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THE ART OF CONSIDERING BEAUTY: BY MARISOL GUERRERO A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Humanities New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Prof. Wendy Sutherland Sarasota, Florida April, 2010
ii Acknowledgements When we perceive a beautiful thing, We never want to stop perceiving it. ~ Guy Sircello, A New Theory of Beauty The never ending conflict between inner and external beauty surrounds my daily life. As an artist, I place great importance and esteem on the physical world; as an individual, I have learned, with the help of others, that sometimes outer appearances are misleading and that the true worth of a person comes from within. I would like to thank my committee members Prof. Wendy Sutherland, Prof. Amy Reid, and Prof. Van Tuyl for all the help and knowledge shared during my time at New College. I would especially like to thank Prof. Sutherland, my thesis sponsor, for helping me stay motivated and for giving me all of her input.
iii Table of Contents Acknowledgements Table of Contents iii Li Abstract ..v i Introduction: Behind the Tale The Texts: Beauty in Cinderella Chapter Th The Films: Using Appearances to Learn about Inner Beauty
iv Illustrations Fig. 1. 6 Fig. 2. 47 Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fi g. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11.
v Fi g. 12.
v i THE ART OF CONSIDERING BEAUTY: Marisol Guerrero New College of Florida, 2010 ABSTRACT This thesis analyzes inner B e a u t y and external beauty in the tale of Cinderella Cendrillon ( Cinderella Aschenputtel ( Cinderella ) Tri orsky pro Popelku ( Three Nuts for Cinderella ) Ever After This work, based philosophy of Beauty, analyzes and states that regardless of the time period, place or medium in which each adaptation was created, the overall standards of what constitutes Beauty remain the same throughout: for true Beauty to exist in a person there must be, first and foremost, inner Beauty; any physical beauty, whether of the individuals or their clothing, only serves to embellish or mask what is innately there. _ _ _ _ _ _ P r o f W e n d y S u t h e r l a n d
1 Introduction: Behind the Tale Although the vast majority of folktales do not have a definite origin, they seem to be an important part of nearly all cultures. All around the world stories are passed down through generations for many different reasons. Som etimes they are mementos or a simple form of entertainment, and other times they serve as a creative means to teach a social lesson. Among the myriad of tales shared between towns, cities or countries, there exists a handful of them that remain mostly the same. Such similar tales include Cinderella also known as The Little Glass Slipper or The Golden Slipper Little Red Riding Hood and Sleeping Beauty or Briar Rose Although there exist slight differences between the tales, they retain the same plot and c haracters overall. One similarity that is often found in many of these tales is the description of the characters' appearance and personality. In my thesis I will discuss the roles of inner Beauty 1 and external beauty, including the use of fashion, as well as the influence they both have on the passive and active roles of the characters in the tale of Cinderella In order to study these characteristics and their influence on the tale I will analyze two written versions of Cinderella, one adapted by Charle s Perrault in France and the other by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in Germany, as well as two film adaptations including the American Ever After (1998) directed by Andy Tennant and the Czech Tri orsky pro Popelku (1973) also known as Three Nuts for 1
2 Cinderella directed by Vclav Vorlcek Cendrillon because it is extremely well known version and has been used as the basic model for many other adaptations of the tale regardless of medium. Also, Perrault was which is well recognized as a world of opulence elaborate garments to the astonishing grandeur of Versailles; Cendrillon also traces the transformation of the inner s elf into Beau ty, especially i n the case of Aschenputtel because of the extreme to which beauty, both inner and external, is manipulated throughout the tale and because of the emphasis placed on each of the female char reward. The films Ever After and Tri orsky pro Popelku share similarities with both adaptations; however the main reason why I have chosen them is that the princes of these two Cinderellas notice the inner Beauty of their respective maiden; the princes are to make an informed decision based on the whole individual that is their Cinderella, and not just a choice based on physical appearance and attraction. The tale of Cendrillon was first written by the French author Charles Perrault in 1697. Perrault was born on January 12, 1628 in the city of Paris, 2 shortly after Cardinal Armand Richelieu took over the French administration of 2 NNDB: Tracking the Entire World. Soylent Communications (2008). Web. 15 December 2009.
3 affairs. 3 His parents were Pierre Perrault, a barrister, and Paquette Le Clerc. Charles P errault also had an older brother named Claude Perrault who, although a physician by profession, is one of the men attributed with the successful embellishment of the Louvre colonnade that was completed in 1670. 4 The Perrault family was rather well off, th eir financial stability allowed them to send their children to pr estigious schools. The Perrault s steady economic status can be seven years old, Richelieu managed to leave France very well off in all aspects; the house of Austria had been conquered; Artois, Alsace, Lorraine, and Rousillon four provinces had b een added to the French kingdom. H e left Catalonia and Portugal at the brink of a revolt against Spain as well as soldiers, Swedish and French, nearing Vienna. In a way, he had elevated his king's name to a level of healthy respect and admiration in the ey es of the surrounding nations. I n France, everything and everyone bowed to his command. 5 In 1651 Charles receive d his degree in law and worked in Paris for a short time. About ten years later, in 1663, at the time when the Acadmie des Inscriptions et de Belles Lettres was founded, Jean Baptiste Colbert (the French minister of finance) who worked directly for King Louis XIV, chose Perrault to act as his secretary and help him with anything involving art and science, including 3 Duruy, Victor. History of France. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. Publishers, 1896. 392. Print. 4 NNDB, 5 Duruy, 1896: 402.
4 literature; the well established arts and letters setting was yet another part of Richelieu's legacy to France perhaps because he himself wa s a notorious writer. 6 Part of this setting included the Acadmie Franaise established in 1635 which was 7 the reconstruction of the Sorbonne, the creation of the college of Plessis, the Palais Cardinal (Palais Royal), as well as the establishment of the royal printing house and the Jardin des Plantes, which was meant as an aid for the instruction of students of medicine. Not only that, but Richelieu also gave authors respect and este em, something they were not used to, and gave pensions to poets and men of knowledge. 8 These pensions continued on after his death. Due to his position as secretary to Colbert, Perrault received some of these pensions to support his literary work. He was a lso accepted to the Acadmie Franaise in 1671. Shortly after this, Perrault met and married the young Marie Guichon, who gave him three sons and a daughter. Unfortunately, Marie died while giving birth to their daughter in 1678. 9 Five years later, Perraul t lost his pension and job due to Colbert's death. Instead of dwelling on his loss, Perrault immersed himself in the world of literature. 10 Thus, he became part of the Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes (Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns), which con trasted literature 6 NNDB, 7 Duruy, 1896: 403. 8 Duruy, 1896: 403. 9 NNDB, 10 NNDB,
5 from ancient times with the contemporary works being written during the reign of Louis XIV. He also tri ed to prove that his literature and the works of that century were better than those of ancient times in his Parallle des Anciens et des Modernes ( Parallel of the Ancients and Moderns ). In 1695, Perrault lost his position as secretary for the Academy. As a result, he decided to spend most of his time with his children and also dedicated his work to them. 11 This is one of the reasons why Histoires, ou Contes du Temps pass, avec des moralits known to us as The Histories or Tales of Past Times, with Morals were created. These tales included La Belle au bois dormant ( The Sleeping Beauty in the Wood ) Le petit poucet ( Little Tom Thumb ), L e Chat bott ( Puss in Boots ), La Barbe bleue ( Blue Beard ) Les Fes ( The Fairies ), Riquet la houppe ( Ricky of the Tuft ) Le petit chaperon rouge ( Little Red Riding Hood ) and, of course, Cendrillon ( Cinderella or The Little Glass Slipper ). Soon after thei r publication, these tales spread well past anyone in his literary proximity and catalyzed the new genre of written folktales. At one point in time, there was some confusion regarding Charles Perrault's authorship of the tales, partly because they had been published under the name of Pierre (Perrault) Darmancourt, his son. 12 His tales and his children were his main concern during the last days of his life. Charles Perrault died in the city of Paris on the 16 th of May, 1703. He was 75 years old. King Louis X III died onl y six months after Richelieu and left his kingdom 11 NNDB, 12 NNDB,
6 to the queen, Anne of Austria, because his oldest son was not even five years old at the time. 13 However, since Louis had not completely trusted the queen, he left her in charge with the conditio n that she have a council that would make all decisions based on a majority of vote. 14 One of her first choices for this council was Cardinal Mazarin, the successor and comrade of Richelieu. Due to his own love of art, the time of Mazarin produced the acade my of painting and sculpture along with its many great artists, as well as libraries and colleges, such as the Four Nations College. 15 Amongst the men of letters from Mazarin's time were Nicolas Boileau, Jacques Bnigne Bossuet, Louis Bourdaloue, Jean de La Fontaine, Madame Marie Svign, Molire (Jean Baptiste Poquelin), and Jean Racine; in the world of art were Jules Hardouin Mansard, Charles Lebrun, Claude Lorraine, Pierre Puget and, of course, Charles Perrault. 16 After the death of Mazarin in 1661, this g reat array of artists incorporated themselves into the court of the twenty three year old Louis XIV, who introduced the concept of absolute monarchy to France. literary glory that th 17 The literary glory of France was only expanded upon by the appreciation that Louis XIV felt 13 Duruy, 1896: 403. 14 Duruy, 1896: 403. 15 Duruy, 1896: 415. 16 Duruy, 1896: 416. 17 Duruy, 1896: 468.
