ns he r de t our s a nd a c know l e dge d t ha t s he m i ght ne ve r 1 1 7 D i e t z 2005, 51. 1 1 8 E ge r i a 1970, 88 89.

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6 8 r e t ur n. H e a l s o c l a i m s t ha t E ge r i a di d not ne e d a l ot of t r a ve l i n g c om pa ni ons be c a us e s he of t e n hi r e d l oc a l e s c or t s a nd t h a t s h e s t a ye d w i t h ot he r nuns or r e l i gi ous l y e m pl oye d. P a l m e r i ns i s t s t ha t s he w a s f a m i l i a r w i t h a s c e t i c i s m a nd c oul d not ha ve be e n a nobl e w om a n be c a us e of he r a m a z e m e nt a t t he w e a l t h of t he c hur c h e s i n J e r us a l e m T he s e poi nt s a l l ne e d f u r t he r c l a r i f i c a t i on. 1 1 9 T he pr e vi ous di s c u s s i on r e g a r di ng t he e nd of E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve a m pl y di s pr ove s P a l m e r 's a s s um pt i on t ha t s he ne ve r pl a nne d on n ot r e t ur ni ng H i s c l a i m s a bout E ge r i a 's t r a ve l i ng t a s t e s a nd num b e r of c om pa ni ons c a nnot be i nf e r r e d f r om t he t e xt ; a l t hough s h e c l e a r l y doe s us e l oc a l gui de s t ha t doe s not m e a n s he s e nt a w a y h e r us ua l r e t i nue W e ha ve no w a y of know i ng a bout t he de t a i l s of he r c a r a va n be c a us e s he di d not i nc l ude t he m M ona s t i c c e nt e r s of t e n a l l ow e d pi l gr i m s t o boa r d w i t h t he m a s t hi s w a s a m a j or s our c e of r e ve nue T he f a c t t ha t s he s e e m s unf a m i l i a r w i t h a s c e t i c i s m f ur t he r di s c r e di t s P a l m e r e s pe c i a l l y gi ve n hi s c l a i m t ha t E gypt i a n s t yl e m ona s t i c i s m e xi s t e d i n F r a nc e dur i ng t hi s t i m e W he n de s c r i bi ng a c hur c h a t t h e f oot of M ount N e bo, E ge r i a w r i t e s M a ny m onk s dw e l l t he r e ve r y hol y m e n i nde e d, w ho a r e c a l l e d a s c e t i c s h e r e 1 2 0 I f E ge r i a ha i l e d f r om a m ona s t i c hous e t ha t pe o pl e f a m i l i a r w i t h E gypt f ounde d s he pr oba bl y w oul d ha ve e nc oun t e r e d t ha t c onc e pt be f or e H e r c om m e nt s a bout t he w e a l t hy c hur c he s i n J e r us a l e m m a y be a r he t or i c a l de vi c e us e d t o e m pha s i z e t he i m pr e s s i ve ne s s of J e r us a l e m f or he r r e a de r s O r m a ybe s he w a s ge nui ne l y i m pr e s s e d. E i t he r w a y, j us t be c a us e s h e l i ke d t he ge m s a t t he c hur c h doe s not m e a n s he ne ve r e xpe r i e nc e d a f f l ue nc e he r s e l f T he l e ngt h of he r t r i p a c t ua l l y p r ovi de s e vi de nc e t o t he c ont r a r y P a l m e r i nc or r e c t l y a s s um e s t h a t t he e xpe n s e w oul d not h a ve be e n s i gni f i c a nt ; t r a ve l i ng f or t ha t 1 1 9 P a l m e r 1994 42 45. 1 2 0 E ge r i a 1970, 67.

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6 9 l ong a t i m e w i t hout h a vi ng a ny s our c e of r e ve nue w oul d ha ve be e n e xt r e m e l y e xpe ns i ve a s i t w oul d be t oda y. H e w r i t e s N uns w e r e doubt l e s s e xe m pt f r om t ol l s a nd t a xe s i n t he C hr i s t i a n E m pi r e ye t he p r ovi de s no c i t a t i on f o r t hi s c l a i m P a l m e r be l i e ve s t ha t E ge r i a de f i ni t e l y c a m e f r o m a m ona s t i c ba c kgr ound. H e di s a gr e e s w i t h S i va n s a r gum e nt t ha t ha d E ge r i a be e n a nun, s he w oul d ha ve i nc l ude d a t l e a s t a f e w m i r a c l e s t or i e s f r om t he m ona s t i c s e t t l e m e nt s s he vi s i t e d. P a l m e r c l a i m s s he c oul d ha ve s a ve d s uc h s t or i e s f or a l a t e r l e t t e r w hi c h i s e nt i r e l y pl a us i bl e H ow e ve r E ge r i a m a y not ha ve b e e n t he s ol e e di t or of he r c om pos i t i ons A l a t e r c ont r i but or c oul d ha ve e di t e d E ge r i a s or i gi na l c om pos i t i on i nt o n e a t s e c t i ons de a l i ng w i t h s pe c i f i c t opi c s T he f a c t t ha t onl y one m a nus c r i pt s ur vi ve s l i m i t s t he pos s i bi l i t i e s f or a ns w e r i ng t hi s que s t i on. P a l m e r f ur t he r c ha l l e nge s S i va n s c l a i m a bout a pos s i bl y a f f l ue nt s e c ul a r s oc i a l ba c kgr ound f or E ge r i a by e xpl i c a t i ng one of E ge r i a s ow n c om m e nt s : I f s he ha d s oc i a l s t a t us t o m a i nt a i n, w e m i ght h a ve e xpe c t e d he r t o be c a r r i e d i n a l i t t e r i ns t e a d of r i di ng a donke y a nd di s m ount i ng on di f f i c ul t t e r r a i n. S he he r s e l f r e m a r ks t ha t 'e ve n l a di e s a nd e ve n l or ds go on f oot i n t he P a l m S unda y pr oc e s s i on a t J e r us a l e m B ut i n s pe a ki ng of h e r s e l f s h e ne ve r m a ke s i t a ppe a r t ha t w a l ki ng w a s a c onc e s s i on t o t he hol i ne s s of t he oc c a s i on or t he pl a c e ; i t w a s s i m pl y a p r a c t i c a l ne c e s s i t y. 1 2 1 E ge r i a doe s not a ppe a r t o c ons i de r he r s e l f a nob l e w om a n, but t ha t s t i l l l e a ve s S i va n s s ugge s t i on of a non a r i s t oc r a t i c l oos e l y m ona s t i c voc a t i on a pos s i bi l i t y. 1 2 1 P a l m e r 1994 44 45.

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7 0 S c hol a r s f i nd s o m uc h di f f i c ul t y i n di s c ove r i ng de t a i l s a bout E ge r i a s pe r s ona l l i f e pr e c i s e l y be c a u s e t he y do not s ur vi ve i n he r na r r a t i ve W he t he r E ge r i a he r s e l f e di t e d he r t e xt or a l a t e r e di t or w ha t r e m a i ns c l e a r i s t ha t t he goa l of t he na r r a t i ve w a s t o i nf or m r e a de r s a bout P a l e s t i ne a nd t he s ur r oundi ng r e gi ons of i nt e r e s t W he n pe r s ona l de t a i l s a bout E ge r i a do a ppe a r t he y ove r w he l m i ng de a l w i t h he r r e a c t i ons t o t he pl a c e s s he vi s i t s w hi c h r e l a t e di r e c t l y t o he r ow n pe r s ona l p i e t y. E ge r i a pr e s e nt s he r s e l f ( or a l a t e r e di t or pr e s e nt s h e r ) a s a c om pl e t e l y f a i t hf ul C hr i s t i a n, ne ve r f a l t e r i ng i n r e s ol ve or w i l l S he pr e s e nt s a l l of he r e m ot i ons a s e nt i r e l y a pp r opr i a t e a nd l e a ve s no doubt t ha t s he r e m a i ne d p i ous t hr oughout he r j ou r ne y. I f a not h e r e di t or c r e a t e d t he t e xt t ha t s ur vi ve s t oda y, w e c a n c onc l ude t h a t t ha t pe r s on s ha r e d t h i s opi ni on a bout t he ne c e s s i t y t o f oc us on de t a i l s r e l a t i ng t o t he e f f e c t o f pi e t y on pi l gr i m a ge T he f o l l ow i ng a na l ys i s of E ge r i a s t e xt w i l l e xpa nd upon t he s e c onc e r ns a nd i l l um i na t e E ge r i a s goa l s a s s he r e c ount e d he r j our ne y f or he r r e a de r s E ge r i a s C h o i c e s a s a W r i t e r : A e s t h e t i c s t h e S i t e s an d t h e M on k s A s di s c u s s e d a bove s om e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of E ge r i a s w r i t i ng of t e n c r i t i c i z e d he r f or he r l a c k of de s c r i pt i ons W hi l e he r na r r a t i ve i n de e d l a c ks a n e m pha s i s on de s c r i pt i on, t hi s doe s not s e e m t o b e E ge r i a s m a i n pur pos e i n doc um e nt i ng he r j our ne y. S he i ns t e a d pr ovi de s a l i t e r a r y m a p of t he B i bl e doc um e nt i n g t he s i t e s s he vi s i t e d f or he r r e a de r s E ge r i a i nc l ude s s om e de s c r i pt i ons but t he s e c om m e nt s of t e n de a l w i t h s i t e s not s pe c i f i c a l l y de e m e d hol y by E ge r i a but r a t he r de a l w i t h phys i c a l be a ut y a nd a e s t he t i c s T he s e i ns t a nc e s r e ve a l m or e a bout t he pe r s ona l i n t e r e s t s of E ge r i a S he e nj oys be a ut i f ul

