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Made in New York, Stayed in New York

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004210/00001

Material Information

Title: Made in New York, Stayed in New York Cultural Production and The Mayor's Office of Film, Theatre, and Broadcasting
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Bender, Harrison
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2010
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Cultural Production
Cinema
Cultural Economy
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: To what extent can film commissions affect the production of material culture? What role do municipal institutions play in regional culture industries? When thinking about the production of material culture, we don�t always think of tangential institutions as having any meaningful part in the production of culture. I use semi-structured interviews and bibliographic analysis to ascertain the extent to which the Mayor�s Office of Film, Theatre, and Broadcasting, the acting film commission in New York City, meaningfully affects the production of material culture. The results of my work illuminate the relationship between the MOFTB and the cultural/visual media industry networks and New York City�s cultural economy as a whole. This thesis also elucidates on the ways in which municipal institutions involve themselves in cultural production industries. From this, I am able to give suggestions for more comprehensive research on film commissions� involvement in both the production of material culture and within their regional cultural industry networks.
Statement of Responsibility: by Harrison Bender
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2010
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Brain, David

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2010 B4
System ID: NCFE004210:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004210/00001

Material Information

Title: Made in New York, Stayed in New York Cultural Production and The Mayor's Office of Film, Theatre, and Broadcasting
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Bender, Harrison
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2010
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Cultural Production
Cinema
Cultural Economy
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: To what extent can film commissions affect the production of material culture? What role do municipal institutions play in regional culture industries? When thinking about the production of material culture, we don�t always think of tangential institutions as having any meaningful part in the production of culture. I use semi-structured interviews and bibliographic analysis to ascertain the extent to which the Mayor�s Office of Film, Theatre, and Broadcasting, the acting film commission in New York City, meaningfully affects the production of material culture. The results of my work illuminate the relationship between the MOFTB and the cultural/visual media industry networks and New York City�s cultural economy as a whole. This thesis also elucidates on the ways in which municipal institutions involve themselves in cultural production industries. From this, I am able to give suggestions for more comprehensive research on film commissions� involvement in both the production of material culture and within their regional cultural industry networks.
Statement of Responsibility: by Harrison Bender
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2010
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Brain, David

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2010 B4
System ID: NCFE004210:00001


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1 C h ap t e r 1 I n t r o d u c t i on W i t hout t he t a x be ne f i t s t he ho r r i bl e t r ut h i s t hi s m ovi e w oul d pr oba bl y be m a de i n K a bul or you know w he r e ve r i t s t he c he a pe s t pl a c e i n t he w or l d f o r us t o s hoot t he m ovi e N ow t h i s c i t y you c a n go a nyw he r e i n t he w or l d a nd you w on t ge t t he dyna m i s m t he qua l i t y t he ba ge l s J us t t he ba ge l s a l one I m e a n you go t o T or on t o, I m e a n, t he y r e m us hy A t ni ght w he n you s e e t he C hr ys l e r B ui l di ng a nd you s e e t he E m pi r e S t a t e a nd t he W ool w or t h t he r e i s a goos e bum p, t he r e i s a t hr i l l t he r e i s a not hi ng l i ke N e w Y o r k. M e l B r ook s on c hoos i ng t o f i l m T h e P r odu c e r s i n N Y C and t ak e adv ant age of t he M ade i n N Y I nc e nt i v e P r ogr am A ugus t 28, 2004 ( N Y C gov M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng ) T hi s s e nt i m e nt t ow a r d s f i l m i ng N e w Y o r k r e f l e c t s t he uni que r e l a t i ons hi p t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng ha s w i t h f i l m m a ke r s i n t he c i t y. O n one ha nd, f i l m m a ke r s a r e d r a w n t o N e w Y or k C i t y f or m a ny r e a s ons i nc l udi ng t he w e l l know n but s t i l l e xot i c l oc a t i ons c om pe l l i ng a t m os phe r e a nd t he c i t y s c ha r a c t e r a l l o f w hi c h m a ke up t he N e w Y or k C i t y w e s e e i n m ovi e s t he c i ne m a t i c or m yt h i c a l N e w Y or k. C l e a r l y how e ve r f i l m m a ke r s a nd pr oduc e r s a r e dr a w n t o N e w Y o r k C i t y f or l ogi s t i c a l r e a s ons i nc l udi ng c l os e a c c e s s t o r e s our c e s t a x i nc e nt i ve s a nd t he ge ne r a l a c c om m oda t i on of t he M a yor s O f f i c e o f F i l m T h e a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng ( M O F T B ) W hi l e N e w Y or k s uni que c ha r a c t e r m a y c e r t a i nl y be a s i gni f i c a nt dr a w i n ge t t i ng f i l m m a ke r s t o f i l m i n t he c i t y, i t i s ul t i m a t e l y t he M O F T B t ha t de c i de s w ho i s a l l ow e d t o f i l m i n t he c i t y T he M O F T B i s s ue s pe r m i t s t o f i l m m a ke r s w ho w i s h t o f i l m on l oc a t i on i n t he c i t y t ha t i s i n publ i c s pa c e I n t h i s w a y, t he y a r e a t e xt book e xa m pl e of a ga t e ke e pi ng i ns t i t ut i on; no one c a n f i l m o r de pi c t N e w Y or k C i t y i n N e w Y or k C i t y w i t hout t he i r c ons e nt T he M O F T B i s by de s i gn r e gul a t or y a nd c a n w i t hhol d i s s ui ng pe r m i t s f or va r i ous r e a s ons H ow e ve r t he c i vi c pur pos e o f t he M O F T B i s t ha t t he y not onl y pr o vi de l ogi s t i c a l he l p, but i n do i ng s o t he y pr om ot e e c ono m i c be ne f i t s f or t he c i t y r a ngi ng f r o m

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2 f i l m c r e w s pa t r oni z i ng s m a l l bus i ne s s e s t o pr ovi di ng oppor t uni t i e s f or t he c i t y s a r t i s a ns a nd a r t i s t s G i ve n t he i m por t a nc e o f t he t our i s m i n dus t r y i n N Y C a nd i t s c onne c t i on w i t h a udi o vi s ua l m e di a ( a s j us t i f i e d by s t a r s e a r c hi ng c i t y gui de s t our b us s e s t our i s t gui de s e t c ) t he M O F T B f i nds t ha t i nc r e a s e d de pi c t i ons of N Y C w i l l a l s o he l p t o pr om ot e t our i s m t o t he c i t y. T he M O F T B s s t a ke i n t ou r i s m a nd ge ne r a l e c onom i c be ne f i t s l e d m e t o be l i e ve t ha t i t ha s a n i nhe r e nt i nt e r e s t i n r e gul a t i ng how N e w Y or k C i t y w i l l be de pi c t e d on f i l m T he of f i c e how e ve r f a c e s c ont r a di c t or y f or c e s t ha t s ha pe i t s de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s T he M O F T B s a bi l i t y t o ga t e ke e p a ppe a r s unl i m i t e d, s hor t o f c e ns or i ng t he c ont e nt of t he f i l m H ow e ve r i t s pow e r i s l i m i t e d by t he pos s i bi l i t y of f i l m pr oduc t i on c om pa ni e s c hoos i ng t o f i l m i n a not he r l oc a t i on ou t s i de of N e w Y or k C i t y or on a s e t ( a s oppos e d t o on l oc a t i on ) T he r e f o r e i t i s i m por t a nt f or t he M O F T B t o a c c om m oda t e t he s e f i l m c om pa ni e s a nd c om pe t e w i t h ot he r c i t i e s by of f e r i ng i nc e nt i ve s di s c ount s a nd ot he r be ne f i t s i n or de r t o ke e p f i l m pr oduc t i on i n N Y C ( a nd pot e nt i a l l y unde r t he w a t c hf ul e ye s of t he M O F T B ) I n a ddi t i on no pr oduc t i on c a n s t a r t on a f i l m unt i l t he p r oduc e r s m e e t w i t h t he M O F T B on pr ope r gui de l i ne s f o r f i l m i ng i n t he c i t y A s w e w i l l s e e l a t e r t he M O F T B s a c t i ons i ndi c a t e t ha t t he r e i s a c ons c i ou s e f f or t m a de t o l e t i n s om e f i l m m a ke r s but no t ot he r s T he M O F T B s r ol e a s a r e gul a t or y i ns t i t ut i on i n c onj unc t i on w i t h t he f a c t or s t ha t l i m i t t he M O F T B s pow e r i n r e gul a t i ng i t s ow n i m a ge a nd t he i r s ol i c i t i ng i nt e r e s t s l e a d m e t o e xpl or e how t he i r dua l r ol e s a s a s ol i c i t i ng a nd ga t e ke e pi ng i ns t i t ut i on s ha pe t he i r r ol e i n c ul t u r a l p r oduc t i o n. T o unde r s t a nd how t hi s oc c ur s I m us t e xpl or e w ha t i n f or m s t he i r de c i s i on m a ki ng p r oc e s s i n i s s ui ng pe r m i t s a s w e l l s t he ki nds of s ol i c i t i ng

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3 s t r a t e gi e s t he y e m pl oy i n o r de r t o a t t r a c t pr oduc t i o ns t o t he c i t y B y a na l yz i ng t he s e t w o f a c t or s i n r e l a t i o n t o e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e r e ga r di ng g a t e ke e pi ng i ns t i t ut i ons s ol i c i t i ng i ns t i t ut i ons a nd f i l m c om m i s s i ons I i l l um i na t e t he r ol e t ha t f i l m c om m i s s i ons pl a y i n c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on a s w e l l a s t he i r r ol e s i n t he l a r ge r c ul t ur a l e c onom y of a c i t y. S ur pr i s i ng l y, t he r e s ve r y l i t t l e s c hol a r s hi p c om bi n i ng f i l m c om m i s s i ons ga t e ke e pi ng t he or y, a nd c ul t ur a l p r oduc t i on, a l t hou gh t he r e a r e a num be r of s our c e s t ha t t ha t ove r l a p or de a l w i t h e a c h f a c e t s e pa r a t e l y. M os t s c hol a r s hi p on f i l m c om m i s s i ons f oc us e s on how f i l m c om m i s s i ons i nf l ue nc e t he w a y t he i r r e gi on i s r e pr e s e nt e d. T he s e s c hol a r s ha ve a r t i c ul a t e d t ha t f i l m c om m i s s i ons ha ve a r ol e i n s om e r e gul a t i on of f i l m pr oduc t i on a nd di s t r i bu t i on, w he t he r t ha t m e a ns pr ot e c t i ng a nd m a i nt a i ni ng a na t i ona l i de nt i t y i n f i l m f r om f o r e i gn i nf l ue nc e s ( a t t r a c t i ng l oc a l t a l e nt t o o t he r c i t i e s f or e i gn i nve s t m e nt i n l oc a l f i l m p r oduc t i on, e t c ) or he a vi l y pr om ot i ng t he f u l l p r oduc t i on of f i l m s i n a r e gi on ( W a l l e r 1996 ) I n a ddi t i on, t he r e i s vi r t ua l l y no a c a de m i c s c hol a r s hi p on t he a dm i ni s t r a t i ve pow e r s of f i l m c om m i s s i ons i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s A l t hough a l a r ge pa r t of t hi s i s due t o t he f a c t t ha t e a c h c i t y i s di f f e r e nt a nd t hus t he i r f i l m c om m i s s i ons w i l l be di f f e r e nt f i l m c om m i s s i ons on t he w hol e e s s e nt i a l l y ope r a t e i n t he s a m e w a y: a c t i ng a s a l i a i s on be t w e e n t he c om m uni t y a nd f i l m c r e w s a n d pr om ot i ng t he c i t y s s oc i a l e c onom i c a nd c ul t ur a l w e l l be i ng N one o f t he s e b odi e s of s c hol a r s hi p e xpl or e ga t e ke e pi ng a s a s pe c i f i c m e c ha ni s m i n t he pow e r s t ha t f i l m c om m i s s i ons w i e l d, but t he r e a r e a nu m be r o f a r t i c l e s a nd doc um e nt s on t h e m e c ha ni s m of ga t e ke e pi ng a s i t r e l a t e s t o c ul t ur a l p r oduc t i on t hr ough ot he r ki nds o f a ge nc i e s a nd m e di a W hi l e pr e vi ous s c hol a r s hi p ha s l e f t ga ps r e ga r d i ng our unde r s t a ndi ng of f i l m c om m i s s i ons r ol e s i n c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on, t he r e i s c e r t a i nl y e nough s c hol a r s hi p on e a c h

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4 of t he s e t hr e e f a c e t s t o c onne c t t he m w i t h e a c h ot h e r i n a m e a ni ngf ul w a y T hr ough t hi s t r i a ngul a t i on of s c hol a r s hi p, I s e e k a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he w a y t he pow e r s o f t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng r e l a t e t o s ys t e m s of c ul t u r a l pr oduc t i on, a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y, t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i o n of f i l m P r e vi ous s c hol a r s hi p on f i l m c om m i s s i ons f oc us e d on c i t i e s or r e gi ons t ha t ha d a pa r t i c ul a r i s s ue or p r obl e m uni que t o t h e i r r e s pe c t i ve a r e a w he t he r t ha t be f or e i gn i ndus t r y pr e s e nc e i n C a na da pr oj e c t i ng i de nt i t y i n A us t r a l i a or bot h i n N e w Z e a l a nd. I t a ke a s i m i l a r a ppr oa c h e xc e pt t ha t t he i s s ue s i nf l u e nc i ng t he de c i s i on m a ki ng a r e m a r ke dl y di f f e r e nt i n N Y C S o f a r not h i ng of s ubs t a nc e ha s be e n w r i t t e n a bout t he M O F T B t ha t ha s n t be e n w r i t t e n a nd pub l i s he d by t he M O F T B i t s e l f U nde r s t a ndi ng, f r om a n i nde pe nde nt pe r s pe c t i ve t he uni que s i t ua t i on i n N e w Y or k C i t y w i l l s he d m or e l i ght ont o va r i ous f a c t or s t ha t i nf o r m a nd i nf l ue nc e ga t e ke e pe r s pr oduc e r s of c ul t ur e a nd i ns t i t ut i ons i n t he i r de c i s i on m a ki ng pol i c i e s W he n I us e t he t e r m 'f i l m ', I 'm not onl y r e f e r r i ng t o i t s pr oduc t i on a s a phys i c a l c e l l ul oi d a r t i f a c t I t i s not j us t t he c e l l ul o i d i n t he c a n i t i s a n a m a l ga m a t i on of c om pl e x s e t s of m e a ni ngs t ha t a r e de t e r m i ne d by p r oduc e r s c ons um e r s a nd c ont e xt A s s uc h, t he pr oduc t i on of a c ul t ur a l a r t i f a c t s uc h a s f i l m i s c ont i nge nt upon a num be r of f a c t or s i n t he phys i c a l pr oduc t i on pr oc e s s A bove t he l i ne l a bor e r s l i ke a c t or s e di t or s c i ne m a t ogr a phe r s pr oduc e r s c om pos e r s e t c d i r e c t l y a f f e c t t he c ont e nt of t he f i l m but s o do be l ow t he l i ne w or ke r s l i ke s e t de s i gne r s e l e c t r i c i a ns a nd gr i ps T he i r i nvol ve m e nt i s not us ua l l y m e nt i one d w he n t a l ki ng a bout t he c o ns t r uc t i on of c ont e nt i n a f i l m but t he y'r e i nvol ve m e nt i n t he p r oduc t i on of a f i l m i s s t i l l m e a ni ngf ul be c a us e t he y a l l ow f o r t he c r e a t i ve pr oc e s s of f i l m m a ki ng. T ha t s a i d, t he pr oduc t i on pr oc e s s i s t i nge d w i t h

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5 c ul t ur a l c om pone nt s I n N e w Y or k's c a s e t he c ul t ur a l be nt o f t he r a w pr oduc t i on pr oc e s s i s m a ni f e s t e d i n t he M O F T B 's us e of N e w Y or k C i t y's c ul t ur a l l y s ym bol i c l e ga c y a s a c i ne m a t i c c i t y a nd a c i t y s t e e pe d i n m e di a p r oduc t i on. S ym bol i c e l e m e nt s of N e w Y or k C i t y be c om e a pa r t of t he f i l m a nd a f f e c t i t s c ul t u r a l s i gni f i c a nc e F or i ns t a nc e a f i l m 's us e of t he E m pi r e S t a t e B ui l di ng i nvoke s m e a ni ng i nde pe nde nt or out s i de of t he na r r a t i ve A f i l m pr oduc t i ons us e o f a l r e a dy e xi s t i n g c ul t ur e ( i n t hi s c a s e a s ym bol of N e w Y or k C i t y i t s e l f ) i s us e d i n t he f i l m w hi c h a dds t o t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he E m pi r e S t a t e B ui l di ng a s a s ym bol i c f i xt ur e of N e w Y or k C i t y's s kyl i ne T hus t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m i s de t e r m i ne d by bot h t he r a w p r oduc t i on pr oc e s s a nd t he ( s om e t i m e s ove r l a ppi ng) c ul t ur a l c om pone nt s of t he c i t y i t s e l f A ny r e f e r e nc e t o t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m i s e qui va l e nt t o t he p r oduc t i on of c ul t ur e w i t h f i l m a s t he m a t e r i a l c ul t ur e M e t h od ol ogy I n or de r t o unde r s t a nd how t he M O F T B s dua l r o l e s a s a s ol i c i t i ng a nd ga t e ke e pi ng i ns t i t ut i on de t e r m i n e s t he i r r ol e i n m o de s of c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on I us e t w o i nt e r r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h m e t hods : hi s t or i c a l r e s e a r c h a nd i nt e r vi e w s F i r s t I a na l yz e t he M O F T B s e xi s t i ng pow e r s a nd f unc t i ons ba s e d on t he i nf or m a t i on pr ovi de d by M O F T B a nd e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e on ga t e ke e pi ng, c i vi c c ul t u r a l r e gul a t or y p r a c t i c e s a nd c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on. S e c ond, I c onduc t e d s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i n t e r vi e w s w i t h m e m be r s of t he M O F T B A n a na l ys i s of t he hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt of t he M O F T B a nd t he i r c u r r e nt s ol i c i t i ng pow e r w i l l s he d l i gh t on w hy t he y s ol i c i t i n t he f i r s t pl a c e I a c qui r e d t hi s i nf or m a t i on

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6 t hr ough t he M O F T B w e bs i t e a s w e l l a s s e ve r a l bo oks t he y ha ve publ i s he d. I n a ddi t i on I obt a i ne d i nf or m a t i on on t he r ol e f i l m c om m i s s i ons t r a di t i ona l l y pl a y i n c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on a nd a n ove r vi e w of ga t e ke e pi ng a s i t r e l a t e s t o c ul t ur a l p r oduc t i on. I a c qui r e d t hi s i nf or m a t i on f r o m a c a de m i c a r t i c l e s books a n d i n t he c a s e f or M O F T B s pe c i f i c i nf or m a t i on, f r om t he i r w e bs i t e T he hi s t or i c a l r e s e a r c h c ove r s s t a t i s t i c s on f i l m p r o duc t i on i m pa c t s on j o b c r e a t i on, e c onom i c be ne f i t s f i l m m a ke r e f f e c t s of c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on e t c i n a ddi t i on t o t he or e t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s on s ol i c i t i ng, ga t e ke e pi ng, a nd t he pr oduc t i on of c ul t ur e H a vi ng a va r i e t y of bi bl i og r a phi c hi s t or i c a l r e s e a r c h pr ovi de s a n e xc e l l e nt ba s i s f or a ns w e r i ng m y t he s i s que s t i on a s i t gi ve s m e a c l e a r e r unde r s t a ndi ng of how t he t he or e t i c a l unde r pi nni ngs of m y t he s i s a r e c onne c t e d t o t he da t a obt a i ne d by t he M O F T B T he s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i n t e r vi e w s a r e us e d t o f i l l i n t he ga ps l e f t by t he hi s t or i c a l r e s e a r c h. B e c a us e ga t e ke e pi ng ha s a n e l e m e nt of s ubj e c t i ve e va l ua t i on, t he c r i t e r i a us e d t o pr ovi de pe r m i t s c ha nge s c a n be e l uc i da t e d by o pe n e nde d s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w s O pe n e nde d s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w s a r e t he be s t w a y t o c a pt u r e t hi s f l ui di t y a nd s ubj e c t i vi t y i n t he de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s T hi s a ppr oa c h a l l ow e d m e t o pr obe a nd pr ovi de f ol l ow up que s t i ons t o ne w i nf or m a t i on t h os e i nt e r vi e w e e s pr e s e nt e d, a l l ow i ng f or a de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he t op i c T he que s t i ons I a s ke d t he e m pl oye e s f r o m t he M O F T B f oc us on t he pe r m i t a c qui r i ng pr oc e s s a nd t he or ga ni z a t i on of t he or ga ni z a t i on. A l i s t of t he que s t i ons a s ke d i n t he s e m i s t r uc t u r e d i nt e r vi e w s a nd r e s pons e s i s i nc l ude d i n a ppe ndi c e s a t t he e nd o f t he t he s i s

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7 C h ap t e r 2 L i t e r at u r e R e vi e w A s s t a t e d be f or e t he r e 's be e n s ubs t a nt i a l s c hol a r s hi p on bot h f i l m c om m i s s i ons a nd c ul t ur a l pr o duc t i on, but none t ha t a de qua t e l y a ddr e s s bot h. M y t he s i s t hus dr a w s on s c hol a r s hi p t ha t f oc us e s on f i l m c om m i s s i ons a s i ns t i t ut i ons a nd t he l a r ge r c ul t ur a l e c onom i c c ont e xt i n w hi c h t he y a r e s i t ua t e d. A s s uc h, I ve s e pa r a t e d m y l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w i nt o t w o ha l ve s w i t h t he f i r s t ha l f f oc us i ng on f i l m i ns t i t ut i ons a nd s e c ond ha l f f oc us i ng on c ul t ur a l p r oduc t i on a nd c ont e xt I n bot h ha l ve s I hope t o de m ons t r a t e bot h ho w e a c h pi e c e of s c hol a r s hi p w i l l p r ovi de f ur t he r i ns i ght i nt o m y ow n t he s i s on t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng i s pa r t of t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m a s w e l l a s how m y t he s i s w i l l p r ovi de f ur t he r i ns i ght a nd/ o r c ont e xt i nt o t he s a m e pi e c e s of s c hol a r s hi p. T h e M O F T B T he m os t pe r t i ne nt s c hol a r s hi p on t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng a c t ua l l y c om e s f r om t he i ns t i t ut i on i t s e l f T he book, S c e ne s F r om T he C i t y: F i l m m a ki ng I n N e w Y or k w a s pr oduc e d by t he M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng a nd e di t e d by J a m e s S a nde r s a f i l m s c hol a r w ho f oc us e s m uc h of hi s w or k on N e w Y or k C i t y T he book i s a c ol l e c t i on o f e s s a ys phot ogr a phs a nd hi s t or i e s of f i l m m a ki ng i n N e w Y or k A l a r ge s e c t i on of t he b ook f oc us e s on t he hi s t or y a nd pr a c t i c e s of t he M O F T B i t s e l f w hi c h ha s pr ove d i nva l ua bl e i n unde r s t a ndi ng t he hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt of t he M O F T B T h i s hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt a l l ow e d m e t o f u r t he r unde r s t a nd how t he c ur r e nt i nc a r na t i on of t he M a yor 's O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng c a m e a bout I t

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8 f unc t i ons a s a hi s t or y o f f i l m m a ki ng i n N e w Y or k C i t y t hr ough t he l e ns of t he M O F T B A l t hough t he c ont e xt a nd i nf o r m a t i on i s i m por t a nt a nd r e ve a l s a c ons i de r a bl e a m ount a bout t he M O F T B a s a n or ga ni z a t i on, t he e xi s t e nc e of t he book i t s e l f i s a t e s t a m e nt t o t he uni que r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n N e w Y or k C i t y a nd f i l m T he f a c t t ha t t he book i s m a s s pr oduc e d of t he or ga ni z a t i on a s w e l l a s t he pe r c e i ve d j us t i f i c a t i on t ha t pe opl e w i l l w a nt t o r e a d i t a bove ot he r k i nds o f l i t e r a t ur e on N e w Y or k C i t y a nd f i l m e s pe c i a l l y w i t h c ont r i but i ons f r om c ur r e nt M a yor M i c ha e l R B l oom be r g, s c hol a r J a m e s S a nde r s a nd f i l m m a ke r s M a r t i n S c o r s e s e a nd N or a E phr on a l l of w hom a dd c ons i de r a bl e w e i ght t ow a r ds t he c r e di bi l i t y of t he b ook i t s e l f I n a ddi t i on, t he book i s de c i de dl y non a c a de m i c i n na t ur e s o m y c ont r i but i ons t o i t w i l l be l i m i t e d by w ha t c oul d be a dde d t o i t f r o m a pa r t i c ul a r a pp r oa c h ( i n t hi s c a s e s oc i ol ogy) B ut w i t h r e ga r ds t o s c hol a r s hi p on t he M O F T B i n ge ne r a l m y t he s i s w i l l a dd a c ons i de r a bl e a m ount t o w ha t i s pr ovi de d i n S c e ne s F r om T he C i t y: F i l m m a ki ng I n N e w Y or k I nde pe nde nt s c hol a r s hi p on t he M O F T B s pe c i f i c a l l y w a s di f f i c ul t t o f i nd. T he va r i ous i t e m s I f ound r a nge d f r o m a na l ys e s on ot h e r f i l m or ga ni z a t i ons a ppl i c a t i ons of f i l m t he or y t ow a r ds u r ba n r e de ve l opm e nt ove r vi e w s of N e w Y or k C i t y s vi s ua l m e di a i ndus t r y i n t he 21 s t c e nt ur y a nd a na l ys e s on t he e f f i c a c y of t he M O F T B i t s e l f N one of t he s e pi e c e s of s c hol a r s hi p ga ve m e a ny s i gni f i c a nt qua l i t a t i ve i ns i ght i nt o t he c ur r e nt i nc a r na t i on of t he M O F T B but e a c h p r ovi de d m e w i t h s om e a ddi t i ona l s e t of i nf or m a t i on, w he t he r i t w a s hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt s t a t i s t i c a l da t a or s i m pl y r e s e a r c h j us t i f i c a t i on. A gr e a t e xa m pl e of t he l a t t e r w a s f ound i n I m a gi n a r y A ppa r a t us : F i l m P r oduc t i on a nd U r ba n P l a nni ng i n N e w Y o r k C i t y 1966 1975" by M c L a i n C l ut t e r I n i t

