ERROR LOADING HTML FROM SOURCE (http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu//design/skins/UFDC/html/header_item.html)

Subversion, Refraction and the Do-It-Yourself Proust

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004172/00001

Material Information

Title: Subversion, Refraction and the Do-It-Yourself Proust Autobiographical Intertexts of LA RECHERCHE
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Sharko, Madison
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Proust, Marcel
Makine, Andrei
Barthes, Roland
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis is interested in the way in which experimental autobiographies and semi-autobiographical fictions establish an intertextual relationship with Marcel Proust's � La Recherche du temps perdu. The primary texts of this thesis each invoke a different Proust to achieve varied goals. Roland Barthes refracts Proust, Proustian iconography, and Proustian style in his post-structural hybrid text Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes, which shifts between the generic tropes of memoir, photo-essay, literary criticism and theory. Russian-born writer Andre� Makine�s semi-autobiographical novel Le Testament fran�ais establishes a complex intertextual dialogue with La Recherche in order to interrogate its cultural specificity, exchanging Proust�s emphasis on time for an inquiry into language. A number of very recent pop-cultural works, including Phyllis Rose's memoir A Year of Reading Proust, Alain de Botton's parodic self-help book How Proust Can Change Your Life, and Andr� Aciman�s collection of personal and literary essays in The Proust Project, to engage Proust and the reading of La Recherche. Through an inquiry into these texts, this thesis traces the evolution of Proust as a literary figure and La Recherche in changing historical moments and literary contexts.
Statement of Responsibility: by Madison Sharko
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Van Tuyl, Jocelyn

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 S5
System ID: NCFE004172:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004172/00001

Material Information

Title: Subversion, Refraction and the Do-It-Yourself Proust Autobiographical Intertexts of LA RECHERCHE
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Sharko, Madison
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Proust, Marcel
Makine, Andrei
Barthes, Roland
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis is interested in the way in which experimental autobiographies and semi-autobiographical fictions establish an intertextual relationship with Marcel Proust's � La Recherche du temps perdu. The primary texts of this thesis each invoke a different Proust to achieve varied goals. Roland Barthes refracts Proust, Proustian iconography, and Proustian style in his post-structural hybrid text Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes, which shifts between the generic tropes of memoir, photo-essay, literary criticism and theory. Russian-born writer Andre� Makine�s semi-autobiographical novel Le Testament fran�ais establishes a complex intertextual dialogue with La Recherche in order to interrogate its cultural specificity, exchanging Proust�s emphasis on time for an inquiry into language. A number of very recent pop-cultural works, including Phyllis Rose's memoir A Year of Reading Proust, Alain de Botton's parodic self-help book How Proust Can Change Your Life, and Andr� Aciman�s collection of personal and literary essays in The Proust Project, to engage Proust and the reading of La Recherche. Through an inquiry into these texts, this thesis traces the evolution of Proust as a literary figure and La Recherche in changing historical moments and literary contexts.
Statement of Responsibility: by Madison Sharko
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Van Tuyl, Jocelyn

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 S5
System ID: NCFE004172:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

SUBVERSION, REFRACTION AND TH E DO-IT-YOURSELF PROUST: AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL INTERTEXTS OF LA RECHERCHE BY MADISON SHARKO A THESIS Submitted to the Division of the Humanities New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Dr. Jocelyn Van Tuyl Sarasota, Florida April, 2009

PAGE 2

Sharko ii Acknowledgments I am indebted to Dr. Andrea Dimino, Dr. Am y Reid, and, particul arly, Dr. Jocelyn Van Tuyl, whose guidance and dedicated encouragement was so crucial to the project and to my own mental well-being; her generosi ty is especially appreciated. I'm thankful for my New College friends, above all the friends who tolerated Proust jokes, endless references to Proust, and even r ead drafts: Justin Boner, Chloe Davis, Kateland Harte, Scott Ross, Elisabeth Salinas, and Anita Tambay. Many thanks to my roommates for enduring my nocturnal state with grace and co mpassion: Jennifer Dyer, Ashley Johnson, and Katherine Maxwell. And, finally, I could not have done this project without the en dless reserves of encouragement and perspective my parents, Mary and John Sharko, provided; I am thankful for my lifelong friends, Ashley and Conor Sharko. I would like to extend many thanks to my Grandma, Ann Sharko, and my aunt, Nancy Sharko, for their thousand kindnesses, care packages, and the gift of the New Yorker Finally, I am grateful to my grandfather Nicholas Sharko and my grandmother Mary Duncan Barbee, who are sorely missed.