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7 1 t hi ngs a nd a l t hough t he m a i n pur pos e of he r na r r a t i ve r e vol ve d a r ound hol y pl a c e s s he l e t s a f e w c om m e nt s r e ga r di ng a e s t he t i c qua l i t i e s s l i p t hr ough O ne of t he l onge s t a nd m os t de s c r i pt i ve pa s s a ge s c e nt e r s on a r e gi on not s pe c i f i c a l l y c onne c t e d t o a hol y s i t e t hough i t s B i bl i c a l a s s o c i a t i ons a r e obvi ou s : G e s s e n. E ge r i a a ppa r e nt l y di d not pe r f or m he r us ua l r i t ua l s he r e but s he i nc l ude s a l e ngt hy de s c r i pt i on of t he a gr i c ul t ur a l pur s ui t s i n t he a r e a a s w e l l a s he r ow n opi ni on of t he pl a c e : W e s e t out f r om t he r e a nd t r a ve l e d t hr ough t he w hol e l a nd of G e s s e n, c ons t a nt l y pa s s i ng a m ong t he vi ne ya r ds w hi c h pr oduc e w i ne a nd ot he r f i e l ds w hi c h pr oduc e ba l s a m pa s t or c ha r ds he a vi l y c ul t i va t e d f i e l ds a nd num e r ous ga r de ns a l ong t he ba nks of t he r i ve r N i l e pa s t m a ny e s t a t e s w hi c h w e r e f or m e r l y pr ope r t i e s of t he c hi l dr e n of I s r a e l W ha t c a n I a dd? I do not t hi nk I ha ve e ve r s e e n a m or e be a ut i f ul l a nd t ha n t hi s l a nd of G e s s e n. 1 2 2 E ge r i a ne ve r i nc l ude s s o m uc h de s c r i pt i on w he n s he r e c or ds s pe c i f i c a l l y hol y s i t e s on he r pi l gr i m a ge T he phys i c a l be a ut y of t he pl a c e m a de a n i m pr e s s i on upon he r not i t s B i bl i c a l a s s oc i a t i ons T hi s j uxt a pos i t i on of s t a r k de s c r i pt i on f or hol y s i t e s on t he on e ha nd, a nd m o r e e l a bor a t e i n f or m a t i on f or non ho l y s i t e s on t he ot he r w i l l a ppe a r a ga i n T he l a c k of pr i or i t y E ge r i a p r e s e nt s be t w e e n B i bl i c a l a nd non B i bl i c a l s i t e s doe s not m e a n t ha t s he di d not pos s e s s a s ol i d kno w l e d ge of t he B i bl e O n t he c ont r a r y, E ge r i a 1 2 2 E ge r i a 1970, 64.

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7 2 pr e s e nt s he r s e l f a s w e l l ve r s e d i n s c r i pt ur e : w hi l e vi s i t i ng t he f o r t r e s s of M e l c hi s e de c h, s he r e c a l l s a ppa r e nt l y f r om m e m or y a not he r s i t e t ha t t he B i bl e r e c or de d a s be i ng l oc a t e d ne a r by. S he a s ks s om e one a bout i t a nd a f t e r he r a s s um pt i on i s a c know l e dge d a s c or r e c t e m ba r ks t o t ha t l oc a t i on. A t t hi s s i t e t he pl a c e w h e r e J ohn t he B a pt i s t unde r w e nt hi s ow n ba pt i s m E ge r i a i nc l ude s a s hor t de s c r i pt i on of t he l a nds c a pe : W e w e nt a l l t he w a y on f oot a c r os s a v e r y pl e a s a nt va l l e y w i t h hi m un t i l w e c a m e t o a ve r y be a ut i f ul f r ui t or c ha r d, i n t he c e nt e r of w hi c h he s how e d us a s pr i ng of t he ve r y pur e s t a nd be s t w a t e r w hi c h a t onc e gi ve s r i s e t o a r e a l s t r e a m 1 2 3 P e r ha ps a f t e r s uc h a l ong j our ne y, E ge r i a be c a m e e s p e c i a l l y i m pr e s s e d w i t h s t r ong ve ge t a t i on a nd f r e s h w a t e r T hi s w oul d e xpl a i n t he e m pha s i s on p a r t i c ul a r l y l us h e nvi r onm e nt s a nd t he l a c k of de s c r i pt i on r e ga r di ng de s e r t l oc a l e s A s i de f r om t he be a ut y of c e r t a i n l a nd s c a pe s E ge r i a a l s o e nj oys m a n m a de be a ut y, s uc h a s s t a t ue s a nd a r c hi t e c t ur e S he i nc l ude s m a ny a e s t he t i c c om m e nt s w hi l e w r i t i ng a bo ut he r t r i p t o K i ng A bga r s pa l a c e O n t he s t a t ue s of K i ng A bga r a nd h i s s on, s he c l a i m e d t ha t ba s e d on a ppe a r a nc e K i ng A bga r w a s ve r y w i s e a nd honor a bl e a nd hi s s on, ha d s om e t hi ng pl e a s i ng i n h i s c ount e na nc e 1 2 4 I n de s c r i bi ng A bga r s f a m i l y t om b, s he w r i t e s [ i t ] w a s ve r y be a ut i f ul but bui l t i n a n ol de r s t yl e 1 2 5 A ppa r e nt l y t he ol d f a s hi one d a r c hi t e c t ur e of t he t om b di m i ni s he d E ge r i a s opi ni on o f i t I n s ha r p c ont r a s t t o t hi s w he n E ge r i a r e c or ds he r t r i p t o t he c hur c h of E de s s a s he w r i t e s [ i t i s ] l a r ge a nd ve r y be a ut i f ul a nd of r e c e nt de s i gn. 1 2 6 S t yl e s of a r c hi t e c t ur e a r e not e w or t hy f or E ge r i a w i t h ne w e r s t yl e s be i ng t he obvi ous f a vor i t e E a r l i e r i n he r 1 2 3 E ge r i a 1970, 72 73. 1 2 4 E ge r i a 1970, 78. 1 2 5 E ge r i a 1970, 80. 1 2 6 E ge r i a 1970, 77.

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7 3 j our ne y, s he w r i t e s t ha t s he ha d t o m a ke a s t op a t H i e r opol i s b e c a us e i t w a s ve r y r i c h a nd be a ut i f ul 1 2 7 H i e r opol i s ha d no pa r t i c ul a r B i bl i c a l a f f i l i a t i on, but E ge r i a w a nt e d t o s t op t he r e s i m pl y be c a u s e i t l ooke d ni c e L a t e r on i n t he na r r a t i ve s he c om m e nt s on t he c hur c h de c or a t i ons dur i ng P e nt e c os t w hi c h a m a z e d he r : I t w oul d be s upe r f l uous t o de s c r i be how t he c hur c he s a r e de c or a t e d on t ha t da y. Y ou s e e not hi ng t he r e but gol d a nd ge m s a nd s i l k A nd w ha t c a n I s a y a bout t he de c or a t i on of t hi s bui l di ng w hi c h C ons t a nt i ne w i t h hi s m ot he r on ha nd, ha d e m be l l i s he d w i t h a s m uc h go l d, m os a i c s a nd m a r bl e a s t he r e s our c e s of hi s e m pi r e pe r m i t t e d a nd not onl y t he m a j or c hur c h, but t he A na s t a s i s a s w e l l a nd t he C r os s a nd t he ot he r hol y pl a c e s i n J e r us a l e m ? L e t us r e t ur n t o t he s ubj e c t how e ve r 1 2 8 E ge r i a s de s c r i pt i ve c om m e nt s on a e s t he t i c qua l i t i e s a r e l i m i t e d t o t he s e s hor t pa s s a ge s H e r pur pos e i n w r i t i ng di d not i nc l ude s uc h de s c r i pt i ons a s s he e nds t he f i na l e xa m pl e by di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng t o he r c om m e nt s a s t a nge nt i a l t o he r na r r a t i ve N e ve r t he l e s s t he s e e xa m pl e s pr ovi de a w i ndow i nt o E ge r i a s pe r s ona l t a s t e s a nd a l s o f ur t he r e nr i c he s our unde r s t a ndi ng of he r pur pos e a s a w r i t e r a nd pi l gr i m A f t e r c ons i de r i ng t he a bove pa s s a ge s E ge r i a s l a c k of e m pha s i s on de s c r i pt i ons of a c t ua l hol y p l a c e s a ppe a r s e ve n s t a r ke r W hi l e t r a ve l i ng w i t hi n t he v a l l e y be l ow M ount S i na i E ge r i a a ppa r e nt l y r uns out of e ne r gy t o r e c o r d e a c h i ndi vi dua l l oc a t i on, I t w a s t oo m uc h, how e ve r t o w r i t e dow n e a c h one i ndi vi dua l l y, be c a us e s o m a ny de t a i l s c oul d not 1 2 7 E ge r i a 1970, 76. 1 2 8 E ge r i a 1970, 95.