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9 he a r gue s t ha t M a yor J ohn L i nds a y's ur ba n r e f o r m pol i c i e s w e r e i nf or m e d t o s om e e xt e nt by a f i l m t he or y t ha t w a s s i m ul t a ne ous l y ga i ni ng p opul a r i t y i n a c a de m i c c i r c l e s 'a ppa r a t us t he or y' w a s de ve l ope d by f i l m t he or i s t s f r om t he f a m e d F r e nc h f i l m j ou r na l C a hi e r s du C i ne m a w ho w e r e i nt e r e s t e d i n c i ne m a a s a n i ns t i t ut i on a nd i t s ps yc hol ogi c a l e f f e c t on t he vi e w e r T he y be l i e ve d t ha t t hos e r e pe a t e dl y vi e w i ng m ovi e s w e r e be i ng c ondi t i one d t o ne got i a t e t he i r s ubj e c t i vi t i e s i n r e l a t i on t o t he i m a ge s on t he m ov i e s c r e e n" ( C l ut t e r 2009: 21) C l ut t e r a r gue s t ha t t he C i t y P l a nni ng C om m i s s i on unde r M a yor L i nds a y c onc e i ve d of t he c i t y c i ne m a t i c a l l y s o a s t o f r a m e t he c i t y i n a c c or da nc e w i t h ur ba n s ubj e c t s w ho a r e m or e a c c us t om e d t o e xpe r i e nc i ng t he c i t y c i ne m a t i c a l l y r a t he r t ha n m a t e r i a l l y. I n ot he r w o r ds t he C i t y P l a nni ng C om m i s s i on i nf us e d t he a e s t he t i c s a nd m i l i e u of t he c i ne m a t i c N e w Y or k C i t y w i t h t he phys i c a l de ve l op m e nt of N e w Y or k C i t y. C l ut t e r a c know l e dge s how c om pl e x a nd di s c ur s i ve t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he pol i c i e s of t he C i t y P l a nni ng C om m i s s i on a nd hi s e f f or t s t o e nt i c e f i l m pr oduc t i ons t o N e w Y or k C i t y a nd t ha t a ppa r a t us t he or y i s but one of m a ny c onc e pt ua l a nd t a ngi bl e bi t s of e vi de nc e t ha t c onne c t s t he t w o ( C l ut t e r 2009) C l ut t e r 's a r t i c l e s how c a s e s t he c om pl e x but unde ni a bl y c ons c i ous r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he m a t e r i a l c i t y a nd c i ne m a t i c c i t y T he c ons c i ous m a ni pul a t i on of t he ph ys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt f o r ur ba n pl a nni ng not onl y a c know l e dge s t he pow e r a nd s i gni f i c a nc e of t he c i ne m a t i c i m a ge a nd i t s i n f l ue nc e on u r ba n l i f e bu t a l s o de m ons t r a t e s i t T hi s s how s t ha t m uni c i pa l i ns t i t ut i ons a r e not onl y a w a r e of t he po w e r of c i ne m a but a c t i ve l y ut i l i z e i t s i nf l u e nc e t o e na bl e g r ow t h a nd p r ogr e s s i on. A l t ho ugh t hi s doe s n't e xpl a i n w he t he r t he c ur r e nt M O F T B c a n o r a c t ua l l y i s a bl e t o us e t he c i ne m a t i c c onc e pt i on of N e w Y or k C i t y t o i nf l ue nc e pr oduc t i on i n a ny m e a ni ngf ul w a ys i t doe s a c know l e dge t ha t i t m a y

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10 t he or e t i c a l l y be a bl e t o do s o. W hi l e m y t he s i s c a n t e xpound on t hi s a r t i c l e s pe c i f i c a l l y, I c a n he l p t o e xpa nd upon t he M O F T B s a c know l e d ge m e nt of t he c i ne m a t i c c i t y i n t he i r i ns t i t ut i ona l pol i c i e s 'I m a gi ne e r i ng t he I nne r C i t y? L a nds c a pe of P l e a s ur e a nd t he C o m m odi f i c a t i on o f C ul t ur a l S pe c t a c l e i n t he P os t M ode r n C i t y' ( F r om P opul a r C ul t ur e : P r oduc t i on a nd C ons um pt i on) by S c ot t S a l m on e c hoe s C l ut t e r s a r t i c l e ( 2000) H e a r gue s t ha t t he vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of c i t i e s i s not a r e f l e c t i on, but c a r e f ul l y c ons t r uc t e d pr oj e c t i ons of t he phys i c a l r e a l c i t y H e a r gue s t ha t t he s e vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons i nf l ue nc e t he phys i c a l r e de s i gn of t he c i t y A l t hough t he M O F T B doe s n't e xpl i c i t l y pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he r e de s i gn of t he c i t y, t hi s a r gue s t ha t l oc a l gove r nm e nt s a r e i nt r i n s i c a l l y t i e d t o t he l a r ge r c ul t ur e e c onom y, a nd t he r e f o r e c a r e a bout t he i m a ge t he y w a nt t o pr e s e nt O f c our s e t hi s i s but a s m a l l s t a ke f or t he M O F T B T hi s s how s t ha t t he r e s r e a s on f or t he M O F T B t o be c onc e r ne d w i t h how i t w i l l ga t e ke e p s pa c e a s a w a y t o ga t e ke e p i m a ge s bu t t hi s i s n't ne c e s s a r i l y t he pr i m a r y or onl y c onc e r n. A t t r a c t i ng t op t a l e nt pr oduc t i ons e t c br i ngs i n c a pi t a l w hi c h undoubt e dl y a i ds t he r e de s i gni ng, bu t t he e xt e nt t o how m uc h w i t hout c ons i de r i ng i t s ot he r c i vi c a nd pr i va t e us e s i s m uc h m or e di f f i c ul t t o de t e r m i ne U l t i m a t e l y, t hi s j us t i l l us t r a t e s t ha t t he M O F T B w o ul d c a r e a bout how t he vi s ua l m e di a pr e s e nt s i m a ge s of N e w Y or k e ve n i f t he r e w e r e n o ot he r f a c t or s i nvol ve d. K e vi n S he l don s br i e f a r t i c l e I nde pe nde nt P os s i b i l i t i e s : T he I nde pe nde nt F i l m T r a i ni ng G r a nt I n i t i a t i ve a nd t he B or de r s of C ul t ur a l I nf l ue nc e e xpl o r e s t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n non pr of i t or ga ni z a t i ons a nd gove r n m e nt i ns t i t ut i ons w he n i t c om e s t o e nc our a gi ng i nde pe nde nt m e di a pr oduc t i on S he l don l ooks a t t he pa r t ne r s hi p be t w e e n t he I nde pe nde nt F e a t ur e P r oj e c t a non pr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i on pr ovi di ng t he i ns t i t ut i ona l

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11 f r a m e w or k f or di s t r i but i ng F e de r a l w or k f or c e gr a n t s unde r t he I nde pe nde nt F i l m T r a i ni ng G r a nt I n i t i a t i ve a nd t he M a yor 's O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng, w ho a nnounc e d t he pr og r a m f o r i nde pe nde nt N e w Y or k f i l m m a ke r s on S e pt e m be r 21, 2005. S he l don a r gue s t ha t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he I F P a nd t he M O F T B w hi l e be i ng m os t l y be ne f i c i a l f or bot h pa r t i e s a r gue s t ha t t he b l ur r i ng d i s t i nc t i on be t w e e n non p r of i t a nd gove r nm e nt or ga ni z a t i ons w i l l s uppor t t he pr o f i t w or l d pos i t i ve l y a nd ne ga t i ve l y ( S he l don 2006: 72) W i t h r e ga r ds t o t he e f f e c t s o f t he M O F T B S he l do n a r gue s t ha t t he i r a l l i a nc e w i t h t he I F P a no n pr o f i t o r ga ni z a t i on t ha t s uppor t s i nd e pe nde nt f i l m m a ki ng, gi ve s t he m a de gr e e of c r e di bi l i t y a nd c ul t ur a l c a pi t a l W hi l e i t w oul d s e e m t ha t t he pa r t ne r s hi p be t w e e n t he I F P a nd t he M O F T B w oul d be be ne f i c i a l f or bot h pa r t i e s S he l don a r gue s t ha t vi e w i ng t he pa r t ne r s hi p be t w e e n t he M O F T B a nd t he I F P f r om a n i ns t i t ut i ona l i s om or phi s m a ngl e w oul d a c t ua l l y pu t t he M O F T B a t a gr e a t e r r i s k of be c om i ng m o r e l i ke t he I F P I n t he a r t i c l e I ns t i t ut i ona l I s om or ph i s m a nd P ubl i c S e c t or O r ga ni z a t i on" P e t e r F r um k i n a nd J os e ph G a l a s ki e w i c z a r gue t ha t G ove r nm e n t a l or ga ni z a t i ons a r e i n f a c t m or e vul ne r a bl e t o. i ns t i t ut i ona l f o r c e s t ha n o t he r or ga ni z a t i ons ( S he l don 2006) A s s uc h, t he M O F T B r i s ks be c om i ng m or e l i ke t he I F B be c a us e i t m us t f ol l ow t he pr oc e dur e s a nd pr a c t i c e s s e t f or t h by t he I F P w hi c h w oul d c om p r om i s e t he i r a bi l i t y t o pr om ot e a nd r e gul a t e f i l m s a nd c a us e a pot e nt i a l l y da m a gi ng i m a ge pr obl e m W hi l e t hi s w oul d gi ve t he M O F T B c ons i de r a bl y m or e c ont r ol i n i n f l ue nc i ng t he p r oduc t i on o f f i l m s i t w oul d c om p r om i s e t he i nt e gr i t y of t he M O F T B a s a l i a i s on be t w e e n f i l m p r oduc t i ons a nd t he c i t y gove r n m e nt T hi s s how s t ha t t he M O F T B ha s a pr e c a r i ous r o l e i n t he pr oduc t i on of c ul t ur e w he r e t he i r s t a nda r ds a nd p r a c t i c e s c a n be a l t e r e d a s s uc h t ha t t he y

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12 c oul d de ve l op a m or e e xpl i c i t r ol e i n t he c ul t u r a l p r oduc t i on of f i l m ( i n t hi s c a s e t h r ough f undi ng f i l m pr oduc t i ons ) F i l m C om m i s s i on s S c hol a r s hi p on f i l m c om m i s s i ons i n ge ne r a l i s a bo ut a s s c a nt a s t he s c hol a r s hi p on t he M O F T B s pe c i f i c a l l y, w hi c h i s pe c ul i a r be c a us e t he r e s houl d be m or e s c hol a r s hi p on f i l m c om m i s s i ons i n ge ne r a l t ha n t he M O F T B s i m pl y be c a us e t he M O F T B i s one f i l m c om m i s s i on a nd t he qua l i f i e r s a r e e xpa nde d t o i nc l ude a l l f i l m c om m i s s i ons N one t he l e s s t he s c hol a r s hi p on f i l m c om m i s s i ons i s e xt r e m e l y i m por t a nt f o r unde r s t a ndi ng t he s t a nda r ds a nd pr a c t i c e s of o t he r f i l m c om m i s s i ons ( a s di f f e r e nt c i t i e s c a l l f or s hi f t s i n s t r a t e gy) a s w e l l a s t he s t a nda r ds a nd pr a c t i c e s of f i l m c om m i s s i ons a s a w hol e : w ha t t he y do how t he y do i t w hy t he y do i t e t c A l l f i l m c om m i s s i ons a r e t he s a m e a t t he i r c or e F i l m c om m i s s i ons a c t a s l i a i s ons be t w e e n c i t i z e ns a nd m e m be r s of t he f i l m i ndus t r y T he s t r a t e gi e s a nd ot he r i nt e nt i ons of f i l m c om m i s s i ons be yond t ha t a r e l oc a t i on s pe c i f i c T he c onc e r ns of t he M O F T B a r e di f f e r e nt f r om C hi c a go, M i a m i t he P h i l i ppi n e s M e xi c o, J a pa n, I s r a e l e t c S uc h i s t he c a s e w i t h t he N e w Z e a l a nd F i l m C om m i s s i on. T h e N e w Z e a l a nd F i l m C om m i s s i on: P r om ot i ng A n i ndus t r y, F or g i ng A N a t i ona l I de nt i t y" by G r e gor y W a l ke r e s s e nt i a l l y a r gue s t ha t N e w Z e a l a nd e s t a bl i s he d t he N e w Z e a l a nd F i l m C om m i s s i on i n or de r t o c ur t a i l f or e i gn c om pe t i t i on i n o r de r t o de ve l op a nd m a i nt a i n a na t i ona l i de nt i t y t ha t di s t i ngui s he d i t s e l f t hr ough t he pr oduc t i on a nd t he a r t i s t r y of f i l m by p r om ot i ng f i l m m a ki ng a nd pr e s e r va t i on i n N e w Z e a l a nd w hi l e r e gul a t i ng t he i m por t a t i on of c ul t ur a l goods a nd pr oduc t i ons f r om f o r e i gn m a r ke t s w or l d w i de A l t hough t he r e s ol ut i ons pa s s e d

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13 a l l ow i ng t he f o r m a t i on o f t he N e w Z e a l a nd F i l m C om m i s s i on di d not e xpl i c i t l y s t a t e 'na t i ona l i de nt i t y' a s a goa l i n t he f o r m a t i on of t he N Z F C t he y di d e c ho t he ne c e s s i t y f or t he e xi s t i ng pol i t i c a l s t r uc t u r e s t o s uppor t t he N e w Z e a l a nd f i l m i ndus t r y i n i t s e nt i r e t y be c a us e f i l m m a ki ng w a s a s s um e d t o be a c r e a t i ve pr o f e s s i ona l e nde a vor a n a r t w or t h f os t e r i ng, a s de m ons t r a t e d by t he E ur ope a n a ut e ur s w hos e w or ks gr a c e d t he s oc i e t y c i r c ui t ( W a l l e r 1996: 245) T he j us t i f i c a t i on f or t h e e s t a bl i s hm e nt of t he N e w Z e a l a nd F i l m C om m i s s i on w a s not j us t e c onom i c a l ( a l t hou gh, i nt e r e s t i ngl y t he y di d not e l a bor a t e on t hi s ) T he r e s ol ut i ons a l s o a c know l e dge d t he s oc i a l i m por t a nc e of f i l m a s a m e di um f or f os t e r i ng s oc i a l de ve l opm e nt a nd c ha nge a nd t h us w e r e i m por t a nt t o r e gul a t e A l t hough t he M O F T B a nd t he N Z F C w e r e bot h e s t a bl i s he d a t di f f e r e nt t i m e pe r i ods w i t h d i f f e r e nt m ot i ve s a nd i n d i f f e r e nt c o nt e xt s t hi s a r t i c l e i s i m por t a nt i n e s t a bl i s hi ng t ha t not onl y a r e f i l m c om m i s s i ons c onc e r ne d w i t h t he i r pl a c e 's i m a ge but ha ve t he r e gul a t or y a nd pol i t i c a l pow e r t o e nc our a ge a nd f os t e r g r ow t h w i t hi n t he r e gi on a s w e l l a s de c i de w hi c h f or e i gn pr oduc t i ons c a n a n d c a nnot be f i l m e d t he r e T he di s pa r a t e m ot i va t i ons a nd pr a c t i c e s be t w e e n t he M O F T B a nd t he N Z F C a s w e l l a s t he f a c t t ha t t he M O F T B w a s t he f i r s t f i l m c om m i s s i on e ve r e s t a bl i s he d, hi ghl i ght s t he i m por t a nc e of h i s t or i c a l a nd ge ogr a phi c a l c ont e xt ove r i nf r a s t r uc t ur a l p r e c e de nc e w he n i t c om e s t o a f i l m c om m i s s i on's pr a c t i c e s M or e s o, t hi s a r t i c l e s ugge s t s t ha t m uni c i pa l i ns t i t ut i ons i nvol ve d i n s om e f or m of r e gul a t i on a n d pr om ot i on of c ul t ur a l p r oduc t i on c a n do s o t o r e f l e c t r e gi ona l i nt e r e s t s w he t he r t h a t be f i na nc i a l c ul t ur a l s oc i a l o r ot he r w i s e T he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he N Z F C a nd t he M O F T B a r e c l e a r but a s s t a t e d be f or e t he y a r e s t i l l f unda m e nt a l l y t he s a m e i n w h a t t he y do. B e c a us e of t hi s one c a n m a p out t he d i f f e r e nc e s a nd s i m i l a r i t i e s be t w e e n t h e va r i ous f i l m c om m i s s i ons a nd ge t t o

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14 t he i r f unc t i ons a t t he c or e S t a r W a r s : F i l m P e r m i t t i ng, P r i or R e s t r a i nt & G ove r n m e nt 's R ol e i n t he E nt e r t a i nm e nt I ndus t r y by J on G a r on f oc us e s on t he l ogi s t i c a l a s pe c t s of r e gul a t i ng l oc a t i ons t hr ough t he pe r m i t p r oc e s s w i t hi n t he l a r ge r c ont e xt o f gove r nm e nt a l r ol e s i n t he f i l m i ndus t r y. T he a r t i c l e gi ve s a de c e n t a m ount of c ont e xt ua l i n f or m a t i on f or t he hi s t or y of f i l m pr oduc t i on i n N e w Y or k C i t y p a r t i c ul a r l y dur i ng t he l a t e 1980s a nd e a r l y 1990s a nd t he bu r ge oni ng s uc c e s s e s of ot he r out s our c e d f i l m pr oduc t i on c e nt e r s H ow e ve r t he bul k of t he r e l e va nt i nf or m a t i on f o r m y t he s i s c om e s f r om t he ove r vi e w of t he f i l m pe r m i t t i ng p r oc e s s G a r on go e s ove r t he va r i ous gove r n m e nt a l c onc e r ns w i t h t he pe r m i t pr oc e s s i nc l udi ng e c onom i c e xpa ns i on, t he a ddr e s s i ng t he c onc e r ns of t he f i l m e d ne i ghbor hood s a f e t y e t c W hi l e t he a ppr oa c h i s c e r t a i nl y c om pr e he ns i ve t hi s a r t i c l e i s f r om a l a w j ou r na l a nd a s s uc h m os t l y c onc e r ns i t s e l f w i t h l e ga l not ne c e s s a r i l y s oc i a l a ppr o a c he s T he l ogi s t i c s a r e c ove r e d i n de pt h but t he r e 's no di s c us s i on on t he s oc i a l e f f e c t s t hi s ha s on N e w Y or k's i m a ge w i t h r e ga r ds t o c ul t u r a l pr oduc t i on, w hi c h I hope t o c ove r G a r on s a r t i c l e i s a n i m por t a nt pi e c e of s c hol a r s hi p i n unde r s t a ndi ng t he l ogi s t i c s of f i l m c om m i s s i ons a nd s e t s up a n i m po r t a nt phe n om e non t ha t ha s di c t a t e d t he pol i c i e s of vi r t ua l l y a l l f i l m c om m i s s i ons i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s : r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on. R una w a y f i l m p r oduc t i ons a r e f i l m p r oduc t i ons t ha t a r e f und e d by U S ba s e d s t u di os but f i l m e d out s i de of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of C om m e r c e r e l e a s e d a r e por t on t he e f f e c t s of r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i n 2001 T he r e por t ga ve a n ove r vi e w of r una w a y f i l m p r oduc t i ons a nd t he f i l m i ndus t r y i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s : a m e a s ur a bl e e c onom i c i m pa c t t ha t U S f i l m i ndus t r y ha d on t he U S e c onom y, t he e c onom i c l os s e s due t o r una w a y pr oduc t i ons a r un dow n of t he r e a s ons w hy t he r e i s

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15 r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on, a n ove r v i e w of t he i nc e n t i ve pr ogr a m s f or f or e i gn f i l m c om m i s s i ons a nd f i na l l y s om e s ugge s t i ons on ho w t o r e t a i n f i l m pr oduc t i on i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he r e por t a dm i t t e d t ha t a num be r o f f a c t or s l e a d t o t he i nc r e a s e of r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i ons be gi nni ng i n t he l a t e 20t h c e nt ur y, i nc l udi ng gl oba l i z a t i on i n ge ne r a l r i s i ng pr oduc t i on c os t s i n t he U ni t e d S a t e s a dva nc e s i n t e c hnol ogy, a s w e l l a s a n i nc r e a s e i n i nc e nt i ve s a nd t r a i ni ng s e r vi c e s i n f or e i gn c ount r i e s ( M i ne t a 2001: i i ) T he r e por t not e d t ha t a f t e r m a ny ye a r s o f gr ow t h i n t he l a t e 1990s f i l m pr oduc t i on i n N e w Y or k C i t y s l i ght l y de c l i ne d, pa r t i c ul a r l y be t w e e n 1998 1999 F e a t u r e f i l m s i n pa r t i c ul a r w e r e s e e n a s t a ki ng a s ubs t a nt i a l hi t w i t h a f i ve pe r c e nt l os s i n t ot a l e xpe ndi t ur e s be t w e e n 1998 a nd 1999 ( M i ne t a 200 1: 35) T he de c l i ne s ha ve be e n a t t r i but e d t o C a na da 's a ggr e s s i ve i nc e nt i ve s c a m pa i gn, w hi c h a f f e c t s pr oduc t i on c os t s ( pa r t i c ul a r l y w i t h be l ow t he l i ne l a bo r ) T he r e por t r e c om m e nde d t ha t t he M O F T B a nd G ove r nor 's O f f i c e f ur t he r de ve l op t he i r i nc e nt i ve s a nd pr a c t i c e s i n or de r t o i ns t i l l a nd m a i nt a i n f i l m pr oduc t i on gr ow t h T he r e por t br i ng s a n a bunda nc e of c ont e xt ua l i nf or m a t i on on t he pow e r s a nd pr a c t i c e s of t he M O F T B a s a f i l m c om m i s s i on. A s t he r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on phe nom e non i s a t r a ns na t i ona l phe nom e non, i t s s i gni f i c a nc e i n de t e r m i ni ng t he i ns t i t ut i ona l pr a c t i c e s of t he M O F T B i s i m m e ns e T hi s c ont e xt ua l i nf or m a t i on, a l ong w i t h t e r t i a r y da t a on gove r nm e nt i nc e nt i ve s f r om C a na da w a s e xt r e m e l y he l pf ul i n bol s t e r i ng m y a na l ys i s of t he M O F T B T he i ns i ght s i nt o t he i m pa c t t ha t r una w a y f i l m p r o duc t i ons ha s on f i l m c om m i s s i ons i s i m m e ns e a nd di c t a t e s t he pol i c i e s of t he M O F T B i m m e ns e l y, s o m uc h s o t ha t t he s c hol a r s hi p on t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on o f f i l m a nd by e xt e ns i on, c ul t ur a l e c onom i e s i s a l s o f r a m e d by r una w a y f i l m p r oduc t i on.