PAGE 3

Sharko iii Table of Contents Acknowledgments.............................................................................................................. i i Table of Contents.............................................................................................................. ..iii Abstract....................................................................................................................... ........iv Introduction..........................................................................................................................2 Chapter One A New Proust for a New Age: Roland Barthes subverts La Recherche ............................8 Chapter Two Proust and the Particular: Towards the Transn ational, Transcultural and Translingual in Makines Le Testament franais ......................................................................................29 Conclusion Pop culture, popular fictions and the my th of the Do-It-Yourself Proust..........................48 Works Cited.......................................................................................................................59

PAGE 4

Abstract This thesis is interested in the way in which experimental autobiographies and semi-autobiographical fictions establish an intertextual relationship w ith Marcel Prousts La Recherche du temps perdu. The primary texts of this th esis each invoke a different Proust to achieve varied goals. Roland Ba rthes refracts Proust, Proustian iconography, and Proustian style in his post-structural hybrid text Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes, which shifts between the gene ric tropes of memoir, photoessay, literary criticism and theory. Russian-born writer Andre Makines semi-autobiographical novel Le Testament franais establishes a complex intertextual dialogue with La Recherche in order to interrogate its cultural specificity, exchanging Prousts emphasis on time for an inquiry into language. A number of very recent pop-cultural works, including Phyllis Roses memoir A Year of Reading Proust Alain de Bottons parodic self-help book How Proust Can Change Your Life and Andr Acimans collection of personal and literary essays in The Proust Project to engage Proust and the reading of La Recherche. Through an inquiry into these texts, this thesis traces the evolution of Proust as a literary figure and La Recherche in changing historical mome nts and literary contexts.

PAGE 5

Introduction For a long time, people have been writi ng about their reading experiences of Proust. Before La Recherche was even partially published in 1913, the novel had garnered some major critical assessments: from something along the lines of Im falling asleep quicker than it takes for Proust to desc ribe his narrator falli ng asleep (paraphrased from the notes of an early editor, Jacques Madeleine, who rejected the manuscript) to complete dismissals of the work based on Prousts social reputation for being a bit of a dilettante (Andr Gide), these were not the mo st favorable of reviews. Despite these rejections, La Recherche soon found a devoted readersh ip (including an Austrian countess who offered Proust her hand in marri age), which, if anything, has only grown in size and fervor over the course of the intervening century since its publication (the Marcel Proust Support Group based in San Fran cisco stages a yearly wake in his honor, complete with an impersonator lying in the coffin). It is hard to th ink of an analogue to the cult of the Proustian personality th at has developedfew canonical texts have inspired as much scholarly a ttention as pleasure-reading fa n clubs. This thesis will consider two texts that refract La Recherche to very different ends, and will then survey a number of recent works that de scribe the reading experience of Proust. The varied terrain of the Proustian uvre has engaged and, as we will discover, inspired a readership that is eager to articulate a profound textual and personal kinship. The diversity of form among the primary mate rials of this thesis is a testimony to the generic multiplicity of Prous t. Conventional wisdom suggests that all Great Novels necessarily problematize th e tropes of the genre. La Recherche does not fit comfortably

PAGE 6

Sharko 2 within these generic conventions, perhaps beca use it is in the process of exploding these limits. The novel is a complex amalgamation of pastiche, theory, autobiography, fiction, and perhaps is even, if Alain de Botton is to be believed, a precursor to the modern selfhelp genre. At times, La Recherche intentionally obscures the di stinction between the world of the protagonist pseudo-Marcel, the narra tor, and the author Marcel Proust, which suggests that the two ostensibly distinct realms of fiction and reality could actually be one and the same; questions of autobiography are necessarily raised. In order to understand Prousts radical undermining of autobiography, and the more conventional memoirs that we will consider later, let us briefly situate it within a small history of the genre. Coined in 1797, autobiography has existed, in a variet y of guises, long before its name. Saint Augustines Confessions and Saint Theresas Life of Herself are, perhaps, the earliest examples of the auto biography; Rousseaus Confessions established the modern form of the genre in the Western literary tradition. The critical community once regarded the autobiography as having only historical value because it was considered a personal history without inherently literary qualities. In the twentiet h century, the epistemological and ontological crises that characterize modernism and postmodernism brought about an interrogation of the form and its privileged historical truth va lue. Without this critical truth value to discriminate between the two, autobiography became nearly indistinguishable from fiction. Marcel Prousts La Recherche du temps perdu is an early example of a work that features an explicitly indistinct demarcation between the fictional and autobiographical. Writing in the middle of the century, Robert Elbaz described this