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7 4 be r e t a i ne d; be s i de s w he n you, be l ove d one s r e a d t he hol y books of M os e s you w i l l pe r c e i ve c a r e f ul l y w r i t t e n, a l l t ha t w a s done t he r e 1 2 9 R a t he r t ha n de s c r i bi ng e a c h pl a c e he r s e l f E ge r i a di r e c t s he r r e a de r s t o t he B i bl e w hi c h t he y a ppa r e nt l y c a n pe r us e t he m s e l ve s T hi s pa s s a ge r e ve a l s a vi t a l e l e m e nt of E ge r i a s j our ne y: he r pu r pos e r e m a i ns f oc us e d on s e e i n g t he hol y s i t e s r a t he r t ha n de s c r i bi ng w ha t s he s a w E ge r i a s e e m s unc onc e r ne d w i t h he r l a c k of de s c r i pt i on he r e f or he r c or r e s ponde nt s c a n s i m pl y r e a d a bout a l l t he s i t e s E ge r i a ne gl e c t e d t o m e nt i on i n t he B i bl e T he phy s i c a l a c t i on of vi e w i ng t he s e pl a c e s r e m a i ns vi t a l t o he r na r r a t i ve w hi l e t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he s i t e s t he m s e l ve s w a r r a nt l e s s a t t e nt i on. T hi s e m pha s i s on s i g ht s r a t he r t ha n s i t e s s ho ul d not i ndi c a t e t ha t E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve l a c ks ne gl e c t s t o m e nt i on phy s i c a l l oc a l e s E ge r i a e xpa nds t he c a t e gor y of t he phys i c a l l a nds c a pe t o i nc l ude not onl y s i t e s s pe c i f i c a l l y m e nt i one d i n t he B i bl e but a l s o pl a c e s ve ne r a t e d by hol y m e n. W hi l e a t op H or e b, t he l oc a t i on of num e r ous B i bl i c a l e ve nt s E ge r i a c om e s a c r os s a hol y pl a c e c r e a t e d b y t he m onks t he m s e l ve s : A l t hough i t i s not m e nt i one d i n S c r i pt u r e t he r e i s i n t hi s pl a c e a n e nor m ous r oc k, c i r c ul a r i n s ha pe w i t h a f l a t s ur f a c e on w hi c h t he hol y m e n ( A a r on a nd t he s e ve nt y e l de r s ) a r e s a i d t o ha v e s t ood A nd t he r e t he pr ope r pa s s a ge f r om t he B ook of M os e s w a s r e a d, a nd a P s a l m f i t t i ng t o t he pl a c e w a s s ung. 1 3 0 1 2 9 E ge r i a 1970 57. 1 3 0 E ge r i a 1970, 54 55.

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7 5 T he B i bl e m a y ha ve be e n E ge r i a s pr i m a r y gui de book, but t he l oc a l or a l t r a di t i ons pr om ot e d by t he m onks a l s o i nf l ue nc e d he r t r a ve l s H e r e s he pe r f or m s he r t ypi c a l r out i ne of s c r i pt ur e r e a di ng, s ong, a nd p r a ye r e ve n t hough t ha t pa r t i c ul a r s i t e m a y not ha ve ha d a ba s i s i n t he B i bl e Y e t t hi s s i t e s t i l l m e r i t s e nough w or t h f or he r t o vi s i t i t a nd r e c or d i t f o r he r r e a de r s r e ga r dl e s s of i t s B i bl i c a l a s s oc i a t i ons T he m onks ow n t r a di t i ons m e r i t i t a hol y pl a c e w i t hout a ny di r e c t c onn e c t i on t o s c r i p t ur e f ur t he r e xpa ndi ng t he num be r of pi l gr i m a ge s i t e s i n t he a r e a O n M ount N e bo E ge r i a c om e s upon ye t a not he r non B i bl i c a l s i t e w hi c h ne ve r t he l e s s be c a m e s a c r e d t o t he m onks a nd s o t o E ge r i a A t t he t op o f t he m ount a i n t he m onks s how e d E ge r i a t he pl a c e t he y b e l i e ve d a n ge l s bur i e d M o s e s a l t hough t he B i bl e e xpl i c i t l y s t a t e s t ha t no one know s t he l o c a t i on of hi s gr a ve T he m onks c l a i m e d t he i r pr e de c e s s or s t a ught t he m t he l oc a t i on, a nd t he y e nde d up bui l di ng a c hur c h a r ound M os e s s uppos e d bur i a l pl a c e E ge r i a t r e a t s t hi s s i t e a s a t ypi c a l hol y pl a c e a nd pe r f or m s t he ne c e s s a r y r i t ua l s ( r e a di ng s ong pr a ye r ) be f o r e m ovi ng on t o he r ne xt l oc a t i on. 1 3 1 A s i de f r om t he s e pl a c e s s he di d s e e E ge r i a a l s o t ol d he r r e a de r s a bout a c e r t a i n s i t e t ha t s he c oul d not s e e : W e w e r e a l s o s how n t he pl a c e a nd t hi s pl a c e i s e ve n m e nt i one d i n S c r i pt ur e w he r e t he pi l l a r of L ot s w i f e s t ood B e l i e ve m e r e ve r e nd l a di e s t he pi l l a r i t s e l f i s not vi s i bl e now a l t houg h i t s l oc a t i on i s s how n; but t he pi l l a r i s s a i d t o ha ve be e n c ove r e d by t he D e a d S e a I nde e d w e s a w 1 3 1 E ge r i a 1970, 68.

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7 6 t he pl a c e but w e di d not s e e a ny pi l l a r a nd on t hi s m a t t e r I c a nnot de c e i ve you. 1 3 2 E ge r i a a l l ow s he r r e a de r s t o be c om e a w a r e of a s i t e t ha t a l t hough m e nt i one d s pe c i f i c a l l y i n t he B i bl e doe s not pr e s e nt l y a ppe a r t o pi l gr i m s R a t he r t ha n s i m pl y not i nc l udi ng t hi s e xpe r i e nc e i n he r na r r a t i ve s he w i l l i ngl y i nf or m s t he m t ha t s he di d not s e e a pa r t i c ul a r s i t e T he e m pha s i s a ga i n i s on s e e i ng a nd not s e e i ng. I t w oul d s e e m up t o t hi s poi nt t ha t E ge r i a s t e xt ba r e l y r e s e m bl e s t h e s e nt i m e nt s e xpr e s s e d by G r e gor y a nd J e r om e H e r s t yl e of w r i t i ng a l one i s ol a t e s he r f r om t he t w o C hur c h F a t he r s a s t he i r t e xt s e xhi bi t f a r m o r e ob vi ous r he t or i c a l m ot i ve s T he s e di f f e r e nc e s c oi nc i de w i t h di ve r s i t y of l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m s a s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r O ne H ow e ve r E ge r i a doe s e xhi bi t t he s a m e c onc e r n ove r pe r s ona l pi e t y t ha t G r e gor y a nd J e r om e a l s o e m pha s i z e d. S he pr e s e nt s he r s e l f t o he r r e a de r s a s a hum bl e pi l gr i m a nd a l t hough s he c ons c i ou s l y om i t s a l l t he s p e c i f i c de t a i l s a bout he r j our ne y, s he e m pha t i c a l l y de s c r i be s he r gr a t i t ude t o G od a s w e l l a s t he m onks w ho a c t e d a s he r gui de s : T hough I m us t a l w a ys gi ve t ha nks t o G od f or a l l t hi ngs I s ha l l no t s pe a k a bout t he m a ny f a vor s w hi c h H e de i gne d t o c onf e r upon m e i n s pi t e of m y unw or t hi ne s s a nd l a c k of m e r i t i n a l l ow i ng m e t o t r a ve l t hr ough a l l t he s e pl a c e s w hi c h I di d not de s e r ve Y e t I c a nnot s uf f i c i e nt l y t ha nk a l l t hos e hol y m e n w h o s o w i l l i ngl y c ons e nt e d t o r e c e i ve m y hum bl e pe r s on i n t he i r 1 3 2 E ge r i a 1970, 63.