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16 C u l t u r al P r od u c t i on / C u l t u r al E c on om y A s s t a t e d be f or e t he i m pa c t of r una w a y f i l m p r odu c t i on i s i m m e ns e o f t e n di c t a t i ng t he pol i c i e s of f i l m i ns t i t ut i ons t he m s e l ve s A s s uc h, t he s c hol a r s hi p on t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m a nd t he c ul t ur a l e c ono m y of c i t i e s r e f l e c t s t hi s T he ne e d f or c i t i e s t o m a r ke t t he m s e l ve s a s di s t i nc t pl a c e s i n t he gl oba l e c onom y i s g r ow i ng m o r e a nd m or e a s t he m e di a i ndus t r i e s a r e f r a gm e nt i ng a nd goi ng t o ne w l oc a t i ons O ne ke y c onc e pt i n t he pr oduc t i on of c ul t u r e a ppr o a c h t o c ul t u r a l i ndus t r i e s t ha t m us t be e l uc i da t e d on i s ga t e ke e pi ng, a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y, i t s r ol e i n r e gul a t i ng i m a ge I n B ut I s I t A r t ? : D e c i s i on M a ki ng a nd D i s c ur s i ve R e s our c e s i n t he F i e l d of C ul t ur a l P r oduc t i on, M i c ha e l M a uw s s a s c e r t a i ns t ha t c ul t ur a l m e di a i ndu s t r i e s i n a nd o f t he m s e l ve s a r e ga t e ke e pi ng m e c ha ni s m s ( 2000: 230) I n o r de r f or i de a s t o be c om e c ul t ur a l pr oduc t s t he y m us t pa s s t hr ough a s e r i e s of r e l a t e d i ndi vi dua l s a nd i ns t i t ut i ons w ho s j ob i t i s t o f i l t e r out t he va s t num be r of c a ndi da t e s ba s e d on a s e t o f c r i t e r i a de t e r m i ne d by t hos e i ns t i t ut i on s f unc t i ons ( 2000 : 232) T he r e a r e a va s t num be r of ga t e ke e pe r s t hr oughout t he pr oc e s s f r om w hi c h c ul t ur a l pr oduc t s a r e pr oduc e d a nd t he n f i na l l y c ons um e d ( M a uw s 2000) G a t e ke e pe r s m a y ga t e ke e p f or a va r i e t y of r e a s ons r a ngi ng f r om c om pl e x i ns t i t ut i ona l f a c t or s t o m or e a r bi t r a r y r e a s ons s uc h a s I don t l i ke i t ( M a uw s 2000) M a uw s pr ovi de s a n e xc e l l e nt i f br i e f ove r vi e w r e g a r di ng t he ge ne r a l f unc t i on a nd pr e va l e nc e of ga t e ke e pi ng i n c ul t ur a l i ndus t r i e s G a t e ke e pe r s a r e e ve r yw he r e t hr oughout t he f i l m m a ki ng pr oc e s s i nc l udi ng di r e c t or s w r i t e r s s t udi o e xe c ut i ve s e t c T he i m por t a nc e of ga t e ke e pi ng i ns t i t ut i ons f or M a uw s i s t ha t t he y r e ubi qui t ous i n t he i r

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17 pr e s e nc e t hr oughout t he p r oduc t i on pr oc e s s a nd t h us t he va r i ous w a ys i n w hi c h c ont e nt i s f i l t e r e d t h r oughout t ha t pr oc e s s T hi s m e a ns t ha t t h e ve r y f a c t t ha t t he M O F T B ga t e ke e ps m e a ns t ha t t he t he y r e goi ng t o ha ve a s t a ke i n t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on pr oc e s s be c a us e i t i s but one of m a ny i ns t i t ut i ons a nd pe opl e t ha t de t e r m i ne w hi c h c ul t u r a l pr oduc t s w i l l go t hr ough. A t t he s a m e t i m e i t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t t he M O F T B r e gul a t e s pa c e a nd not ne c e s s a r i l y i m a ge H ow e ve r a s w e w i l l s e e l a t e r t hi s s i m pl e r e gul a t i on o f s pa c e c a n a c t ua l l y a f f e c t t he c ons t r uc t i on of t he c ont e nt o f t h e f i l m a nd t he r e f o r e a n a s pe c t of t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of t he f i l m I n T he I m po r t a nc e of P l a c e a nd P r oduc t i on i n t he C ul t ur a l E c onom y: A P r e l ude T o C ul t ur a l I ndus t r i e s a nd t he P r oduc t i on of C ul t u r e by D om i ni c P ow e r s a nd A l l e n J S c ot t t he s i gni f i c a nc e of a ge ogr a phi c l oc a t i on i s a na l yz e d by e xa m i ni ng t he d i f f e r e nt w a ys i n w hi c h t he ge ogr a phi c a l l a yout of a pl a c e i nf l ue nc e t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on i n t ha t pl a c e T he y i l l us t r a t e t he i m por t a nc e of pl a c e by p oi nt i ng out t he a s s oc i a t i ons be t w e e n pa r t i c ul a r l oc a t i ons a nd c ul t u r a l pr oduc t s T he y a r g ue t ha t t he s e a s s oc i a t i ons c a n be br a nde d f or f ur t he r pr om ot i on, s uc h a s f a s hi on i n P a r i s r e gga e i n J a m a i c a e t c P l a c e s c a n a l s o be m e t onym s f or e nt i r e i ndus t r i e s s uc h a s H ol l yw ood, C a l i f or n i a f o r t he U S f i l m i ndus t r y, N a s hvi l l e T e nne s s e e f or t he c ount r y m us i c i ndus t r y, a nd D e t r oi t M i c hi ga n f or t he a ut om obi l e i ndus t r y T hi s c oul d be e xpa nde d e ve n f ur t he r t o i nc l ude pr oduc t i on pr oc e s s e s s uc h a s t he br a ndi ng o f 'G e r m a n e ngi ne e r i ng' a nd I t a l i a n de s i gn' ( P ow e r a nd S c ot t 2004: 7) ) G i ve n t hi s ge ogr a phi c l oc a t i ons a r e pa r t i c ul a r l y i m por t a nt be c a us e t he y he l p i nf l ue nc e a r t i s a ns a nd l a bor e r s T he M O F T B know t hi s a nd us e s N e w Y or k C i t y s r e put a t i on a s a gl oba l m e di a hub a s w e l l a s i t s m yt hi c a l l a nds c a pe t o dr a w a r t i s a ns a nd l a bor e r s t o N e w Y or k C i t y. I n doi ng s o, t he y de ve l op a nd pr om ot e a c ol l e c t i ve

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18 c om pa r a t i ve a dva nt a ge a ga i ns t ot he r l oc a t i ons bui l di ng c ol l a bor a t i ve i nt e r f i r m r e l a t i ons i n or de r t o m obi l i z e l a t e nt s yne r gi e s i n t he a r e a by or g a ni z i ng e f f i c i e nt a nd h i gh s ki l l e d l oc a l l a bor m a r ke t s a nd t hr ough pot e nt i a l i t y o f l oc a l i ndus t r i a l c r e a t i vi t y a nd i nnova t i on I f s uc c e s s f ul t he s e s t r a t e gi e s gi ve N Y C a c om pe t i t i ve e dge a ga i ns t ot he r l oc a t i ons a nd i n t ur n br i ng i n c om pl e m e nt a r y bus i ne s s w i t h j ob t r a i ni ng c e nt e r s e t c ) A l l o f t he s e c ondi t i ons a r e be ne f i c i a l f o r l oc a t i ons w i t h c om pl e m e nt a r y i ndus t r i e s i n m ut ua l pr oxi m i t y, but t he c ur r e nt t r e nd w i t h gl oba l i z a t i on di c t a t e s t ha t c ul t ur a l p r oduc t s a r e be i ng c ons um e d by a n i nc r e a s i ng num be r of pe opl e a r ound t he w o r l d, e s pe c i a l l y f or t r a ns na t i ona l m e di a c ongl om e r a t e s ( e s pe c i a l l y t he H ol l yw ood f i l m i ndus t r y) f oc us e d on t he c r e a t i on of bl oc kbus t e r m e di a p r oduc t s T hi s i n c r e a s i ng gl oba l t r e nd m e a ns t ha t c ul t ur e i ndus t r i e s a c r os s t he boa r d m us t de c e n t r a l i z e t o s om e e xt e nt i n or de r t o a da pt t o f or e i gn m a r ke t s s l i m p r oduc t i on c os t s i nc r e a s e gl oba l vi s i bi l i t y, a nd t o e a s e t he c e nt r a l i nf r a s t r uc t ur e o f l a bor c onc e r ns E vi de nc e of t hi s c a n be f ound i n pl a c e s l i ke V a nc ouve r a nd T or ont o w he r e pr oduc t i on f a c i l i t i e s ha ve de ve l ope d a l m os t s ol e l y f or t he H ol l yw ood f i l m i ndus t r y T he s e l oc a t i ons a r e a t h r e a t t o N e w Y or k C i t y be c a us e t he y m a y s w a y bus i ne s s a w a y. H ow e ve r t hi s a l s o m e a ns t ha t N e w Y or k C i t y de s pi t e ha vi ng a l oc a l c ul t ur a l e c onom y he a vi l y s t e e pe d i n pr oduc t i on a l s o a c t s a r una w a y, de c e nt r a l i z e d pr oduc t i on s i t e f o r t he l a r ge r H ol l yw ood f i l m i ndu s t r y. A s s uc h, N Y C ha s t he be ne f i t o f a c t ua l l y be i ng bot h a de c e nt r a l i z e d pr oduc t i on c e nt e r c om pe t i ng f r om r e s our c e s a t t he t op of t he f ood c ha i n, w hi l e a l s o be i ng a l a r ge p r od uc e r i t s e l f T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t c i t i e s ha ve a qui t e de a l o f c ont r o l w he n i t c om e s t o t he c ul t u r a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m bu t ot he r s c hol a r s hi p s ugge s t ot he r w i s e B e yond P r oduc t i on C l us t e r s : T ow a r ds a C r i t i c a l P o l i t i c a l E c onom y of N e t w or ks i n t he F i l m a nd T e l e vi s i on

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19 I ndus t r i e s by N e i l C oe a nd J e nni f e r J ohns e xpa nd on t hi s t op i c of a s ys t e m of p r oduc t i on ne t w or ks by c r i t i c i z i ng t he r e c e nt t r e nd o f c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on s t udi e s put t i ng t oo m uc h e m pha s i s on pr oduc t i on c l us t e r s a nd t he de c e nt r a l i z a t i on of t he f i l m a nd t e l e vi s i on i ndus t r i e s C oe a nd J ohns a r gue t ha t e ve n t hough m a j or s t udi os ha ve l e s s pow e r i n pr oduc t i on t ha n t he y've ha d i n t he pa s t due t o t he d e c e nt r a l i z a t i on of pr oduc t i on, t he y s t i l l hol d f i na nc i ng a nd di s t r i but i on pow e r s t ha t ul t i m a t e l y ha ve t he f i na l s a y i n t he ove r a l l pr oduc t i on of f i l m s T he y br e a k up t he f i l m p r oduc t i on pr oc e s s i nt o s i x s t e ps : f i na nc e pr e pr oduc t i on, pr oduc t i on pos t p r oduc t i on, di s t r i but i on, a nd e xhi bi t i on ( C oe a nd J ohns 2004: 192 193) T he m a j or H ol l yw oo d f i l m s t udi os ha ve t he m os t c ont r ol i n t he e a r l y a nd l a t e r pha s e s of pr oduc t i on w hi l e r e l e ga t i ng pr oduc t i on w or k t o r una w a y, de c e nt r a l i z e d pr oduc t i on c l us t e r s H ow e ve r t he s e pr oduc t i on c l u s t e r s a r e t ypi c a l l y c hos e n t o c ut c os t s F or i ns t a nc e t he C a na di a n gove r nm e nt of f e r s a n e xt e ns i ve va r i e t y of c os t s a vi ng m e a s ur e s f or U S f i l m c om pa ni e s t ha t c a n r e a c h up t o 26% o f a pr oduc t i on's t ot a l budge t ( 2004: 197) T he a bi l i t y t o a l l ow f or c os t s a nd e xpe ndi t ur e s out s i de of t he l oc a l p r oduc t i on c e nt e r gi ve s m ut ua l l y be ne f i c i a l f or e xt r a t e r r i t or i a l i t i e s i n t he p r oduc t i on ne t w or k t o ge t bus i ne s s a nd t he pr oduc t i on c e nt e r s t o ge t c he a pe r pr oduc t i on c os t s A ga i n, N e w Y or k C i t y's c a s e i s pe c ul i a r a s i t i s bot h a r una w a y pr odu c t i on c e nt e r w hi l e a l s o be i ng a pr i m a r y p r oduc t i on c e nt e r f or s m a l l e r pr oduc t i ons N e w Y or k C i t y r e m a i ns r e l e va nt a nd l a r ge i n t he m e di a w or l d de s pi t e di ve r s i f i c a t i on a nd r una w a y p r oduc t i ons be c a us e of t hi s hybr i di z a t i on. T he r e a l pow e r i n t he pr oduc t i on s ys t e m l i e s i n w ho ha s f i na nc i a l a nd di s t r i bu t i on pow e r T hi s m e a ns t ha t t he r e 's a n i m por t a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he ne t w or ks of p r oduc t i on f i r m s a nd t he ke y s t a ge s of f i na nc e a nd di s t r i but i on U l t i m a t e l y t hou gh, t hi s c r e a t e s a m u t ua l l y be ne f i c i a l

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20 ( pe r ha ps une qua l l y) a nd c om pl e x r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n N e w Y or k C i t y a s a c e nt e r of pr oduc t i on a nd N e w Y o r k C i t y a s a r una w a y pr od uc t i on c e nt e r f o r H ol l yw ood T he c i t y i s a l s o a r una w a y pr oduc t i on c e nt e r f o r f i l m p r odu c e r s bot h i nt e r na t i ona l l y a nd a br oa d. I n ot he r w or ds N Y C m e di a c ongl om e r a t e s ha ve t he m e a n s t o f i na nc e a nd di s t r i but e f i l m s w hi l e a t t he s a m e ge t s va r i ous pha s e s of p r oduc t i o n f r om ot he r t e r r i t o r i e s t he r e by di ve r s i f yi ng t he s t r e a m s of c a pi t a l e nt e r i ng a nd l e a vi ng t he c i t y T hi s gi ve s t he M O F T B t he a dde d pr e s s ur e of bot h a t t r a c t i ng a nd m a i nt a i n i ng t op t a l e nt a nd l a bor f r om a r ound t he c ount r y t o m a i nt a i n i t s s t a t us a gl oba l m e di a hub w hi l e t r yi ng t o a t t r a c t pr oduc t i on f r o m w i t hi n t he i ndus t r y S c hol a r s hi p i nde pe nde nt of v i s ua l m e di a i ndus t r i e s a l s o s ugge s t s t he t r e nd of m a r ke t i ng t he m s e l ve s i n t he gl oba l c om pe t i t i ve l a n ds c a pe I n B r a ndi ng t he C i t y t hr ough C ul t ur e a nd E nt e r t a i nm e nt M i ha l i s a r gue s t ha t i n c r e a s e d c om pe t i t i on f or r e s our c e s a nd gl oba l i z a t i on ha ve l e d t o a phe nom e non i n w hi c h c i t i e s m a r ke t t he m s e l ve s t o ot he r l oc a t i ons by br a ndi ng t he m s e l ve s t hr ough t he i r c ul t ur a l he r i t a ge s p l a c e s of i nt e r e s t c ul t ur a l pr oduc t s e t c M i ha l i s a c know l e dge s s e ve r a l di f f e r e nt ki nds of pl a c e br a ndi ng T he one m os t i m por t a nt t o m y t he s i s i s 'c ul t ur e / e nt e r t a i nm e nt br a ndi ng' w hi c h l e nds i t s e l f t o t he gr ow i ng i m por t a nc e of c ul t ur e a nd l e i s ur e a s a t t r a c t i ve qua l i t i e s f or c om m e r c i a l pur pos e s T he a ppr oa c he s on c i t y b r a ndi ng w i t h r e ga r ds t o p r oduc t a nd pl a c e a r e hi ghl y r e l e va nt t o t he w a ys i n w hi c h t he M O F T B us e s t he M a de i n N Y C l ogo, pr opa ga t e s t he m yt hi c a l c i ne m a t i c N e w Y or k C i t y, a nd m a na ge s i t s c ul t u r a l i nc e nt i ve s a s a w hol e A l t hough i t i s s hor t a nd i s onl y r e l e va nt t o one a s pe c t of m y t he s i s i t i s none t he l e s s i m por t a nt f or unde r s t a ndi ng how t he M O F T B c onne c t s i t s e l f t o N e w Y or k C i t y s c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y

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21 A l l of t hi s s c hol a r s hi p on c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on w i t hi n f i l m i ndus t r i e s ove r l a ps w i t h t he i de a of c i t i e s ha vi ng a c ul t ur a l e c onom y a n i de a e xpounde d upon by A l l e n S c ot t A l l e n S c ot t 's book, O n H ol l yw ood: T he P l a c e T he I ndus t r y i s a n a na l yt i c a l ove r vi e w of H ol l yw ood's r ol e i n s ha pi ng t he f i l m i ndus t r y a nd t he c ul t ur a l a nd e c onom i c r a m i f i c a t i ons of i t s e xpa ns i on. M y t he s i s i s obvi ou s l y not f oc us e d on H ol l yw ood but t he t he or e t i c a l unde r pi nni ngs of S c ot t 's book ( a nd by e xt e ns i on hi s w or k i n ge ne r a l ) g i ve s m y t he s i s gr oundi ng i n m y a na l ys i s of t he M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng. S c ot t l ooks a t t he H ol l yw ood i ndus t r y a s a n or ga ni z e d e c ol ogy o f s pe c i a l i z e d but c om pl e m e nt a r y pr oduc t i on a nd l a b or t a s ks ( S c ot t 2005 : xi ) L i ke w i s e I l ook a t N e w Y or k C i t y's m e di a p r oduc t i on i n a s i m i l a r m a nne r w he n I f oc us t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he M a yor 's O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng ha s i n N e w Y or k's s oc i o e c onom i c ge ogr a phy. B e c a us e S c ot t 's book doe s n't f oc us on f i l m c om m i s s i ons or on N e w Y or k C i t y, m y t he s i s w i l l c om pl e m e nt hi s w or k i n t he l a r ge r c ul t u r a l e c onom y s pe c t r um

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22 C h ap t e r 3 R u n aw ay P r o d u c t i on H ol l yw ood R i s i n g T he bi r t h of t he m ode r n f i l m i ndus t r y w a s e s t a bl i s he d i n a ne f a r i ous f a s hi on. I n 1908, s e ve r a l l a r ge f i r m s unde r t he di r e c t i on o f t he E di s on M a nuf a c t ur i ng C om pa ny, t he A m e r i c a n M ut os c ope a nd B i ogr a ph C om pa ny f o r m e d c oa l i t i on know n a s t he M ot i on P i c t ur e P a t e nt s C om pa ny, or T he T r us t ( S c ot t 200 5: 17) T he T r us t e s s e nt i a l l y ha d a m onopol y ove r pa t e nt s a c c e s s t o e qui pm e nt f or s hoot i ng, p r oj e c t i ng, a nd s oon t he di s t r i but i on of f i l m s 'T he T r us t w e r e ba s e d i n N e w Y or k C i t y a nd s hot m a ny o f t he i r f i r s t f i l m s t he r e on s ound s t a ge s a nd on l oc a t i on. H ow e ve r t he N o r t he a s t w i nt e r s m a de f i l m i ng i n t he c i t y pa r t i c ul a r l y di f f i c ul t s o t he T r us t a nd m a ny i nde pe nde nt c om pa ni e s l ooke d e l s e w he r e t o f i l m A num be r of l oc a t i ons w e r e c hos e n a nd c ons i de r e d ( w i t h s om e pr oduc t i on e ve n oc c ur r i ng pa r t i c ul a r l y i n J a c ks onvi l l e F l o r i da ) but S out he r n C a l i f or ni a w a s c hos e n de f a c t o by t he i ndus t r y w i t h t he c ons t r uc t i on of t he f i r s t pe r m a ne nt s t udi o i n 1909. A s t r e a m of pe r m a ne nt s t udi os f ol l ow e d t hi s f r om ot he r m a j or f i l m c om pa ni e s t hr oughout t he ne xt s e ve r a l ye a r s ( S c ot t 2005: 18 ) I r oni c a l l y, L os A nge l e s w a s onl y c ons i de r e d a s a t e l l i t e pr oduc t i on a s m a ny of t he m a j or f i l m s t udi os w e r e s t i l l ba s e d i n N e w Y or k C i t y. L os A nge l e s a s a s i gni f i c a nt s oc i oe c onom i c ge ogr a phi c e nt i t y di d not a r i s e f r om a ny s i ngl e e ve nt but r a t he r e vol ve d ove r a num be r of ye a r s a f t e r t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of t he f i r s t pe r m a ne nt s t udi os i n L os A nge l e s due t o s c r upul ous i nde pe nde nt pr oduc e r s w ho c r e a t e d a l t e r na t i ve s t r a t e gi c m ode l s t ha t f oc us e d c ont e nt s t yl e a nd bus i ne s s i nnova t i ons t o s e t i t a pa r t f r om t he T r us t a nd ot he r m a j or c om pa ni e s i n N e w Y or k C i t y ( S c ot t 2005: 24 ) T he s e d e ve l opm e nt s c oupl e d w i t h pos t W or l d W a r I a ddi t i ons of m a j or f i l m s t udi os m a de H ol l yw ood" a m e t onym f or t he m ode r n A m e r i c a n

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23 f i l m i ndus t r y ( S c ot t 2005: 25) T he r e put a t i on a nd c os t c om pe t i t i ve ne s s i n H ol l yw ood a t t r a c t e d t e r t i a r y i ndus t r i e s t o t he a r e a c e m e nt i ng H ol l yw ood's m onopol y on a l l s t a ge s of pr oduc t i on f o r a l m os t a c e nt ur y. T he r e a r e s i x di s t i nc t s t a ge s of pr oduc t i on a s out l i n e d by C oe a nd J ohns : f i na nc e pr e pr oduc t i on, pr oduc t i on pos t p r oduc t i on, di s t r i but i on, a nd e xhi bi t i on ( C oe a nd J ohns 2004: 193) U nde r t he o l d s t udi o s ys t e m i n H ol l yw ood, a l l s t a ge s of pr oduc t i on w e r e c ont a i ne d i n t he s a m e ge ogr a phi c a r e a S t udi os c oul d ove r s e e bot h a bove a nd be l ow t he l i ne w or ke r s i n t he s a m e ge ogr a phi c a r e a H ow e ve r a phe nom e non de ve l ope d i n t he l a t e 1980s a nd t he e a r l y 1990s w hi c h f r a gm e nt e d t he g e ogr a phi c m onopol y ove r a l l s t a ge s of f i l m p r oduc t i on: r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on G e ne r a l l y s pe a ki ng, r una w a y f i l m p r oduc t i on i s t he out s our c i ng of f i l m pr oduc t i on f r om t he U ni t e d S t a t e s t o ot he r f or e i gn c ount r i e s m os t c om m onl y C a na da R u n aw ay F i l m P r od u c t i on T he e a r l y 1990s s a w t he f i r s t i ns t a nc e s of r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on a nd t he f r e que nc y ha s s i nc e s kyr oc ke t e d, a nd t he e f f e c t s of w hi c h c a n be f e l t a c r os s t he i ndus t r y T he r a t e o f U S ba s e d f i l m a nd t e l e vi s i on pr oduc t i on i n f o r e i gn c ount r i e s r os e 13% f r om 1990 t o 1998 w hi c h c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a ne t l os s of n e a r l y $8 bi l l i on ( M i ne t a 2001: 1 ) F i l m pr oduc t i ons c a n c hoos e t o f i l m out s i de of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s f or c hi e f l y t w o r e a s ons : c r e a t i ve a nd e c onom i c C r e a t i ve r un a w a ys a r e f i l m pr oduc t i ons t ha t c hoos e t o f i l m i n f or e i gn l oc a t i ons f o r a c e r t a i n qua l i t y t ha t i s ne c e s s a r y f or t he c r e a t i ve a s pe c t of t he f i l m E c onom i c r una w a ys a r e f i l m p r oduc t i ons i n w hi c h t he c hi e f r e a s on f o r f i l m i ng i n t ha t pa r t i c ul a r a r e a i s t o c ut p r oduc t i on c os t s t hr ough f a vor a bl e e xc ha nge r a t e s l ow e r