PAGE 7

Sharko 3 blurring of generic boundaries by maintaining th at autobiography is fiction and fiction is autobiography: both are narrativ e arrangements of reality (6). In response to these emerging inquests into the nature of aut obiography, Phillipe Lejeune attempted to establish a taxonomy of genre that would dist inguish between autobiography and fiction. Unlike the novel or other fictional forms, Leje une contends that ther e is an understanding between author and reader, called le pacte autobiographique which whether stated or implied, certifies the autobiography as a work of truth made in good faith. In this configuration of the genre of autobiography, there are no degrees of truth, rather, the work is either all or nothi ng, or in other words, a work of fiction or a work of autobiography (25). A bevy of critics, am ong them Roland Barthes, first denied the possibility of autobiography, and then went on to test its generi c boundaries by producing their own experimental autobiographies. Attempting to account for the rich traditi on of autobiography and its experimental descendants, Janet Varner Gunn argues that the autobiographical imperative is one of the most fundamental drives of human nature. In addition to this basic impulse, some of the projects examined in this thesis seem motivated to situate Proust within their story of self. Others, namely Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes and Le Testament franais work along similar lines as La Recherche itself; these texts challe nge the distinction between the fictive and the real in their use of the autobiographical. Considering how much La Recherche is referenced by th ese more conventional autobiographiesconfigured as the ultimate story of the subjectit seems curious that upon closer inspection, selfhood in La Recherche is constantly undermined by the ambiguous nature of the monsieur qui dit j e who, as Proust acknowledges, nest pas

PAGE 8

Sharko 4 toujours moi (my italics; as quoted in Postmodern Proust 38). This disconnect between the hero and the narrator comes about because they are located in different temporal situations which result in often disjointed perspectives. Sinc e the narrator is so distanced from the hero, any sense of self is fractured by relentless analyses in which the subject increasingly becomes its own object ( Postmodern 38). Far from looking to Proust as a model for a conventional representation of selfhood, the shifting terrain of the novel prohibits any such simplification. In this confusing world of the uncertain subject, Proust clearly encourages a reading experience which will lead to greater knowledge of the self, inviting readers to become les propres lecteurs deux-mme s (2390). Proust advocates the subjective experience of literature from the very first page of the novel. The narrator describes falling asleep after reading, when: il me se mblait que jtais moi-mme ce dont parlait louvrage : une glise, un quatuor, la rivalit de Franois I et de Charles Quint. Cette croyance survivait pendant quelques secondes mon rveil ; elle ne choquait pas ma raison (13). Here, Proust anticipates the kind of reading that his readers will undertake of his own novel: this kind of fusion between the reality of the reader and the fictive world of the text is the goal of the ki nd of reading experience he advocates in La Recherche. The value of this good faith reading of literature is reinforced by a number of examples in the text. Franoise illustra tes the necessity of this through negative examplealthough she weeps over the misfortunes of unknown people in the newspapers, she responds heartlessly to the trag edies of her actual life, unable to drum up any sympathy for a pregnant kitchen maid ( 72). Proust is explicitly encouraging the

PAGE 9

Sharko 5 reader to use fictive space for self-reflection, and having undergone this fusion, to incorporate the knowledge gained from this experience into daily life. As much as Proust valorizes the subjec tive reading experien ce, he strongly censures literary idolatry, the superficial worship of art in place of emphasizing its meaning or how it affects us. Although Proust sets up quite explicitly the inquiry into the complicated terrain of the self and the proper way to read (and to read this novel), his representation of the idolatry trap is not one that his ow n work necessarily escapes. Swann and pseudo-Marcel are frequently caught in acts of idolatry, which reduce the esthetic experience [of art] to pass ive, narcissistic gratification (Postmodern 160); an example of this could include when Swann s desire for Odette is heightened by the association of her face with Botticellis Zipporrah in Scenes from the Life of Moses (Proust 184). Proust himself might not have escaped the idolatry trap, for as Margaret Gray points out, Prousts worship of Ruski n, complete with a pilgrimage to Amiens, can be seen as being as idolatrous ( Postmodern 167). If the experience of literature can lead the reader astray into idolatry, the other end of the spectrum is the possibi lity of redemption through read ing experiences and artistic production. This experience of literature is al ready anticipated by the very structure of the novel: as a Knstlerroman, a type of novel in which the protagonist comes of age and develops artistic sensibilities, La Recherche is already enacting the kind of redemption that it describes by its end. L iterary production is explicitly figured as le seul moyen de retrouver le Temps perdu, that is, the only means to satisfac torily resolve the quest of the protagonist (Proust 2287). Artistic vocati on is only possible, however, after years of

PAGE 10

Sharko 6 wasted timeonly having immersed himself in the art of others can the protagonist create for himself. From this understanding of how Proust is representing selfhood and reading, this thesis will consider autobiographical and semi-autobiographi cal texts that create an intertextual dialogue with La Recherche and, in so doing, refract these Proustian concerns. Roland Barthess post-stru ctural experimental autobiography Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes subverts Proust, Proustian iconogra phy, and Proustian tenets in order to forward a new kind of text for a new hist orical and literary mo ment. In his semiautobiographical Knstlerroman Le Testament franais Andre Makine develops a complex intertextual relationship with La Recherche which ultimately centralizes the aesthetics of the transnational, translingual, and transcultural over the cultural ly specific. Whereas Barthes is working in contrast to Proust and where Maki ne is working along similar lines as Proust, the contemporary te xts examined in this thesis work through Proust. Phyllis Roses memoir A Year of Reading Proust Alain de Bottons How Proust Can Change Your Life and Andr Acimans Proust Project, a compilation of personal and literary essays about La Recherche, invoke Proust in varied ways and to various ends. Each work imagines and represents Proust in ways that reflect its cultural moment. In a survey of these materials, the thesis will explore the possibilities of Proustian space for new fictions and for self-expression.