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7 7 c e l l s a nd a bove a l l t o gu i de m e t h r ough a l l t he pl a c e s w hi c h I w a s f or e ve r s e e ki ng out f ol l ow i ng H ol y S c r i pt ur e 1 3 3 N ot i c e how E ge r i a f oc us e s on t he m onks r ol e a s he r t our gui de s : t hi s i s t he m os t i m por t a nt f unc t i on t he m onks f u l f i l l f or he r E ge r i a ne ve r r e c or ds a ny di r e c t quot e s f r om t he m onks w hi c h w e m i ght e xpe c t t o f i nd. S ur e l y t he y ha d s om e w i s dom t o i m pa r t t o he r B ut E ge r i a s c onc e r n i s a l w a ys a bout s e e i ng t he s i t e s a ppa r e nt l y a s a c o nf i r m a t i on of f a i t h, r a t he r t ha n r e c or di ng a nyt hi ng s he l e a r ne d a bout s pi r i t ua l i t y o r t he ol ogy f r om t he m onks T hi s r e m a r ka bl e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c be c om e s e ve n m or e pr onounc e d i n l a t e r s e c t i ons of E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve W hi l e t r a ve l i ng t hr ough t he de s e r t E ge r i a c onne c t s he r ow n m ove m e nt s t o t he B i bl i c a l ( hi s t or i c a l ) pa s t S he r e c or ds t he pa t h s he a nd he r gui de s f ol l ow e d a nd w r i t e s : I hope you, be l ove d one s w i l l be l i e ve m e t ha t a s f a r a s I w a s a bl e t o s e e t he c hi l dr e n of I s r a e l m a r c he d a l ong i n t hi s m a nne r go i ng a c e r t a i n di s t a nc e t o t he r i ght t he n goi ng a n e qua l di s t a nc e t o t he l e f t goi ng a he a d a c e r t a i n di s t a nc e t he n ba c kt r a c ki ng a n e qua l di s t a nc e 1 3 4 H e r e E ge r i a di r e c t l y a ddr e s s e s he r r e a de r s hopi ng t ha t t he y w i l l be l i e ve w ha t s he w r i t e s t o t he m T hi s s how s E ge r i a s ow n c onc e r ns a s a w r i t e r : t ha t he r r e a de r s c oul d t hi nk s he e m be l l i s he d he r na r r a t i ve o r t ha t s he f a i l e d t o r e c or d he r t r a ve l s e xa c t l y a s t he y oc c ur r e d. T he s por a di c m ove m e nt s of E ge r i a s ow n j our ne y t o va r i ous hol y s i t e s m i m i c t he hi s t or i c a l m ove m e nt s o f t he I s r a e l i t e s a s t he y l e f t E gypt i n E ge r i a s i nt e r pr e t a t i on. E ge r i a di s pl a ys a l i t e r a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he B i bl e a nd be l i e ve s t he s t or i e s i n s c r i pt ur e c onne c t t o a hi s t or i c a l pa s t t ha t c a n be r e l i ve d i n t he pr e s e nt 1 3 3 E ge r i a 1970, 58. 1 3 4 E ge r i a 1970, 61.

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7 8 T hi s f a c t r e l a t e s ba c k t o H a l bw a c hs s a r gum e nt f or t he r ol e t ha t C hr i s t i a n c ol l e c t i ve m e m or y pl a ye d a m ong pi l gr i m s c onc e pt i ons of t he i r j our ne ys H e c l a i m e d t ha t t he a l l oc a t i on of J e w i s h a nd C hr i s t i a n m yt hs ont o t he phys i c a l l a nds c a pe s ol i di f i e d l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a ns a b i l i t y t o pl a c e t he m s e l ve s w i t hi n t he w i de r hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt of t he R om a n E m pi r e 1 3 5 B y i nc or por a t i ng t he l oc a t i ons of a nc i e nt J e w i s h s t or i e s a s w e l l a s pl a c e s c onn e c t e d t o s a i nt s a nd m a r t yr s C hr i s t i a n s a t t a c he d t he i r ne w po s i t i on a s t h e dom i na nt r e l i gi on i n t he e m pi r e t o a pr ogr e s s i on of t i m e t he y c onne c t e d t o s c r i pt ur e R obe r t M a r kus s i ns i s t e nc e upon t he i nf l ue nc e of t he c ul t of t he m a r t y r s i n t he de ve l opm e nt of C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge f i t s i nt o H a l bw a c hs s w i d e r c l a i m r e ga r di ng t he c r e a t i on of c ol l e c t i ve m e m o r y. R i t ua l a c t i vi t y a t m a r t yr s s hr i ne s a l l ow e d C hr i s t i a ns t o c onne c t t o t he i r pe r s e c ut e d f or e be a r s E ge r i a vi s i t e d s i t e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s a i nt s a s w e l l a s N e w T e s t a m e nt l oc a t i on s but s he e ve n t ook t hi s c onne c t i on one s t e p f ur t he r : s he not onl y w i s he d t o s e e t he pl a c e s of t he B i bl e but a l s o t he m ona s t i c s c ur r e nt l y l i vi ng i n t hos e pl a c e s W hi l e vi s i t i ng A br a ha m s t om b a t C a r r ha e s he w r i t e s of he r e xc i t e m e nt a t s e e i ng t he hol y m onks w ho l i ve d ne a r t he r e : I t w a s our ve r y good f or t une a nd qui t e be yond o ur e xpe c t a t i ons t ha t w e s a w t he r e t he t r ul y hol y m e n of G od, t he M e s opot a m i a n m onks t hos e m e n w hos e r e put a t i on a nd w a y of l i f e i s s poke n a bout f a r f r om he r e I t hought t ha t i t w oul d be qui t e i m pos s i bl e f or m e t o s e e t he m not be c a us e i t w oul d ha ve be e n i m pos s i bl e f or G od, w ho ha d de i gne d t o gr a nt e ve r yt hi ng, t o 1 3 5 B i t t on A s hke l ony 1999, 188 189

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7 9 gr a nt e ve n t hi s t o m e but b e c a us e I ha d he a r d t ha t t he y do not c om e do w n f r om t he i r c e l l s e xc e pt on E a s t e r a nd on t hi s da y, f or t he s e a r e t he s or t of m e n w ho do m a ny w ondr ous t hi ngs 1 3 6 I n t he a bove pa s s a ge E ge r i a w r i t e s onl y t ha t s he hope d t o s e e t he hol y m e n f r om M e s opot a m i a a s i f t he y w e r e pi l gr i m a ge s i t e s i n a nd of t he m s e l ve s S he i nc l ud e s not hi ng a bout t he c onve r s a t i ons s he ha d w i t h t he m or a nyt hi ng s he m i ght ha ve l e a r ne d f r om t he m E ge r i a p r e s e nt s t he s e m onks not a s t e a c he r s but a s obj e c t s w or t hy of vi s i t i ng a nd vi e w i ng. E ge r i a c ons c i ous l y om i t s t he s pe c i f i c de t a i l s a bout he r c onve r s a t i ons but s he a l s o s e e m s a w a r e t ha t he r r e a de r s w i l l be c ur i ous a bo ut t he m W hi l e a t C a r r ha e E ge r i a m e t t h e bi s hop of t he c i t y a nd c onv e r s e d w i t h hi m R a t he r t ha n de s c r i bi ng t he e nc ount e r E ge r i a m e r e l y gl os s e s ove r i t but s he doe s di r e c t l y a ddr e s s he r r e a de r s : A nd he c ons e nt e d t o s pe a k a bout m a ny ot he r m a t t e r s j us t a s t he ot he r hol y bi s hops a nd t he s a i nt l y m onks ha d c ons e nt e d t o d o, but a l w a ys a bout t he D i vi ne S c r i pt ur e s a nd t he a c t s of hol y m e n, t he m onks I m e a n, e i t he r a bout t he w ondr ous t hi ngs t he y ha d done i f t he y w e r e a l r e a dy de a d, or i f t he y w e r e s t i l l l i vi ng, a bout w ha t t he y di d e a c h da y, t hos e w ho a r e a s c e t i c s F or I do not w a nt you, be l ove d o ne s t o t hi nk t ha t t he c onve r s a t i ons of t he m onks a r e a bout a nyt hi ng e xc e pt t he D i vi ne S c r i pt ur e s a nd t he a c t i ons of t he gr e a t m onks 1 3 7 1 3 6 E ge r i a 1970, 82. 1 3 7 E ge r i a 1970, 84 85.