7 for the arts. Louis not only viewed literature as a type of power, but he also considered it a necessity, something extravagant and worthy of a king. 18 Because of this, he placed great emphasis on literature and, for example, had the French Academy continue to work on the official French dictionary and had Boileau and Racine working as his historiographers. Not only did he surround himself with great works and people, Louis XIV also surrounded himself with the physical beauty of Versailles, making it easier for him to indulge in the arts. 19 Overall, France gained a superior place in art and literature during the reign of Louis XIV. With this superiority, all of Europe was forced to follow the trends of the French authors, artists, fashion, architecture, and cuisine among others. This being said, it is easy to understand why a man like Charles Perrault was able to immerse himself in the world of literature. Although he had lost his position and pension in the court, Perrault had long been surrounded by a world that not only appreciated but also supported literature and beauty overall, he had seen great authors come and go but their work remain ed and served as motivation for him to continue with his work. Moreover, it was the perfect undertaking for him to be able to dedicate time to his family and also do something constructive towards the end of his life. Due to the French folktales spread so quickly to other nations and cultures shortly after their 18 Duruy, 1896: 415. 19 Duruy, 1896: 459.
8 publication. One of the nations in which Perrault's tales spread was the area we now call German y. There it was that the Grimm brothers wrote their own adaptations of some of Perrault's work. Jacob Ludwig Grimm (1785 1863) and Wilhelm Carl Grimm (1786 1859) were born to Philip Wilhelm and Dorothea Grimm in Hanau, Germany only three to four years befo re the French Revolution. Philip was an loving mother and wife. In their first twelve years of marriage they had a total of nine children, only six of whom lived. 20 In 1791 the Grimm family moved to the town of Steinau, near Kassel, where Philip had earned a position working as the district magistrate. During this time, the family was able to have servants and live a rather wealthy and comfortable life. When the children were sen t to school, Jacob and Wilhelm, both very studious young men, decided to follow their father's lawyerly path of their own volition. 21 In 1796 Philip Grimm passed away from pneumonia at 44 years of age, leaving the whole family without a financial provide r. 22 Soon after his death, Dorothea and the six children had to leave their large home and servants and became completely dependent on Johannes Hermann Zimmer, the children's grandfather, and Henriette Zimmer, their aunt. At this time Jacob became the 20 Zipes, Jack. The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to th e Modern World. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2002. 2. Print. 21 Zipes, 2002: 3. 22 Zipes, 2002: 4.
9 head of the household, and he, together with Wilhelm, lost his childhood to the world of adult responsibility 23 a motif depicted in Cinderella where a young girl who is hard at work throughout the tale instead of enjoying her youth. In 1798, Henriette made arr angements for Jacob and Wilhelm to attend the Kassel Lyzeum 24 and for the rest of the family to receive food and financial support. Their move to Kassel marked the end of the brothers' ideal childhood in the country with their family. 25 There, alone and wit hout any parental guidance, were about to prove that they were very bright and capable students, their belov ed and admired grandfather died. B ecause of his death, the brothers were left to decide their own futures as well as the future of their whole family. 26 Regardless of their loss, the Grimm brothers worked hard to prove themselves in their studies, they ofte n times worked up to twelve hours per day. Their teachers' unfair treatment due to their lower social class, only served to motivate the brothers. 27 They both graduated at the top of their respective cl asses in 1802 and 1803 and later attended the University of Marbourg. Their hardworking nature and the 23 Zipes, 2002: 4. 24 The German academic equivalent of a high school. 25 Zipes, 2002: 5. 26 Zipes, 2002: 5. 27 Zipes, 2002: 5.
10 difference between the brothers and the rest of their wealthy classmates the m. Work ethic in their personal lives as well as in their German culture had a significant input in their tales where diligent protagonists are rewarded. his emphasis on the h istorical side of law led Jacob and Wilhelm to study ancient German folklore and literature, and Savigny also permitted them to use his private library at their disposition. 28 Through their studies of the German past and their hopes for unification of the h undreds of German principalities, the Grimms found it imperative to recover basic substance of the German people. In 1805 Jacob left Wilhelm in order to accompany Savigny to Paris. Savigny was the man who introduced the brothers to the idea that a nation can be linked by its laws if everybody follows the same code of conduct for the better being of a nation, then its inhabitants are more likely to feel united and act as one and also catalyzed their interest in folktales as a means to national unity si nce folktales tend to instill specific morals and values that can be appreciated and follow ed by all who come across the tale. The brothers wrote letters back and forth expressing their sentiments and sharing their increasing knowledge of German literature laws and customs. After returning from Paris in 1806, Jacob decided to abandon law and study literature instead. He moved back to his 28 Zipes, 2002: 7.
11 mother's home, now in Kassel. In the meantime, Wilhelm remained at the University of Marbourg in order to finish his stu dies of law. During this time, Jacob and Wilhelm continued their faithful correspondence which concerned itself mainly with the family's wellbeing. Dorothea, their mother, died in 1808, leaving Lotte and Jacob to manage the household and care for their you nger siblings. 29 Between 1806 and 1810, all of the siblings made decisions about their future careers. It was during this time that Jacob and Wilhelm began to collect folktales for Clemens Brentano 30 who had already published a volume of old folk songs. 31 Th ey collected their tales from old books and their many acquaintances in Kassel. They even asked their friends to collect stories from ot her people and later relate these tales back to them. However, in his book The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, Jack Zipes stresses that the Grimms did not simply write down the tales as they were told to them. Instead, they reworked them so that they would better fit their religious beliefs and cleanliness as the 32 all traits that would make it easier to create a successful and more united German form of a self validation that was also a validation of patriarchy in the family and 29 Zipes, 2002: 9 30 German poet an d novelist who was part of the R omantic movement. 31 Zipes, 2002: 10. 32 Zipes, 2002: 13.
12 33 Although their tales' morals generally support the underdog, humility, and kindness, Zipes also suggests that they 34 In 1808, Ja cob became King Jrome's (of Westphalia) private librarian, a position which helped him continue his studies and provide for his family once again. Throughout his life, Wilhelm suffered from many and continuous health problems ranging from asthma to rare h eart diseases. 35 All their troubles aside, the brothers reached an agreement with Clemens Brentano allowing them to publish the tales they had collected for him in 1810. 36 This publication became the first volume of the Kinder und Hausmrchen ( Children and Household Tales ) When they began collecting the tales and information, they had not intended to publicize such a book, therefore, contrary to the title of the book not all of their s gradually began to make a name for themselves among philologists not only in folktale collection, but rather all of their other research and publications. 37 Their folktales were not g randly acclaimed until later on. In 1814, Jacob became part of the Hessian Peace Delegation and was a 33 Zipes, 2002: 13. 34 Zipes, 2002: 13. 35 Zipes, 2002: 14. 36 Zipes, 2002: 16. 37 Zipes, 2002: 16.
13 diplomat in Paris and Vienna. While Jacob was gone, Wilhelm secured for himself the post of royal librarian in the city of Kassel. There he worked on ed iting and fully annotating the second volume of their folktale book. Shortly afterwards, Jacob returned to Kassel and joined his brother as second librarian. It was during this time and for thirteen years to follow that they enjoyed their job and were able to focus on their research and publications; some of these works included a volume of Deutsche Grammatik (German Grammar), Deutsche Rechtsaltertmer (Ancient German Law), and translations of Die deutsche Heldensage (The German Heroic Legend) and Irische L and und Seemrchen ( Irish Land and Sea Tales ) Eventually the brothers left their posts at the royal library and moved to Berlin where they were hired as professors at the University of Berlin 38 the Humboldt University today. They were both well receiv ed in this city, a fact that made it easier for them to establish a household for both of them to live and work. In 1848, Jacob left his position at the University of Berlin and Wilhelm left his in 1852. 39 From that time until the end of their lives, the Br others Grimm spent the majority of their time working on the Deutsches Wrterbuch ( German Dictionary ), an entomological dictionary which they were unable to complete themselves 40 Wilhelm died in 1859 and Jacob in 1863. 38 Zipes, 2002: 21. 39 Zipes, 2002: 22. 40 Zipes, 2002: 2 3.
14 Germany was a collection of over 2 00 principalities and because the French Revolution occurred so soon after their births, they experienced the full consequences of it. Since most people held France in high regard because of its dominance in the arts, fashion, literature and innovation, th e Revolution came as a rather shocking change not only for France, but the surrounding countries as well. In the German principalities, the Revolution brought about life home 41 More and more Germans wanted to have a sense of community and a feeling of belonging, something they did not have as independent principalities. Regardless, nationalist tendencies grew and were reinforced by the Ge rman conflict with France; Napoleon Bonaparte invaded, conquered and l ater on reduced the number of G e r man principalities by uniting them between 1806 and 1807 to make them easier to manage. 42 During this time, the idea of national ties and values surpassed the realm of literature and became politically involved; however, linguistics and literature were of utmost importance. 43 This is where the Grimm brothers played an important role: through their meticulous work on their Deutsches Wrterbuch they wished to create a more stable and unified German language that would in turn unite its speakers, which would hopefully result in the formation of a more clearly 41 Sheehan, James. German History: 1770 1866 Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1989. 325. Print. 42 Zipes, 2002: 9. 43 Zipes, 2002: 22.
15 defined German nation state. This is also the case with their folktales, which they trusted would show t he German people significant similarities in their practices and customs to bind them into a greater German whole. 44 How ever, the brother s eagerness to create ties amongst the German people also led to their extreme editing of the tales. In trying to more believed the tales to hold, the Grimm Brothers : eliminated erotic and sexual elements that might be offensive to middle class morality, added numerous Christian expressions and references, emphasized specific role mo dels for male and female protagonists according to the dominant patriarchal code of that time, and endowed many of the tales with a 'homey' or biedermeier flavor by the use of diminutives, quaint expressions, and cute descriptions. 45 Cinderella was no exce ption to the Grimm's editing tactics. They made sure to domesticate the young protagonist so that she would be truly worthy to marry the prince when he came to rescue her in the end of the tale. They also made her obedient, hardworking and generous to the point of self sacrifice; 46 throughout the tale they emphasize the importance of inner Beauty over external beauty. By making the tales remain constant with Protestant ethics, Jacob and Wilhelm reinforced the unity their readers might have felt because of t heir shared customs 44 Zipes, 2002: 23. 45 Zipes, 2002: 46 46 Zipes, 2002: 196.