PAGE 11

Sharko 7 Chapter One A New Proust for a New Age: Roland Barthes subverts La Recherche Intersections between the autobiographi cal and the Proustian are provocative in Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes For Barthes, Marcel Prousts La Recherche du temps perdu represents the ultimate confirmation of faith in literary representation; in Proust, literature itself is the source of salv ation from the erasure of time and from death. The other hallmark of La Recherche is its nostalgic thrust wh ich drives its inquiry into the past. If there is nostalgia in this Proustian in tertext, it is perhap s found in its remorse over the loss of faith in literature. For Roland Barthes, the act of writing is just another kind of death and not a resurrection at all. Proust wrote on the cusp of ra dical social, personal, and l iterary change. At work on La Recherche before, throughout, and after Worl d War One, Proust was documenting a world that he knew had disappeared in th e tumult of war, in the progression of technology and with the passing of time. Pers onally, Proust was driven to finally begin this project following the death of his mother and other important figur es in his life. In considering the literary mome nt from which Proust wrote La Recherche we can see this is still a time when faith in selfhood and in artistic representati on was secure and the epistemological value of this subjective truth was certain. With the ontological crisis of the modernism movement, this faith in litera ture was already attenuating. When seen through this perspective of anxiety over social, personal a nd literary change, La Recherche becomes synonymous with the quest to restore historical and personal pasts

PAGE 12

Sharko 8 through literary representation. This double nos talgia motivates the Proustian project of resurrection through arti stic representation. The literary and historical transformati ons that had their genesis in Prousts lifetime had come to fruition by Roland Barthe ss. Before Barthes published his first work of criticism, World War II had pa ssed, modernism had begun to feed into postmodernism and the Belle poque described by Proust was distant memory. Written at the end of his career, Roland Barthes represents a strangely self-referential turn from the trajectory of Barthess collected cri ticism. At this time, as Johnnie Gratton documents, the cultural vogue of 1970s France he ralded in le retour du sujet following waning interest in post-structuralism. Although it was a popular moment for autobiography, Roland Barthes is an unlikel y autobiographer given his critical work questioning the subject. Perhaps just as cu rious as Barthess a utobiography is its deeply intertextual relationship with La Recherche. This identification of Barthes with Proust is remarkable given that, ostensibl y, their public personas could not be more dissimilar, nor their literary and hi storical eras further apart. Barthes found a peculiar sort of affinity in reading Proust in spite of these obvious differences. For Barthes, le plaisir de li re Proustou plutt de reliretient donc, le sacr et le respect en moins, dune consultation biblique ( Le Plaisir 241). Barthes goes so far as to reveal in a candid sp eech given in the year before writing Roland Barthes that he considered Proust to be the Virgil to his (modest) Dante (Longtemps 320). He elaborates upon this relationship: Proust cest ce qui me vient, ce nest pas ce que jappelle; ce nest pas une autorit; simplement un souve nir circulaire. Et cest bien cela linter-texte: limpossibilit de vivre hors du texte infini ( Le Plaisir 59). The

PAGE 13

Sharko 9 inescapability of the Proustian is evident in Roland Barthes, a text that channels La Recherche in diverse ways. If we consider Barthess relationship with Proust, it is evident that Barthes explicitly sees his kinship as one with Marc el, the private individual, not with Proust, the literary figure: [d]e plus en plus nous nous prenons aimer non Proust (nom civil dun auteur fich dans les Histoires de la littrature), mais Marcel, tre singulier (Longtemps 319). To bo rrow Barthess own phrasing from S/Z Barthes identifies with Marcel-the-scripteur over Proust-the-Auteur; the death of the Author means for Barthes that the authority once associated with the Author of a book has passed to the reader of the text. This suggests a unique kind of appropriation in referencing Proust which seems compatible w ith Barthess privileging of the reader over the Author. Barthess insistence upon marcellisme over Proustisme informs his interpretation of La Recherche (Longtemps 319). These observations on le gnie of Prousts work involve an admiration for the novelty of his project, which Barthes calls an uvre-vie: [o]n le voit, ce qui passe dans l uvre, cest bien la vie de lauteur, mais une vie dsoriente. [... La] Recherche tait constitue par ce qu[e George Painter] a appel une biographie symbolique ou encore une histoire symbolique de la vie de Proust (319). As we will see in Roland Barthes, Barthes attempts to formulate a post-structural sym bolic biography that draws heavily from a Proustian vocabulary and iconography, a sign system he has invested in on a personal and literary level. The literary figure Pr oust is a specter laden with symbolic value