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8 0 D e s pi t e t he f r e que nc y of t he s e c onve r s a t i ons w i t h m onks a nd bi s hop s E ge r i a i nc l ude s f e w di r e c t quot a t i ons or e ve n pa r a phr a s e s of t he i r s ubj e c t m a t t e r S he l e t s t he m onks a nd bi s hops s pe a k w i t hi n t he na r r a t i ve e ve r y now a nd t he n: t ha t i s s he i nc l ude s quot a t i ons f r om t he s e ot he r c ha r a c t e r s r a t he r t ha n na r r a t i ng w ha t ha ppe ne d. H ow e ve r t he l i ke l i hood t ha t E ge r i a w r ot e t he s e quot e s dow n ve r ba t i m a nd pr e s e r ve d t he m a c c ur a t e l y i n he r na r r a t i ve r e m a i ns s l i m a s s he pr oba bl y m e r e l y t ook not e s w hi l e on he r j our ne y a nd t he n c om pos e d t he a c t ua l na r r a t i ve a f t e r t he f a c t 1 3 8 A t t he c onc l u s i on of t he s e c t i on de t a i l i ng he r pi l gr i m a ge E ge r i a s t a t e s t ha t s he r e t ur ne d f r om he r l a s t e xc ur s i on t o C ons t a nt i nopl e a nd t ha t a f t e r s e ndi ng he r na r r a t i ve of f t o he r r e c i pi e nt s s he w a s pl a nni ng on t r a ve l i n g t o E phe s us S he c onc l ude s t ha t a f t e r t hi s j ou r ne y s he w i l l e i t he r r e t ur n hom e or w r i t e m or e l e t t e r s de t a i l i ng he r t r i p, i m pl yi ng t ha t i f s he w e r e t o c om pos e a ga i n, i t w oul d not be unt i l a f t e r t he c onc l us i on of he r l a t e s t j our ne y. 1 3 9 I f s he c l a i m e d t hi s w a s he r w r i t i ng s c he dul e f or t hi s l a s t t r i p, i t c a n be r e a s ona bl y a s s um e d t ha t t hi s w a s he r nor m a l pa t t e r n f or w r i t i ng T he quot a t i ons t he r e f or e a r e m or e t ha n l i ke l y a r h e t or i c a l de vi c e e m pl oye d by t he a ut hor M or e ove r t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r of t he s e quot e s of t e n f ol l ow s t he s a m e pa t t e r n a s t he r e s t of he r na r r a t i ve : t he s pe a ke r m e r e l y pr ovi de s di r e c t i ons or e xpl a i ns t he s t or y be hi nd a c e r t a i n pi l gr i m a ge s i t e E ge r i a ne ve r r e c or ds a n y t he ol ogi c a l di s c us s i ons or a ny a dvi c e f or he r r e a de r s r e ga r di ng C hr i s t i a ni t y i n ge ne r a l E ge r i a s l a c k of c onc e r n w i t h c ont e m por a r y r e l i gi ous a c t i vi t i e s a s i de f r om t he l i t ur gy i n J e r us a l e m s e e m s s ur pr i s i ng, e s pe c i a l l y gi ve n he r c onc e r n w i t h pi e t y. I n w r i t i ng hom e t o f r i e nds f a r a w a y f r om a l l of t he r e l i gi ous a c t i vi t y i n t he N e a r E a s t E ge r i a c oul d ha ve i nc l ude d a t l e a s t s om e 1 3 8 W i l ki ns on 1971, 6. 1 3 9 E ge r i a 1970, 88.

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8 1 quot a t i ons f r om t he m os t ve ne r a t e d m ona s t i c s i n t he C hr i s t i a n w or l d. T he om i s s i on of s uc h de t a i l s i ndi c a t e s t ha t e i t he r E ge r i a s r e a de r s di d not r e que s t s uc h i nf or m a t i on, or E ge r i a he r s e l f f ound i t uni m po r t a nt P a l m e r c l a i m s t ha t E ge r i a f i c t i ona l i z e d he r a c c ount by not gi vi ng a ny i na ppr opr i a t e pe r s ona l de t a i l s of he r t r i p, but s he m a y not ha ve i nc l ude d t he s e de t a i l s be c a us e t he y w e r e unne c e s s a r y f or he r r e a de r s H e r r e a c t i ons t o s i t e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h B i bl i c a l / a poc r ypha l e ve nt s p e r ha ps s e r ve d t o e m pha s i z e t he hol y/ s a c r e d na t ur e of t he s i t e s S he ne ve r pr ovi de s de t a i l s of a nnoya nc e s ke pt i c i s m s us pi c i on, f e a r hom e s i c kne s s l one l i ne s s phys i c a l a t t r a c t i on, but w hy w oul d w e e xpe c t t hi s f r om he r ? 1 4 0 I f he r goa l w a s t o gi ve a n a c c ount of a pi l gr i m a ge j our ne y, w hy w oul d s he i nc l ude t he s e pe r s ona l de t a i l s ? A t t he s a m e t i m e w e c a n g e t a s e ns e of t he r e a l E ge r i a e ve n t hough s he om i t t e d t he s e e m ot i ons be c a u s e t he y r e ve a l he r c onc e r ns a s a w r i t e r T he f a c t t ha t s he e xc l ude d m a ny pe r s ona l r e f l e c t i ons s how s t h e c a r e t ha t E ge r i a t ook i n he r c om pos i t i on. T hi s w a s not a s t or y E ge r i a w r ot e f or he r s e l f ; t hi s w a s a na r r a t i ve t ha t w a s w r i t t e n w i t h t he i nt e nt t ha t ot he r s s houl d r e a d i t ot he r s w ho w oul d be i nt e r e s t e d i n a ve r y pa r t i c ul a r t ype of s t or y E ge r i a doe s i nc l ude s om e pe r s ona l de t a i l s s uc h a s t hos e a bout he r phys i c a l s t r e ngt h, he r r e s ol ve t o c ont i nue t r a v e l i ng, a bout how ha ppy s he w a s t o s e e M a r t ha na a ga i n, he r j oy a t a r r i vi ng a t t he ot he r s i t e s a nd e ve n how m uc h s he e nj oys f r e s h s e a f ood. T o s a y t ha t E ge r i a e l i m i na t e d a l l pe r s ona l de t a i l s m i s s e s t he poi nt be c a u s e s h e di d i nc l ude s om e : one s t ha t s h e a ppa r e nt l y f e l t w e r e ne c e s s a r y t o he r r e a de r s W e c a n l e a r n a bout E ge r i a t he i ndi vi dua l not j us t f r om w h a t s he i nc l ude d, but w ha t s he e xc l ude d. 1 4 0 P a l m e r 1994 45

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8 2 T he uni f or m i t y of p u r pos e a nd t one t hr oughout t he na r r a t i ve i ndi c a t e s a m or e l e a r ne d a ppr oa c h t o w r i t i ng t ha n o f t e n a c c or de d t o he r by s e c onda r y s c hol a r s hi p. B a s e d on t he s ur vi vi ng por t i ons of he r na r r a t i ve i t s e e m s obvi ous t ha t E ge r i a f ound t he ol ogi c a l a nd t o s om e e xt e nt s pi r i t ua l c onc e r ns i r r e l e va nt t o he r c or r e s ponde nt s T hr oughout t he e nt i r e w or k, E ge r i a f oc us e s on w ha t s he s e e s not w ha t s he t hi nks or f e e l s T hi s di a r y s e r ve d t o e duc a t e he r r e a de r s a b out t he pl a c e s phys i c a l l y vi s i bl e i n t he l a nd of t he B i bl e A t t he s a m e t i m e E ge r i a not onl y va l ue s s c r i pt ur a l s i t e s but a l s o t ho s e pl a c e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h hol y pe opl e s uc h a s t he m onks a nd nuns of t he r e gi on W he r e t he s e pe opl e l i ve d, a s w e l l a s t he s t or i e s t he y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t hos e pl a c e s a dde d t o t he hol y l a nds c a pe t ha t E ge r i a f ound a r ound he r w hi l e on he r pi l g r i m a ge C yr i l of J e r us a l e m a c ont e m por a r y of E ge r i a s a nd bi s hop of t he c i t y dur i ng he r t i m e t he r e s ha r e d E ge r i a s i nt e r pr e t a t i on of hol y s i t e s T he i de a t ha t t h e phys i c a l pl a c e s of t he B i bl e pr ove d t he va l i d i t y of C hr i s t i a ni t y f i r s t e m e r ge d i n t he w r i t i ng of E us e bi us of C a e s a r e a w ho c om pos e d hi s O nom a s t i c on a l i s t o f t he hol y pl a c e s ove r f i f t y ye a r s p r i or t o E ge r i a du r i ng t he r e i gn o f C ons t a nt i ne F ol l o w i ng i n t hi s t r a di t i on E ge r i a s e e m s t o doc um e nt he r j our ne y a s a s or t of l ong, na r r a t i ve pr oof of t he B i bl e T hr oughout he r na r r a t i ve s he f oc us e s on doc um e nt i ng t he s i t e s a nd pe opl e s he s a w but s t ops s hor t of de s c r i bi ng t he s e pl a c e s or i nc l udi ng a nyt hi ng s he l e a r ne d f r om he r e nc ount e r s T he m os t i m por t a nt pa r t of E ge r i a s j our ne y a t l e a s t i n t e r m s of he r r e a de r s i nt e r e s t s i nvol ve d t he phys i c a l a c t of w i t ne s s i ng t he hol y pl a c e s a nd t he pe opl e w ho l i ve d t he r e ; r e c or di ng a l l of he r s i g ht s r a t he r t ha n s i m pl y t he B i bl i c a l s i t e s E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve pr ov i de s a r e m a r ka bl e oppor t uni t y t o unde r s t a nd e a r l y C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge f r om a f i r s t pe r s on pe r s pe c t i v e a nd gi ve s a m uc h c l e a r e r i de a of t he