16 and practices, thus, reinforcing nationalism itself.
17 The Texts: Beauty in Cinderella The concept of Beauty and what is Beautiful has existed all around the world since been absolute and immutable but has taken on different aspects depending on 47 In other words, it is subjective. The idea of what is Beautiful chan ges from one individual to the next; regardless of these changes, it is a fact that Beauty exists. When speaking of Beauty it is difficult not to think of ancient Greece since many philosophers, like Plato, thoroughly discussed and examined the subject o f Symposium for example, is a philosophical text that concerns itself with procreation, love and beauty. It tells of a banquet where a group of men gather to honor the god Dionysus. During the gatheri ng the men decide to give their accounts of what they believe love and Beauty to be. Although each of the men has a good argument, it is Socrates who gives the best account when he states that love is required in order to procreate, but that in order to fi nd love there has to be beauty, and true Beauty is not found in physical appearances but rather in a 47 Eco, Umberto (Ed.). History of Beauty. New York : Riz zoli Internatio nal Publications 2004. 14. Print. 47 Plato. The Symposium of Plato ( Groden, Suzy Q. (Trans.) Massachusetts : University of Massachusetts Press 1970. 83. Print.
18 B eautiful soul. Therefore inner Beauty surpasses external attractiveness. Symposium Beauty is seen as something that is wanted for oneself. Not only is this desire of possession asserted about the Beautiful but also about that which is good following the assumption that what is beautiful is therefore want for nothing more. 48 Through the words of Socrates and Diotima, a priestess whom Socrates met in his youth of giving birth in the ugly, but on In order for procreation (as well as the creation of things) and existence to occur, humans are drawn to beauty in one form or another. People fr om all around the world have found Beauty within their countries and cultures whether in nature, art, music, theater, literature or themselves as human beings regardless of the time period in which they live. In addition, within each culture and each t ime period there exists a general trend of agreement as to what is Beautiful, even if this trend may seem wrong, outlandish, or grotesque and morbid to outsiders. For example, the elongation of necks in Southeast Asia and 48 Plato, 1970: 84.
19 Africa, foot binding in China, wai st reduction through corsetry 49 initially found in Europe, and scarification also from Africa are trends that have been found, throughout the world and in particular cultures, to be a sign of Beauty, yet in other cultures these practices are seen as the g ro tesque and even unhealthy destruction of the human frame. clothing also serves as an instantaneous expression of Beauty. Some people use clothing to enhance parts of the body they particularly like, while other people do the opposite and use clothing to hide what they are self conscious about or ashamed of. For example, a woman with shapely calves might prefer to wear a knee high skirt, while a woman who thinks she has unattractive calves, and is self conscious about them, would most likely choose a garment that covers or hides her legs, whether it is a longer skirt or a pair of pants. In general however, wardrobe choices reflect not only a need to deal with the physical side of an individual, but also their inner self. For instance, someone with low self esteem might choose one of two forms of expression: clothing that will mirror their low opinion of themselves and will help them go unnoticed, or flashy garments that will draw othe rs to them the attention acquired becomes a round about way to 49 The use of a tight fitting bodice, usually made with several layers of fa bric and reinforced by stays or boning, and laced at the back in order to give back support and create a more slender waistline. If worn routinely and for extended amounts of time, a corset can contract the rib cage and shift internal organs to better acco mmodate the garment.
20 self validation if not self esteem. Often times the world of clothing is employed as an enhancement or a way of camouflaging the reality of an individual. This use of clothing to alter a pers seen throughout the tale of Cinderella Not only is fashion utilized as a way to when and where one normally would not be; f or example, Cinderella would most likely be disregarded by the prince if she showed up to the ball in her result of her beautiful clothing and overall external appearance. Beauty d oes not end with the physical world for everyone though, it can is also good. In fact, cer tain groups (especially religious groups) place a much greater emphasis on the inner workings of an individual as a sign of Beauty than like kindness, honesty, loyalty, 50 Reverting to the concept of existence and procreation, Plato makes the point that when an individual instinctively searches for a beautiful 50 Sircello, Guy. A New Theory of Beauty Prince ton: Princeton University Press. 1975. 81. Print.
21 body and finds it, he is only delighted when he finds beauty of the soul as well, 51 52 In other words, Beauty can be found in the physical se ems that what is beautiful is the same as what is good, and in fact in various historical periods there [has been] a close link between the Beautiful and the experiences the Beauty of t he soul he will find the beauty that exists in souls more valuable than that in the body, so that when there is decency of soul in someone, although this person may have very little of the bloom of physical beauty, it satisfies him to love him and care for beauty rather a minor thing. 53 In the 1697 version of the tale of Cinderella written by Charles Perrault, the inner workings of the characters are highlighted from the very beginning. Instead of being descri bed by physical attributes, the women of the tale are 54 (the haughtiest, proudest 51 Plato 1970: 89. 52 Plato 1970: 91. 53 Plato 1970: 92. 54 Perrault, Charles. Cendrillon Barcelona : Novoprint 2003. 9. Print.
22 woman that had ever been seen), and her two daughters are said to resemble her in everything implying that they are also terribly haughty and proud. In the next sentence, Cinderella however i tait la meilleure 55 (of an exceptionally sweet and gentle nature. She got this from her mother, who had been the nicest person in the world). These descriptions immediately distinguish the characters as protagonist and antagonists, and they also set up the source of conflict in the tale: the stepmother unnecessarily difficult by treating her as a servant. I n the meantime, Cinderella endures her step treatment because of her sweet disposition and unrivaled patience. In other words, good versus evil and beauty versus ugliness are the battles Cinderella fights against the stepmother and stepsisters. The chores given to the good natured girl not only refl ect the random malice of her qualits de cette jeune enfant, qui rendaient ses filles encore plus ha 56 (could not endure the excellent qualities of this young girl, for they made her own two daughters appear more hateful than ever). It is for this reason that she decided to give the young girl all of the worst chores around the house such as 55 Perrau lt, 2003: 9. 56 Perrault, 2003: 9.
23 wa shing the dishes, cleaning the stairs and all the rooms of the house. Not only is Cinderella in charge of the household chores, she is also deprived of comfort. lits des plus 57 (had rooms with parquet flooring, and beds of the most fashionable style, with mirrors in which they could see themselves from top to toe), 58 (on a wretched mattress in a garret at the top of the house). All these chores and ill treatment are meant to exhaust the young girl and rob her of the inner B eauty that makes her stepsisters appear so odious. The stepmother wants to break to turn her external and inner B eauty into ugliness. However, even in her attempts to separate the stepsisters from Cinderella and make them seem better than the abused girl, the stepmother fails. Part of this failure comes from the divide itself: by behaving so erroneously towards Cinderella, the stepmother causes her own footsteps a stepsisters become more and more detestable and in nately ugly. Not only that, the physical divide that sets the sisters in more comfortable and luxurious lodgings and Cindere lla in the attic s hows the amount of pretense the sisters 57 Perrault, 2003: 10. 58 Perrault, 2003: 10.
24 must undergo in order to make themselves more appealing. This is also why the mention of the large mirrors in the stepsisters rooms adds to their list of negative qualities and reinforces the amount of pretense on th eir behalf: they are not only mean spirited, they are also vain. They need the body sized mirrors in order to make sure that their physical appearance is good enough to mask the atrociousness of their personalities to the outer world, and even themselves. The physical and mental abuse that Cinderella is made to endure, affects her to the point that by the end of the day, when she is finished with her work, she retreats to the corner of the hearth in search of some form of comfort among the cinders. Cinde rella does not turn to her father because he is said to be completely ruled by his new wife. 59 chimney and her acquired filthy appearance, the young girl earns the name of though her clothes are tattered and she is covered in soot, Cinderella remains 60 (a hundred times more beauti ful than her sisters), regardless of the magnificent clothing and fashionable airs that the sisters put on. This sentence is the first instance in the tale where physical beauty is referred to. The fact that Cinderella is still significantly more beautifu l than her stepsisters, regardless of her dirty and ill clad appearance, shows that her 59 Perrault, 2003: 10. 60 Perrault, 2003: 11.
25 to make her daughters seem more appealing; this also hints at the presence of a dif significant. When t he Prince invites all the eligible maidens of the land to a ball, the stepsister s liv e s quickly turn into an obsession with themselves and their physical appearanc e; all they concern themselves with are the dresses they are going to wear and the best way to fix their hair all tools to mask the darkness and unattractiveness of their souls in order to fit in at the royal court. The older sister chooses to wear a red velvet gown adorned with Honiton lace, which is a very fine and sought after type of lace that was made popular by royalty in the 16 th century. The younger of the two stepsisters decides to wear her everyday dress accompanied by he r et [son ] barrier de diamants 61 (the cloak with the golden flowers and [her] necklace of diamonds). What the sisters decide to wear is significant in terms of its individual symbolism. The color red, for instance, has various meanings; within the context of folktales, it mainly in terms of a loss of virginity (as Bruno Bettelheim insists in his book The Uses of Enchantment ). 62 This wardrobe choice negatively singles out the older sister as 61 Perrault, 2003: 12. 62 Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. New York: Random House 1977 Print.