PAGE 14

Sharko 10 in the text; Proust is shorthand for nostalgia and the kind of litera ry production Barthes is responding to in th e project as a whole. More generally, Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes is a playfully self-aware work. This is evidenced in the ambiguity of its very title: the book is a part of the crivains de toujours series of the press ditions du Seuil, where titles conform to a standard of X par lui-mmewhich begs th e question if the par Roland Barthes is simply a designation of the authors name part of the title or, perhaps, more provocatively, both. Its inventive structure employs a number of mediums competing for authority. The first section of the work is told through photographs and captions. The second part is made up of fragments of text that are ostensibly or ganized alphabetically, with numerous deviations. A possible third section could be his brief biographie included at the end. While this section mimics tropes of autobiography, where events are listed in chronological order, th is is not a conventional list by any standards: Barthess studies, sicknesses and employment s are tracked, but as an aside at the end of the list, he notes in parentheses: [e]t le reste? Les re ncontres, les amitis, les amours [etc...] dans le texte mais non dans luvre ( RB 185). Here, he is already referencing the deeply personal nature of his work; the personal ha unts even the most de tached criticism, underscoring a thematic concern of this particular work, suggesting at once the inescapability and impossibility of the self. In these three s ections, the real ities of the image and of two objective orders (the al phabet or language sign system, and time) are consistently undermined by Barthes. In La Recherche, the subjective is the ultimate source of truth. This is demonstrable in its appropriation of the scient ific voice, a perspective that has much to

PAGE 15

Sharko 11 tell us about the commonalities between human sexuality and botany, but is a voice within a chorus. As Allen Thiher has pointed out about La Recherche, Proust attempts to reconcile science and art while reserving cer tain differences. Proust acknowledges the rule of science in the world of objectivity and draws upon science to describe that world. But in doing so Proust grants literature its own ob ject of knowledge: the subjective world of the individual subject (Thihe r 101). Proust values scientif ic, objective insights, but not over the subjective. Drawing from Poincars popular theories of contingency, which illustrate the variability of outcomes depending upon which geometrical proofs the mathematician chooses to implement, Prous t demonstrates that objective knowledge actually comes from the subjective. The expression of the human experience and the epistemological knowledge derived from such an expression, for Proust, is incompatible with any form except with art, and, especially, with literature. Barthess work resists the objective, as we have already seen in his rupture with chronological and alphabetical order. But the su bjective, so critical to Prousts project, is also undermined in Barthess work. This is because part of Barthess agenda is questioning the existence of that subject in subjectivity. For Barthes, selfhood is a fiction perpetuated by language: [i]l se sent solidaire de tout crit dont le principe est que le sujet nest quun effet de langage ( RB 82). Barthes confirms the emptiness of selfhood, arguing that [d]ans le champ du sujet, il n y a pas de rfrent (60). This literal abnegation makes the project of an autobi ography even more curious. As Barthes observes, crire sur soi peut paratre une ide prtentieuse; mais cest aussi une ide simple: simple comme une ide de suicide (6 2). This perhaps could be taken as an attempt at humor, as a comic invocation of th e death of the author. But this statement

PAGE 16

Sharko 12 also underlines the impossibility of repres entation, and the idea that perpetuating the fiction of selfhood in another layer of distan cing, in this case in writing, is an impossible means of arriving at an authentic self. This is the complete antithesis to the Proustian quest: instead of valori zing literature with the ability to resurrect a past self, Barthes is positing language and representation as a certain means of its annihilation. Further complicating the problem of the subject and adding to the diversity of mediums employed, the narrative is deep ly polyphonic. The opening epigraph of Roland Barthes reveals one underlying goal, a nd voice, of the work. The reader is invited to treat the work that follows as a novel: [t]out ceci doit tre considr comme dit par un personnage de roman ( RB 1). The final image marks the other concern of the work: a figure of the human body features a caption that declares an other motivation, crire le corps (183). These bookends to the text be lie two perspectives th at are at work, and potentially in conflict, throughout. They at once emphasize the detachment of the authorsubject (the il) and the aut obiographical self-referent (the je of the work). This unstable narrative identity is maintained throughout the entirety of the work. The intermittence of perspective recalls Proustian narration. Barthess invitation for us to consider the narrator as a character, and to ignore the autobiographical nature of the material, is very much in a Proustian ve in. Proust once advised Andr Gide to adopt his never say I principle which stipulates that any taboo (here, homosexuality) can be addressed in writing so long as it is never attributable to the central voice of the story, to avoid conflation with the aut hor (Gide 691). This comes across clearly in Prousts own work: throughout La Recherche, despite moments of almost overwhelmingly selfreflexive content, our narrator is pseudo-Marcel and not Marcel Pr oust. Barthes actually