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24 pr oduc t i on c os t s a nd gove r n m e nt i nc e nt i ve s ( M i n e t a 2001: 29) T he r e a s ons f or c hoos i ng t o f i l m out s i de of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s m a y be c om pl e x a nd i nvol ve a c om bi na t i on o f m o r e t ha n bot h c r e a t i ve a nd e c o nom i c ne e ds but w ha t s t a nds i s t ha t t he de c i s i on t o f i l m out s i de of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s ul t i m a t e l y de t e r m i n e d by t he c r e a t i ve pr oc e s s a nd t he e c onom i c c l i m a t e of t he pr oduc t i on A s t udy c ond uc t e d by t he M oni t or G r oup f ound t ha t ove r a n 8 ye a r pe r i od f r o m 1990 t o 1998 f i l m p r od uc t i ons c hoos i ng t o f i l m out s i de of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s f or c r e a t i ve c onc e r ns s t e a di l y r os e w hi l e pr oduc t i ons t ha t op t e d t o f i l m out s i de t he U ni t e d S t a t e s f o r e c onom i c r e a s ons s pi ke d dr a m a t i c a l l y, f r om 100 f i l m s i n 1990 t o 285 f i l m s i n 1998, r e s ul t i ng i n a 185 % i nc r e a s e T he U S f i l m i ndus t r y s a w a l os s of ne a r l y $8 bi l l i on dol l a r s w i t hi n t ha t e i ght y e a r pe r i od ( M i ne t a 2001: 29) A ddi t i ona l s t udi e s s ugge s t t ha t r una w a y pr oduc t i o ns a l s o di r e c t l y i m pa c t e m pl oym e nt oppor t uni t i e s f or 'be l ow t he l i ne w or ke r s i n t he f i l m i ndus t r y. S t udi e s c onduc t e d by t he F i l m a nd T e l e vi s i on A c t i on C om m i t t e e a nd t he C h i c a go F i l m O f f i c e f ound t ha t j ob l os s c oul d be e qua t e d a nd e s t i m a t e d i n a ddi t i on t o pr o f i t l os s ( M i ne t a 2001: 31) T he r e a r e m ul t i pl e r e a s ons f or t he phe nom e na of r una w a y f i l m p r oduc t i ons but ne a r l y a l l of t he m c a n be a t t r i bu t e d t o c os t s a vi ng m e a s ur e s e i t he r by t he pr oduc e r s or t he l oc a t i ons be i ng us e d f or pr oduc t i on. T he f i r s t a nd pe r ha ps m os t br oa d r e a s on i s a f a vor a bl e e xc ha nge r a t e H i s t or i c a l l y, t he e xc ha nge r a t e of t he U S vs t he C a na di a n dol l a r ha s a l m os t a l w a ys f a vor e d t he U S do l l a r F i l m pr oduc e r s c i t e d s i gni f i c a nt l y i nc r e a s e d pur c ha s i ng pow e r of t he U S dol l a r i n C a na da a nd i n ot he r f or e i gn E ngl i s h s pe a ki ng c ount r i e s s uc h a s E n gl a nd, I r e l a nd, a nd A us t r a l i a W i t h a s i gni f i c a nt l y i nc r e a s e d pur c ha s i ng pow e r f or t he ove r a l l budge t U S f i l m pr oduc e r s c a n c ut c os t s dur i ng a l l s t a ge s of pr oduc t i on ( M i ne t a 2001: 59 60; D r oe s c h 2002: 6 7) A l t hough t he r e i s n't

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25 i ndus t r y w i de da t a a va i l a bl e ye t on t he w e a ke ne d U S dol l a r 's e f f e c t s on r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on, I 'd t e nt a t i ve l y a r gue t ha t r una w a y p r od uc t i on w oul d be s c a l e d ba c k a l ong w i t h a l l f i l m p r oduc t i on, a nd t hos e i nc e nt i ve s f r om U S c i t i e s a nd c i t i e s a br oa d w oul d s w e e t e n t he i r i nc e nt i ve s a l i t t l e bi t he l pi ng onl y t h e m a j or f i l m s t udi os ba c ki ng t he s e l a r ge s c a l e pr oduc t i ons F i l m c om m i s s i ons bot h f o r e i gn a nd dom e s t i c of f e r a va r i e t y of i nc e nt i ve s but t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt i nc e nt i ve s t o f i l m p r oduc e r s a r e e c onom i c one s i n t he f or m of gov e r nm e nt r e ba t e s a nd s ubs i di e s M a ny E ngl i s h s pe a ki ng f or e i gn l a ngua ge c ount r i e s of f e r s ubs t a nt i a l s ubs i di e s on t he na t i ona l a nd r e gi ona l l e ve l s ; i nc r e a s i ng t he be ne f i t s s ubs t a nt i a l l y a nd e ns ur i ng t ha t U S ba s e d pr oduc t i ons s t a y i n C a na da U S c i t i e s ha ve r e s ponde d i n ki nd, of f e r i ng s ubs t a nt i a l s ubs i di e s a nd i nc e nt i ve s on t he s t a t e a nd l oc a l l e ve l W hi l e e xc ha nge r a t e s a nd f or e i gn i nc e nt i ve s a r e s i gni f i c a nt 'pul l s i n f a c i l i t a t i ng r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on, ne ga t i ve dom e s t i c f o r c e s ha ve a l s o pus he d f i l m pr o duc e r s a w a y a nd c ont r i but e d t o t he r i s e of r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on. T he r i s i ng c os t s of pr oduc t i on a nd di s t r i but i on t he U ni t e d S t a t e s be gi nni ng i n t he e a r l y 1990s a nd t he de c l i ne i n ope r a t i ng m a r gi ns of p r of i t f or m a j or s t udi os i nc l udi ng D i s ne y, V i a c om N e w s C or por a t i on, a nd T i m e W a r ne r ha ve l e d t o a r e s t r uc t u r i ng o f t he i r bu s i ne s s pr a c t i c e s i n or de r t o m a na ge t he i r ba l a nc e s he e t s T hi s r e s ul t e d i n a nu m be r o f d i f f e r e nt pol i c y c ha nge s i nc l udi ng l a yof f s j oi nt pr oduc t i ons r i s ki e r bus i ne s s t a ki ng pr a c t i c e s a nd ge ne r a l c os t c ut t i ng m e a s ur e s i n a l l s t a ge s of pr oduc t i on t ha t r e s ul t e d i n f e w e r f i l m s be i ng p r oduc e d ove r a l l a nd m or e f i l m s be i ng p r oduc e d a br oa d ( M i ne t a 2001: 63) C ont r i but i ng t o t hi s p r obl e m t ha t ha s out l a s t e d t he s e e a r l y l a t e 20t h c e nt ur y p r o bl e m s ha s be e n t he de m a r c a t i on of

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26 A m e r i c a n a nd C a na di a n uni ons a nd w a ge r a t e s f o r bot h be l ow a nd a bove t he l i ne w or ke r s A c om bi na t i on of br oa de r s ki l l s e t s f or C a na di a n w or ke r s f or be l ow t he l i ne w or ke r s a nd hi s t or i c a l l y r i gi d H ol l yw ood uni on pr a c t i c e s ha ve m a de C a na di a n l a bor m uc h m or e a t t r a c t i ve t o H ol l yw ood pr oduc e r s ( D r oe s c h 2002: 10 11) A l t hough C a na di a n w or ke r s ha ve a bi t m or e f l e xi bi l i t y w i t h t he i r w a ge l e ve l s i n pa r t due t o m or e C a na di a n w or ke r s be l ongi ng t o uni ons a bs ol ut e w a ge r a t e s f or C a na di a n w or k e r s a r e l ow e r t ha n t he y a r e f o r t he i r A m e r i c a n c ount e r pa r t s ( M i ne t a 2 001: 64) W a ge s f o r m a j o r a bove t he l i ne w or ke r s s uc h a s a c t or s di r e c t or s e t c a r e ge ne r a l l y f i xe d a nd c a n a c c ount f o r a s i gni f i c a nt por t i on of t he f i l m 's budge t r e s ul t i ng i n c os t c ut t i ng m e a s ur e f o r t he budge t a c r os s t he boa r d ( M i ne t a 2001: 64) A l l of t he s e f a c t or s ha ve l e d f i l m p r oduc e r s t o l ook a br oa d f or c os t a dva nt a ge ous l oc a t i ons t ha t a r e m a de e ve n m or e a ppe a l i ng w i t h a ( t ypi c a l l y, bu t not c ur r e nt l y ) f a vo r a bl e e xc ha nge r a t e a nd a b r e a dt h of i nc e nt i ve s A t t he s a m e t i m e t he r e a r e f a c t or s t ha t f a c i l i t a t e r u na w a y pr oduc t i on t ha t do not pus h or pul l f i l m pr oduc e r s o r f i l m c om m i s s i ons F i l m t e c hnol ogy ha s pr og r e s s e d dr a m a t i c a l l y ove r t he pa s t t w o de c a de s T he s e t e c hnol ogi e s ha ve dr a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d t he f i l m p r oduc t i on i n a l l o f i t s s t a ge s but pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he pos t pr oduc t i on s t a ge T he br oa de s t a nd t he r e f or e m os t i nf l ue nt i a l of t he s e i nn ova t i ons i s t he di gi t i z a t i on o f e xi s t i ng t e c hnol ogy. I t w a s ne c e s s a r y f or f i l m pr o duc t i on w or ke r s t o be l oc a t e d i n t he s a m e ge ogr a phi c a r e a due t o t he phys i c a l l i m i t a t i ons of t e c hnol ogy c oupl e d w i t h t he he a vy c ol l a bor a t i ve pr oc e s s of f i l m m a ki ng ( M i ne t a 2001: 67) N ow m us i c c a n be r e c or de d i n N a s hvi l l e e ngi ne e r e d i n N e w Y o r k C i t y, a nd e va l ua t e d i n H o l l yw ood. F i l m c a n be s hot i n B r a z i l a nd e di t e d i n H ol l yw ood I nf or m a t i on c a n be s e nt c he a pl y a l l a r ound t he w o r l d a l m os t i ns t a nt a ne ous l y, t hus e l i m i na t i ng t he ne c e s s i t y of ha vi ng a l l w or ke r s i n a l l s t a ge s

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27 of pr oduc t i on i n t he s a m e ge ogr a phi c a r e a T hi s ha s dr a m a t i c c os t s a vi ng m e a s ur e s a s now t he c os t s i nc ur r e d f r om t he l ogi s t i c s of on l oc a t i on s hoot i ng a r e d r a m a t i c a l l y r e duc e d ( M i ne t a 2001: 65) A t t he s a m e t i m e t hi s de c e nt r a l i z e s a nd f r a gm e nt s t he A m e r i c a n f i l m i ndus t r y i n s uc h a w a y t ha t f or c e s ge ogr a ph i c a r e a s t o a da pt o f f e r s e r vi c e s t ha t ke e p s t udi os a nd pr oduc t i ons gr ounde d i n a ge ogr a phi c r e gi on. I n a ddi t i on t he a dva nc e m e nt s of t e c hnol ogy on t h e c r e a t i ve l e ve l a nd t he pos t pr oduc t i on s t a ge s of f i l m m a ki ng ha ve he i ght e ne d t he i m por t a nc e pos t pr oduc t i on f a c i l i t i e s f or ge ogr a phi c r e gi ons S om e o f t he m os t l uc r a t i ve A m e r i c a n f i l m s t ha t ha ve c om e out ove r t he l a s t t w e nt y ye a r s ha ve r e l i e d e xt e ns i ve l y on pos t pr oduc t i on t e c hnol ogi e s s uc h a s C G I ( c om put e r ge ne r a t e d i m a ge s ) a nd gr e e n s c r e e n. T he l uc r a t i ve p ot e nt i a l of f i l m s he a vi l y i nvol ve d i n pos t pr oduc t i on ha s f a c i l i t a t e d t he c ons t r uc t i on of pos t pr oduc t i on c e nt e r s w or l dw i de i n m a ny r una w a y pr oduc t i on a r e a s t ha t di d no pr e vi ous l y ha ve t he m H i s t or i c a l l y, pos t pr oduc t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w e r e ge ogr a phi c a l l y s t a t i c a nd pa r t of t he l a r ge r p r oduc t i on c e nt e r be c a us e of t he i r c om pl e x c ons t r uc t i on a nd hi ghl y t e c hni c a l e qui pm e nt ( M i ne t a 2001: 66) I t w a s e c on om i c a l l y a nd l ogi s t i c a l l y de s i r a bl e t o ha ve t he s e t e c hnol ogi e s a nd pe r s onne l pr oxi m a l l y c l os e t o t he s t udi o pr oduc t i ons T he pr oxi m i t y be t w e e n t he s t udi o pr oduc t i ons a nd t he pos t pr oduc t i on f a c i l i t i e s c r e a t e d a m ut ua l de pe nde nc e i n w hi c h t he pos t pr oduc t i on f a c i l i t i e s w oul d a t t r a c t f i l m pr oduc t i ons t o t he a r e a a nd t he f i l m p r oduc t i ons i n t he a r e a p r ovi di ng a s t e a dy s t r e a m of c us t om e r s t o c ont i nue pr oduc t i on ( M i ne t a 2001: 66 ) N ow a s r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on i nc r e a s i ngl y be c om e t he nor m pos t p r oduc t i on c e nt e r s a r e c r oppi ng up i n t hos e r e gi ons m os t c om pe t i t i ve a m ong t he r una w a y pr oduc t i on l a nds c a pe hopi ng t o f ul f i l l t he s a m e f unc t i ons a s t he i r p r e de c e s s or s

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28 T he c a us e s of r una w a y f i l m p r oduc t i on a r e va r i e d a nd c om pl e x. F i l m s a r e pr oduc e d i n l oc a t i ons f o r a m ul t i t ude of r e a s ons t ha t a r e c ont e xt ua l a nd s ubj e c t t o a va r i e t y of i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l f or c e s t ha t a c c ount f o r t he i r de c i s i on m a ki ng. T ha t s a i d, i t 's c l e a r t ha t t he dr i vi ng f or c e be hi nd r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on a r e t he e c onom i c be ne f i t s ( M i ne t a 2001: 82) R u n aw ay P r od u c t i on a n d t h e C u l t u r al E c on om y of C i t i e s A s r una w a y pr oduc t i on be ga n t o t a ke hol d of t he f i l m i n dus t r y, t he p r oduc t i on s ys t e m f r a gm e nt e d, a nd now va r i ous s t a ge s of p r o duc t i on c a n be done i n di f f e r e nt ge ogr a phi c a r e a s H ow e ve r t hi s f r a gm e nt a t i on doe s n't a l w a ys ne c e s s a r i l y m e a n s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge s t o t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of t h e f i l m C oe a nd J ohns a na l ys i s of H ol l yw ood ba s e d r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on i n V a n c ouve r f ound t ha t V a nc ouve r 's f i l m i ndus t r y i s he a vi l y de pe nde nt upon t he de c i s i ons o f t he m a j o r f i l m s t udi os a nd m e di a c ongl om e r a t e s i n t he U S be c a us e t he y ha ve f i na n c i a l a nd c r e a t i ve c ont r ol ov e r t he f i l m ( 2004: 198) T he f i l m s t udi os w i l l s ubc ont r a c t p r od uc t i on f a c i l i t i e s a nd l oc a l l a bor t o pr oduc e t he f i l m i n va r i ous s t a ge s or e nt i r e l y, or w i l l s e nd one of t he i r ow n t o ove r s e e pr oduc t i on. O ve r a l l t he U S ba s e d f i l m s t udi os p r ovi de a n e s t i m a t e d 80% of t he f i na nc i a l c a pi t a l i n t he V a nc ouve r f i l m i ndus t r y E ve n t hough a s e gm e nt of pr e pr oduc t i on a nd a l l of pr oduc t i on i s c onduc t e d i n V a nc ouve r ( w i t h t he r e m a i ni ng s t a ge s be i ng c ont r ol l e d i n H ol l yw ood) V a nc ouve r s t i l l ha s l i m i t e d c ont r ol ove r t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m i n t he p r oduc t i on s t a ge s t he y'r e c ont r a c t e d t o ove r s e e ( C oe a nd J ohns 2004: 198) I n a s i t ua t i on w he r e a n e nt i r e i ndus t r y i s bui l t upon t he c a pi t a l f r om a f or e i gn c ount r y, i t s e e m s a t l e a s t l i ke l y t ha t t he c ul t u r a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m i n V a nc ouve r i s l i ke l y

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29 t o be i nf l ue nc e d by A m e r i c a n c a pi t a l m or e t ha n V a nc ouve r 's di r e c t i ve ove r c e r t a i n s t a ge s of pr oduc t i on i nf l ue nc i ng t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on o f f i l m i n A m e r i c a E ve n s o, H ol l yw ood's i nvol ve m e nt i n t he V a nc ouve r f i l m i n dus t r y ha s p r ovi de d t a ngi bl e be ne f i t s f or t he i ndus t r y, e s pe c i a l l y f or be l ow t he l i ne w or k e r s ( C oe a nd J ohns 2004: 198) T he c ons t a nt c a pi t a l f l ow i nt o V a nc ouve r ha s a l l ow e d i t t o m a ke a c ons i de r a bl e e f f or t t o of f s e t A m e r i c a n c ont r ol ove r pr oduc t i on w i t h t he r i s e of l o c a l l y c ont r ol l e d l a bor f i r m s c ons t r uc t i ng pos t pr oduc t i on f a c i l i t i e s a nd a c qui r i ng c r e a t i ve a nd f i na nc i a l r i ght s f r om t he m a j or H ol l yw ood s t udi os A l t hough t he s e de ve l opm e nt s ha ve c e r t a i nl y m a de V a nc ouve r a s i gni f i c a nt pl a ye r i n t he gl oba l f i l m i ndus t r y, t he y a r e ul t i m a t e l y s t i l l a t t he m e r c y of A m e r i c a n r una w a y p r oduc t i on ( C oe a nd J ohns 2004: 199) T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n V a nc ouve r a nd H ol l yw o od a nd r una w a y p r oduc t i ons by e xt e ns i on doe s m or e t ha n he l p d i s t i ngui s h t he pr od uc t i on of f i l m a nd t he c ul t u r a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m i n r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on : i t s how c a s e s t he i m por t a nc e of a c i t y's c ul t ur a l e c onom y i n be i ng a bl e t o a t t r a c t a nd m a i nt a i n bus i ne s s vi a c ul t ur a l i ndus t r y ne t w or ks W hi l e V a nc ouve r i s a n i de a l r una w a y p r oduc t i on s i t e f or H ol l yw ood due t o t he i r pr oxi m i t y a nd s ha r i ng a s i m i l a r c ul t ur e a nd l a ngua ge t he gove r nm e nt i nc e nt i ve s a nd pl e t hor a of s e r vi c e s ( a bove a nd be l ow t he l i ne pr o duc t i on, t e r t i a r y s e r vi c e s l i ke c a t e r i ng l e ga l e t c ) a r e t he bi gge s t f a c t or s i n de t e r m i ni ng i t s s uc c e s s a s a r una w a y pr oduc t i on s i t e ( C oe a nd J ohns 2004: 197) V a nc ouve r 's s uc c e s s ha s l e d t o t he de ve l opm e nt of pr oduc t i on f a c i l i t i e s t ha t gi ve i t a n e dge ove r ot he r s i m i l a r c i t i e s w i t hi n t he i m a ge p r oduc i ng i ndus t r y. T hi s ki nd o f de ve l opm e nt s ubs e que nt l y a t t r a c t s a nd f os t e r s l a bor ( bot h a bove a nd be l ow t he l i ne ) a nd t e r t i a r y s e r vi c e s ( i nc l udi n g f ood, t r a ns por t a t i on m a i l c ons t r uc t i on, j a ni t or i a l e t c ( P ow e r s a nd S c ot t 20 04: 7, M i ne t a 2001: 22 ) T hi s

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30 m ul t i pl yi ng e f f e c t a l s o c ont r i but e s s i gni f i c a nt l y t o a c i t y's c ul t ur a l e c onom y. R una w a y f i l m p r oduc t i ons t he m s e l ve s don't ne c e s s a r i l y c ont r i but e s i gni f i c a nt l y t o a c i t y's c ul t u r a l e c onom y, but t he a ggr e ga t e of e f f e c t s of r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on c a n s i gni f i c a nt l y i m pa c t t he c ul t ur a l e c onom y of a c i t y O f c our s e t he r e s m or e t o a c i t y s c ul t ur a l e c onom y t ha n t he vi s ua l m e di a i ndus t r y. T he r e a r e m a ny f a c t or s t ha t c ont r i but e i nc l udi ng ot he r f or m s o f m a t e r i a l c ul t ur e hi s t or y e t c B or r ow i ng A l l e n S c ot t s de f i ni t i ons a c ul t u r a l e c onom y i s a c onve r ge nc e of m ul t i pl e c ul t u r a l p r oduc t i ndus t r i e s S pe c i f i c a l l y, i ndus t r i e s t ha t pr oduc e goods a nd s e r vi c e s w ho s s ubj e c t i ve m e a ni ng, or m or e na r r ow l y s i gn va l ue t o t he c ons um e r i s h i gh i n c om pa r i s on w i t h t he i r ut i l i t a r i a n pur pos e ( S c ot t 2005: 3 ) T hus t he a ggl om e r a t i on of f i l m pr oduc t i o n i n a c i t y due t o r una w a y pr oduc t i on c ont r i but e s t o t he c i t y s l a r ge r c ul t ur a l e c onom y

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31 C h ap t e r 4 H i s t or y a n d A n a l ys i s of M O F T B A B r i e f H i s t or y of t h e M O F T B P r i or t o i nc e pt i on of t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng i n 1966, N e w Y or k C i t y w a s a l og i s t i c a l ni ght m a r e f o r f i l m m a ke r s S hoot i ng on l oc a t i on i n N e w Y or k C i t y w a s not or i ous l y di f f i c ul t be c a us e of c os t s a nd r e d t a pe F i l m i ng i n t he c i t y r e qui r e d m ul t i pl e pe r m i t s f o r di f f e r e nt l oc a t i ons a nd e ve n t he n t hos e pe r m i t s w oul d onl y be va l i d f or a s hor t a nd s e t l e ngt h o f t i m e ( S a nde r s 200. T he c i t y a l s o r e qui r e d f i l m m a ke r s t o p r oc ur e pol i c e a s s i s t a nc e w hi c h i nvol ve d t a l ki ng t o i ndi vi dua l p r e c i nc t s t ha t w oul d i nva r i a bl y c ha nge a f t e r s hoot i ng i n one l oc a t i on w a s f i ni s he d. T hi s pr oc e s s pr ove d t o be qui t e l a bor i ous a nd w a s t e d t i m e m a n pow e r a nd m one y. F i l m m a ke r s w oul d of t e n ha ve t o br i be l oc a l pr e c i nc t s i n o r de r t o e ve n f i l m t he r e a nd i t c os t a pr e t t y pe nny: up t o $400 pe r da y i n s om e c a s e s ( S a nde r s 2006: 1 7) N e w Y o r k ba s e d f i l m u ni ons w e r e n t m uc h he l p e i t he r A f t e r f i l m i ng M i s t e r B u ddw i ng ( 1965) di r e c t o r D e l be r t M a nn vow e d t o ne ve r f i l m i n t he c i t y a ga i n ( de s pi t e ha vi ng f i l m e d ne a r l y a l l of h i s pr e vi ous f e a t ur e f i l m s i n t he c i t y) due t o t he c r e w be i ng unc oope r a t i ve s ul l e n a nd a r r oga nt ( S a nde r s 2006: 18) A s a r e s ul t of t he s e obs t a c l e s f i l m m a ki ng i n N e w Y or k C i t y t hr oughout t he 1960s w a s m or e t ha n s c a nt w he n c om pa r e d w i t h p r e vi ous de c a de s w he n m a j or f i l m di r e c t or s l i ke B i l l y W i l de r a nd J ul e s D a s s i n, a nd f i l m pr oduc e r s f i l m e d m a ny pi c t ur e s on t he s t r e e t s of N e w Y or k C i t y. T he c i t y a nd uni ons l a c k of s uppor t que l l e d t he i ni t i a l f i r e of e nt hus i a s m f or f i l m i ng on t he s t r e e t s of N e w Y or k C i t y. I n a ddi t i on t o t he s e s e t ba c ks t he r i s i ng w hi t e f l i ght t o s ubur bi a du r i ng t he l a t e 1940s t hr ough t he m i d 1960s a nd de c l i ni ng m a nuf a c t ur i ng s e c t or he l pe d t o br i ng r i s i ng

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32 pove r t y r a t e s a l i t e r a l c r um bl i ng i nf r a s t r uc t ur e a nd a m a s s i ve bl ow t o t he c i t y s t a x r e ve nue ( C l ut t e r 2009: 3 ) T he c i t y ne e de d m one y t o r e bui l d t he c r um bl i ng c i t y a nd i m pr o ve t he ge ne r a l i nf r a s t r uc t ur e of t he c i t y but l os t a gr e a t de a l o f t he t a x ba s e t ha t w oul d ot he r w i s e c ove r t he s e r e pa i r s a nd i m pr ove m e nt s T he r e c e nt l y ( l a t e 1966) i na ugur a t e d M a yor of N e w Y or k C i t y J ohn L i nds a y, s a w a n oppor t uni t y i n t hi s c l ut t e r : s t r e a m l i ne t he bur e a uc r a t i c pr oc e s s of f i l m pr oduc t i on i n N e w Y or k C i t y t o i nc r e a s e t a x r e ve nue s T hi s w a s a c hi e ve d w he n he s i gne d E xe c ut i ve O r de r N um be r 10, t he pr oge ni t o r o f t he c ur r e nt M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng. T he E xe c ut i ve O r de r e r a di c a t e d t he l ogi s t i c a l a nd a dm i ni s t r a t i ve obs t a c l e s t o f i l m i ng i n t he c i t y by c r e a t i ng a one s t op s y s t e m a s i ngl e pe r m i t f r e e of c ha r ge good f or s hoot i ng a nyw he r e i n t he c i t y a nd va l i d f or t he l e ngt h of t he pr oduc t i o n ( S a nde r s 2006: 18) T he E xe c ut i ve O r de r a l s o c a l l e d f or a n a ddi t i ona l uni t i n t he N e w Y or k P ol i c e D e pa r t m e nt t o be us e d e xc l us i ve l y w i t h f i l m c r e w s a s w e l l a s t he c r e a t i on o f a pe r s ona l a i de t o t he M a yor of N e w Y or k C i t y i n a l l m a t t e r s f i l m r e l a t e d T he s e c ha nge s w e r e j oi ne d by i nc r e a s e d t a l ks w i t h uni ons t o e r a di c a t e t he i r i nf l e xi bl e pr a c t i c e s a nd be t t e r t he i r r e put a t i on w i t h f i l m pr oduc t i on c om pa ni e s ( S a nde r s 2006: 19) A m a s s i ve l e t t e r w r i t i ng c a m pa i gn t o f i l m c om pa ni e s s pe a r he a de d t hi s ne w a ppr oa c h t o f i l m pr oduc t i on i n t he c i t y a nd i t s e f f e c t i ve ne s s be c a m e qui c kl y e vi de nt : t he num be r of pr oduc t i ons pa r t i a l l y a nd f ul l y s hot i n N e w Y or k i nc r e a s e d f r o m 11 t o 25 i n 1966, f r om 25 t o 42 i n 1967, a nd t o ne a r l y 366 dur i ng M a yor L i nds a y s t w o t e r m s i n of f i c e a s M a yor ( S a nde r s 2006: 19) W i t h N e w Y or k s i nc r e a s e d f i l m i c p r e s e nc e a nd ne w l y a c qui r e d t a x r e ve nue L i nds a y s ought t o r e bui l d t he u r ba n l a nds c a pe T hi s ne w ur ba n l a nds c a pe w a s t o w or k di s c ur s i ve l y w i t h t he f i l m i c i m a ge of N e w Y or k C i t y s o a s