26 desperat e and, to an extent, as a pretentious individual who is no longer chaste, personality: her superficiality and mean 63 ; on the one hand, she chooses her everyday dress which indicates the acceptance of her own self as an individual and her underlying humility, while on the other hand, she chooses a cloak that is decorated in gold and a necklace made of diamonds, which are b oth symbols of opulence and extravagance. By choosing these two items, the younger sister masks her true identity: a kinder, more down to earth person with an appealing exterior that most likely keeps interaction and attraction from anyone like the Princ e on a very superficial level. In addition to their choice in wardrobe, both sisters do not eat for several days and break at least twelve laces to their bodices in attempts to make their waists even smaller a much desired look; they are in front of th eir mirrors day in and day out, an activity which further emphasizes their self absorbed and shallow nature. In the end, both sisters are attempting to hide their true selves from the outside world by trying to add physical beauty to that which is not inna tely Beautiful. wishes. She helps them get dressed and combs their hair, and even gives them advice in anything they request. Because of her gentle disposition, Cinderella 63 Perrault, 1969: 68.
27 does not f alter when and where she could take vengeance; instead of maliciously giving her sisters bad advice, or giving them a bad hairstyle, she does the best she can. The fact that Cinderella is able to transcend the resentment that she is entitled to, characteri zes her as a patient, enduring, and especially forgiving order to help her; however, she is willing to help only under the condition that the maiden remain a good person. T his scene places further emphasis on the importance of Good or inner Beauty; in a way, it says that being innately patience, and generosity help her gain the possibility of att ending the ball she so fervently wished to be a part of. Permission and the means to attend the ball, however, are not the only things our protagonist needs for her endeavor. She must also wear something other than the cinder covered rags she spends her l ife in, lest she be made fun of at the royal court just as her sisters envision earlier in the tale. When Cinderella clothes into a beautiful gown made of silver and gold that is also encrusted with jewels; she also fits her with a pair of glass slippers (which some people speculate 64 This transformation fr om rags 64 Perrault, 2003: 17.
28 and cinders, however, introduces Cinderella to an unimaginable type of physical b eauty. In addition to being one hundred times more beautiful than her sisters, and being a naturally more Beautiful person in terms of her inner self, she is now compl etely clad in a ravishing outfit that only serves to further embellish her Beauty. Covered in such glamorous attire, the maiden looks like an unknown princess when she walks into the ball. Everybody that sees her is absolutely astounded by her looks. Throu 65 (Oh, how b eautiful she is!) Her physical b eauty not only draws the attention of the crowd but also that of the Prince, who forgets to eat because he is so smitten by the gorgeous Cinderella In this instance, physical 66 Due to her outer appearance, the young maiden is accepted and respected at the ball. Other ladies present at the ball thoroughly a dmire her outfit and hairstyle in order that they might be able to mimic the style in the future. The Prince even allows her to sit in the most honorable place in the room. Also, given the fact that no one is used to seeing Cinderella dressed in such finery, she manages to sit next to her step family and share a meal with them as equals something that did not happen at home appearance lend her a very high amoun t of prestige, at least until the night is 65 Perrault, 2003: 18. 66 Sircello, 1975: 19.
29 over and she must return to her home (before the rest of her family) and to her soot covered rags and humble lifestyle. Had Cinderella not been externally appealing, she would have been denied the admittance to th e palace, and what is more, she would most likely have been shunned by the Prince and all of his guests. Her outer beauty opens an unimaginable world of opportunities. Once the stepmother and stepsisters return home, they cannot finish expressing their ple 67 (the most beautiful princess) at the ball. They ardently exclaim how attractive she was but also comment that she was generous enough to share a meal with them. The fact that the stepfamily acknowledges that generosity and kindness are good qualities to have, and that they are characteristics that render an individual even more Beautiful than mere physical beauty alone, shows that their mean and malicious behavior towards Cinderella is not nave but rather int entional. In acknowledging generosity and kindness as a positive trait, the step family further condemns itself as innately unattractive or Ugly. As if to reinforce this, siste rs mocks Cinderella when she asks to borrow a dress in order to attend the next ball, juxtaposing generosity with selfishness and malice. At the next ball, Cinderella arrives once again magnificently dressed and gains the undivided attention of the prince Upon forgetting the time, she is 67 Perrault, 2003: 20.
30 forced to rush out of the building, lest everyth ing her godmother gave h er vanish on the spot and in front of the whole court, leaving her standing in nothing but her tattered clothes. As she rushes through and past the p alace guards, one of her slippers falls off her dainty foot for the Prince to find. When the Prince asks the guards if a young lady has passed them by, their response is that no lady has only an ill clad peasant. This particular scene shows how important fashion and Cinderella would have never been socially accepted at either of the balls, the potential rejection from the ball because of a dirty appearance means that the people pres ent would have never noticed or appreciated her inner Beauty. In a in order that she might have a chance to display her Beautiful inner self to the people at court. In fact, a few days after the ball, the prince sets out on a quest to find the young lady whose shoe he still has, but to no avail. Eventually the shoe sks to try it on after the slipper ha s failed to fit her sisters, her step family thoroughly mocks her. But when the slipper fits her and Cinderella draws its match from her her tattered clothes and instantly trans forms them into much more beautiful clothes than anyone in the room is wearing. Immediately, the two sisters
31 68 (for the beautiful person whom they had seen at the ball) and all of a sudden t hey bowed at her feet and asked forgiveness for all of the horrible ways in which they had treated her. This recognition of their wrong doing, although late in coming, redeems the two girls. They admit and accept that they were wrong in judging and mistrea ting Cinderella, and by physically bowing down to her they demonstrate a new sense of humility. Not unexpectedly, Cinderella forgives the girls and marries each of them off to important gentlemen of the court. This is, once again, additional proof of the B eautiful personality and admirable qualities that, on top of her physical Beauty, make Cinderella worthy of marrying the prince. A similar emphasis on inner Beauty can be found in the Brothers Grimm version of the Cinderella tale written in 1812. At the v ery beginning of the tale, s to convey to Cinderella the 69 (Dear child, if you remain pious and good, our dear Lord will always help you, and I shall look down from heaven and always be with you). This line is the 68 Perrault, 2003: 25. 69 Grimms Mrchen Mnchen : Knaur Verlag 2003. 368. Print.
32 reasons. To begin with, a it conditions [the] early [sic ] development [of our personality], affecting to a large degree what our outlook on life and ourselves will be whether optimist 70 More importantly, the dying wish of a maternal figure can have an even more severe impact on the child, simply because that is the last memory that the child will have of its mother. Due to this reason, the meaning of the last words s poken by promises that good will come from being good, the believing Cinderella has no option but to look at life, no matter how grim it might be for her at times, in a posit ive manner, under the assumption that one day all of her noble efforts will pay off. a stepmother and two stepsisters 71 (with hearts that were foul and blac they introduce a gamut of harsh situations for Cinderella. The first case occurs when they force Cinderella to be come a servant in her own home; she is no longer viewed as an equal, but has to work for her food and keep much like the Brothers Grimm had to early in their lives. Although this is done in order to mistreat Cinderella, it serves as a way for her to learn necessary skills to become 70 Bettelheim, 1977: 2 19. 71 Grimms 2003: 368.
33 a wife and a mother; she learns how to clean and arrange the house as well as cook all important to properly satisfy a husband and necessary to fit the patriarchal world in which the Grimm brothers lived. Shortly afterwards, her sisters, who are described as fair and beautiful, rob her of all her exquisite cl 72 (wooden shoes). This instance is extremely significant because, although the sisters are said to be externally attractive, their actions show the opposite o f Beauty in their inner self, and by stripping Cinderella of her beautiful garments, they only prove their lack of grace and malice of spirit. As Guy Sircello says in A New Theory of Beauty become more and more despondent or brutal is not to become be autiful; it is to 73 stepsisters symbolically express a need to be like her. In a way, they hope to gain the Beauty that Cinderella naturally exudes by masking their own phys ique with what once helped their sister look appealing; at the same time, they do their best garments. The sisters do not attempt to reduce Cinderella to a state of homeliness sol ely through the use fashion, but they also contrive all of the meanest ways possible to make her life unbearable and full of suffering. For example, they often 72 Grimms 2003: 369. 73 Sircello, 1975: 95.
34 an unnecessary and extremel y tedious task so that in the end Cinderella is covered in cinders. This, as well as her habit of sleep ing in a corner of the hearth, provide s the origin What the sisters do not realize, however, is that by giving Cinderella such terrible tasks, they are only making themselves seem more heinous as they strengthen omplain but does as she is told. plaints are a form of obedience or of being good. Our protagonist also demonstrates her purity of heart when her father goes to town and asks each of the three girls what they would like for him to bring back. The two sisters ask for beautiful dresses as well as pearls and precious stones, for fancy dresses and jewelry shows a certain level of vanity. On the other hand, would in any way cost or inconvenience her father. The fact that Cinderella asks for only a branch instead of something extravagant and luxurious show s that she knows her place in the household but also that she is a humble kind hearted girl who is unconcerned with materialistic things. Her simple and good hearted character is what the Grimm Brothers wanted to emphasize in their tale. This serves as a l esson to their audience: the more selfless and humble you are, the
35 more rewards you will have. Not only does this tale serve to teach morals and values, it also shows what was expected of a young woman in the Grimm's society. A young woman was to uncomplai ningly accomplish all the chores of the household single handedly, be able to look beautiful when the occasion called for it, be selfless, humble and take orders well. Because of the humility behind her request, the young maiden is rewarded when, from the branch that her father every time Cinderella visits the tree to cry and pray, a white bird flies by and gives her whatever she wishes. Some time goes by and the girls grow olde r while remaining the same in personality and general characteristics. One day, invitations arrive for the three day festival where the prince is to choose his bride. (It is important to note that the text specifies that beautiful maidens are the ones i choice for a bride would be expected to be physically appealing, if nothing else.) As expe cted, the stepsisters are beside themselves with excitement. As soon as their excitement begins, they become demanding towards their sister ordering her to help them get ready for the first ball. Cinderella does as she is told. When she asks if she can go to the ball with them, her stepmother refuses at first but then agrees to let her go on the condition that she separate a bowl of lentils from the ashes of the hearth within two hours. Cinderella goes outside and calls for help from little birds who, because of her good character and the partial
36 bowl for her However, when she brings the bowl to her stepmother, she refuses to let her go unless she repeats the process but this time with two bowls. In the end, Cinderella is not allowed to go to the ball lest she embarrass her stepfamily. This is yet another ins alities are directly contrasted: the stepmother makes an agreement to let Cinderella go to the ball if she accomplishes the task set before her, and does not keep her word in the end, while Cinderella belie ves and trusts her stepmother and finds a way to keep her side of the bargain even if to no avail. After everybody leaves the house, Cinderella runs to the tree on her und sil 74 (a dress of gold and silver, along with slippers embroidered with silk and silver). This and come in her time of need if she remained a good person. Cinderella takes the gown, dresses herself, and heads to the ball. It is important to note the girls not magically dressed by her godmoth er, or driven to the palace in an ornate be accepted at the ball (the elaborate and fancy garments), and is in charge of 74 Grimms 2003: 372.