PAGE 17

Sharko 13 does use the first person to address his own se xuality, but the entire project chronicles a crisis of selfhood; Barthes never says I in good faith because of his doubt in selfhood. As might be expected of an autobiography that denies the existence of a self to write about, Roland Barthes consciously resists generic la bels. Germaine Bre and Andr Malraux, among a number of other literary critics, called the work an antiautobiography because of its clear break fr om generic convention. Other critics argued that the work defies all gene ric categorization: [ l]east of all a novel and only by the most generous definitions an au tobiography, Barthess book (whi ch perhaps has Pascals Penses as its major precursor), really belongs to no genre (Jay 20). Perhaps, but Philippe Lejeune and Paul John Eakin, lead ing critics in the study of autobiography, consider the work to be containable within the boundaries of the genre ( Fiction 26). In their configuration of the au tobiographical, it is Barthes s work that corresponds to established generic convention, whereas La Recherche challenges such classification; an autobiography, in their formulation, is a work that encourages the re ader to identify the protagonist with th e author and thereby enters into a pacte autobiographique which certifies the reality of the narrative. Lejeune, in refere nce to Barthes, asserts: [ Roland Barthes] seems to be the anti-Pact par excellence and proposes a dizzying game of lucidity around all the presuppos itions of autobiographical di scourse (131). Barthess denial of the referent, wher e the self does not make language, but language makes the self, is at odds with Lejeunes and Eakins conception of selfhood ( RB 82). As Lejeune remarks, I believe that when I say I, it is I who am speaking: I believe in the Holy Ghost of the first person (131). Eakin argue s that Barthes cannot convincingly destroy the concept of selfhood in his work. Furthermore, he cont ends that autobiography does

PAGE 18

Sharko 14 not strictly adhere to some rule that it must represent a completely authentic self: autobiography is nothing if not a referential art; it is also and always a fiction ( Touching 31). Although Barthes pushes the bou ndaries of autobiography, calling them into question with his flagra nt breech of its conventions, his denial of the referent provokes Lejeune and Eakin to take issue with his work, but does not preclude its status as an autobiography. Barthes begins his inquiry into selfhood in the first section of the work, which is composed of an assembly of photographic imag es designed to illustrate the prhistoire du corps. Barthes represents the self un mediated by language in his invocation of Lacans mirror stage, during which the pre-lingu istic infant develops its sense of selfhood independent from the mother. In one image towards the middle of the section: a caption reads, [l]e stade de miroir: tu es cela, and it accompanies a photograph of his mother and himself as an infant direc tly engaging the viewers gaze ( RB 25). The framing of the photograph, which imposes an oval shape over th e image, suggests the text itself is the mirror and the viewer, or reader, is the reflectio n of the infant. In this, Barthes is already pointing to the role of the reader as givi ng coherence to a false selfhood perpetuated by language. This is not an au thentic selfhood because it is not a true reflection, but, rather, it is a false construction of the self made through text. The photographic section is not entire ly pre-verbal; accompanying all the photographs are captions. As evidence of its further rem oval from a meaning system made only through the image, there is an impor tant Proustian undercurrent to this section that creates another layer of signification. These photographs range in explicitness from directly naming Proust in th e caption to borrowing from a Proustian iconography to a

PAGE 19

Sharko 15 Proustian echo or allusions to La Recherche To better understand how Barthes is referencing Proust, let us first consid er Prousts treatment of photography in La Recherche. In this work, Proust does not put photography on a comparable scale with other artistic forms. Painting, music, and literature occupy privile ged positions in the text, whereas in Susan Sontags words, [w]henever Proust mentions photographs, he does so disparagingly: as a synonym for a shallow, too exclusively visual, merely voluntary relation to the past, whose yield is insignificant (164). Photography, however devalued it is among the other artistic forms in La Recherche, does jar the viewer from the dead ening routine of habit. Although photography can be a conduit to involuntary me mory, it is a troubled form; this perhaps accounts for its lesser status in the text. Wher e film can give the semblance of life in the rapid fire of images, photography represents the death of the image. The photograph captures its subjects in a stillness impossible in reality. Photography can show us, as is the case with pseudo-Marcels dead grandmot her, that which no longer exists. These evocative, disturbing powers are not lost to Barthess own consideration of the form: Barthess [...] thoughts on photography, memory, human affection, and death seem to echo Prousts deliberations on photography in La Recherche du temps perdu (Zurbrugg 226). Although Nicholas Zurbr ugg draws this conclusion from a study of Barthess La Chambre claire it is in Roland Barthes that Barthes provides a self-aware testimony to the similarity of his and Prous ts concern with the false reality of the photographic image. In Roland Barthes, we can identify a number of photographs directly referencing Proust. Calling these present-absent images Beryl Schlossman compares one such