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33 t o r e c r e a t e t he c i ne m a t i c ( t ha t i s pos i t i ve ) l a nds c a pe i n t he phys i c a l l a nds c a pe ( C l ut t e r 2006: 22 23) H ow t hi s w a s done a nd t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h i t i s pos s i bl e i s n t a s i m por t a nt a s t he f a c t t ha t t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng w a s f r om i t s i nc e pt i on, pr e di c a t e d on t he be l i e f t ha t t he vi s ua l n a r r a t i ve of f i l m s c oul d i nf l ue nc e t he phys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt D ur i ng t he 1970s f i l m pr oduc t i on i n N e w Y or k C i t y c ont i nue d t o r i s e unde r t he ne w l y f or m e d M a yor s O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e a n d B r oa dc a s t i ng. A l t hough m uc h of H ol l yw ood s t i l l s e e m e d t o c l i ng t o t he ol d w a ys of f i l m i ng on s e t i n L os A nge l e s a c r op of ne w f i l m m a ke r s be ga n f i l m i ng on l oc a t i on m o r e t ha n e ve r be f or e S e e m i ngl y t a ki ng a pa ge f r om L a N ouve l l e V a gue ( F r e nc h f or N e w W a ve ) t he s e N e w H ol l yw ood f i l m m a ke r s s hot t he i r f i l m s on l oc a t i on a l m os t a s a r ul e L i ke t he i r F r e nc h c ount e r pa r t s t he N e w H ol l yw ood f i l m m a ke r s ( i nc l udi ng M a r t i n S c or s e s e H a l A s hby, B r i a n D e P a l m a e t c ) s hot t he i r f i l m s w i t h a ne w a r t i s t i c s e ns i bi l i t y t ha t s e t i t a pa r t f r om ot he r f i l m s be i ng m a de w i t hi n t he A m e r i c a n f i l m i ndus t r y a t t he t i m e P a r t of t ha t s e ns i bi l i t y f oc us e d on t he a ut he nt i c i t y of s hoot i ng i n a r e a l s pa c e i n i n f l ue nc i ng t he a ut he nt i c i t y o f t he f i l m e d s pa c e M a ny N e w H ol l yw ood f i l m s s uc h a s M i dni ght C ow boy K l ut e A nni e H al l T ax i D r i v e r ha ve be c om e r e ga r de d a s s i gni f i c a nt c ul t ur a l l y a nd a r t i s t i c a l l y, w hi c h ha s he l pe d t o not onl y i nf l ue nc e f i l m s t ha t ha ve c om e a f t e r i t but a l s o i nc r e a s e t he vi s i bi l i t y o f f i l m on l oc a t i on, a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y, f i l m i ng on l oc a t i on i n N e w Y or k, a s a vi a bl e opt i on f or f i l m m a ke r s B y t he 1980s t he f i l m i ng on l oc a t i on i n N e w Y or k e xpl os i on s ubs i de d i nt o a s t e a dy r hyt hm a s t e c hnol ogy a dva nc e d a nd a s t he c i t y a nd f i l m s t udi os e a s e d i nt o t hi s ne w m ode of f i l m m a ki ng I n a ddi t i on t he c r e a t i on of t he G ove r no r s O f f i c e of M ot i on

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34 P i c t ur e a nd T e l e vi s i on D e ve l opm e nt i n 1 979 of f e r e d a l l s t a t e r un f a c i l i t i e s f or f i l m us e ope ni ng up a w e a l t h of publ i c s pa c e s pr e vi ous l y unus a bl e i nc l udi ng t unne l s br i dge s a i r por t s e t c ( S a nde r s 2006: 22) F i l m pr od uc t i ons be c a m e m or e s ophi s t i c a t e d; us i ng r e c e nt l y de ve l ope d e qui pm e nt a nd f i l m i ng i n m o r e l oc a t i ons t ha n e ve r T he s e l ogi s t i c a l a nd t e c hnol ogi c a l a dva nc e m e nt s a l l ow e d f or m o r e pr oduc t i ons i n m o r e l oc a t i ons s om e t i m e s on a l a r ge r s c a l e T he s t e a dy i nc r e a s e i n pr oduc t i ons br o ught i n a l ot of w o r k f or l oc a l a r t i s t s a nd a r t i s a ns e a s i ng t he c i t y s e c on om i c bur de n us he r i ng i n a r e na i s s a nc e f or a c i t y w he r e t he a r t of m ov i e m a ki ng onc e f l our i s he d, t he n f l e d ( S a nde r s 2006: 21) N ot e ve r yone w e l c om e d t hi s how e ve r M a ny c i t i z e ns vi e w e d on l oc a t i on f i l m pr oduc t i ons i n t he c i t y a s a nui s a nc e O n l oc a t i on p r oduc t i ons i nc r e a s e d t r a f f i c c onge s t i on or i nt e r r upt e d i t a l t oge t he r t ook up publ i c s pa c e us e d by r e s i de nt s a nd w e r e ge ne r a l l y s e e n a s i nt e r r upt i ve a t be s t f or t he l oc a l ne i ghbor h ood r e s i de nt s T he voc a l r e s i de nt s c om pl a i nt s di d not f a l l on de a f e a r s a nd s o t he M O F T B ha s put t e m po r a r y hol ds on va r i ous publ i c s pa c e s pr e ve nt i ng f i l m p r oduc t i ons f r om us i ng t ha t s pa c e f or a s e t pe r i od of t i m e ( S a nde r s 2006: 21 ) A s on l oc a t i on f i l m m a ki ng s l ow l y be c a m e t he nor m i n N e w Y o r k C i t y ove r t he pa s t f e w de c a de s t he c i t y be ga n t o de ve l op a n i nd i ge nous f i l m m a ki ng c ul t u r e t ha t f oc us e d on on l oc a t i on s hoot i ng on t he s t r e e t s of N e w Y or k C i t y f or a r t i s t i c a nd f i na nc i a l r e a s ons ( S a nde r s 2006: 2 1) I t w a s bot h a r t i s t i c a l l y a t t r a c t i ve a nd e c onom i c a l l y vi a bl e t o t he s e young f i l m m a ke r s w ho s t ood i n c ont r a s t t o t he bi g s t udi o f i l m m a ke r s i n H ol l yw ood. Y oung f i l m m a ke r s e s c he w e d pr om i ne nt S out he r n C a l i f or ni a f i l m s c hool s ( i nc l udi ng U S C U C L A a nd t he A F I C ons e r va t or y ) t o a t t e nd N Y U s T i s c h S c hool of

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35 A r t s t o s t udy f i l m m a ki ng, f ol l ow i ng i n t he f oot s t e p s of pr om i ne nt f i l m m a ke r M a r t i n S c or c e s e ( S a nde r s 2006: 21) N e w Y or k f i l m m a ki ng t ook a br i e f but de e p di ve w he n H ol l yw ood s t udi os i n a n e f f or t t o s a ve m on e y on r i s i ng l a bo r c os t s opt e d o ut of f i l m i ng i n N e w Y o r k f or n i ne m ont hs i n t he be gi nni ng of t he 1990s ( S a nde r s 200 6: 22) T he c i t y r e bounde d a s f i l m s t udi os be ga n f i l m i ng i n N e w Y or k a ga i n dur i ng t h e m i d 1990s s pur r e d on by t he i nc r e a s e i n c a bl e ne t w or k t e l e vi s i on p r oduc t i on, t h e r e nova t i on of t he s t udi o c om pl e xe s K a uf m a n A s t or i a a nd S i l ve r c up, a nd a n i nc r e a s e d s ync hr oni c i t y a m ong uni on l e a de r s pr oduc t i on c oor di na t or s a nd c i t y of f i c i a l s ( S a nde r s 2006: 22) T he r i s e i n f i l m m a ki ng t hr oughout t he de c a de w o ul d c ont i nue up unt i l t he be gi nni ng of t he ne w c e nt ur y A l t hough t he c i t y w a s e xpe r i e nc i ng a r e s ur ge nc e o f f i l m m a ki ng i n t he c i t y i t w a s a w a r e of t he g r ow i ng c om pe t i t i on f r om ot he r m e t r opol i t a n a r e a s e s pe c i a l l y C a na da N e w Y or k C i t y w a s ke e nl y a w a r e of i t s pos i t i on i n t he f i l m i n dus t r y, a nd w i s he d t o ke e p i t t ha t w a y by a s s e s s i ng i t s r ol e i n m e di a pr oduc t i on I n J une of 2000, t he B os t on C ons ul t i ng G r oup pr e s e nt e d a s t udy t o a s s e s s t he r ol e of N e w Y or k C i t y i n m e di a pr oduc t i on a t t he r e que s t of N e w Y or k C i t y I nve s t m e nt F und a nd t he N e w Y or k C i t y C om pt r ol l e r s O f f i c e ( w i t h s uppor t f r om t he M O F T B a nd t he N e w Y or k S t a t e G ove r no r s O f f i c e f o r M ot i on P i c t ur e a nd T e l e vi s i on D e ve l opm e nt ) T he pur pos e f or t hi s s t udy w a s t hr e e f ol d: f i r s t t o qua nt i f y t he ba s e l i ne ; s e c ond, t o a s s e s s N e w Y or k s c om pe t i t i ve pos i t i on; a nd t hi r d, t o de t e r m i ne w ha t N e w Y or k ne e ds t o do t o s uppor t a nd e xpa nd i t s pos i t i on a s a c e nt e r o f f i l m t e l e vi s i on, c om m e r c i a l a nd di gi t a l m e di a pr oduc t i on i n t he di g i t a l a ge ( B ui l di ng N e w Y or k s V i s ua l M e di a I ndus t r y f or t he D i gi t al A ge : F i ndi ngs and R e c om m e ndat i ons 2000: 3) T he s t udy a s s e s s e d t he e c onom i c

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36 i m pa c t of m e di a pr oduc t i on i n t he c i t y a nd f ound t ha t vi s ua l m e di a e m pl oym e nt o f a l l ki nds a m ount e d t o 170 000 j obs w hi l e vi s ua l m e di a s pe ndi ng i n t he c i t y f r om pr e t o pos t pr oduc t i on f o r a l l t ype s a m ount e d t o ne a r l y $ 15 bi l l i on a nnua l l y ( B ui l di ng N e w Y or k s V i s ual M e di a I ndus t r y f or t he D i gi t al A ge : F i ndi ngs and R e c om m e ndat i ons 2000 ) T he s e num be r s i ndi c a t e t ha t N e w Y o r k C i t y i s a m a j or pl a ye r i n v i s ua l m e di a p r oduc t i on, a nd t ha t i t c a n e xpl oi t i t s r e a l a nd pe r c e i ve d r e put a t i on f or c om pe t i t i ve pu r pos e s T he s t udy e m pha s i z e d t he t hr e a t of o t he r l oc a t i ons t o N e w Y or k s e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt of i t s m e di a s e c t or pa r t i c ul a r l y C a na da C a na da ( s pe c i f i c a l l y, T or ont o ) not onl y pr ovi de s e xc e l l e nt ba c kdr ops t ha t m i m i c N e w Y or k on l oc a t i on, but a l s o p r ovi de s di r e c t s ubs i di e s t o pr oduc t i on budge t s T he U ni t e d S t a t e s f e de r a l gove r nm e nt doe s not do t hi s ( B ui l di ng N e w Y or k s V i s ual M e di a I ndus t r y f o r t he D i gi t al A ge : F i ndi ngs and R e c om m e ndat i ons 2000 ) A s a r e s ul t i t i s i m por t a nt f or N e w Y or k t o m a i nt a i n i t s c om pe t i t i ve e dge by p r ovi di ng i nc e nt i ve s a nd i nc r e a s i ng i t s pool of s ki l l e d w or ke r s a nd t a l e nt U l t i m a t e l y t he s t udy va l i da t e d t he m a ny r e a s ons w hy N e w Y or k C i t y c a n a nd s houl d s ol i c i t T he s t udy c oul dn t ha ve c om e a t a be t t e r t i m e e i t h e r a s t he be gi nn i ng of t he 21 s t c e nt ur y s pe l l e d s om e pr obl e m s f o r t he c i t y. D ue t o a f a vor a bl e c ur r e nc y e xc ha nge r a t e a nd a ge ne r ous t a x c r e di t i t be c a m e s ubs t a nt i a l l y m or e pr of i t a bl e t o f i l m i n C a na da t ha n e ve r be f or e T he S e pt e m be r 11 t h a t t a c ks t ha t de va s t a t e d N e w Y or k s T w i n T ow e r s l e d t o a dr op i n t he num be r of pr oduc t i on da ys f r om 21, 3 93 i n 2000 t o j us t 14, 858 da ys i n 2002 ( N Y C gov M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng P r oduc t i on N e w s N d. ) T he r e s pons e t o t he r una w a y pr oduc t i ons t o C a na da a nd t he dr a m a t i c f a l l i n pr oduc t i on da ys c a m e i n t he f o r m o f s e ve r a l s m a l l i ni t i a t i ve s t ha t l a i d ou t t he ba s e s f or

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37 l a r ge r pl a ns f o r c ons ol i da t i ng t he or ga ni z a t i on s s o l i c i t i ng f unc t i ons w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y br oa de ni ng i t s r e a c h. T he f i r s t c ha nge s w e r e m e a nt t o s t r e a m l i ne t he p r o c e s s : t ype w r i t e r s w e r e r e pl a c e d w i t h c om put e r s s pe e di ng up pe r m i t pr oc e s s i ng, a n d e s t a bl i s hi ng a c onc i e r ge de s k t o know a bout e ve r y s pa c e i n t he c i t y s o t ha t pr oduc e r s w oul dn t ha ve t o l ook t he m s e l ve s ( S a nde r s 2006: 22) T he be gi nni ng o f 2005 s a w M a yor M i c ha e l B l oom be r g s i gn i n t o l a w a 5% t a x c r e di t on qua l i f i e d e xpe ns e s f or f i l m a nd t e l e vi s i on pr oduc t i ons pr oduc e d i n N e w Y or k C i t y t o c om pl e m e nt N e w Y o r k S t a t e s 10% t a x c r e di t U l t i m a t e l y, $50 m i l l i on dol l a r s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d i n j us t 14 m ont hs w hi c h e ve nt ua l l y r e a pe d $650 m i l l i on f or t he c i t y a nd t hous a nds of ne w j obs ( S a nde r s 2006: 22) T hi s c oupl e d w i t h a m or e f a vor a bl e e xc ha nge r a t e i n 2 004 a nd t he c ons t r uc t i on of S t e i ne r S t udi os ( w hi c h he l d t he l a r ge s t s ounds t a ge e a s t of H ol l yw ood) i nc r e a s e d t he num be r of pr oduc t i on da ys i n 2005 t o ne a r l y 37 570. 2005 a l s o s a w a n i nc r e a s e i n t he num be r of vi s i t or s t o t he c i t y, w i t h ne a r l y 43 m i l l i on buy i ng t i c ke t s t o B r oa dw a y s ho w s a nd vi s i t i ng t he s i t e s ( S a nde r s 2006: 23) T he s e s ol i c i t i ng f unc t i ons w e r e t he p r e c ur s or t o t he M a de i n N Y pr og r a m w hi c h, a l ong w i t h ot he r s pa r e s e r vi c e s s e r ve d a s t he c or ne r s t one f or t he c i t y s s ol i c i t i ng pow e r s i n t he 21 s t c e nt u r y. T he M O F T B s ol i c i t s i n t hr e e di s t i nc t w a ys : f i na nc i a l l y ( t a x be ne f i t s di s c ount s f r om l oc a l m e r c ha nt s e t c ) l ogi s t i c a l l y ( f r e e pol i c e a s s i s t a nc e c ut t i ng r e d t a pe e t c ) a nd c ul t ur a l l y ( p r opa ga t i ng t he m yt hi c a l N Y C ) A l t hou gh t he s ol i c i t i ng po w e r s a r e or de r e d c a t e gor i c a l l y, i t s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t t ha t t he y o f t e n ove r l a p, a ugm e nt i ng t he or ga ni z a t i ons s ol i c i t i ng pow e r s a nd t he i r i nt e nde d e f f e c t s

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38 S ol i c i t at i on an d I n c e n t i ve s F i na nc i a l O ne of t he m or e t a ngi bl e w a ys t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng c a n s ol i c i t t o f i l m pr oduc t i ons i s pr o vi di ng a va r i e t y of f i na nc i a l i nc e nt i ve s t o m a ke N e w Y or k C i t y a m or e a t t r a c t i ve o r a t l e a s t m or e e c onom i c a l l y vi a bl e pl a c e t o f i l m U nde r t he M O F T B s M a de I n N e w Y o r k p r ogr a m t a x c r e di t s o f up t o 5 % on a l l pr oduc t i on c os t s c a n be e a r ne d f o r qua l i f i e d f i l m p r oduc t i ons I n a ddi t i on, N e w Y or k S t a t e ha s a s i m i l a r p r ogr a m t ha t a c c ount s f or 30% of pr oduc t i on c os t s i nc ur r e d, i nc r e a s i ng t he t a x c r e di t s i gni f i c a nt l y. T he r e a r e on l y t w o qua l i f i c a t i ons t ha t ne e d t o be m e t f or t hi s t a x be ne f i t ( a s i de f r om t he obvi ous f i l m i ng w i t hi n t he de s i gna t e d c i t y a nd s t a t e bounda r i e s ) : t he f e a t ur e f i l m or t e l e vi s i on pr o duc t m us t bui l d a s e t a nd s hoot a t l e a s t one da y on a s t a ge a t a qua l i f i e d pr oduc t i on f a c i l i t y a nd c om pl e t e a t l e a s t 75% o f t he t ot a l f a c i l i t y r e l a t e d e xpe ns e s a t a qua l i f i e d f a c i l i t y A f t e r t he s t a ge r e qui r e m e nt i s m e t t he t a x be ne f i t s w i l l e xt e nd t o on l oc a t i on w or k c os t s a nd pos t pr oduc t i on i f t he p r oduc t i on us e s 75% of t he i r s hoot i ng da ys i n N e w Y o r k. I f m or e t ha n $3 m i l l i on i s s pe nt on t he qua l i f i e d f a c i l i t y, t he n t he l oc a t i on r e qui r e m e nt i s w a ve d f o r t he pr oduc t i on ( N Y C gov M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng P r oduc t i on I nc e nt i ve s 2009) R e qui r i ng f i l m a nd t e l e vi s i on pr oduc e r s us e t he c i t y s l oc a l s t udi o s f or s uc h a l ong pe r i od of t i m e w i t h s uc h a s hor t a m ount o f t i m e r e qui r e d f or phys i c a l l y s hoot i ng on a s t a ge or s e t e f f e c t i ve l y l oc a l i z e s a nd s e c ur e s t he pr oduc t i on w i t hi n t he c i t y l i m i t s C om pl e t i ng 75% o f t he f i l m i n t he c i t y a l s o gua r a n t e e s a m a r ke t i ng c r e di t O ut door m e di a va l ui ng 1% of t he pr oduc t i on c os t s a r e of f e r e d t o qua l i f yi ng pr oduc t i ons a nd c o br a nde d w i t h t he M a de i n N Y pr og r a m I n l i e u o f a s ha r e d m a r ke t i ng c r e di t

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39 pr oduc t i on c r e w s c a n m a ke a c ul t ur a l don a t i on e qua l t o 1% o f t he i r pr od uc t i on c os t s t o a not f or pr o f i t c ul t u r a l i ns t i t ut i on of t he pr oduc t i o n s c hoos i ng ( M i N Y G ui de B ook 2009) I n a ddi t i on p r oduc t i ons c a n a ppl y t o r e c e i v e a M i N Y D i s c ount C a r d t ha t of f e r s a m i ni m um of 10% of f of goods a t c o ope r a t i ng ve nd or s P r oduc t i ons c a n us e t he c a r d f or m a ny unde r w r i t i ng a nd l ogi s t i c a l c os t s s uc h a s f o od, l odgi ng e l e c t r oni c s c ons t r uc t i on, s e c ur i t y, t r a ve l e t c ( M i N Y G ui de B ook 2009) T he s e f i na nc i a l i nc e nt i ve s r e f l e c t a n e xpl i c i t de s i r e t o ke e p l oc a l bus i ne s s t i e d w i t h t he pr oduc t i ons f i l m i ng i n t he c i t y. T he opt i o n t o c o b r a nd i nc r e a s e s t he vi s i bi l i t y a nd pr om ot e s t he o r ga ni z a t i on not on l y t o c i t i z e ns but t o pot e nt i a l p r oduc t i ons a nd f u t ur e pr oduc t i ons T he c o br a ndi ng a l s o e xpl i c i t l y t i e s t h e f i l m c om m i s s i on t o va r i ous s t a ge s of t he pr oduc t s de ve l opm e nt F or e xa m pl e pr oduc t i ons t ha t c hoos e t o a c c e pt t he m a r ke t i n g c r e di t m us t i nc l ude t he M a de i n N Y l ogo s om e w he r e on t he pos t e r or a dve r t i s e m e nt ( N Y C gov M a yor 's O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e & B r o a dc a s t i ng P r oduc t i on N e w s 2009 ) R una w a y pr oduc t i on ha s f o r c e d c i t i e s t o b r a nd t he m s e l ve s i n w a ys t ha t m a ke t he m di s t i nc t f r om t he c om pe t i t i on i n t he gl oba l f i l m m a r ke t L ogi s t i c a l T he M O F T B of f e r s l ogi s t i c a l i nc e nt i ve s i n a ddi t i o n t o t he f i na nc i a l i n c e nt i ve s L ogi s t i c a l i nc e nt i ve s of t e n ove r l a p w i t h t he f i na nc i a l i nc e nt i ve s F or i ns t a nc e t he M O F T B of f e r s not onl y f r e e pe r m i t s but a l s o f r e e l oc a t i ons a nd f r e e pol i c e a s s i s t a nc e ( f or qua l i f i e d p r oduc t i ons ) D e pe ndi ng on t he na t u r e of t he pr oduc t i on t h e M O F T B c a n c r e a t e a t ur n a r ound t i m e f o r pe r m i t s i n a s l i t t l e a s 24 hour s ( N Y C gov M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng P e r m i t s 2009 ) P r oduc t i ons c a n f i l m a nyw he r e i n t he

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40 c i t y l i m i t s ba r r i ng a f e w l oc a t i ons ( c e r t a i n br i dge s pa r ks ) t ha t r e qui r e e xt r a c ons i de r a t i on i n t he pe r m i t pr oc e s s I f a pr oduc t i on i nvol ve s t r a f f i c c ont r ol f i r e a r m s o r ot he r s pe c i a l c onc e r ns i t m us t r e que s t pol i c e pr e s e nc e but i s o f f e r e d a t no c ha r ge ( M i N Y Se r v i c e s G ui de 2009) P a r ki ng pr i vi l e ge s a r e a l s o a c qui r e d, w he r e s pe c i a l ve hi c l e s r e qui r e d f or s hoot s ( c r a ne s c a m pe r s e t c ) a r e a l l ow e d t o be pr e s e nt a nd pa r ke d, s o l ong a s you pr ovi de t he ne c e s s a r y ve hi c l e i nf or m a t i on be f o r e p r oduc t i on be gi ns a nd t he s uppl i e d t a g you ge t f r om t he M O F T B i s r e a di l y vi s i bl e f r om t h e f r ont of t he ve hi c l e a l ong w i t h a c opy of t he pe r m i t ( M i N Y Se r v i c e s G ui de 2009) O nc e a pe r m i t i s obt a i ne d, p r oduc t i ons c a n a c qui r e on s i t e a s s i s t a nc e i n t he f or m of c onc i e r ge s e r vi c e s a nd t he M O F T B s P A P r og r a m P r oduc t i ons c a n r e que s t c onc i e r ge s e r v i c e s t ha t he l p t he pr oduc e r s c onne c t w i t h ot he r N Y ba s e d a ge nc i e s di s c ount s a t qua l i f i e d ve ndor s a l e g up i n a c c e s s t o pr e m i um l oc a t i on s i t e s s c out i ng a s s i s t a nc e budge t a na l ys i s a nd ge ne r a l a s s i s t a nc e i n r e s e r vi ng a nd a c qui r i ng s pa c e a nd ve ndor s dur i ng t he e nt i r e pr oduc t i on c yc l e f r om s c r i pt t o s c r e e n ( M i N Y Se r v i c e s G ui de 2009) I n a ddi t i on, t he M O F T B pr ovi de s m o r e on ha nd he l p by pr ovi di ng pr oduc t i on a s s i s t a nt s f r om t he i r P A T r a i ni ng P r ogr a m ( M i N Y Se r v i c e G ui de 2009) T he M O F T B of f e r s ot he r i nc e nt i ve s a nd s e r vi c e s t ha t not onl y be ne f i t p r oduc e r s but a l s o N Y C c i t i z e ns t ha t w or k i n t he pr oduc t i on i ndus t r y. U nde r t he R e e l J obs N Y C pr ogr a m pr ovi de d by t he M O F T B pr oduc e r s c a n s ubm i t a j ob l i s t i ng t o qua l i f i e d r e s i de nt s t ha t w or k i n t he f i l m t e l e v i s i on, a nd br oa dc a s t i ng i ndus t r i e s I n t u r n, t he s e w or ke r s c a n s e a r c h f or va c a nc i e s i n t he i r r e s pe c t i ve f i e l ds ( N Y C gov M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng 2009) T he M O F T B a l s o of f e r s a hos t of r e s our c e s f or pot e nt i a l c a r e e r s i n f i l m t he a t r e a nd b r oa dc a s t i ng i ndus t r i e s a s w e l l a s pr ovi di ng l i s t s