37 dressing herself and finding her own way to the party. In other words she is a Cinderella arrives at the ball she is not recognized by anyone because of her clothing (not even her stepfamily) and is actually thought to be a foreign Princess. Due to her unrivaled physical appearance, the Prince chooses to dance with her the entire evening and wants to learn more about her, but Cinderella manages to run away from him undetected. As soon as she returns home, she returns her beautiful clothing to the hazel hearth, tricking her family into thinking that she had been there all night. The more striking than the firs t and the Prince is already expecting her. They dance all night as the day before and he tries to follow her at the end of the night but to keins gehabt hatte, und die Pantoffe 75 (a dress that was more splendid and radiant than anything she had ever seen, and the slippers Cendrillon, Cinderella only add to her already existing physical beauty and they create a means for her true Beauty, her inner Beauty, to be seen and appreciated by everyone. Her lavish physical appearance gives her the opportunity to be admired and valued by the Prince, who would most likely have disregarded her 75 Grimms 20 03: 374
38 if he had se en her in her ash covered rags. This time, during her escape, the prince is ahead of her and has the staircase covered with tar in attempts to prevent the unknown maiden from leaving; however, the only thing that remains in the tar is one of her golden sli ppers. The next day, the prince vows to marry the maiden whose foot fits the shoe. When the stepsisters try the shoe on, they both find that either their toe or heel is too big to allow for a perfect fit. This is e of sensibility as she tells them to cut their toe or heel off, respectively, with the reasoning that once either of them is queen she will no longer need to walk. Each of the girls in turn does as she is told and is taken away by the prince; however, bot h girls are brought back soon afterwards when the prince discovers the blood in the shoe. This section of the tale is by far the most gruesome and distinctive; it shows just how far the stepfamily is willing to go in order to follow their greed and selfish intentions. The mother is willing to cripple her daughters for a chance to be royalty, just as the girls mutilate themselves for the chance to be crowned queen. In doing so, they strip themselves of external beauty, because regardless of the attractivenes s of the rest of their body, the girls are no longer proportionate and as Eco states, Summa theologiae be not only due proportion but also integrity (in other words, all things must have all the parts that rightly belong to them) and hence a mutilated body is
39 76 This extreme behavior brings the stepsisters inner repulsiveness to its climax. Now, instead of having beautiful feet and a flawless physical appearance, they are marred as a result of their inner unattractiveness and turmoil. When Cinderella is asked to try on the slipper, she first washes the soot from her hands and face, leaving behind a layer of her harsh past. When she tries on the shoe and it fits her, the prince suddenly realiz es that she is the girl whom he had danced with and the one he wishes to marry. Instead of being happy for 77 (was horrified, and they turned pale with rage). On the day of the w edding, the three tale receive their just rewards. The two horrible stepsisters get their eyes pecked out by two doves; this punishment of blindness ensures that they will never again judge a person solely on appearances, and also further destro ys their once beautiful faces. They have no choice but to learn about the inner self of the people around them as well as about themselves. In the end, they are unable to cover up their Ugliness with gowns and jewels. On the other hand, Cinderella marries the Prince, the marriage is her fair and just reward for the years of suffering she was forced to endure at the hands of her if she remains good and faithful, she will be helpe d and rewarded in the end. The fact that she is inwardly Beautiful perfectly complements and enhances her 76 Eco, 2004: 88. 77 Grimm s, 2003: 375.
40 78 As far as Cin lavish cloth ing is concerned it is the means to her happy ending they are what allow her to enter a world, from which she would have otherwise been banned. 78 Eco, 2004: 41.
41 The Films: Using Appearances to Learn about Inner Beauty As mentione d before, the tale of Cinderella has spread through many different nations and has also been represented in various media ranging from the oral folktale tradition to written interpretations, theatrical productions, and even films. It is through film that t his tale has found an incredible amount of fame in the last few decades. The storyline has been worked and reworked into many different types of cultures and time periods. There is for example, the Disney movie Cinderella Cendril lon or the much different 1990s film Pretty Woman that deals with the same concepts and main storyline but in a modern world where the Cinderella character happens to be a prostitute. However, two films that I feel more closely resemble P Grimm brother s tales are the Czech Tri orsky pro Popelku (Three Nuts for Cinderella) and the American Ever After Both of these films have an interesting connection when it comes to beauty: the individual princes get to know and fall in love with their r espective Cinderellas while thinking they are courtiers instead of servants. In these films external beauty serves as a means for the princes to see Tri orsky pro Popelku is the 1973 film directed by Czech d irector Vclav Vorlcek (who wan ted the film to have a wintery R enaissance feel ) that very Aschenputtel The creation of this film was quite an
42 endeavor since it was filmed in Germany as well as in the Czechoslovakia. At the t ime, Germany was still divided into East and West a fact which meant that Vorlcek had to acquire a lot of special permissions from the GDR. At this time, both Czechoslovakia and East Germany were deprived of a sense of democracy. This deprivation is perh aps the reason why Vorlcek chose the story of Cinderella because, in a way, he could relate the role of the oppressed protagonist to the oppressed people of both countries. Some of the main differences between the written tale and this film come from Cin ality and actions. In the Grimm s tale, she is a much more passive character who does nothing to defend herself from the ill treatment of her family, while in this particular film, she speaks her mind and is more active. Overall though, the role that inner and external Beauty play in the story as a whole remains the same as in the texts: each one is affected by the othe r, and as Marcia Eaton states: the aesthetic cannot be understood in isolation from other human concerns and experiences. W hat delights or repels us aesthetically, what we believe, and what motivates or offends us morally influence and interfere with one another. 79 From the beginning of the film, the separation between Cinderella, played by Libuse Safrankova, and her stepmother and stepsister is obvious, not only in their differing personalities and physical appearances but also in their standing 79 Eaton, Marcia M. Aesthetics and the Good Life Cranbury: Associate d University Presses 1989. 178. Print.
43 in the manor. While the stepmother and stepsister, Dora, appear as cross, demanding and not particularly attractive, Cinderella looks sweet, peaceful, and physically endearing even though she is hard at work and covered in dirt. This blatant separation continues throughout the whole film which is ruled by the separation of the Beautiful and the Ugly. Shortly after the opening credits, th e distinction between the benevolent Cinderella and her heinous stepfamily is more clearly marked when the young girl takes the blame for breaking a plate, in order to save a fellow servant boy from receiving a lashing from her stepmother. The fact that th e stepmother is ready to give the boy a lashing for something as trivial as breaking a plate, truly shows her disgustingly wretched personality it is as if she is taking her own frustrations in life out on anyone that slightly disturbs her. She is ready to physically harm a child for the loss of an object that can be easily replaced. On the other hand, Cinderella lies and says it is her fault that the plate is broken, in order to spare her friend. Instead of receiving a lashing, the stepmother makes her s eparate peas from a bucket of ashes. The malice. On the more positive side of things sacrifice is so noble and kind that instead of having to separate th e peas from the ashes on her own, a flock of doves taps at her window and takes care of the task. In this end, she does not have to complete the punishment.