PAGE 20

Sharko 16 photograph, the books opening image of Ba rthess deceased mother, with the photograph of Prousts grandmother ( RB 2). Diane Knight has also pointed towards the Proustian undertones in two photographs, in La demande damour and Le grand jardin (7, 12). The first photograph is of Barthes, who appears to have just entered his early adolescence, in the arms of his mother as though he were an infant. This image recalls the ambiguity of pseudo-Marcels age during le drame du coucher when the protagonist longs for his mothers good-night kiss, and, throughout La Recherche pseudo-Marcels prolonged attach ment to his mother. Knight here importantly identifies the shared theme of the family romance in Barthes and Proust, arguing that each author posits the materno-sexual in his respect ive work. The second photograph Knight examines is of young Barthes in the garden. Ba rthes notes in the capti on that the site of his first sexual experiments occurred here, where a litter of kittens were buried. This curious connection made in the caption highl ights, for Knight, the manner in which Barthes links homosexuality and the maternal According to Knight, the dead kittens represent the failure of the he terosexual, and, because the mother cat is significantly still alive, the permanence of the mother as an available receptacle for sexual desire. This photograph and its accompanying caption tie together the materno-sexual and the homosexual. Knight neglects to consider this photogra ph in context, and develop its potential relationship with the photogra ph on the facing page. The refe rence materials included in the back of the book indicate that th e photograph is of his grandmother ( RB 190). In the photograph, Barthess grandmother is seated in the same garden as featured in the previous image, with a mother cat in her arms (13). This pairing reinforces the

PAGE 21

Sharko 17 omnipresence of maternal in the midst of Ba rthess sexual experimentation. Since these photographs are on facing pages, and are images that depict the same place, there is a rapport between the images which further subs tantiates Knights observations linking the maternal and the (homo)sexual. In La Recherche, there are similar conflations of the sexual and the maternal. Pseudo-Marcels relationship with Albertine is explicitly framed as a return to his childhood and his maternal affections. In th e revival of pseudo-Ma rcels demand for the good-night kiss during her captivit y, Albertine replaces his mother in this altered configuration (Proust 1981). Albertine and hi s grandmother are also critically linked in La Recherche as both share the status as almost-m others or stand-in-mothers. Some examples of their conflation include: the episode at Versailles with the small aircraft that summons for pseudo-Marcel an involuntary memory of his grandmother while in the presence of Albertine (1908); that both his grandmother a nd Albertine lie in repose for his extended contemplationthe grandmother in death, and Albertine in sleepthat both lie dormant before escaping from him foreve r, and that both are described by pseudoMarcels using similar terms (1013-4, 1654-5); finally, both their photographs inspire pseudo-Marcels greatest defenses of photography. Pseudo-Marcel even frames his description of his sexual feelings towards Albertine in familial terms: ce sentiment presque familial, ce noyau moral qui devait toujours subsister au milieu de mon amour pour Albertine (735-6). Ba rthes recovers the maternal-sexual vocabulary of La Recherche, as made evident in pseu do-Marcels consistent c onflation of the maternal with the sexual, in Roland Barthes.

PAGE 22

Sharko 18 Barthes goes on to trace his roman fam ilial in the photographs that follow, replete with overtly Proustian elements ( RB 6). His two grandfathers warrant brief consideration, but for each he acknowledges their minimal role in his life. As Barthes repeats in each caption, neither grandfathe r ne tenait aucun discours (14, 15). Grandfathers in Proust undergo a similar eras ure, whereas language itself is associated with these maternal figures, [d]ans ces deux grand-familles, le discours tait aux femmes (16). This recalls how Proust also relates the literary with the maternal. Pseudo-Marcel figuratively assimilates himself in to this order as illustrated by his desire to mother his own book: lide de mon uvre tait dans ma tte, toujours la mme, en perptuel devenir. Mais elle aussi mtai t devenue importune. Elle tait pour moi comme un fils dont la mre mourante doit enco re simposer la fatigue de soccuper sans cesse (Proust 2396). Both Barthes and Proust associate the act of literary production with that of motherly reproduction. In Barthe s, his portraits of hi s grandmothers require knowledge of Proust, as he notes that their activities and personalities find their suite dans Proust ( RB 16). Barthes is bringing our attention here to the self-aware linkage of the maternal and the literary through Proust. These are not, I would argue, the only possible examples of Barthes invoking Proustian iconography in the photographic porti on of his work. The photograph of the church steeples of Bayonne in Roland Barthes recalls the church in Combray, described as une glise rsumant la ville, la reprsenta nt, parlant delle et pour elle aux lointains, et, quand on approchait, tenant serrs autour de sa haute mante sombre [...] comme une pastoure ses brebis (Proust 47). In the photograph, the steeples re present the central point of the city ( RB 4). The grey vagueness of the church in the distance contrasts with