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8 3 j our ne y i t s e l f t ha n G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s l e t t e r s H e r c onc e r n ove r de s c r i bi ng w ha t s he w i t ne s s e d i l l us t r a t e s s om e of t h e c onc e r ns e xpr e s s e d by t he t w o C hur c h F a t he r s w ho w or r i e d t ha t C hr i s t i a ns w oul d us e pi l g r i m a ge a s a w a y t o ve r i f y t he i r f a i t h w he n no s uc h pr oof s houl d be ne c e s s a r y. A t t he s a m e t i m e E ge r i a e m pha s i z e s he r ow n p e r s ona l pi e t y i n a w a y t ha t c or r e s ponds t o G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s i ns i s t e nc e upon t he ne c e s s i t y of t ha t c ha r a c t e r i s t i c T he s i m i l a r a nd c ont r a s t i ng qu a l i t i e s e xhi bi t e d by e a c h a ut hor c or r e s pon d t o t he e a r l i e r di s c ove r i e s m a de r e ga r di ng e a r l y C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m a ge w i t hi n t he w i de r c ont e xt of l a t e a nt i q ui t y. T he c onc l u s i on w i l l r e i t e r a t e t he s e a r gum e nt s a nd s ugg e s t a ve nue s f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h.

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8 4 C o n c l u s i o n T hi s t he s i s u s e d t he w r i t i ngs of t hr e e l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m s t o ga i n a b e t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he de ve l opm e nt of C hr i s t i a n a c t i vi t y i n t he B i bl i c a l l a nds f r o m t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t he a c t ua l pa r t i c i pa nt s A s C ha pt e r O ne s how e d, pr e vi ous s c hol a r l y di s c us s i on s a bout t hi s e xpa n s i on of i nt e r e s t pr e s e n t e d num e r ous i ns i ght s i nt o f a c t or s t ha t c oul d ha ve pr ovi de d t he i m pe t us f or s uc h c ha n ge w hi l e f a i l i ng t o a c know l e dge t he i ndi vi dua l m ot i va t i ons a nd c on c e r ns e xpr e s s e d by e a c h pi l gr i m B ui l di ng upon m y a r gum e nt i n C ha pt e r O ne C ha pt e r s T w o a nd T hr e e a na l yz e d i n de t a i l t he t e xt s of t hr e e pi l gr i m s w i t h a s pe c i f i c i nt e r e s t i n t he uni que a nd c ont r a di c t or y r e m a r ks e a c h a ut hor pr e s e nt e d. G r e gor y of N ys s a a nd J e r om e de s pi t e t he i r i nt e r na l c ont r a di c t i ons a nd of t e n a m bi guous r e m a r ks ne ve r t he l e s s c on s i s t e nt l y e xpr e s s e d a c onc e r n ove r t he e f f e c t pi l gr i m a ge c oul d ha ve on t he p e r s ona l pi e t y of e a c h i ndi vi dua l t r a ve l e r G r e gor y a nd J e r om e s a dvi c e t o t he i r r e a de r s on t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of pi l gr i m a ge de pe nde d on t he pe r s ona l c i r c um s t a nc e s of t he i r r e c i pi e nt s a s w e l l a s t he a ut hor s ow n r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h t he B i bl i c a l l a nds E ge r i a s na r r a t i ve a l s o s how c a s e s t hi s e m pha s i s on p e r s ona l pi e t y, a s s he pr e s e nt s he r s e l f t o he r c or r e s ponde nt s a s a t r a ve l e r c onc e r ne d f i r s t a nd f or e m os t w i t h f a i t h. H e r a c t i ons w hi l e on pi l gr i m a ge a l w a ys r e f l e c t a f oc us on hol y pe opl e a nd pl a c e s t hough E ge r i a doe s r e c or d b r i e f de t a i l s a bout he r ow n pe r s ona l i n t e r e s t s s uc h a s he r r e s pons e s t o pl e a s i ng a e s t he t i c s a nd be a ut i f ul s c e ne r y. T he di s t i nc t pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s de s c r i be d by G r e gor y of N ys s a J e r om e a nd E ge r i a hi ghl i ght t he ne e d t o a na l yz e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n pi l gr i m s on a n i ndi vi dua l l e ve l r a t he r t ha n a s a hom oge nou s gr oup. G r e gor y di r e c t l y c ont r a di c t s hi s ow n r e a s on s f or goi ng on pi l gr i m a ge a nd e nc our a ge s a not he r a s c e t i c not t o go t o t he B i bl i c a l l a nds

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8 5 J e r om e t hough i ni t i a l l y pos i t i ve a bout t he pr a c t i c e a nd pe r s ua s i ve i n hi s a t t e m pt t o c onvi nc e one c or r e s ponde nt t o m a ke s uc h a j o ur ne y, l a t e r r e t r a c t s hi s s t a t e m e nt s t o pr e s e nt a ne ga t i ve de pi c t i on of J e r us a l e m a nd di s s ua de a not he r r e c i pi e nt f r om t he pr a c t i c e E ge r i a w r i t e s a bout pi l gr i m a ge i n a n i nc r e di bl y pos i t i ve t one a nd ne ve r e xpr e s s e s a c on c e r n a bout r e t ur ni ng f r om he r j our ne y i n a t i m e l y m a nne r T hi s r a nge of opi ni on on t he pr a c t i c e t he ne ga t i vi t y of G r e gor y t he a m bi gui t y of J e r om e t he pl e a s a nt w a nde r i ng of E ge r i a ne c e s s i t a t e s t he ne e d t o unde r s t a nd l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m s a s i ndi vi dua l s w ho r e a c t e d t o t he i r t r a ve l s i n di f f e r e nt w a ys f ur t he r ope ni ng up t he pos s i bi l i t y f or di f f e r e nt i nt e r pr e t a t i ons by ot he r l a t e a nt i que C hr i s t i a ns a nd by t h e s c hol a r s w ho s t udy t he m l ong a f t e r t he i r j ou r ne y e nde d. T hr oughout t he e xt e nt o f m y t he s i s pr oc e s s e v e r y que s t i on I a ns w e r e d l e d t o t w i c e a s m a ny ne w que s t i ons T hi s i n pa r t r e l a t e s t o t he s t udy of l a t e a nt i qui t y i n ge ne r a l e s pe c i a l l y i n r e c e nt ye a r s w he n ne w i ns i ght s i nt o m e t hods of a na l ys i s s uc h a s E l i z a be t h C l a r k s us e of l i t e r a r y t he or y, ha s ope ne d up n e w w i ndow s a nd i d e a s f or s c hol a r l y di s c ove r y. A l t hough m y r e s e a r c h c ove r e d t hr e e of t he be s t s our c e s f or e ye w i t ne s s a c c ount s of pi l gr i m a ge I w oul d now be i nt e r e s t e d i n c ons i de r i ng ot he r a va i l a bl e t e xt ua l f r a gm e nt s I di d not i nc or por a t e t he B or de a ux P i l gr i m w ho w r ot e a br i e f i t i ne r a r y i n 333, or t he P i a c e nz a P i l gr i m o f t he s i xt h c e nt ur y, a l t hough t he s e w r i t e r s a l s o pr ovi de a n e ye w i t ne s s a c c ount of l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m a ge I ne gl e c t e d t he m f or t w o r e a s ons : out of a ne e d t o r e s t r i c t m y a na l ys i s t o a m a na ge a bl e a m o unt of da t a a nd be c a us e t he i r c ont e xt s of c om pos i t i on di f f e r e d s i gni f i c a nt l y f r om t hos e of G r e gor y, J e r om e a nd E ge r i a w ho a l l w r ot e w i t hi n t he s a m e t hi r t y ye a r t i m e s pa n. T he s e ot he r pi l gr i m s l e f t va l ua bl e a nd i nt e r e s t i ng t e xt s a nd w oul d p r ovi de a n a m pl e a m o unt of e vi de nc e f o r f u r t he r r e s e a r c h. T o