44 While the flock of runs off to the woods while leaving the manor in a state of frantic chaos due to the preparations for the short annual visit from the royal family. The amount of work and chaos created in order to im press the royal family, although partially valid, seems ridiculous and overly pretentious. The stepmother even manages to get an invitation to the upcoming royal ball. The manipulative way in which the stepmother acquires the invitation demonstrates her ca lculating nature and also traits that align them with the Ugly The stepmother wishes to introduce her daughter to a higher society in hopes that a nobleman or a prince might notice her This would mean a rise in social status as well as a healthy amount of financial gain. Most of the negative personality traits originate mostly from the stepmother, and Dora merely follows head, the girl becomes consumed by her own desire to marry the Prince because of the comforts, riches and status that he can provide her. With this obsession for social and economic improvement, the stepmother quickly begins planning for the day of the ball, sending one of her male servants to buy supplies for her and braid and thread, silver buckles, and elaborate jewelry all lavish elements necessary to make both women look as if they belong among the nobility at the
45 the gentle girl is sent out into the snow to wash clothes in a fr eezing river. The man servant notices her and tells her he wishes he could bring her something nice back from town. Knowing that she cannot have anything fancy, Cinderella asks him to bring her back the first thing that falls on his nose. That she is uncon cerned with lavish material things demonstrates her simplicity and humility; and because she is able to be content with, or at least look positively at her reality, she is more worthy of good things and happiness than her greedy stepfamily. Perhaps this is a father substitute, nose on his way back home; however, they do not randomly fall on him, but they are shot down by the Prince in one of his escapades from his studies this small factor not so coi ncidentally connects Cinderella with her future husband. Although this Cinderella is virtuous and kind, moral attributes of Beauty A New Theory of Beauty she also speaks her mind freely and is not afraid to talk back to her step mother or act out in small ways that prove her intelligence. Her openness and direct confrontation can be seen as a form of inner Beauty because she is honest with herself and others, regardless of the trouble it could create. For example, when Dora teases her about not being allowed to attend the ball because she will scare everyone off and her stepmother
46 creates a huge cloud of dust that covers both the unpleasant mother and daughter. I find this action to be partially mischievous and satisfying, and it personality, however it shows her subversive nature and ability to rebel within the confines of he r limited sphere. Other factors that separate this particular respect and attention. She first runs into him in the woods when dressed in her ash covered peasant clothing, and d ares to throw snowballs at him, teases, and even takes his horse to escape from him and his friends. In this scene, her playful and free spirited personality shines through and lets the audience and the Prince see that she is uninhibited by social status a nd rules, her personality, in turn means that she is not concerned with making a good impression on anybody in order to better her situation. She is unconcerned with shallow exteriors and simply is who she wants to be and that makes her innately Beautiful Later on, Cinderella tak es the three nuts to her owl friend named Rosie. Because of her innately good and Beautiful disposition, Cinderella is rewarded with an hunting party. With this external d isg uise, Cinderella is able to blend into the group of men and is even able to shoot down a bird that neither the prince nor his Fig. 1 Hunter Outfit
47 companions are able to. Through her impressive shooting abilities Cinderella earns the respect and admiration of th e group of h unters. This sequence shows that Cinderella can be just as good as or better than the Prince and his aristocratic companions and that she is not afraid of a challenge. It is also significan t because, being a female (even though no one in the hunting party suspects she is) she would never have been expected or maybe even allowed to partic ipate in the hunt. Here, clothing de monstrate her skills. This sequence also demonstrates that she is able to fend f or herself and ultimately does not need a man to take care of her which also means that, unlike her stepsister and stepmother, she does not want to attract a man for selfish or greedy reasons. The night of the ball Cinderella is ordered to help d ress her stepfamily. In this scene, Cinderella is dressed in her usual tattered rags while Dora and her mother are wearing gowns of velvet and satin along with fine jewelry. The juxtaposition does not end with the discrepancies in appearance, but they also present themselves in the attitude and general demeanor of the three request to look into the ball from a palace window and gives her another task to Fig. 3 Cinderella in Rags Fig. 2 Dora in Ball Gown
48 keep her occupied; she throws one measure of lentils and one measure of corn on the floor and says they must be separated by the time she and Dora return from the ball. As Cinderella sadly looks at the task before her, the cruel Dora mixes the you how many 80 This is yet another instance where Cinderella shows her humble character since she does not request to go to the dance itself, which further reassures the fact that she is not looking to improve her life situa tion by pretentiously gaining the attentions of a wealthy suitor. In the meantime, Dora and her mother concern themselves with their greedy aspirations and are unnecessarily cruel and rude to Cinderella. Because of the eauty, the flock of birds returns to help her separate the seeds while she goes to visit Rosie. Once there, Cinderella acquires a beautiful pink gown and intricate jewelry that she immediately puts on. This clothing is far finer and more elaborate than any thing worn by Dora or the stepmother. The garments worn by each lady represent her as an individual. In the case of Dora, the clothing is beautiful and that could be said of her physical appearance as well. The simplicity of her garment mirrors the simplic ity and vapid nature of her inner self. At the palace, Dora (along with many other courtiers) forces her way to the arms of the prince, where she holds insincere 80 Vorli cek, Vaclav. Three Wishes for Cinderella. Perf. Libuse Safrankova. 1973. Film.
49 conversations with him in attempts to con vince him into choosing her as his future bride; this Symposium make her bad and Ugly. When Cinderella arrives at the palace she is so physically attractive in her finery that every single person, from the main entran ce to the dance hall, stares after her in amazement and curiosity. Then, all of a sudden, the prince and Cinderella cross paths and he forgets about his escape and becomes fascinated by the beautiful maiden (who at this point has her face covered with a v eil) in front of him. As they dance, the King exclaims: 81 while everybody in the court wonders about her identity not that the Prince seems genuinely interested in som ebody aside from th e now overtly selfish Dora, stepmother and daughter resentfully joke that the reason for elfishness 81 Vorlicek, 1973. Fig. 4 Cinderella at the Ball
50 evident once again. While the stepfamily makes jokes, the Prince admits to his mysterious dance partner that he is in love and wishes to marry her. It is interesting to note that the Prince is willing to marry someone whose identity he does no t even know, solely based on her physical appearance (not even including a good view of her face) and her graceful dancing. A s previously mentioned Plato equates Beauty with Goodness and this connection could be used to explain why the Prince is uninterested in any of the courtiers but immediately falls in love with Cinderella. If we as human beings are drawn to what is good and Beautiful in order to procreate, 82 then the Prince instinctively chooses Cinderella as his partner because he can sense her virtue of ch aracter and Beauty of soul. On the other hand, he senses the pretense, vanity and greed from the other courtiers even though they are dress beautifully, if deceptively. Unwilling to be wanted just because of her external beauty, Cinderella refuses to ma sweep. Second: hat with a feather and cross roidered in silver, but she is no t [a ] Princess to give the Prince more reason to be interested in her aside from the physical attraction. In a way, Cinderella validates herself as an intelligent and multi faceted individual within her own pers 82 See Chapter 2.
51 world around her. It also shows that she is not interested in the Prince just because he is royalty and wealthy which would make her vain and greedy, but wants to have a more meaningful relationship with him where she is valued, admired, and respected. In this scene, Cinderella takes it upon herself to make the Prince know and car e for her as a person with inner Beauty and not for her physical appearance; she wants her outer beauty to only embellish what is innately there. After the ball all of the young ladies in the manor try on the slipper that was left behind by the mysterious maiden, but the shoe is too small and dainty to 83 As Bruno Bettelheim states in The Uses of Enchantment 84 All of a sudden, servant friend realizes that Cinderella is not present and that perhaps the slipp the stepmother along with Dora and find the girl still dressed in her beautiful pink gown which they take after tying Cinderella down. The action of binding Cinderella and stri pping her of her beautiful gown so t hat they might trick the Prince is the materialization of what the terrible step duo had been doing to Cinderella for years past; they were trying to bind her personality and inner beauty through an extensive list of rou gh household 83 Vorlicek, 1973. 84 Bettelheim, 1977: 236.
52 chores and ill treatment, while stripping as much of her external beauty as possible by only providing her with plain and not particularly appealing clothes, as well as by giving her the dirt iest tasks possible so that she woul d always be cove red in grime or ashes. Here, it is clear that the stepfamily does not have 85 and the lack of such values marks them as innately Ugly regardless of their appearance. Even if Dora wears the same exac t beautiful gown and jewels that Cinderella wears to the ball, the dress is only a means to be noticed by the Prince and it compliments her case, the lavish garments serve as a faade to hide the unattractive and wretched soul that lies within. Later on, as the stepmother and Dora are attempting to fool the Prince, their dishonest tactics come to an abrupt end when their carriage topples ov er into a freezing pool of water. The toppling over of the carriage and the punishment for all of their terrible actions. They are punished for their selfishness, insincer ity, and greed, as well as all their abus e of Cinderella. T rying to p ass herself off as Cinder ella by wearing her clothes, and attempting to attract the prince in a very superficial way, Dora shows that she truly lac ks depth and Beauty within; although s 85 Sircello, 1975: 81.
53 ase, the beautiful garments mask an empty shell of an individual. rtue is what in the end drives them into the water and destroys the only beautiful part of them: their clothes. As the stepfamily receives their just punishment, Cinderella visits Rosie one more time and receives her last gift from the last of her three magical nuts: a very intricately made silver wedding gown. This gown is representative of her upcoming reward for having remained a good person through all the struggles she was made to endure at the hands of her stepfamily. Both Cinderella and the Prince return to the manor around the same time and when he sees her, he recognizes the girl he fell in love with at the ball. He rushes to her and puts the slipper on her dainty foot. T he fact that it fits perfectly is proof, according to Bruno Bettelheim, that extraordinary virtue, distinction, and beauty 86 Then, with a little bit of help from Cinderella, he figures out that the riddle was to make him aware of the multiple instances he had already met her; it shows him that Cinderella is not just an externally beautiful maiden with beautiful clothes, but has other admirable qualities such as her intelligence 86 Bettelheim, 1977: 236. Fig. 5 Cinderella in Wedding Gown
54 and sense of fun, as well as her well appreciated hunting capabilities. The riddle proves that she is a well rounded individual who is a suitable match worthy of marrying the Prince and being royalty. Throughout the film, the stepfamily is constantly dressed in the best garments they can afford; they place a great emphasis on appearances and anything materialistic. However, they fail to c oncern themselves with values, morals and any sort of virtue, and because of this failure they are mean and horrible people to Cinderella, they are shallow, greedy, dishonest, and overall wretched human beings. On the other hand, the Cinderella in Tri ors ky pro Popelku is usually dressed in tattered and filthy clothes, yet she still exudes an inner Beauty that by far surpasses any physical appeal. Her outstanding inner self makes any garments she wears seem unimportant (as is the case with her rags) or mor e appealing and as an extension of her Beautiful inner self. In her case, the extravagant garments are what help her be notic ed by the Prince. T he ornate and luxurious clothing function s as the means by which she is later able to show her inner Beauty. Onc e the Prince is aware of how well rounded Tri orsky pro Popelku inner Beauty dominates over any physical appeal and supports considered Beautiful there must be, first and foremost, Beauty of the soul and later physical beauty.