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41 a nd c ont a c t i nf or m a t i on f o r a va r i e t y of ve ndor s u ni ons qua l i f i e d p r oduc t i on s pa c e s e t c ( N Y C gov M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng R e s our c e s H om e 2009) T he l ogi s t i c a l i nc e nt i ve s a nd s e r vi c e s of f e r e d by t h e M O F T B r e f l e c t a de s i r e t o e nc our a ge a nd f a c i l i t a t e bus i ne s s i n t he c i t y but e v e n m or e s o, i t hi gh l i ght s a uni que r ol e t ha t i t pl a ys f or t he c i t i z e ns i n t he c i t y a s w e l l w o r ke r s a nd pr oduc t i ons a l i ke ha ve c om e t o r e l y on t he M O F T B f or j obs a nd e m pl oye e s r e s pe c t i ve l y, m a ki ng t he e xi s t e nc e of t he M O F T B a l l t ha t m uc h m or e pe r t i ne nt a nd e ve r p r e s e nt f or p r oduc t i ons a nd c i t i z e ns a l i ke C ul t ur a l T he s ol i c i t a t i ons a nd i nc e nt i ve s of f e r e d by t he M O F T B do m o r e t ha n r e f l e c t a n e f f or t t o br i ng f i l m p r oduc t i ons t o t he c i t y i t g i ve s t he M O F T B a n e xpa ns i ve but s t i l l l oc a l i z e d pr e s e nc e P os t e r s on bus s t ops a l l ove r t h e c i t y ha s t he M a de i n N Y l ogo br a ndi s he d on i t T he ki nds of pr oduc t i ons ( a nd pr e s um a bl y t he l oc a t i ons ) a r e w i de l y va r i e d i n bot h c ont e nt a nd s t yl e or p r oduc t i on. T he M O F T B us e s t he M i N Y f or a l m os t e ve r yt hi ng t he y do t ha t r e f l e c t s a l e ve l o f i nvol ve m e nt f r om t he o r ga ni z a t i on. A s s t a t e d be f or e p r oduc t i ons t ha t qua l i f y a nd a ppl y f o r a m a r ke t i ng c r e di t w i l l ha ve t he M i N Y l ogo on pos t e r s a nd ot he r m ode s of a dve r t i s e m e nt I n a ddi t i on pr oduc t i ons c a n f r e e l y us e t he l ogo i f 75% of t he ove r a l l pr oduc t i on w a s done i n N e w Y or k C i t y ( M i N Y Se r v i c e s G ui de 2009) P r oduc t i ons c a n f r e e l y us e t he l ogo a f t e r s i gni ng a t hr e e pa ge r e l e a s e a gr e e m e nt a gr e e i ng not t o us e t he l ogo i n a ny w a y ot he r t ha n i nt e nde d: t o i nd i c a t e t he pr oduc t i on s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he M O F T B s M a de i n N e w Y or k i nc e nt i ve pr og r a m ( L ogo R e l e as e A gr e e m e nt 2009) T he M O F T B b r a ndi s he s t he l ogo on t s hi r t s a nd

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42 a dve r t i s e m e nt s dur i ng s pons or e d e ve nt s a s w e l l ( S a nde r s 2006: 5) O ne c a n e ve n pur c ha s e t hos e s hi r t s a s w e l l a s ot he r a ppa r e l f o r m e n w om e n, a nd ba bi e s a t t he N B C E xpe r i e nc e S t or e i n 30 R oc ke f e l l e r C e nt e r o r onl i ne a t t he O f f i c i a l S hop of N e w Y or k C i t y. T hi s i ndi c a t e s a c l e a r de s i r e t o a dd a l i t t l e r e ve nue t o t h e or ga ni z a t i on, c e r t a i nl y, but i t i s a l s o m e a nt t o i nc r e a s e t he p r e s e nc e of t he M O F T B a nd t he i m pa c t t ha t i t ha s on pr oduc t i on i n t he c i t y. I t s a l s o us e d t o i ns t i l l p r i de i n N e w Y or ke r s f or hos t i ng f i l m a nd t e l e vi s i on pr oduc t i ons i n t he i r C i t y ( N Y C gov M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng 'M a de i n N Y M e r c ha ndi s e N d. ) I ns t i l l i ng pr i de ha s a c t ua l l y be e n a n unde r l yi ng go a l f or t he M O F T B R e c e nt s ur ve ys s e nt out by t he M O F T B t o c i t i z e ns of t he c i t y w e r e i nt e nde d t o ga uge t he l e ve l of publ i c a w a r e ne s s know l e dge a nd i nt e r e s t of t he M O F T B s M a de i n N Y pr ogr a m O ne of t he i t e m s on t he L i ke r t s c a l e s ur ve y a s ke d c i t i z e ns i f t he e f f or t s o f t he M O F T B m a de t he m pr oud t o be a N e w Y or ke r ( M i N Y P ubl i c A w ar e ne s s St udy 2009) T he r e s a l s o a n e xpa ns i ve P S A c a m pa i gn w i t h i ndus t r y w or ke r s l i vi ng i n N e w Y or k t a l ki ng a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e w or ki ng i n N e w Y or k C i t y a s a t ha nk you t o t he c i t y f or a l l ow i ng t he m t o w or k i n t he i r c i t y a nd ne i ghbor hood T he c a m pa i gn s s l oga n, R E E L J O B S R E E L P R O U D R E A L N E W Y O R K E R S r e f l e c t s t he i r e xpl i c i t de s i r e t o e l i c i t pr i de by c onne c t i ng l oc a l c i t i z e ns w i t h e c onom i c a dva nt a ge T h i s c onne c t i on of pr i de i s r e l a t e d t o t he M O F T B s pr opa ga t i on o f t he c i ne m a t i c c i t y a m yt hi c a l c i t y bo r n f r om t he c i ne m a T he M O F T B w a nt s t o pr opa ga t e t hi s uni que s t a t us t hus l u r i ng bot h pr oduc e r s a nd w or ke r s t o t he c i t y. T he i r pr opa ga t i on a m ount s t o t he a ut hor i ng o f a book doc um e nt i ng t he hi s t or y of f i l m m a ki ng i n N e w Y or k C i t y. T he book, S c e ne s of t he C i t y: F i l m m a ki ng i n N e w Y or k doc um e nt s t he pr oc e s s of f i l m m a ki n g i n N e w Y or k t hr oughou t t he 20 t h

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43 c e nt ur y. I n doi ng t hi s t he y a l s o doc um e nt t he phys i c a l a nd de m ogr a phi c c ha nge s N e w Y or k ha s gone t hr ough T he book a l s o i nc l ude s a h i s t or y of t he M O F T B P e r ha ps not s ur pr i s i ngl y, t hi s i s a not he r e xa m pl e o f t he M O F T B t r yi ng t o c onne c t i t s ow n hi s t or y w i t h t ha t of f i l m i ng i n N e w Y or k A nd w hi l e t he t w o m a y be i ne xt r i c a bl y t i e d, t he M O F T B i s s t i l l c onne c t i ng i t s ow n br a nd w i t h t h a t of t he c i ne m a t i c m yt hi c a l N e w Y or k. T he s ol i c i t a t i ons i nc e nt i ve s a nd s e r vi c e s of f e r e d by t he M O F T B ul t i m a t e l y r e f l e c t a de s i r e t o ke e p i t s p r e s e nc e s i n t he f or e f r on t of a l l s t a ge s of pr oduc t i on. T hi s pr e s e nc e i s f ur t he r i nt e ns i f i e d by i t s s t a ke a nd s e r vi c e s of f e r e d t o N e w Y or k c i t i z e ns T he l ogo i s t he M O F T B s w a y of b r a ndi ng a nd m a ki ng di s t i nc t t he o r ga ni z a t i ons pr e s e nc e i n f i l m p r oduc t i on a nd t he c i t y. T he M O F T B i s uni qu e a nd c ur i ous i n i t s l e ve l o f i nvol ve m e nt on bot h t he p r oduc t i on s i de of t hi ngs a nd t he c i t y s i d e o f t hi ngs G at e k e e p i n g U nl i ke m a ny ot he r f i l m c om m i s s i ons t he M a yor s O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng ga t e ke e ps t he va r i ous s pa c e s i n N e w Y or k C i t y F i l m pr oduc t i ons ne e d pe r m i t s a dm i ni s t e r e d by t he M O F T B t o f i l m i n N e w Y or k C i t y H ow e ve r not a l l pr oduc t i ons s t r i c t l y ne e d pe r m i t s a nd t he M O F T B m a ke s i t e xpl i c i t l y c l e a r w hi c h pr oduc t i ons ne e d w hi c h pe r m i t s F i l m pr oduc t i ons don t ne e d pe r m i t s i f t he c a m e r a i s ha ndhe l d, us e s a s i ngl e t r i pod w i t h f e w e r t ha n f i ve pe opl e f or m or e t ha n t e n m i nu t e s or w he n f i l m i ng a pa r a de de m ons t r a t i on, de m ons t r a t i on or ot he r publ i c e ve nt on N e w Y or k C i t y pr ope r t y ( pr ovi de d t ha t t he ot he r t w o r e s t r i c t i ons a r e n t br oke n ) A pe r m i t i s r e qui r e d f or a f i l m pr oduc t i on t ha t us e s ve hi c l e s i nvol ve s t he i nt e r a c t i on of t w o o r m o r e pe opl e a t

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44 a s i ngl e t i m e f o r l onge r t ha n 30 m i nut e s w i t h t he i nt e nt of f i l m i ng o r t he i nt e r a c t i on o f f i ve or m or e pe opl e us i ng a s i ngl e t r i pod f or t e n m i nut e s or m or e ( N Y C P e r m i t R ul e s 2009) A l t ho ugh t he w o r di ng i s ve r y s pe c i f i c i t a l l ow s f o r a g r e a t de a l o f f i na nc i a l f r e e dom f o r f i l m m a ke r s a l l ow i ng f i l m m a ke r s w i t h s m a l l e r budge t s t o f i l m on t he s t r e e t s of N e w Y or k I n or de r t o de t e r m i ne how t he M O F T B ga t e ke e ps i t i s ne c e s s a r y t o de f i ne ga t e ke e pi ng on a n i ns t i t ut i ona l l e ve l P l a i nl y s pe a ki ng, ga t e ke e pi ng i s t he pr oc e s s i n w hi c h i nf or m a t i on i s f i l t e r e d t h r ough a ga t e be f o r e i t ge t s e xpe r i e nc e d or i nt e r na l i z e d. T he ge ne s i s of ga t e ke e pi ng s c hol a r s hi p i s w i t h K ur t L e w i n s un f i ni s he d j our na l a r t i c l e F r ont i e r s i n G r oup D yna m i c s I I : C ha nne l s o f G r o up L i f e ; S oc i a l P l a nni ng a nd A c t i on R e s e a r c h ( S hoe m a ke r 2009: 11) L e w i n, a ps yc hi a t r i s t by p r of e s s i on, w r ot e a bout ga t e ke e pi ng not a s a n i nf o r m a t i on di s s e m i na t i ng p r oc e s s on a m a c r o l e ve l but on a m i c r o one H e t he or i z e d t ha t t he m a nne r i n w hi c h i n f or m a t i on, t a ngi bl e or i n t a ngi bl e t r a ve l t hr ough c hanne l s T he bounda r i e s be t w e e n e a c h s e c t i on a nd c ha nne l a r e c a l l e d gat e s gove r ne d by a gat e k e e pe r ( S hoe m a ke r 2009: 12 1 3) T he s e ga t e ke e pe r s do not ha ve t o be i ndi vi dua l s T he y c a n be s e t s of r ul e s or va l ue s a s w e l l ( S hoe m a ke r 2009 ) L e w i n t he or i z e d t ha t hi s m ode l c oul d be a ppl i e d t o i nf or m a t i on f l ow i n ge ne r a l a nd i nde e d ha s pr ove n t o be i nf l ue nt i a l f or ot he r t he or e t i c a l ga t e ke e pi ng m ode l s i n pa r t i c ul a r t he c onc e pt s of c ha nne l s s e c t i ons a nd ga t e s ( S ho e m a ke r 2009: 19 ) A s a ga t e ke e pi ng i ns t i t ut i on, t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng i s s i m i l a r t o a a dm i s s i ons pr ogr a m T he M O F T B s ol i c i t s f or pr oduc t i ons t o c om e a nd/ or s t a y i n N e w Y or k C i t y i n a s i m i l a r w a y t ha t c ol l e ge s w i s h t o a t t r a c t hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s t o t he i r c ol l e ge s : t hr ough a va r i e t y of i nc e nt i ve s i nc l udi ng t a ngi bl e

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45 be ne f i t s pr e s t i ge e t c S t ude nt s w oul d onl y a ppl y a nd pr oduc t i ons w oul d on l y c ons i de r N e w Y or k i f t he r e w e r e i nc e nt i ve s dr a w i ng t he m t he r e i n t he f i r s t p l a c e H o w e ve r ne i t he r c ol l e ge s nor t he M O F T B c a n a c c e pt e ve r yone A n d w hi l e c ol l e ge s w oul d not w a nt e ve r yone t o c om e t o t he i r s c hool f or r e a s ons of p r e s t i ge m a na ge m e nt t he s a m e c a nnot be s a i d f or t he M O F T B C ol l e ge s ha ve a m o r e pr e c a r i ous ba l a nc i ng a c t t o go t hr ough w he n i t c om e s t o s ol i c i t i ng a nd a dm i t t i ng s t ude nt s but t h e M O F T B w oul d l i ke t o a l l ow a s m a ny pr oduc t i ons t o f i l m i n N e w Y o r k C i t y a s l ogi s t i c a l l y a nd c i vi c a l l y pos s i bl e T hi s m a ke s t he ga t e ke e pi ng pr oc e s s a t t ha t M O F T B i s e nt i r e l y l ogi s t i c a l a nd doe s not m a ke a ny ga t e ke e pi ng de c i s i ons ba s e d on c ont e nt m a ki ng t he e nt i r e pr oc e s s m uc h l e s s c om pl i c a t e d ( a nd pe r ha ps m uc h l e s s i ns i di ous ) t ha n one w oul d e xpe c t f r om a m uni c i pa l i ns t i t ut i on i nvo l ve d i n c ul t ur a l p r oduc t i o n. T ha t s not t o s a y t ha t t he de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s i s n t a s c om pl e x, bu t t ha t pol i t i c s s ur r oundi ng c e r t a i n l oc a t i ons or a nxi e t i e s a bout t he por t r a ya l of t he c i t y a r e n t t he r e F i l m pr oduc t i ons c a n dow nl oa d t he f i l m pe r m i t a ppl i c a t i on f r om t he M O F T B s w e bs i t e a nd f i l l out t he one pa ge a ppl i c a t i on a s ki ng f i l m p r oduc t i ons t o c l e a r l y de s c r i be t he i r pr oduc t i ons S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he y a s k f o r w he n a nd w he r e f i l m i ng w i l l c om m e nc e w he t he r t he pr oduc t i on w i l l i nvol ve s t unt s s pe c i a l e f f e c t s young pe r f o r m e r s a s w e l l a s m or e i de nt i f i a bl e i nf o r m a t i on s u c h a s t he na m e of t he pr oduc t i on, w ho s i n c ha r ge e t c ( N Y C P e r m i t R ul e s 2009) T he pe r m i t i s t he n r e vi e w e d by a M O F T B pe r m i t c oor di na t or w h o r e vi e w s e a c h pe r m i t ba s e d on a num be r of f a c t or s A c c or di ng t o M a r ybe t h I hl e a s poke s pe r s on f or t he M O F T B w h a t t he pr oduc t i on i s r e que s t i ng t o do how i t w i l l i m p a c t t he l oc a l a r e a a nd w ha t o t he r pr oduc t i ons a r e i n t he a r e a o r ha ve r e c e nt l y be e n i n t he a r e a ( 2010 ) S hor t l y a f t e r t he pe r m i t i s p r oc e s s e d, a m e e t i ng i s s c he dul e d w i t h t h e pr oduc t i on a nd l oc a t i on m a na ge r

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46 r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s of t he M O F T B a nd r e l e va nt a ge nc i e s f or a l l pr oduc t i ons t ha t r e qui r e c om pl e x e xt e r i or s hot s ( M a r ybe t h I hl e 2010 ) M or e c om pl e x pr oduc t i ons t ha t r e qui r e s e c ur i t y, pyr ot e c hni c s o r i nvol ve s t unt s or w e a pon s r e qui r e a m e m be r of a s pe c i a l di vi s i on of t he N e w Y or k P ol i c e D e pa r t m e nt t he N Y P D M ovi e & T V U ni t on s e t du r i ng f i l m i ng. D e s pi t e t he qua l i f i c a t i ons i n t hi s p r oc e s s M a r ybe t h I hl e m a i nt a i ns t ha t t he M O F T B r e m a i ns s t r i c t l y c ont e nt ne ut r a l i n i t s de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s ( 2010) I n a dd i t i on, s he m a i nt a i ne d t ha t t he M O F T B r a r e l y s a ys no, i ns t e a d of f e r i ng a l t e r na t i ve t i m e s or l oc a t i ons f o r p r oduc t i ons t o c hoos e f r om i f t he r e que s t e d t i m e or l oc a t i on i s not f e a s i bl e ( M a r ybe t h I hl e 2010) T he M O F T B s w i l l i ngne s s t o a s s i s t pr oduc t i on, t h e i r t e c hni c a l c r i t e r i a f o r w he n pe r m i t s ne c e s s a r y a nd t he i r s t r i c t c ont e nt ne ut r a l s t a nc e i n t hi s r e ga r d e m pha s i z e s t he i r w i l l i ngne s s t o w or k w i t h f i l m pr oduc t i ons o f a l l s i z e s a nd budge t s w hi l e s t i l l m a i nt a i ni ng or de r a nd ha vi ng a s e m bl a nc e of c ont r ol T he ga t e ke e pi ng pr oc e s s i t s e l f a l l ow s t he M O F T B t o s e e a nd r e gul a t e i nc om i ng a nd out go i n g r una w a y pr oduc t i on w hi c h gi ve s i t t he s e m bl a nc e of a ut hor i t y gi v i ng i t s om e c ont r ol ove r t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m I f t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he M O F T B i s i nvol ve d i n t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m i s de t e r m i ne d by t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h i t s i nvol ve d i n t he pr oduc t i on o f t he f i l m i t s e l f t he n t he a ns w e r t o w he t he r o r not i t s m e a ni ngf ul l y o r s i gni f i c a nt l y i nvol ve d i n t he pr oduc t i on of c ul t ur e m us t be m a de on a c a s e by c a s e ba s e s I t s s i gni f i c a nc e a s i de t he f a c t t ha t t he M O F T B c a n i nf l ue nc e t he p r oduc t i on o f a f i l m by a l t e r i ng pr oduc t i on e ve n t he s l i ght e s t bi t a nd uni nt e nt i ona l l y m e a ns t ha t i t i s i nvol ve d i n t he c ul t ur a l p r oduc t i on. W he t he r or not i t s i nvol ve d m e a ni ngf ul l y m us t be de t e r m i ne d on a f i l m by f i l m ba s i s T hough m a ny c i t i e s r e qui r e pe r m i t s i n or de r f o r f i l m p r oduc t i ons t o w or k on c i t y p r ope r t y a nd ha ve e a s y

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47 a c c e s s l i nks on how t o a c qui r e t he m none o f t he c om m i s s i ons e m pha s i z e s t he pe r m i t pr oc e s s a s r e a di l y a nd pr om i ne nt l y a s N e w Y or k C i t y. T h e M O F T B an d t h e C u l t u r al E c on om y T he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T e l e vi s i on, a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng i s i n a uni que pos i t i on w i t h r e ga r ds t o t he w a y i t ha ndl e s a t t r a c t s a nd r e gul a t e s f i l m pr oduc t i ons be c a us e of N e w Y or k C i t y s a l r e a dy s t r ong c ul t ur a l e c onom y, pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he i nf or m a t i on i n m e di a i ndus t r i e s T w e l ve of t he t op f i f t e e n m e di a c om pa ni e s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a r e l oc a t e d i n N e w Y or k C i t y, t w o t hi r ds of U S ba s e d m a ga z i ne s a r e publ i s he d i n N e w Y or k C i t y ( M os s 2006: 9 ) T he m e di a i ndus t r y i n N e w Y or k a s a c ul t u r e i ndus t r y i s e s pe c i a l l y pr om i ne nt a c c ount i ng f or ne a r l y 170 00 0 j obs a nd $10 b i l l i on d i r e c t l y t ow a r ds N e w Y or k C i t y ( B ui l di ng N e w Y or k s V i s ual M e di a I ndus t r y f or t he D i gi t al A ge : F i ndi ngs and R e c om m e ndat i ons 2000) T he m e di a i ndus t r y, pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he i nf or m a t i on s e c t or i s i nc r e di bl y r obus t H ow e ve r t he r e i s a di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n a c i t y s c ul t ur a l e c onom y a nd a c i t y s m e di a s e c t or A c i t y s c ul t ur a l e c onom y r e f e r s t o a c i t y s c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on i ndus t r i e s w hi l e m e di a r e f e r s t o t he i nf o r m a t i on i ndus t r y a s a w hol e A s m a t e r i a l c ul t ur e i s a l s o a s e gm e nt of i nf or m a t i o n, t he r e i s c ons i de r a bl e ove r l a p. A s s t a t e d be f or e N e w Y o r k C i t y s m e di a i ndus t r y i s p a r t i c ul a r l y r obus t a nd c ont a i ns m a ny pe r m a ne nt pr o m i ne nt vi s ua l m e di a p r oduc t i ons M a ny m e di a out l e t s di r e c t e d by t r a ns na t i ona l c or por a t i ons a r e he a dqua r t e r e d i n t he c i t y, s uc h a s N B C C B S F ox e t c A s t e l e vi s i on m a ke s up s l i ght m a j or i t y of a l l p r oduc t i o n i n N e w Y or k C i t y, t he y r e c ont i nue d pr e s e nc e i s i m por t a n t f o r N e w Y or k C i t y a nd t he M O F T B