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8 6 m y know l e dge no s t udy ye t publ i s he d e xpl or e s t he w r i t i ngs of t he B or de a ux or P i a c e nz a P i l gr i m w i t h r e ga r d t o t he t e xt ua l de t a i l s t ha t a ppe a r t a i l or e d t o t he i r ow n pe r s ona l i nt e r e s t s a nd i nt e nde d a udi e nc e s T he s e que s t i ons t ha t c oul d pr ovi de f a s c i na t i ng di s c ove r i e s e s pe c i a l l y i f c om pa r e d t o m y i ns i ght s i nt o E ge r i a s a ut hor i a l c hoi c e s O f m os t i nt e r e s t pe r ha ps l i e s t he pr e s e nc e of ge nd e r c ons t r uc t i ons t hr oughout t he pi l gr i m a ge t e xt s I s t udi e d. T he na t ur e of t he pr oj e c t di d not a l l ow m e t o de l ve de e p e r i nt o t he s e que s t i ons but m y w or k ne ve r t he l e s s t ouc h e s upon t he s e i s s ue s a nd of f e r s m a n y pos s i bi l i t i e s f or a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h. G r e gor y s oppos i t i on t o pi l gr i m a ge i n L e t t e r 2 s pe c i f i c a l l y r e f e r s t o t he phys i c a l w e a kne s s of w o m e n, a nd how t ha t f a c t c oul d l e a d t o s i n w hi l e on pi l gr i m a ge I n c ont r a s t he a ddr e s s e d hi s L e t t e r 3 t o t hr e e w om e n l i vi ng i n P a l e s t i ne a nd pr a i s e d t he i r pi e t y, c om pa r i ng t he m t o t he hol y s i t e s t he r e T he r e c i pi e nt s a nd s ubj e c t m a t t e r of J e r om e s t w o l e t t e r s i n f a v or of pi l gr i m a ge a l s o de a l t s pe c i f i c a l l y w i t h w om e n. T h i s c or r e l a t i on, c om bi ne d w i t h E g e r i a s na r r a t i ve s s t a t us a s t he e a r l i e s t s ur vi vi ng f i r s t pe r s on a c c ount w r i t t e n by a w om a n i n L a t i n r e ve a l s j us t h ow pr om i ne nt ge nde r i s s ue s f a c t or e d i nt o l a t e a nt i que pi l gr i m a ge W om e n not onl y w e nt on pi l gr i m a ge a nd w r ot e a bout i t but r he t or i c i a ns us e d t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he pr a c t i c e t o t a l k a bou t w i de r i s s ue s r e ga r di ng f e m a l e pi e t y C onne c t i on s be t w e e n t he i de ol ogi e s of phys i c a l ve r s us s pi r i t ua l na t ur e s i n e a r l y C hr i s t i a ni t y a nd t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o ge nde r r ol e s i n m y opi ni on, pr e s e nt t he m os t i nt e r e s t i ng a nd i m por t a nt of t he m a ny a ve nue s f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. M e a nw hi l e w i t hout t he f ounda t i ona l w o r k pr ovi d e d by t hi s t he s i s w e c oul d not be gi n t o a s k t he s e que s t i ons B y de ve l opi ng a m o r e nua nc e d i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he f a c t or s t ha t l e a d t o C hr i s t i a n i nt e r e s t i n t he l a nds of t he B i bl e w e ga i ne d a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng

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8 7 of how t hos e e a r l y pi l gr i m s r e l a t e d t o e a c h ot he r a nd t o t he w or l d a r ound t he m W he n w e a ppr oa c he d t he l e t t e r s of G r e gor y a nd J e r om e ou r e xpl or a t i on a l l ow e d us t o a ppr e c i a t e t he c ont r a di c t i ons of t he s e t w o C hur c h F a t h e r s b y r e a di ng t he m i n l i ght of t he i nt e r na l di s put e s pr e s e nt w i t hi n C hr i s t i a ni t y a t t he t i m e E g e r i a s na r r a t i ve a ppe a r s f r e e f r o m s uc h pol i t i c a l i nf l ue nc e s a nd i ns t e a d p r e s e r ve s a n i nc r e di bl y r a r e w i ndow i nt o t he pe r s pe c t i ve of a f e m a l e t r a ve l e r A l l t hr e e pi l gr i m s t hough r e a c t i ng t o t he i r t r a ve l s w i t h f l uc t ua t i ng de gr e e s of pos i t i v e a nd ne ga t i ve s e nt i m e nt s c on s i s t e nt l y e xpr e s s e d t he i r c onc e r ns a bout t he a f f e c t pi l gr i m a ge ha d on pe r s ona l pi e t y. T hough s ha r i ng e nough i n c om m on t o w a r r a nt a s i ngl e c l a s s i f i c a t i on a s e a r l y C hr i s t i a n pi l gr i m s t he s e t hr e e t r a ve l e r s r e f l e c t t he va r i e t y of be l i e f s a nd pr a c t i c e s m a ni f e s t e d w i t h i n f our t h c e nt ur y C hr i s t i a ni t y.

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8 8 A p p e n d i x 1 4 1 1 4 1 E a s t e r n R om a n P r ovi nc e s i n t he F our t h C e nt ur y i n E ge r i a s T r av e l s by J ohn W i l ki ns on, 1971, 11.

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8 9 1 4 2 1 4 2 E ge r i a s T r a ve l s i n E ge r i a s T r av e l s by J ohn W i l ki ns on, 1971, 28.

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9 0 B i b l i o g r a p h y P r i m a r y S our c e s : E ge r i a D i a r y of a P i l gr i m a ge I n E ge r i a: D i ar y o f a P i l gr i m age T r a ns l a t e d by G e or ge E G i ng r a s N e w Y o r k a nd R a m s e y N J : N e w m a n P r e s s 1970. J e r om e L e t t e r 46; L e t t e r 58; L e t t e r 108 I n N i c e n e and P os t N i c e ne F a t he r s S e c ond S e r i e s 6. E di t e d by P hi l i p S c ha f f a nd H e nr y W a c e T r a ns l a t e d by W F r e e m a nt l e G L e w i s a nd W G M a r t l e y. N e w Y or k: C hr i s t i a n L i t e r a t u r e P ubl i s hi ng C o. 1892< ht t p: / / w w w c c e l o r g/ c c e l / s c ha f f / npnf 206. t xt > A c c e s s e d 12 O c t obe r 2010 G r e gor y of N ys s a L e t t e r 2; L e t t e r 3 I n G r e gor y of N y s s a, T he L e t t e r s : I nt r oduc t i on, T r ans l at i on, and C om m e nt ar y T r a ns l a t e d by A nne M S i l va s B os t on: L e i de n, 2007. G r e gor y of N ys s a T he L i f e o f S t M a c r i na I n T h e L i f e of St M ac r i na by W K L ow t he r C l a r k. L ondon : S P C K 1916. S e c onda r y S our c e s : B i t t on A s hke l ony, B r ur i a E nc ount e r i ng t he Sac r e d: T he D e bat e on C hr i s t i an P i l gr i m age i n L at e A nt i qui t y B e r ke l e y a nd L os A nge l e s C A : U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f o r ni a P r e s s 2005. T he A t t i t ude s o f C hur c h F a t he r s t ow a r d P i l gr i m a ge t o J e r us a l e m i n t he F our t h a nd F i f t h C e nt ur i e s I n J e r us al e m : I t s San c t i t y and C e nt r al i t y t o J udai s m C hr i s t i ani t y and I s l am e di t e d by L e e I L e vi ne N e w Y or k: C ont i nuum 1999 188 203. B ow m a n, G l e nn. C hr i s t i a n i de ol ogy a nd t he i m a g e of a ho l y l a nd: t he pl a c e of J e r us a l e m pi l gr i m a ge i n va r i ous C hr i s t i a ni t i e s I n C ont e s t i ng t he Sac r e d: T he A nt hr opol og y of C hr i s t i an P i l gr i m age e di t e d by J ohn E a de a n d M i c ha e l J S a l l now 98 121. U r ba na a nd C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y of I l l i noi s P r e s s 2000. B r ow n, P e t e r T he C ul t of t he Sai nt s : I t s R i s e and F unc t i on i n L at i n C hr i s t i ani t y C hi c a go: T he U ni ve r s i t y o f C hi c a go P r e s s 1981. C a i n, A ndr e w J e r om e s E pi t aphi um P aul ae : H a g i ogr a phy, P i l gr i m a ge a nd t he C ul t of S a i nt P a ul a J our nal o f E ar l y C hr i s t i an St udi e s 18 ( 2010) : 105 139 A c c e s s e d