55 Ever After (1998), places great emphasis on the roles of inner and external Beauty throughout the tale. Although the fi lm is set in the 16 th century, it is geared towards a more modern (20 th century) audience. For example, Cinderella is given more agency in her own situation and is represented as a strong individual. From the very beginning of the film, the Cinderella char acter, Danielle (played by the actress Drew Barrymore) is portrayed as a rather tomboyish girl from the time she is eight years old; she likes to run and have mud fights with boys and is not used to doing particularly f eminine things like wearing pretty dr esses and behaving politely. Although she is rambunctious, the young Danielle is endearing from the start; she has such a charming personality that it is easy to overlook the mud covering her from head to toe. Unfortunately, when her new family arrives th ey are not what she had hoped for; they are distant and withdrawn and seem very discontent with their new home in the country. Even in this scene there is a marked difference in the clothing they are al l wearing. Danielle is in an adorable yet simple dres is covered in mud, and her new stepfamily is wearing elegant dresses made of fancy fabrics; this demonstrates that the two families uniting have very different priorities and styles of living Fig. 6 Tomboy
56 what they have and have a c lose connection to nature and the land, whereas the stepfamily has lived a more opulent and self gratifying life. The first time the Auguste, must leave their home on business. When Danielle lets her new stepmother know that it is tradition to wait for her father to wave at the gate, the haughty woman scoffs and walks inside. Suddenly Auguste falls off his horse and dies from cardiac arrest. He utters his last words, to Danielle, not his new wife; thus creating in the stepmother resentment and jealousy to wards the eight year old girl. This is also most likely the excuse the stepmother uses to justify to herself her terrible treatment of Danielle during the years to come. In Ever After, the importance of inner Be auty is emphasized and rewarded in the end. External beauty plays a significant role, as in Tri orsky pro Popelku, yet it is not suficient to be considered a Beautiful person. In the end, a Beautiful soul is viewed as som ething more important than all the finery someone can be surrounded with. From the beginning, and as in other works discussed in this thesis, Danielle is dressed in very simple and unappealing clothes and is herself often covered in dirt or ashes, while he r two stepsisters are treated and Fig. 7 Stepfamily Arrival
57 dressed like the nobility being waited on by a multitude of servants (including Danielle) who dress them in fashionable dresses made of fine fabrics. Aside from being a servant in her own home, Danielle has to deal with polite comments and behaviors; s uch as being made fun of the way she looks. This situation divides the family into aggressors (the stepfamily) and victim (Danielle). Danielle is treated p s jealousy and resentment towards her. However, regardless of the ill treatment Danielle humb ly wait s on her stepfamily on hand and foot and works her The scenes where Danielle meets the prince, first as a servant and then dressed as a courtier, tell a lot about the importance of and the royal life in general. The first time they meet, Danielle is working in the fields and merely looks like a filthy servant girl. Because of th is, Prince Henry pays very little attention to her and leaves. However, when Danielle washes a nd dresses herself in a beautiful higher class gown in order to reedom back from the people to whom the Baroness sold Fig. 8 Servant Danielle
58 him Henry notices her and is amazed at her thought process for feeling entitled to buy a servant back; he never suspects that she could be the servant girl he ran across earlier. D attitude, as well as her physical beauty, captivate Prince Henry enoug h to want to get to know her better. H e becomes infatuated. This sudden interest blatantly demonstrates the shallow nature that the nobility operates under Henry is attracted by this well dressed stranger and is willing to listen to her reasoning for try ing to retrieve a servant, while he barely pays attention to the poor servant fighting back for her horse earlier in the film. In this case, clothing serves as a positive disguise that allows Danielle to be noticed and admired by the Prince. Even though Pl ato believed external beauty to be a meaningless obstacle to true Beauty (the Beauty of the soul), I believe that in this case it serves as a vehicle for an arrogant and rather shallow Prince to get to know a truly worthwhile woman. Once Henry and Danielle interact, she lies about her iden Nicole, lest she be punished for impersonating a courtier. Even though Danielle is overall a good person, this unexpected deception comes back to haunt her later on in the film. While Dani elle is generously risking herself to save Maurice, the Baroness Fig. 9 Courtier Danielle
59 and Marguerite (the older and haughtier of the two stepsisters) are preoccupied with buying jewelry with money they do not have. In fact, Maurice was unjustly sold by the Baroness so that she might have a little more money to spend on her and he also starts secretly selling valuable items from around the house and blaming the servants for their disappearance. Unjustly selling a servant, and hence ruining his life to fulfill her and shows the extremes to which the Baroness is willing to go to in order to satisfy greed. The ostentatious brooch the Baroness buys is for Marguerite to wear when the prince arrives. And wea the brooch in the middle of her purposely enhanced breasts in order to attract Henry, however shallowly. As was hoped, the prince notices Marguerite and the brooch but not for a good or respectable reason. Whi not end at buying luxurious items in attempts to attract Henry to her daughter; she also pays one of th Marguerite and Henry in the same place at the same time so that they might have a better chance at having him choose Marguerite as his bride at the upcoming Fig. 10 Brooch on Marguerite
60 ball; in other word s, the Baroness manipulate s whom ever she is able to in order to attain her selfish goals. These two schemers even receive a stolen piece of the mentioned squire, in order that Marguerite can give it to the queen while pretending to be a good individua l. When Marguerite willingness to return such a valuable object when most people would have kept it. In appreciation, her majesty invites Marguerite and the Baroness to the roy al further classify them as innately Ugly. They use fashion and external beauty as a means to attract the attention of the Pr ince. Even though they succeed i n getting his attent From this point on Henry ca n value Beauty in the way Plato describes it in his Symposium: 87 souls more valuable than that in the body so that when there is decency of soul in someone, although this person may have very little of the bloom of physical 88 One of the first instances in which we can see when he is roaming around the 87 Plato, 1970: 92 88 Plato, 1970: 91.
61 forest with Danielle and he expresses his admiration of the multi faceted 89 s cene where a band of gypsies surrounds her and Henry in the middle of the forest and takes their possessions. Instead of behaving like a helpless maiden, Danielle demands that they return her dress at that very moment. Amused by the ader of the gypsies tells her that she may have whatever she Henry, picks him up, and slowly walks away with him on her back. This hilarious scene is not only appreciated by the viewer, but also by the band of picking up Henry instead of her dress or any object is another of her many generous and innovative characteristics. This action further reinforces her possession of inner Beauty something that definitely does not go unnoticed by Henry. Not only is Danielle humble, hardworking, and intelligent, but in this scene she also proves that she is capable of taking care of herself, is a reliable 89 Tennant Andy. Ever After: A Cinderella Story. Perf. Drew Barrymore. 1998. Film. Fig. 11 Carrying of the Prince
62 individual and is also generous and brave in choosing the Prince as the to carry with her Here is where Danielle breaks away from the conventional mold of the helpless and delicate maiden and allows her inner Beauty to shine through in a very admirable way in front of Henry and the group of gypsies. While Danielle, pretending to be the courtier Nicole, lets her inner Beauty shine, the Baroness and Marguerite learn that Pri nce Henry is spending a lot of time with a young court ier that nobody seems to know. T hey quickly figure out that said courtier is none other than Danielle. Enraged and full of jealousy, they return home with more viciousness than ever before. Marguerite t akes Daniell whic h are supposed to be her dowry, and says she plans to wear them to the ball since Danielle will not be allowed to attend. She Utopia (the last book her father gave her) into th e hearth. This is an unfortunate display of extreme cruelty on the part of the stepfamily. To mistreat Danielle on an everyday basis is bad enough, but to rob her of the last memento of a deceased family member goes beyond the point of reprehension; it tak es an extremely innately malicious person to be able to do something so cruel and walk away without guilt. Not satisfied with their harsh behavior towards her, Danielle receives a painful lashing as well. Interestingly enough, it is Jacqueline the kinder of the two stepsisters, who helps her treat the
63 personalities. In fact, Jacqueline becomes a very intrig uing character throughout this film. At the beginning, she is seen as part of the evil stepfamily, but she slowly finds herself ostracized by her own mother and sister because she is plump, and therefore less attractive At one point, the Baroness even acc uses her of only being interested in the food at the ball. After this hurtful comment, attain a bett e r social and financial status, since she is not as physically attractive as her older sister. That the Baroness is able to shun one of her own daughters based on her appearance is absolutely despicable; it shows that she is essentially devoid of any good ness at heart and that, according to Plato, she cannot be considered Beautiful despite her physical appearance. Just as Henry is about to chose a bride at beautiful silver gown, slippers and a pair of delicate wi ngs made by Leonardo da Vinci. Everyon e present at the party comments on her beautiful appearance and Henry rushes towards appearance and inner Beauty match almost Fig. 12
64 perfectly. Henry does not give her the moment she as ks for in order to tell him the truth about her identity a confession that would complete her inner Beauty. As he drags her towards the throne, the Baroness steps forward from the crowd e girl is an impostor, a mere servant in her home. At first the Prince refuses to listen, but when Danielle admits it, he turns his back on her and leaves. This highly emotional scene shows the extent to which the Baroness is willing to go to make sure tha t Danielle does not find happiness before herself or her daughter, further reinforcing t shows the proud and more negative side of the Prince who would have never considered seeing Danielle in a romantic way had he known she was a servant from the beginning. I t also sets up martyr for having wanted to tell the truth on her own. This scene is significant because everyone present is dressed in magnificent clothing and there is an overflow of physical beauty, yet there is also a lack of inner Beauty on the part of the whole court, including the Prince, because of their shock and disgust at on she is, they all first judge her based on her beautiful appearance and later because of her social status. Nowhere in this scene does anyone concern themselves with her inner self, not even Henry. This reluctance to defend or accept Danielle despite her
65 After the ball and back at home, Danielle resumes her chores as a servant. When the Baroness start s to mock her, Danielle naively asks if the Baroness had ever really cared about her; she wants to know if all her hard work and efforts have done anything to earn even a little bit of affection from her harsh one love a pebble in their shoe. 90 This statement letts Danielle know that she has always been a b other to her stepmother, and that she is not worth loving. The verbal cruelty does not suffice however, and Danielle is traded to a despicable man named Pierre le Pieu in exchange for all the household items that the Baroness had sold up to that point; it is in this scene that the Baroness reaches the point of no return in terms of her malicious inner self. Even though she has been traded as an object, Danielle is able to e his act further reinforces her individuali ty and independence as well as her courage. As she encounters Henry who has come to apologize and ask her to marry him, even though she is filthy and wearing the worst rags she has worn in the entire film. After freeing hers elf from le Pieu, Danielle punishment for lying about her identity is complete and she is able to have her fair reward for all of the years of suffering she endured without turning into a malevolent individual. All her grace and goodness radiates as Bea uty from her 90 Tennant, 1998.