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48 T he c onc e nt r a t i on o f t he s e m e di a out l e t s i n N e w Y or k C i t y pl a c e s a l ot of ge ogr a phi c i m por t a nc e on N e w Y or k C i t y a s a c e n t e r f or m e di a a nd c ul t ur a l p r oduc t i on. I n t hi s w a y, t he y r e m uc h l i ke H ol l yw ood, a nd r i s k ha vi ng t h e i r ow n r una w a y pr oduc t i on pr obl e m T he r e f o r e t he M O F T B m us t p r ovi de a n um be r of va r i ous i nc e nt i ve s t o no t onl y a t t r a c t pr oduc t i on ( or i n s om e c a s e s r e a t t r a c t pr od uc t i on l os t f r om T or ont o) bu t t o ke e p pr oduc t i on t ha t s hi s t or i c a l l y ba s e d i n N e w Y o r k C i t y f r o m goi ng e l s e w he r e T h e M O F T B an d t h e P r od u c t i on of C u l t u r e T he M O F T B us e s a c ul t ur a l 't ool ki t not un l i ke A nn S w i dl e r 's c ul t ur a l t ool ki t S w i dl e r a r gue s t ha t t he dom i na nt m ode of t hi nki ng a bout c ul t ur e 's i n f l ue nc e on a c t i on i s m i s l e a di ng" ( S w i d l e r 1986: 273) R a t he r s he a r gu e s t ha t c ul t ur e pr ov i de s pe opl e w i t h a 't ool ki t o f c ul t u r a l c om pone nt s t o c ons t r uc t s t r a t e gi e s of a c t i on ( S w i dl e r 1 986: 273) A l t hough not s om e t hi ng w e us ua l l y t hi nk a bout w he n i t c om e s t o m uni c i pa l i ns t i t ut i ons I a r gue t ha t t he M O F T B us e s a m odi f i e d ve r s i on of S w i dl e r 's t ool box a s a m e a ns t o a f f e c t t he pr oduc t i on o f c ul t u r e T he i r s ol i c i t a t i on a nd ga t e ke e pi ng pow e r s a c t a s a ki nd o f t ool box f or i l l us t r a t i ng t he i r m ode s of a c t i on i n a t t r a c t i ng a nd m a i nt a i ni ng f i l m pr oduc t i on s t o t he c i t y. P a r t of t he M O F T B s 't ool ki t i nvol ve s l ogi s t i c a l a nd e c onom i c c om pone nt s t ha t don't di r e c t l y a dhe r e t o t he c ul t u r a l 't ool ki t t ha t S w i dl e r out l i ne s W he n a f i l m p r oduc t i on us e s pyr ot e c hni c s w e a pons o r a c t or s i n pol i c e uni f or m m e m be r s o f t he N Y P D 's F i l m a nd T e l e vi s i on di vi s i on m us t be on s i t e T hi s s e r vi c e i s not on l y f o r t he s a f e t y a nd s e c ur i t y f or t he f i l m c r e w a nd s ur r ound i ng c i t i z e ns but a c t s a s a pa r t o f t he M O F T B 's c l a i m t ha t N e w Y or k C i t y i s t he s a f e s t bi g c i t y" i n t he c ount r y w hi c h p l a ys i nt o pe opl e 's c onc e pt i ons of a n uns a f e pr e ge nt r i f i e d, a nd c r i m e r i dde n N e w Y or k C i t y

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49 T he bul k o f t he M O F T B 's t ool box c om e s f r om t he ut i l i z a t i on of N e w Y or k C i t y's f or m s of s ym bol i c c a pi t a l B our di e u de f i ne d s ym bol i c c a pi t a l a s e c onom i c o r pol i t i c a l c a pi t a l t ha t i s di s a vow e d, m i s r e c ogni z e d a nd t he r e by r e c o gni z e d, he nc e l e gi t i m a t e a 'c r e di t w hi c h, unde r unde r c e r t a i n c ondi t i ons a nd a l w a ys i n t he l ong r un gua r a nt e e s 'e c onom i c pr of i t ( B our di e u 1993: 75) B our di e u a r gue s t ha t p r e s t i ge or a ut hor i t y t ha t c a n be a s c r i be d a nd c ons e c r a t e d upon m a t e r i a l obj e c t s b r a nds a nd i de nt i t i e s T he M O F T B ut i l i z e a nd c ont r i but e t o N e w Y o r k C i t y's s ym bol i c c a pi t a l a s a t w o k i nds of c i ne m a t i c c i t i e s : a ki nd of m yt hol ogi c a l c i ne m a t i c c i t y t ha t e xi s t s i n f i l m s e t i n N e w Y o r k C i t y a nd a c i t y t ha t e nc our a ge s a nd p r om ot e s f i l m pr oduc t i o n of a l l ki nds N e w Y or k C i t y's s ym bol i c c a pi t a l i s t hus a n a ggr e ga t e o f N e w Y o r k C i t y's r e s our c e s a s c onne c t e d t o i t s pe r c e i ve d s t r e ngt hs i n t he s phe r e o f f i l m p r oduc t i o n. W he n t he M O F T B us e s publ i s he s books on t he hi s t or y of N e w Y or k C i t y f i l m m a ki n g, br a nd t he i r i nvol ve m e nt w i t h pr oduc t i ons i n a w a y t ha t i ns t i l l s c i vi c pr i de poi nt t o e xi s t i ng pr oduc t i ons t ha t ha ve c ons i de r a bl e pr e s t i ge a nd vi s i bi l i t y, t he y a r e us i ng a nd a ddi ng t o N e w Y o r k C i t y's s ym bol i c c a pi t a l a s a c i ne m a t i c c i t y a nd a s a c i t y f r i e ndl y t o f i l m p r oduc t i on. T he M O F T B 's 't ool ki t c ons i s t s t he ove r l a ppi ng l ogi s t i c e c onom i c a nd c ul t ur a l i nc e nt i ve s w hi c h ul t i m a t e l y ut i l i z e s a nd c ont r i but e s t o N e w Y or k C i t y's s ym b ol i c c a pi t a l a s a 'c i ne m a t i c c i t y.

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50 C h ap t e r 5 C on c l u s i on O n M a y 13, 2005 I ndi a n f i l m m a ke r R a ke s h S ha r m a w a s ha r a s s e d a nd de t a i ne d by t he N e w Y or k P ol i c e D e pa r t m e nt f o r s e ve r a l ho ur s f or f i l m i ng on c i t y pr ope r t y w i t hout a pe r m i t ( S ha r m a R a ke s h. 200 9 a nd C hr i s t ophe r D unn e t a l 2006) S ha r m a w a s f i l m i ng t a xi s f i l t e r i ng out f r om t he P a r k A ve nue S out h U nde r pa s s w i t h a ha ndhe l d c a m e r a W hi l e w a l ki ng t ow a r d T i m e s S qua r e t o ga t he r m or e f oot a ge S ha r m a m ove d hi s c a m e r a upw a r ds t o c a pt ur e w e l l l i t bu i l di ng s i nc l u di ng t he M e t L i f e bui l di ng ( C hr i s t ophe r D unn e t a l 2006) M om e nt s l a t e r a pl a i n c l ot he s pol i c e of f i c e r w a l ke d up t o S ha r m a f l a s hi ng hi s ba dge a nd a s ki ng S ha r m a w hy he w a s i n N e w Y or k C i t y a nd w hy he w a s f i l m i ng a s e ns i t i ve bui l di ng ( C hr i s t ophe r D unn e t a l 2006: 6 ) T he of f i c e r f ur t he r que s t i one d S ha r m a on hi s i de nt i t y a nd i nt e nt i ons a nd i n t he p r oc e s s c ol l e c t i ng hi s pa s s por t a nd c a m e r a a nd c a l l i ng hi m a n a s s hol e ( C hr i s t ophe r D unn e t a l 2006: 7 ) O ve r t i m e m or e of f i c e r s s how e d up a s ki ng m a ny of t he s a m e que s t i ons a nd ga t he r i ng a c r ow d of hund r e ds out s i de of a S t a r buc ks on 39 t h S t r e e t a nd P a r k A ve nue S ha r m a c om pl i e d w i t h t he of f i c e r s du r i ng t h i s t i m e out of f e a r t ha t he w oul d be s e e n a s a s us pe c t e d t e r r or i s t S ha r m a w a s br ought dow n t o t h e l oc a l pr e c i nc t a nd que s t i one d f ur t he r A f t e r a s c e r t a i ni ng t ha t S ha r m a w a s n t doi n g a nyt hi ng w r ong t he N Y P D a pol ogi z e d a nd r e l e a s e d hi m ne a r l y t hr e e a nd a ha l f hour s a f t e r t he i ni t i a l i nc i de nt W he n a s ke d w hi c h f i l m p r oduc t i ons ne e d pe r m i t s t he M O F T B ga ve va gue r e s pons e s of f e r i ng not hi ng t ha t w a s n t know n t hr ough t he i r w e bs i t e A l t hough S ha r m a d i d not w i s h t o c ont i nue f i l m i ng i n hi s f ol l ow i ng da ys i n N e w Y or k C i t y, he di d w a nt t o c om e ba c k l a t e r i n t he ye a r t o f i l m H e a ppl i e d f or a pe r m i t on N ov e m be r 9 2005, a s ki ng t he M O F T B t o

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51 w a i ve a $1 m i l l i on i ns ur a nc e l i a bi l i t y f e e g i ve n t ha t i t w oul d be onl y hi m w a l ki ng a r ound w i t h a ha ndhe l d c a m e r a T he M O F T B de ni e d hi s r e que s t f or a pe r m i t w i t hou t a w r i t t e n e xpl a na t i on ( C hr i s t ophe r D unn e t a l 2006 ) T he N Y C L U s ubs e que nt l y s ue d t he pol i c e of f i c e r s i nvol ve d i n t he i nc i de nt a s w e l l a s t he M O F T B f or i nf r i ngi ng on R a ke s h S ha r m a s F i r s t A m e ndm e nt r i ght s ( N Y C L U S ue s N Y P D F or H a r a s s i ng a nd D e t a i ni ng P hot ogr a phe r | N e w Y or k C i vi l L i be r t i e s U ni on [ N Y C L U ] A m e r i c a n C i vi l L i be r t i e s U ni on of N e w Y o r k S t a t e 2006 ) T he l i t i ga t i on pr om pt e d t he M O F T B t o dr a f t r ul e s a nd gui de l i ne s t ha t w e r e e s s e nt i a l l y a l w a ys i n pl a c e t h a t w oul d i de nt i f y a t h r e s hol d l e ve l of a c t i vi t y w hi c h ne c e s s i t a t e s a f i l m pe r m i t w hi l e a t t he s a m e t i m e s ubs t a nt i a l l y m i r r or i ng i t s c ur r e nt pr a c t i c e s ( N Y C gov M a y or 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng P r oduc t i on N e w s 2007 ) T he f i r s t dr a f t of t he s e gui de l i ne s w e r e m a de publ i c on M a y 25, 2007, a nd w e r e s ubs e que nt l y de r i de d f or pol i c i e s t ha t ba r r e d i nde pe nde nt f i l m m a ke r s o r a nyone w i t h a c a m e r a f r om s hoot i ng a nyt hi ng of s ubs t a nc e i n t he c i t y ( W i t h D e a dl i ne L oom i ng, P r opos e d N Y C F i l m P e r m i t R ul e s R i l e I nd i e s i ndi e W i r e 2007 ) T hi s un f a vor a bl e out c r y l e d t he M O F T B t o r e dr a f t t he r ul e s t ha t e l i m i na t e d pr ovi s i ons t ha t c a l l e d f or a s e t dur a t i on on f i l m i ng t he num be r of pe opl e w or ki ng on t he pr oduc t i on a nd t he us e of a t r i pod, a l l ow i ng i nde pe nde nt f i l m m a ke r s t o f i l m i n N e w Y or k w i t hout ha s s l e T hi s ki nd o f r e s pons e hi ghl i ght s t w o i m por t a nt c o n s i de r a t i ons a bout f i l m m a ki ng i n N e w Y or k C i t y: i t hi ghl i ght s how i m por t a nt N e w Y or k C i t y i s t o f i l m m a ke r s bi g a nd s m a l l ( budge t ) a nd t he a m ount of c ont r ol t he M O F T B ha s on t he f i l m m a ki ng i n N e w Y or k C i t y. N e w Y or k C i t y c ont i nue s t o be a n a t t r a c t i ve pl a c e t o f i l m w he t he r i t s a bi g budge t f i l m or a s m a l l i nde pe nde nt f e a t ur e N Y C s popul a r i t y w oul d ha ve one be l i e ve

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52 t ha t t he M O F T B w oul dn t ne e d t o m a ke N Y C m o r e a t t r a c t i ve t o f i l m pr oduc t i ons l a r ge a nd s m a l l i n or de r t o r e m a i n c om pe t i t i ve a m ongs t ot he r f i l m pr oduc i ng c i t i e s W hi l e N e w Y or k C i t y ha s be e n ( a nd c ont i nue s t o be ) a p opul a r f i l m m a ki ng l oc a t i on f or a va r i e t y or r e a s ons i t i s due i n no s m a l l pa r t t o t he m a ny i nc e nt i ve s pr ovi de d by t he M O F T B t o a l l f i l m pr oduc t i ons H i s t or i c a l l y, N e w Y or k C i t y h a s ha d a n e xt r e m e l y r obus t c ul t ur a l e c onom y bui l t on a f i r m f ounda t i on of m a ny c om pl e m e nt i ng a nd ove r l a ppi ng c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on i ndus t r i e s m e di a i ndus t r i e s a r t s c om m uni t i e s e t c T hi s ha s m a de N e w Y o r k C i t y a pa r t i c ul a r l y a t t r a c t i ve c i t y f or f i l m m a ki ng gi vi ng f i l m pr oduc t i ons a va r i e t y o f di f f e r e nt r e a s ons t o f i l m i n N e w Y or k C i t y. D e s pi t e t hi s r ob us t ne s s t he i nc r e a s e i n r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on i n t he A m e r i c a n f i l m i ndus t r y ha s m e a n t t ha t N e w Y o r k C i t y m us t s t i l l c om pe t e w i t h ot he r ge ogr a phi c m e di a hub s i n or de r t o a t t r a c t m a i nt a i n, a nd c ont a i n a s m uc h of t he f i l m pr oduc t i on pr oc e s s a s pos s i bl e w i t hi n t he c i t y A s t he M a yor s O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng s j ob de s c r i pt i on i nc l ude s s ol i c i t i ng a nd r e t a i ni ng pr oduc t i on w i t hi n t he c i t y t he i r pol i c i e s a r e u l t i m a t e l y de t e r m i ne d by t he l a r ge r f i l m i ndus t r y a nd r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on. F or m a ny c i t i e s r una w a y p r oduc t i on i s po t e nt i a l l y a good t hi ng I n V a nc ouve r a onc e s e de nt a r y l oc a l f i l m i ndus t r y ha s gr ow n l e a ps a nd bounds ove r t he c our s e of o nl y a f e w de c a de s pr ovi di ng m a ny di r e c t a nd t a ngi bl e b e ne f i t s f or t he c i t y s e c onom y a nd t he c i t y s c ul t ur a l e c onom y A l t hough V a nc ouve r s c r e a t i ve i ndus t r i e s a r e s t i l l m os t l y ba c ke d by H ol l yw ood m one y, t he y r e de ve l opi ng a s t r ong c r e a t i ve a nd f i na nc i a l b a c ki ng s o a s t o de ve l op t he i r ow n s t r ong vi s ua l m e di a i ndus t r y t ha t s t a nds i nde pe nde nt f r om H ol l yw ood. H ow e ve r j us t a s r una w a y p r oduc t i on ha s c om pl e x c a us e s t he y a l s o ha ve c om pl e x

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53 e f f e c t s a nd t hos e e f f e c t s a r e l a r ge l y c ont i nge nt on t he c i t y be i ng a f f e c t e d. N e w Y or k C i t y i s n t bui l di ng a vi s ua l m e di a i ndus t r y w i t h r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on be c a us e i t a l r e a dy e xi s t s T he c i t y s c ul t u r a l i ndus t r i e s ha ve c ont r ol o ve r t he pr oduc t i on of f i l m i n l i m i t e d but s i gni f i c a nt c a pa c i t y w he n c om pa r e d w i t h t he hi e r a r c hi c a l dom i na nc e of H o l l yw ood. N e w Y or k s ge ogr a phi c a l dom i na nc e ove r pr oduc t i on doe s n t m a ke i t i m m une t o r una w a y pr oduc t i on i t m a ke s i t m o r e vul ne r a bl e a s pr oduc t i on t ha t ha s l a r ge l y be e n c e nt e r e d i n N e w Y or k C i t y i s be i ng l os t t o ot he r c i t i e s e s pe c i a l l y T or ont o W hi l e N e w Y or k C i t y doe s n t l os e m os t of t he s t a ge s of f i l m p r oduc t i on t o ot he r c i t i e s i t doe s ( pot e nt i a l l y) l os e t he m os t di ve r s e l y l uc r a t i ve t he pr oduc t i on s t a ge T he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng a r e a c t i ve s ol i c i t or s A s a f i l m c om m i s s i on, i t i s t he i r j ob t o a c t i ve l y s ol i c i t t o m a j or f i l m c om pa ni e s a nd r e m a i n c om pe t i t i ve i n t he f i l m i ndus t r y gi ve n t he r una w a y pr oduc t i on l a nds c a pe T he r e a r e m a t e r i a l a nd a bs t r a c t be ne f i t s f or N e w Y or k C i t y A t r e m e ndous a m ount o f r e ve nue i s t o be ha d by t he c ul t ur a l p r oduc i ng vi s ua l m e di a i ndu s t r i e s ba s e d e xc l us i ve l y i n N e w Y or k C i t y, but a l s o f or l oc a l t e r t i a r y bus i ne s s e s i n t he c i t y s uc h a s t e m por a r y l odgi ng, f ood s e r vi c e r e t a i l t r a ns por t a t i on e t c F i l m pr oduc t i ons t ha t us e t he s e s e r vi c e s i nc r e a s e t he i r pr of i t s t r e m e ndous l y, a t t r a c t i ng e ve n m or e bus i ne s s e s t o e s t a bl i s h t he m s e l ve s i n t he c i t y c r e a t i ng a m ul t i pl y i ng e f f e c t A l l of t hi s i nc r e a s e s ove r a l l gr ow t h i n t he e nt e r t a i nm e nt s e c t or w hi c h l e a ds t o g r ow t h i n ot he r a r e a s pa r t i c ul a r l y one s w i t h c l os e t i e s t o t he e nt e r t a i nm e nt s e c t or s uc h a s t e c hnol ogy a nd t he a r t s ( G a r on, 1996: 87) T hi s i nc r e a s e s N e w Y or k C i t y s ove r a l l c ul t ur a l pr e s e nc e a nd vi s i bi l i t y, i nc r e a s i ng t our i s m a nd ot he r r e l a t e d s e c t or s w i t hi n t he i ndus t r y G i ve n a l l o f t h e s e be ne f i t s i t i s e xt r e m e l y i m po r t a nt f or t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng t o do t he i r j ob a nd t o do t he i r

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54 j ob w e l l B ut t he i r pol i c i e s a nd f unc t i ons a r e l a r ge l y de t e r m i ne d by r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on a nd m us t t he r e f or e s ol i c i t i n a va r i e t y o f di f f e r e nt w a ys G i ve n t he i m por t a nc e o f r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i on on a c i t y t ha t ha s a n i nc r e di bl y s t r ong c ul t ur a l e c onom y a nd m e di a s e c t or t hi s ul t i m a t e l y br i ngs i nt o que s t i on t he pow e r of r una w a y f i l m p r oduc t i ons A l t hough t he r e a r e m a ny r e a s on s w hy t he r e a r e r una w a y f i l m p r oduc t i ons t he m a i n r e a s on i s t h r ough i nc e nt i ve s f r om f or e i gn l oc a t i ons T he f a c t t ha t t hi s w oul d ha ppe n t o a g l oba l c i t y, a m a j o r m e di a hub, a nd w oul d di c t a t e a l m os t e ve r y f unc t i on o f t he M O F T B m e a ns t ha t t he r e i s pot e nt i a l f or r una w a y p r oduc t i on t o c r e a t e a n e nvi r onm e nt not unl i ke t he one s t r a ns na t i ona l c or por a t i ons ha ve m a de i n t he i r r a c e t o t he bot t om w i t h s w e a t s hop l a bor A l t houg h r una w a y f i l m pr oduc t i ons a r e m or e c om pl i c a t e d t ha n t ha t t he bot t om l i ne i s t ha t f i l m s w i l l be pr oduc e d w he r e i t i s c he a pe s t a nd e c onom i c r una w a ys w i l l go t o t he l oc a t i on w h e r e i t i s c he a pe s t m e a ni ng t ha t c i t i e s w i l l ha ve t o s e l l t he m s e l ve s c om pe t e a m ongs t t he m s e l ve s f or bus i ne s s gi vi ng t he c i t y ve r y l i t t l e l e ve r a ge A l l c i t i e s a r e di f f e r e nt a nd t hu s a r e i m pa c t e d i n d i f f e r e nt a nd c om pl e x w a ys t ha t a r e uni que t o t he gi ve n c i t y but t he f a c t r e m a i ns t ha t c i t i e s m us t ul t i m a t e l y s e l l t he m s e l ve s i n s uc h a w a y t ha t gi ve s r e duc e d l e ve r a ge t o a c i t y s c ul t ur a l i ndus t r i e s a nd t hus r e duc e d a ut onom y i n t he i r c ul t ur a l e c onom y. T he pr oduc t i on of m a t e r i a l c ul t u r e s pe c i f i c a l l y f i l m i s i n t r i ns i c a l l y t i e d t o t he pr oduc t i on of f i l m i t s e l f A s t he p r oduc t i on o f f i l m i s hi ghl y c ol l a bo r a t i ve o f t e n i nvol vi ng hundr e ds of pe opl e a ny c ha nge or de c i s i on m a de w i l l a f f e c t t he c ont e nt of t he f i l m of t he f i l m w hi c h a f f e c t s i t 's c ul t u r a l m e a ni ng i n how i t i s r e a d. I n t hi s s e ns e t he i nvol ve m e nt of t he M O F T B a t t he pr e p r oduc t i on a nd pr oduc t i on l e ve l s a f f e c t s t he c ul t ur a l pa r t of t he pr oduc t i on of c ul t ur e F or e xa m pl e one o f t he l ogi s t i c a l i nc e nt i ve s t he

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55 M O F T B of f e r s i s a f r e e P A s e r vi c e i n w hi c h pr o f e s s i ona l l y t r a i ne d pr oduc t i on a s s i s t a nt s a r e l oa ne d t o f i l m pr oduc t i ons f o r f r e e T he ga t e ke e pi ng a r m o f t he M O F T B c oul d a l s o ha ve a s i m i l a r a f f e c t A l t hough t he M O F T B us e s ga t e ke e pi ng pr i m a r i l y a s a t ool t o r e gul a t e w ho i s a l l ow e d t o us e publ i c s pa c e s i t c oul d f unc t i on a s a w a y t o ga t e ke e p i m a ge s F or e xa m pl e i f S t e ve n S pi e l be r g w a nt s t o f i l m a t a s pe c i f i c l oc a t i on i n C e nt r a l P a r k a t t he s a m e t i m e a s a not he r unknow n f i l m m a ke r t he y w i l l p r oba bl y c hoos e S t e ve n S pi e l be r g be c a us e hi s f i l m w oul d m os t l i ke l y ha ve l a r ge r budge t t ha t a f f e c t s m o r e pe opl e I f t he unknow n f i l m m a ke r i s f or c e t o m ove p r oduc t i on t o a not he r l oc a t i on, t ha t a l t e r s one c om pone nt of t he f i l m pr oduc t i on pr oc e s s t ha t a f f e c t s t he c ont e nt a nd t he r e f or e how t ha t f i l m i s vi e w e d a nd gi ve n m e a ni ng T he pow e r s c ou l d a f f e c t t he c ul t ur a l pa r t of t he pr oduc t i on of c ul t ur e M or e ge ne r a l l y, t he M O F T B ha s c ons i de r a bl e l e ve r a ge i n t he pr oduc t i on" pa r t o f t he pr oduc t i on o f c ul t u r e a s a n e c onom i c e nt e r pr i s e I f f i l m p r oduc t i ons c hoos e N e w Y or k C i t y i n pa r t f or t he i r f i na nc i a l o r l ogi s t i c a l i n c e nt i ve s t hi s pot e nt i a l l y f r e e s up a f i l m pr oduc t i on's budge t t o i nve s t i n ot he r a s pe c t s of t h e f i l m p r oduc t i on, e nc our a ge s ne w pr oj e c t s t o t he a r e a a nd ul t i m a t e l y a t t r a c t s c r e a t i ve t ype s l a bor e r s a nd bus i ne s s e s t o t he c i t y t ha t w i l l c ont r i but e t o t he c i t y's c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y. T he t hi r d w a y t he M O F T B a f f e c t s c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on i s t hr ough t he i r us e of N e w Y or k C i t y's s ym bol i c c a pi t a l T he M O F T B r e l i e s o n t he c i ne m a t i c / m yt hol ogi c a l h i s t or y of N e w Y or k C i t y a s a m a j o r r e a s on t o f i l m i n t he c i t y. T he y've publ i s he d a book on t he hi s t or y of f i l m m a ki ng i n N e w Y o r k C i t y i ns t i l l c i v i c pr i de t h r ough va r i ous pr ogr a m s t ha t pr om ot e j ob oppor t uni t i e s f or t hos e l i vi ng i n N e w Y or k C i t y, s e l l m e r c ha ndi s e w i t h t he i r

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56 l ogo on i t b r a nd t he m s e l ve s ont o vi s ua l pr o m ot i on a l m a t e r i a l s a nd r e l y on t he t e s t i m ony of f a m ous pe opl e w ho s w e a r t ha t t he r e 's no ot he r c i t y l i ke N e w Y o r k. G i ve n t he M O F T B s hi s t or y r una w a y p r oduc t i on, t he va r i e t y of i nc e nt i ve s i t of f e r s t he ga t e ke e pi ng pr oc e s s t he r e s r e a s on t o t hi nk t ha t s om e s or t of a l t e r a t i on o f t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m i s ha ppe ni ng on s om e l e ve l H ow e ve r m e a s ur i ng t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he M O F T B i s i nvol ve d i n t he c ul t ur a l pr od uc t i on of f i l m m us t be done on a f i l m by f i l m ba s i s G i ve n l ogi s t i c a l c ons t r a i nt s I c oul d not m e a s ur e f i l m pr oduc t i ons on a c a s e by c a s e H ow e ve r gi ve n t he c ol l a bor a t i ve na t ur e o f t he p r oduc t i on of f i l m a s w e l l a s t he c l os e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he pr oduc t i on of f i l m a nd t he c ul t ur a l pr oduc t i on of f i l m I w oul d a r gue t ha t t he a ny i m pa c t on t he pr oduc t i on of a f i l m i s ge ne r a l l y s i gni f i c a nt l y i n s om e r e s pe c t t o t he ove r a l l c ul t ur a l p r oduc t H ow e ve r t hi s i s a l l on a c a s e by c a s e ba s i s s i nc e t he a l t e r a t i on of one pa r t of one s t a ge of pr od uc t i on m a y be m o r e or l e s s s i gni f i c a nt t o a not he r f i l m a s di f f e r e nt f i l m s c a n a c c ount f o r v a r i ous a l t e r a t i ons t hr oughout t he s t a ge s of pr oduc t i on. T he r e f o r e i t i s c e r t a i n l y pos s i bl e f or pr oduc t i on a s s i s t a nt s t o s l i ght l y a l t e r f i l m p r oduc t i on, but w he t he r or not t h i s i s s i gni f i c a nt or m e a ni ngf ul i s i n que s t i on. T hus t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng ha s a pot e nt i a l f or a l t e r i ng t he c ul t u r a l pr oduc t i on of a f i l m w hi c h w a r r a nt s f ur t he r s t udy i n t o ot he r f i l m c om m i s s i ons a s t o t he e xt e nt t ha t t he y a r e i nvol ve d i n t he pr oduc t i on o f c ul t u r e

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57 A p p e n d i x I I nt e r vi e w Q ue s t i ons 1. F i r s t l e t us t a l k a bout how t he M O F T B i s or ga ni z e d. a C oul d you t e l l m e m or e or l e s s w ha t t he or ga ni z a t i ona l c h a r t l ooks l i ke ? i W ho i s a t t he t op w ho i s ne xt be l ow a l l t he w a y t o t he bot t om ? i i W ha t a r e t he i r j ob t i t l e s ? i i i I n t hi s c ha r t w ho i s t he f i r s t pe r s on t o r e vi e w a ppl i c a nt s ? W ho i s ne xt e t c ? b. W ho m a ke s t he f i na l de c i s i on on w ho doe s a nd do e s not ge t a pe r m i t ? W ha t c ur r e nt t a ke s t he pe r m i t t o t he ga t e ke e pe r i f a ny? c H ow m a ny pe opl e a r e e m pl oye d a t t he M O F T B ? 2. H ow doe s t hi s pe r s on m a ke t ha t de c i s i on? a D o you a ns w e r t o a hi ghe r a ut hor i t y i f t he r e 's a qu e s t i ona bl e f i l m ? T he m a yor ? T our i s m a ge nc i e s ? b. A r e t he r e a ny r e d f l a gs f or a p r obl e m a t i c f i l m ba s e d on t he pe r m i t s you r e c e i ve ? 3. I s t he M O F T B c onc e r ne d w i t h how t he c i t y i s po r t r a ye d, gi ve n u r ba n r e ne w a l e f f or t s ove r t he pa s t 20 ye a r s t ou r i s m e t c ?