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9 1 F e br ua r y 24 2010 C l a r k, E l i z a be t h A H i s t or y T he or y T e x t : H i s t or i ans and t he L i ngui s t i c T ur n C a m br i dge : H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 2004 C ol e m a n, S i m on. D o you be l i e ve i n p i l gr i m a ge ? : C om m uni t a s c ont e s t a t i on a nd be yond. A nt hr opol ogi c al T he or y 355 ( 2009) : 35 5 368. A c c e s s e d D e c e m be r 3, 2010. doi : 10. 1177/ 1463499602002003805 D i e t z M a r i be l I t i ne r a nt S pi r i t ua l i t y a nd t he L a t e A nt i que O r i gi ns of C hr i s t i a n P i l gr i m a ge I n T r av e l C om m uni c at i on, and G e ogr aphy i n L at e A nt i qui t y : Sac r e d and P r of ane e di t e d by L i nda E l l i s a nd F r a nk L K i dne r 125 135 B ur l i ngt on: A s hga t e 2004. W ande r i ng M onk s V i r gi ns and P i l gr i m s : A s c e t i c T r av e l i n t he M e di t e r r ane an W or l d, A D 300 800 T he P e nns yl va ni a S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s U ni ve r s i t y P a r k ( 2005) D ubi s c h, J i l l I n a D i f f e r e nt P l ac e : P i l gr i m age G e nde r and P ol i t i c s at a G r e e k I s l and Shr i ne P r i nc e t on: P r i nc e t on U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 199 5. E a de J ohn a nd M i c ha e l J S a l l now C ont e s t i ng t he Sac r e d U r ba na a nd C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y of I l l i noi s P r e s s 2000. E l i a de M i r c e a T he S a c r e d a nd t he P r of a ne : T he N a t ur e of R e l i gi on I n T he or y and M e t hod i n t he St udy of R e l i gi on: A Se l e c t i on of C r i t i c al R e adi ngs e di t e d by C a r l O l s on, 161 168. B e l m ont C a : W a ds w or t h, 2003 E l s ne r J a s P i e t y a nd P a s s i on: C ont e s t a nd C ons e ns us i n t he A udi e nc e s f or E a r l y C hr i s t i a n P i l gr i m a ge I n P i l gr i m age i n G r e c o R om an and E ar l y C hr i s t i an A nt i qui t y e di t e d by J a s E l s ne r a nd I a n R ut he r f or d 411 434. O xf o r d: O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 2005. E l s ne r J a s a nd I a n R ut he r f or d P i l gr i m age i n G r e c o R om an and E ar l y C hr i s t i an A nt i qui t y : Se e i ng t he G ods O xf or d: O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 200 5 G i ngr a s G e or ge E ge r i a : D i a r y o f a P i l gr i m a ge A nc i e nt C hr i s t i an W r i t e r s : T he W or k s of t he F at he r s i n T r ans l at i on e d. J oha nne s Q ua s t e n, e t a l N e w Y or k, N e w m a n P r e s s ( 1970) H a l e M e ga n W i l l i a m s T he M onk and t he B ook C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s 2006. H unt E D H ol y L and pi l gr i m age i n t he l at e r R om an E m pi r e A D 312 460 O xf or d: C l a r e ndon P r e s s 1982.

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9 2 L e ye r l e B l a ke L a nds c a pe a s C a r t ogr a phy i n E a r l y C hr i s t i a n P i l gr i m a ge N a r r a t i ve s J our nal of t he A m e r i c an A c ade m y of R e l i gi on 64 ( 1 996) : 119 143. A c c e s s e d D e c e m be r 31, 2010 M a r kus R A T he E nd of A nc i e nt C hr i s t i ani t y C a m br i dge : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1990 H ow on E a r t h C oul d P l a c e s B e c om e H ol y? O r i gi ns of t he C hr i s t i a n I de a of H ol y P l a c e s J our nal of E ar l y C hr i s t i an St udi e s 2 ( 1994) : 257 271. A c c e s s e d D e c e m be r 3, 2010 M a r a va l P i e r r e T he E a r l i e s t P ha s e of C hr i s t i a n P i l gr i m a ge i n t he N e a r E a s t ( be f o r e t he 7 t h C e nt ur y) D um bar t on O ak s P ape r s 56 ( 2002) : 63 74. A c c e s s e d D e c e m be r 15, 2010. P a l m e r A nd r e w E ge r i a t he V oya ge r or t he T e c h nol ogy of R e m ot e S e ns i ng i n L a t e A nt i qui t y. T r av e l F ac t and T r av e l F i c t i on : St udi e s on F i c t i on L i t e r ar y T r adi t i on, Sc hol ar l y D i s c ov e r y and O b s e r v at i on i n T r av e l W r i t i ng. L i e de n, N e w Y or k ( 1994) : p 41 43 P ul l a n, W e ndy. I nt e r m i n gl e d U nt i l t he E nd of T i m e : A m bi gui t y a s a C e nt r a l C ondi t i on of E a r l y C hr i s t i a n P i l gr i m a ge I n P i l gr i m age i n G r e c o R om an and E ar l y C hr i s t i an A nt i qui t y e di t e d by J a s E l s ne r a nd I a n R ut he r f or d 387 409. O x f or d: O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 2005 R e ul i ng, H e nne ke P i ous I nt r e pi dne s s : E ge r i a a nd t he A s c e t i c I de a l i n Sai nt s and R ol e M ode l s i n J udai s m and C hr i s t i ani t y e di t e d by M a r c e l P oor ht ui s a nd J os hua S c hw a r t z 243 260 L e i de n: B r i l l 2004. R udge L i nds a y. T e x t s and C ont e x t s : W om e n s D e di c at e d L i f e F r om C ae s ar i us t o B e ne di c t P hD di s s e r t a t i on, U ni ve r s i t y of S t A ndr e w s ( 2006) S i l va s A nne M G r e gor y of N y s s a, T he L e t t e r s : I nt r oduc t i on, T r ans l at i on and C om m e nt ar y B os t on, M A : L e i de n, 2007 S i va n, H a gi t h H ol y L a nd P i l gr i m a ge a nd W e s t e r n A udi e nc e s : S om e R e f l e c t i ons on E ge r i a a nd H e r C i r c l e T he C l as s i c al Q uar t e r l y vol 38 no 2 ( 1988 a ) : p. 528 535 W ho W a s E ge r i a ? P i e t y a nd P i l g r i m a ge i n t he A ge of G r a t i a n T he H ar v ar d T he ol ogi c al R e v i e w vol 81 no 1 ( 1 988 b ) : p. 59 72 S m i t h, J ul i e A nn. M y L or d s N a t i ve L a nd: M a ppi ng t he C hr i s t i a n H ol y L a nd C hur c h H i s t or y vol 76, no 1 ( 2007) : p 1 31.

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9 3 S m i t h, J ona t ha n Z T o T ak e P l ac e : T ow ar d T he or y i n R i t ual C hi c a go: T he U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s 1987. T ur ne r V i c t or a nd E di t h T ur ne r I m age and P i l gr i m age i n C hr i s t i an C ul t ur e N e w Y or k: C ol um bi a U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1978 V a n G e nne p, A r nol d T he R i t e s of P as s age t r a ns l a t e d by M oni ka B V i z e dom a nd G a br i l l e L C a f f e e C hi c a go: T he U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s 1960. W e be r C l i f f o r d. E ge r i a s N o r m a n H om e l a nd. H ar v ar d St udi e s i n C l as s i c al P hi l ol ogy 92 ( 1989) : 437 56 W i l ke n, R obe r t L T he L and C al l e d H ol y N e w H a ve n a nd L ondon: Y a l e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1992. W i l ki ns on, J ohn. E ge r i a s T r av e l s L ondon: W i l l i a m C l ow e s & S ons L t d 1971 W i l l i a m s on, G e or ge M uc i a nus a nd a T ouc h o f t h e M i r a c ul ous : P i l gr i m a ge a nd T our i s m i n R om a n A s i a M i nor I n P i l gr i m age i n G r e c o R om an and E ar l y C hr i s t i an A nt i qui t y e di t e d by J a s E l s ne r a nd I a n R ut he r f or d 219 245. O xf or d : O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 2005: 219 245.


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