66 even though she is physically a wreck; Henry also redeems himself by looking her inner Beauty. They both become worthy of each other when they can see past e other for the individuals they are and all their characteristics, they find Beauty. film is what sav es her from her mother an rewarded with a suitable match from the court (much like the Cendrillon ). The Baroness and Marguerite however are accused of lying to the queen and are threatened to be punish ed by being sent to America unless someone speaks for them. Danielle new wife emerges dressed in beautiful royal attire and wearing a crown. She asks the king and queen not to ship her stepfamily to the 91 they had granted her for so many years. This is how they both end up working the rest of their lives in the palace laundry, the way Danielle had in their home. In the end, everybody 91 Tennant, 1998. Fig. 13 Future Queen
67 anied by her external attractiveness, transcends social boundaries and gains her a loving husband and maliciousness, greed, and selfishness leaves them in their own worst as servants that appearances are worthless unless they are reinforced by Beauty of the soul and that Beautiful things can only come from that which is innately good, i s proven in the story of Cinderella.
68 Cin Regardless of origin or time period, there seem to be definite constants in the description and beliefs of what is deemed beautiful and the components necessary to achieve true Beauty. In the tale of Cinderella these beliefs are represent ed through the female characters as examples of what is and is not Beautiful; the stepfamily demonstrates external but limited beauty, while the beautiful must also be ethicall y good has been, directly or indirectly, the basis for many different beliefs concerning Beauty. In fairy tales like Cinderella, the belief that Beauty should be a well rounded state of being inste ad of only a beautiful exterior is a concept can be seen th roughout. Physical beauty is never enough; there must always be inner Beauty for a character to be considered completely Beautiful and deserving of praise and rewards. sometimes they ar e said to have beautiful faces and other times they are simply and by accomplishing att ractiveness of sight, if not also of hearing, the stepfamily can be considered beautiful. 92 In the texts and films analyzed in this thesis, the stepfamily is always dressed in beautiful and luxurious garments, and 92 Eco, 2004: 41.
69 usually wears a lavish array of jewels and precious metals in order to add to their physical beauty. The reasoning behind the enhancement of their appearance stems from the need to be noticed and appreciated as individuals. By making themselves physically attractive, they mask the darkness of their character and personality. By dressing themselves so beautifully, others can perceive the stepsisters, if shallowly, as beautiful individuals, even if that is not completely true. In the case of the stepmother and stepsisters, the physical appearance is n ot demonstrative of their inner self. While someone, for example the Prince, might see them as attractive at first sight, someone who takes time to get to know them, as the reader or viewer does, will notice that their personality, values and morals are no Cinderella throughout the story show how vicious each of them is at heart. They mock, belittle, and in Ever After even physically harm the lovely maiden, while they put on their b eautiful masks and fool those who only look at the surface. Even though their exterior is appealing, their lack of inner B eauty does not permit them to reach true, or inner Beauty. In Cendrillon the stepsisters repent and are therefore redeemed and rewarde d with upper class husbands; in Aschenputtel they continue being greedy and selfish and earn the mutilation of their bodies and blindness which physically matches their inner self and brands them as Ugly; in Tri orsky pro Popelku, the stepmother and Dora end up shamed in a freezing pool of water; and in Ever After the relentless Baroness and
70 Marguerite are stripped of their noble title and are condemned to a life of hard work in the palace laundry, while the royal family forgives the kinder and repentant Jacqueline of any previous mistreatment of Danielle ; she is allowed to both keep her title and pursue a relationship with a man of the court. Just as based on my analysis of texts and films that Beauty for the tale of Cinderella comes from a balance between a beautiful appearance and an ethical inner self. 93 Since the stepfamily exhibits many negative inner traits like self ishness, greed, hypocrisy and outright cruelty, they cannot be rightfully considered Beautiful; as Plato believed: 94 and unde 95 While for the majority of the tale she is very humbly clad and dirty, it is obvious that there is a lot more to her as an individual than what her appearance suggests. From the beginning of the texts or films, she is presented as kind, hardworking, humble, and generous which qualifies her as innately good or Beautiful characteristics that eventually lead to 93 Eaton, Marcia M. Aesthetics and the Good Life New Jersey: Associated University Presses. 1989. 156. Print. 94 Eaton, 1989: 15 6. 95 Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. New York: Random House. 1977. 239. Print.
71 her being rewarded. In The Gift of Beauty Stephen Ross states that the good is not to wrong, justice opposed to injustice. It expresses what is precious, irreplaceable, in things, worth cherishing, in human beings and their works. 96 I n other words, that which is good is not viewed as such because it is better than something else, but rat her, it is good because its qualities make it good in and of itself; it is worthy of being called good on its own. In this aspect, Cinderella and her behavior are seen as good. When she dresses nicely and her physical appearance is clean and attractive, it is not as if she were wearing a mask as is the case with her stepfamily. I nstead her external beauty there is a continuation of her inner Beauty which makes her emblem of grea person to be. 97 appearance serve as a means for the Prince to notice and appreciate her. If she had not arrived at the ball dressed as a courtier she would have most likely not ended up as his wife. This means that external beauty is a vehicle to be initially, if shallowly, noticed. In the written tales by Perrault and the brothers Grimm, the uty and can therefore see the reasoning behind her earning the Prince; however, the Prince chooses her based on her 96 Ross, Stephen D. The Gift of Beauty Albany: State University of New York Press. 1996. 2. Print. 97 Sircello, 1975: 91.
72 physical appearance (since there is no mention of her good character traits in endured at home pay off in the end when she is granted the means to attend the ball (the lavish clothes and jewels that help her appear as a courtier) and be chosen as the future queen. In Ever After the Prince becomes interested in Danielle because of h er (even though he previously meets her but pays no heed to her as a woman because she is dirty and dressed as a servant), this is how he gets to know her and values her as a per son; knowing her inner Beauty is what later on in the film allows him to override her status as a filthy servant and helps him realize that a Beautiful soul is more important that all the finery someone can be surrounded with. Similarly, in Tri orsky pro Popelku the Prince is allowed to know Cinderella as a person (even though at first he does not know it is her) and then as an intelligent and beautiful maiden, which makes his choice of her as a bride more complete and meaningful. This appreciation of inn er Beauty is what the authors and film directors wanted to praise a nd encourage in their audiences. It is for this reason that all the good qualities are, after hardship, rewarded in the end. Even in Cendrillon and Ever After, one, if not both of the step sisters are kinder and apologize to Cinderella. This recognition and repentance of their wrong doing redeems them by the end of the tale since repentance is considered a good moral
73 quality to possess; it can also be inferred that from their repentance thei r future actions will change in a positive manner. The apology can be seen as a are rewarded with husbands of high standing in the court and Jacqueline in Ever After is n ot punished along with her mother and sister. Bruno Bettelheim nicely summarizes Cinderella as a tale that deals with the hardships of conflict between siblings, the realization of dreams, the lowly being rewarded, inner Beauty being noticed through a mode st appearance, and virtue and good morals being praised while negative character traits are punished. 98 I believe that the tale most commonly known as Cinderella is meant to encourage er their physical appearance. Cinderella is a story that rewards inner Beauty regardless of Beautiful, one must be a good and virtuous person within or possess inner Beauty before considering physical attractiveness. 98 Bettelheim, 1977: 239.
74 Bibliography Primary Sources: Grimms Mrchen Mnchen: Knaur Verlag. 2003. Print. Perrault, Charles. Cendrillon Barcelona: Novoprint. 2003. Print. Perrault, Charles. Perrault's Fairy Tales New York: Do ver Publications. 1969. Print. Plato. The Symposium of Plato (Groden, Suzy Q. (Trans.)) Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press. 1970. Print. Sircello, Guy. A New Theory of Beauty Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1975. Print. Tatar, Ma ria (ed.). The Annotated Brothers Grimm. New York/London: Norton & Co. 2004. Print. Films: Tennant, Andy. Ever After: A Cinderella Story. Perf. Drew Barrymore. 1998. Film. Vorlcek, Vclav. Tri orsky pro Popelku Perf. Libuse Safrankova. 1973. Film. Secondary Sources: Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy
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