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58 4. W ha t do f i l m m a ke r s t e nd t o do w he n t he y' r e not a l l ow e d t o f i l m i n t he c i t y? D o t he y c hoos e a not he r l oc a t i on? S c r a p i t a l t oge t he r ? W he r e c a n I ge t t hi s i nf or m a t i on? 5. I n w hi c h w a ys c oul d t he w a y t hi ngs w o r k now be i m pr ove d? 6. C a n I ge t a l i s t of f i l m s m a de unde r t he M a de I n N Y C pr ogr a m ? 7. H ow ha s 9/ 11 a f f e c t e d pol i c y a t t he M O F T B ?

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59 A p p e n d i x I I *E ve r yt hi ng a ppe a r s a s i s i n t he e m a i l doc um e nt a pa r t f r o m t he i t a l i c i z e d a ns w e r s t ha t I i nc l ude d t o e a s i l y di s t i ngui s h be t w e e n que s t i ons a nd a ns w e r s T he a ns w e r s w e r e r e c e i ve d vi a e m a i l i n on F e br ua r y 19 2009* 1. H o w i s t he M a yor 's O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng or ga ni z e d? A ) D i vi s i ons / de pa r t m e nt s a nd t he i r f unc t i on s j ob t i t l e s num be r of e m pl oye e s on s t a f f e t c T he M ay or s O f f i c e of F i l m T he at r e and B r oadc as t i ng i s m ade up of 25 e m pl oy e e s T he age nc y i s di v i de d i nt o t he pr oduc t i on de par t m e nt w hi c h i nc l ude s s e v e r al pe r m i t c oor di nat or s and t he di r e c t or of pr oduc t i on, and t he m ar k e t i ng de par t m e nt ( pr e s s m ar k e t i ng, e duc at i on, bus i ne s s de v e l opm e nt ) B ) W ho de c i de s t o pe r m i t a f i l m pr oduc t i on t o f i l m i n t he c i t y a f t e r t he i ni t i a l m e e t i ng be t w e e n t he f i l m pr oduc t i on a nd t he M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng? W he n a pr oduc t i on w i s he s t o f i l m i n N e w Y or k C i t y t he y appl y f or a pe r m i t w i t h our of f i c e A M O F T B pe r m i t c oor di nat or r e v i e w s t he r e que s t and appr ov e s i t bas e d on a

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60 num be r of f ac t or s : w hat t he pr oduc t i on i s r e que s t i ng t o do how i t w i l l i m pac t t he l oc al ar e a, and w hat ot he r pr oduc t i ons ar e i n t he ar e a o r hav e r e c e nt l y be e n i n t he ar e a. A l l f e at u r e f i l m s t e l e v i s i on s e r i e s or pr oduc t i ons t hat f e at ur e e l abor at e e x t e r i or s hot s at t e nd a pr e pr oduc t i on m e e t i ng w i t h t he M O F T B T he pr oduc t i on m anage r l oc at i on m anage r and r e pr e s e nt at i v e s f r om M O F T B and ot he r r e l e v ant age nc i e s c oor di nat e s hoot i ng pl ans and pr oduc t i on s c he dul e s M or e c o m pl e x pr oduc t i ons r e qui r e s p e c i al c ons i de r at i on by t he N Y P D M ov i e & T V U ni t a de di c at e d uni t of pol i c e of f i c e r s as s i gne d t o pr oduc t i ons w he n f i l m i ng on l oc at i on. W he ne v e r a s c e ne i nv ol v e s a s t unt an ac t or i n pol i c e uni f o r m or t he us e of a w e apon, a m e m be r of t he N Y P D M ov i e & T V U ni t m us t be pr e s e nt on s e t P y r ot e c hni c s f i r e e f f e c t s and e x pl o s i ons r e qui r e t he i ns pe c t i on and s upe r v i s i on by t he N Y C F i r e D e par t m e nt 2. W ha t i n f l ue nc e s t he f i na l de c i s i on? A s m e nt i one d ab ov e appr ov al o f a pe r m i t i s bas e d on a num be r of f ac t or s : w hat t he pr oduc t i on i s r e que s t i ng t o do, how i t w i l l i m pac t t he l oc al ar e a, and w hat ot he r pr oduc t i ons ar e i n t he ar e a or hav e r e c e nt l y be e n i n t he ar e a. A ) A r e t he r e a ny r e d f l a gs f or a pr obl e m a t i c f i l m ba s e d on t he pe r m i t s you r e c e i ve ?

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61 P l e as e e l abor at e as t o w hat y ou m e an by a pr obl e m at i c f i l m B ) D o t he s e pr obl e m a t i c f i l m s a f f e c t t he d e c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s ? I f s o, how ? Se e abov e C ) H a ve t he S e pt e m be r 11t h a t t a c ks i nf l ue n c e d t he de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s ? T he M O F T B has a l w ay s c ons i de r e d s af e t y i t s num be r one pr i or i t y A l l pe r m i t s ar e r e v i e w e d t o e ns ur e t hat t he s af e t y of t he r e s i de nt s and t he pr oduc t i on w i l l be m ai nt ai ne d t hr oughout t he s hoot S i nc e Se p t e m be r 11 t h f i l m pr oduc t i ons hav e l i m i t e d ac c e s s t o t he ar e a ar ound t he W or l d T r ade C e nt e r 3. I s t he M a yor s O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r o a dc a s t i ng e xpl i c i t l y c onc e r ne d w i t h how t he c i t y i s por t r a ye d i n f i l m s a nd t e l e vi s i on? I f s o, how ? M O F T B r e m ai n s c ont e nt ne ut r al t o al l t he pr oduc t i ons i t pe r m i t s 4. W ha t do f i l m m a ke r s t ypi c a l l y t e nd t o do w he n t he y'r e not a l l ow e d t o f i l m i n t he c i t y? D o t he y c hoos e a not he r l oc a t i on? S c r a p i t a l t oge t h e r ?

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62 T he M O F T B a l w ay s t r i e s t o f i nd a w ay t o s ay y e s t o a pr o duc t i on s r e que s t I f a pr oduc t i on w ant s t o f i l m a s t unt f or e x am pl e i n t h e m i ddl e of t he c i t y dur i ng r us h hour t he M O F T B w i l l s ugge s t an al t e r nat e dat e and t i m e e ar l y i n t he m or ni ng on a w e e k e nd or i n a l e s s c r ow de d popul at e d ar e a. 5. I f you c oul d, how w oul d you i m p r ove t he M a yo r 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e a nd B r oa dc a s t i ng? T he M O F T B w as e s t abl i s he d i n 1966 as t he one s t op s hop f or pr oduc t i ons s hoot i ng i n t he C i t y O v e r t he y e ar s t he of f i c e has e v ol v e d and w i l l c ont i nue t o e v ol v e t o m e e t t he ne e ds of f i l m m ak e r s and s t r i k e a bal anc e f or t he ne i ghbo r hoods w he r e f i l m i ng t ak e s pl ac e A ddi t i on al i n f or m at i o n abou t t h e M ay or s O f f i c e of F i l m T h e at r e an d B r oadc as t i n g A s t he f i r s t f i l m c om m i s s i on i n t he c ount r y t he M a y or s O f f i c e of F i l m T he at r e and B r oadc as t i ng ( M O F T B ) i s t he one s t op s hop f or al l pr oduc t i on ne e ds i n N e w Y or k C i t y T he M O F T B i s s ue s f r e e pe r m i t s t o f i l m and t e l e v i s i on pr oduc t i ons t hat r e que s t t o s hoot on C i t y s t r e e t s s i de w al k s and C i t y ow ne d e x t e r i or pr ope r t i e s I n 2005, t he M O F T B unv e i l e d t he M ade i n N Y i nc e nt i v e pr ogr am w hi c h i nc l ude s a m ar k e t i ng c r e di t w hi c h pr ov i de s f r e e adv e r t i s i ng o n C i t y bus s he l t e r s t o M ade i n N Y pr oduc t i ons a di s c ount c ar d w hi c h pr ov i de s r e duc t i ons of at l e as t t e n pe r c e nt at m or e

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63 t han 950 l oc al v e ndo r s and t he M ade i n N Y l og o, a m ar k of di s t i nc t i on aw ar de d t o pr oj e c t s w hi c h s hoot 75 pe r c e nt or m or e i n N e w Y or k C i t y T he M ade i n N Y D i s c ount C ar d P r ogr am pr ov i de s di s c ount s t o pr oduc t i ons f or t he dur at i on of t he i r s hoot s at 950 l oc al v e ndor s V e nd or s i nc l ude hot e l s c ar s e r v i c e r e s t aur ant s pr ops pos t pr oduc t i on s e r v i c e s f l or i s t s dr y c l e ane r s and m or e F or m or e on t he pr ogr am v i s i t : h t t p: / / w w w ny c gov / ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / di s c ount s / di s c ount s _hom e s ht m l T he C i t y e s t i m at e s t hat f i l m t e l e v i s i on, c om m e r c i a l and m us i c v i de o i ndus t r y e m pl oy s 100, 000 N e w Y or k e r s and c ont r i but e s $5 bi l l i on t o t he C i t y s e c onom y annual l y T he r e ar e al s o 4000 l oc al s uppor t bus i ne s s e s t hat de p e nd on pr oduc t i ons w or k i ng i n t he C i t y D i v e r s i t y an d E du c at i on T he M ay or s O f f i c e of F i l m T he at r e and B r oadc as t i ng i s c om m i t t e d t o di v e r s i f y i ng t he C i t y s e nt e r t ai nm e nt i ndus t r y s o t hat i t c an m or e a c c ur at e l y r e f l e c t our di v e r s e popul at i on. W e al s o c r e at e d t he M ade i n N Y P r oduc t i on A s s i s t ant T r ai ni ng P r ogr am i n par t ne r s hi p w i t h t he nonpr of i t or gani z at i on B r ook l y n W or k f or c e I nnov at i ons T hi s pr ogr am pr ov i de s f r e e f ul l t i m e m ont h l ong t r ai ni ng pr ogr am f or N e w Y or k e r s ot he r w i s e l ac k i ng oppor t uni t i e s i n t he i ndus t r y and t r ai ns t he m i n how t o w or k on s e t i n pr oduc t i on of f i c e s as w e l l as i nt e r ac t i ng w i t h c om m uni t y on l oc at i on Si nc e 2006 ne ar l y 200 M ade i n N Y P A s hav e gr aduat e d f r om t he p r ogr am N i ne t y e i ght pe r c e nt of t he

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64 gr aduat e s ar e pe opl e o f c ol or M ade i n N Y P A s hav e w or k e d on I A m L e ge nd E nc hant e d Se x and t he C i t y 30 R oc k Sat ur da y N i ght L i v e G os s i p G i r l L aw & O r de r and 500 ot he r pr oduc t i ons T he M ade i n N Y Sc hol ar s hi p F und i s aw ar de d t o s t ude nt s at t e ndi ng N e w Y or k C i t y C ol l e ge of T e c hnol ogy w ho ar e pur s ui ng a bac c al aur e at e de gr e e i n t he E nt e r t ai nm e nt T e c hnol ogy f i e l d. T he f und w as m ade pos s i bl e by a ge ne r ous donat i on f r om T e am s t e r s L oc al 817 t o t he M ay or s F und t o A dv anc e N e w Y o r k C i t y i n s uppor t of t he M ay or s O f f i c e of F i l m T he at r e and B r oadc as t i ng. T he E nt e r t ai nm e nt T e c hnol ogy pr ogr am pr om ot e s t he m as t e r y of t he t e c hnol ogy t hat dr i v e s f i l m t e l e v i s i on, and t he at r e pe r f or m anc e pr odu c t i ons F or t he pas t f e w y e ar s t he M ay or s O f f i c e of F i l m T he at r e and B r oadc as t i n g has pr e s e nt e d a s e r i e s of f r e e c ar e e r pane l s i n an e f f or t t o e duc at e s t ude nt s and i n t e r e s t e d N e w Y or k e r s about t he e m pl oy m e nt oppor t uni t i e s av ai l abl e i n t he C i t y A t t he pane l s N e w Y or k C i t y bas e d i ndus t r y pr of e s s i onal s di s c u s s t he i r e x pe r i e nc e s w or k i ng on l oc al f i l m and T V R e c e nt pane l s i nc l ude a be hi nd t he s c e ne s l ook at Se s am e St r e e t and U gl y B e t t y Y ou c an f i nd out f ur t he r de t ai l s he r e : ht t p: / / ny c gov / ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / pane l s / pane l s s ht m l

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65 R e f e r e n c e L i s t B os t on C ons ul t i ng G r oup. B ui l di ng N e w Y or k s V i s ual M e di a I ndus t r y f or t he D i g i t al A ge : F i ndi ngs and R e c om m e ndat i ons 2000. W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009. ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / pd f / bc gs t udy. pdf B our di e u, P i e r r e a nd J ohns on, R a nda l 1993. T he F i e l d of C ul t ur a l P r oduc t i on. N e w Y or k, N Y : C ol um bi a U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C l ut t e r M c C l a i n. 2009 I m a gi na r y A ppa r a t us : F i l m P r oduc t i on a nd U r ba n P l a nni ng i n N e w Y or k C i t y, 1966 1975 G r e y R oom 35: 58 89 C oe N e i l a nd J ohns J e nni f e r 2004 B e yond P r o duc t i on C us t e r s : T ow a r ds a C r i t i c a l P ol i t i c a l E c onom y of N e t w or ks i n t he F i l m a nd T e l e vi s i on I ndus t r i e s P p. 188 204 i n C ul t ur al I ndus t r i e s and t he P r oduc t i on of C ul t ur e e di t e d by D om i ni c P ow e r a nd A l l e n J S c ot t N e w Y o r k, N Y : R out l e d ge D r oe s c h, A udr e y. 2002 H ol l yw ood N or t h: T he I m pa c t of C os t s a nd D e m a r c a t i on R ul e s on t he R una w a y F i l m I ndus t r y" U nde r g r a dua t e T h e s i s D e pa r t m e nt of E c onom i c s U ni ve r s i t y of S t a nf or d S t a n f or d, C A G a r on, J on. 1996. S t a r W a r s : F i l m P e r m i t t i ng P r i or R e s t r a i nt & G ove r nm e nt 's R ol e i n t he E nt e r t a i nm e nt I ndus t r y L oy ol a of L os A nge l e s E nt e r t ai nm e nt L aw J our nal

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66 17: ( 1) 96 I hl e M a r ybe t h I nt e r vi e w 2010 M a uw s M i c ha e l 2000. B ut i s i t A r t ? : D e c i s i on M a ki ng a nd D i s c ur s i ve R e s our c e s i n t he F i e l d of C ul t ur a l P r oduc t i on. J our nal of A ppl i e d B e hav i or al Sc i e nc e 36: ( 229) M i ha l i s K a va r a t z i s 2005. B r a ndi ng T he C i t y T hr ough C ul t ur e a nd E nt e r t a i nm e nt R e t r i e ve d f r om ( ht t p: / / 74. 125 155. 132 / s c hol a r ? q= c a c he : H T uD z T U 3a Q 0J : s c hol a r googl e c om / & h l = e n& a s _s dt = 40000) P ow e r D om i n i c a nd S c ot t J A l l e n. 2004. T he I m por t a nc e of P l a c e a nd P r oduc t i on i n t he C ul t ur a l E c onom y: A P r e l ude T o C ul t u r a l I ndu s t r i e s a nd t he P r oduc t i on of C ul t ur e P p. 3 16 i n C ul t ur al I ndus t r i e s and t he P r oduc t i on of C ul t ur e e di t e d by D om i ni c P ow e r a nd A l l e n J S c ot t N e w Y or k N Y : R out l e dge S a l m on, S c ot t 2000 I m a gi ne e r i ng t he I nne r C i t y? L a nds c a pe of P l e a s ur e a nd t he C om m odi f i c a t i on of C ul t ur a l S pe c t a c l e i n t he P os t M ode r n C i t y" P p. 106 120 i n P opul ar C ul t ur e : P r oduc t i on and C ons um pt i on ( B l ac k w e l l R e ade r s i n Soc i ol ogy e di t e d by L e e H a r i ngt on a nd D e ni s e B i e l by. O xf o r d, E ng l a nd: W i l e y B l a c kw e l l S a nde r s J a m e s 2003. C e l l ul oi d Sk y l i ne : N e w Y or k and t he M ov i e s N e w Y or k N Y :

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67 K nopf S a nde r s J a m e s 2006. Sc e ne s f r om t he C i t y : F i l m m ak i ng i n N e w Y or k M i l a n, I T : R i z z ol i S c ot t A l l e n 2005 O n H ol l y w ood: T he P l ac e T he I ndus t r y P r i nc e t on, N J P r i nc e t on U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s S ha r m a R a ke s h. 2009 R a ke s h S ha r m a : he l l o a ga i n! F r om R a ke s h S ha r m a 's bl og. W E B S I T E a c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009 ht t p: / / r a ke s hi nd i a bl ogs p ot c om / 2009/ 08/ he l l o a ga i n. ht m l S he l don, K e vi n. 2006. I nde pe nde nt P os s i bi l i t i e s : T he I nde pe nde nt T r a i ni ng G r a nt I ni t i a t i ve a nd t he B or de r s of C ul t ur a l I nf l ue nc e A nam e s a: A n I n t e r di s c i pl i nar y J our nal 4( 2) : 67 77 S w i dl e r A nn 1986 C ul t ur e a nd S oc i a l A c t i on A m e r i c an Soc i ol ogi c al R e v i e w 51( 3 ) : 273 286. W a l l e r A G r e gor y 1996 T he N e w Z e a l a nd f i l m c om m i s s i on: pr om ot i ng a n i ndus t r y f or gi ng a na t i ona l i de nt i t y" H i s t or i c al J our nal of F i l m R adi o and T e l e v i s i on 16: 2. R e t r i e ve d S e pt e m be r 11, 2009 ( ht t p: / / w w w i n f or m a w or l d c om / s m pp/ c ont e nt ~ db= a l l ? c ont e nt = 10. 1080/ 01439689 600260251 )

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68 L ogo R e l e as e A gr e e m e nt 2009 W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009. ht t p: / / w w w nyc go v/ ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / r e s our c e s / f or m s _gui de l i ne s s ht m l M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng P ubl i c A w a r e ne s s S t udy. N d W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009. ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / dow nl oa ds / pdf / A M i ny_s ur ve y. pdf 2007 09 24 M i N Y G ui de B ook 2009 W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009 ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / r e s our c e s / f or m s _gui de l i ne s s ht m l M i N Y Se r v i c e s G ui de 2009. W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009 ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / r e s our c e s / f or m s _gui de l i ne s s ht m l N Y C P e r m i t R ul e s 2009 W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009. ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / ne w s / 070108_m of t b_a dopt s _r u l e s s ht m l N Y C L U S ue s N Y P D F or H a r a s s i ng a nd D e t a i ni n g P hot ogr a phe r | N e w Y o r k C i vi l L i be r t i e s U ni on ( N Y C L U ) A m e r i c a n C i vi l L i be r t i e s U ni on of N e w Y or k S t a t e 2006. W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d M a r c h 2010 ht t p: / / w w w nyc l u. or g/ node / 465 N Y C gov M a yor s O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng. N d. W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009 ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / ht m l / hom e / r e e l j obs s ht m l

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69 N Y C gov M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng 'M a de i n N Y M e r c ha ndi s e N d. W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009. ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / m i n_m e r c ha nd i s e / m i n_m e r c ha ndi s e s ht m l N Y C gov M a yor 's O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng P e r m i t s N d. W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009 ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / pe r m i t s / pr e p r o duc t i on. s ht m l N Y C gov M a yor s O f f i c e o f F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng P r oduc t i on I nc e nt i ve s N d. W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009 ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / i nc e nt i ve s / t a x_c r e di t _ove r vi e w s ht m l N Y C gov M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng P r oduc t i on N e w s 2007 W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d M a r c h 2010. ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / ne w s / 110107_m of t b_i s s ue s _ne w s ht m l N Y C gov M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng P r oduc t i on N e w s 2007. W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009 ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / ne w s / m a r ke t i n g_e xa m pl e s s ht m l N Y C gov M a yor 's O f f i c e of F i l m T he a t r e & B r oa dc a s t i ng R e s our c e s H om e N d.

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70 W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d O c t obe r 2009 ht t p: / / w w w nyc gov/ ht m l / f i l m / h t m l / r e s our c e s / r e s our c e s _hom e s ht m l W i t h D e a dl i ne L oom i ng, P r opos e d N Y C F i l m P e r m i t R ul e s R i l e I ndi e s i ndi e W i r e 2007. W E B S I T E A c c e s s e d M a r c h 2010 ht t p: / / w w w i ndi e w i r e c om / a r t i c l e / w i t h_de a di ne _l o o m i ng_pr opos e d_nyc _f i l m _pe r m i t _r ul e s _r i l e _i ndi e s / U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of C om m e r c e ( M i ne t a N or m a n) T he L i br a r y of C ongr e s s 2001. I m pa c t of t he M i gr a t i on of U S F i l m a nd T e l e vi s i on P r oduc t i on. W a s hi ngt on, D C : G ove r nm e nt P r i nt i ng O f f i c e ( ht t p: / / w w w i t a doc gov/ m e di a / C om m e r c e N e w s / f i l m m i gr a t i on12001. ht m ) U ni t e d S t a t e s D i s t r i c t C our t S out he r n D i s t r i c t o f N e w Y or k. N e w Y or k C i vi l L i be r t i e s U ni on F ounda t i on. 2006. C om pl ai nt N e w Y or k N Y

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71 F i l m s C i t e d A l l e n, W oody. 1977. A nni e H al l U ni t e d A r t i s t s ( d i s t r i but i on) M a nn, D e l be r t 1966 M i s t e r B uddw i ng M e t r o G o l dw yn M a ye r P a kul a A l l a n J 1971. K l ut e G us P r oduc t i ons S c hl e s i nge r J ohn. 1969 M i dni ght C ow boy U ni t e d A r t i s t s ( di s t r i but i on ) S c or s e s e M a r t i n. 1976 T ax i D r i v e r C ol um bi a P i c t ur e s ( di s t r i but i on)


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