PAGE 23

Sharko 19 the stark black and white of the other buildi ngs, recalling the otherness of the church in Combray to the rest of the town. The photograph also demands comparison with the other prominent steeples in La Recherche, those of the Marti nville, Vieuxvicq, and Combray churches (Proust 148-151). Pseudo-Ma rcel passes these stee ples at a distance in the doctors carriage and is inspired to write for the first time. This early piece of writing chronicles the difficulty of capturing an image as it exists in reality. His changing perspective, as he moves in respect to space and time, recasts the configurations of the three steeples. To properly re present them, he must show th em from every angle, from every changing perspective in time. Th e caption adjoining Barthess photograph reinforces this association with Proust by its meditation on the ways Barthes can represent his life. An additional example of Barthes making explicit reference to Proust in the captions occurs when Proust is invoked to describe Bayonne: Bayonne, Bayonne, ville parfaite, [...] ville enferme, ville romanesque: Proust ( RB 8). Bayonne, for Barthes, exists in a double state: as both a lieu de mmoire of his own past and as a place existing in a literary dimension through Proust. Proust is literary shorthand that makes meaning, not through the image or through the text, bu t by conjuring a readers knowledge, or memory, of Proust; an earlier avatar of this phenomenon coul d be the description of his grandmothers as coming from Proust. It is not difficult to find an antecedent for this in Proust, whose experience of place often involv es a greater, imagin ed connotative power with its real or remembered counterpart, and whose experience of art is often through its similarities to the people he knows (and vice versa): in La Prisonnire for example,

PAGE 24

Sharko 20 pseudo-Marcel associates his troubled relati onship with Albertine with a tragedy of Racines, even calling her A lbertine-Esther (Proust 1676). In Roland Barthes, photographs are more troub ling than nostalgia ( RB 5). Through the image, which Barthes likens to the id, he can manifest an alternative perspective on his life th an the text: [l]imaginaire dimag es sera donc arrt lentre dans la vie productive (qui fut pour moi la so rtie du sanatorium). Un autre imaginaire savancera alors: celui de lcriture ( RB 6). This transition from the imaginary into the symbolic anticipates Barthess transition from the photography portion of the work into the text fragments. The final image of the section is Barthess medical chart from his stay in a sanatorium; for both Barthes and ps eudo-Marcel, reentry in to the world from a sanatorium, a place that signifies the c onfinement of the body by virtue of its institutionalization and disease, marks the beginning of their creative productivity. Moving from the first section of images, we arrive at the second part of the work entitled Vers lcriture ( RB 45-182). This section is made up of text fragments that are sometimes organized alphabetically by title. Barthes, in the course of these text fragments, reflects upon the nature and the purposes of this structure: crire par fragments : les fragments sont alors des pier res sur le pourtour du cer cle : je mtale en rond : tout mon petit univers en miettes ; au centre, quoi? (96). The cercle of fragments resembles Barthess souvenir circul aire of Proust, reinforcing the parallel relationship for Barthes. This citation at once reveals the st ructure of the work, but also its central concern: the apprehension, and pe rhaps the impossibility, of representation. Barthes does not believe that th e referent does indeed exist; the circle might, after all, be empty.

PAGE 25

Sharko 21 Barthes goes on to elaborate upon the st ructure of the work, positing several rationales for its curious order. The first is a tentation [...d]adopter la suite des lettres pour enchaner des fragments ( RB 150). The ostensible temp tation to order fragments according to the arbitrary system of the ar bitrary sign is a contrivance of Barthess playful style. The thematic subjects of these fragments are often deceptively random because frequently these fragments are conn ected with neighboring ones by virtue of their topic. As though anticipating this obs ervation, Barthes cautions the reader against putting too much stock into this explanation: [p]eut-tre, par endroi ts, certains fragments ont lair de se suivre par affinit; mais lim portant, cest que ces pet its rseaux ne soient pas raccords (151). This qualified acknowledgement of underlying commonalities marks both the self-reflexive and mi schievous nature of the work. Moreover, these theorizing citations are selected from fragments that defy alphabetical order, suggesting th ey may have a privileged st atus within the text. The narrator complicates the question of the fragment further by hi nting at a possible original rationale for the order that has since become lost in the proverbial wake of the arbitrary sign system. In the third person, Barthes notes that [i]l se souvient peu prs de lordre dans lequel il a crit ces fragments; mais d o venait cet ordre? [...] Il ne sen souvient plus. Lordre alphabtique efface tout, refoule toute origine ( RB 151). One possible explanation for the order of the fragments is re vealed in this comparaison of le fragment est comme lide musicale dun cycle (Bonne Chanson, Dichterliebe): chaque pice se suffit, et cependant elle nest jamais que lin terstice de ses voisine s (98). Barthes is possibly alluding to La Recherche in employing these specif ic musical references. La Recherche is often considered as being structur ed musically, typically conceived of as

PAGE 26

Sharko 22 borrowing the form of Wagners Ring cycle. Some critics have suggested Schumann, the composer of the cycle Dicterliebe, as a possi ble model, and still others consider Faur, the composer of the Bonne Chanson, to be another musical model for La Recherche (Marty). If Barthes is pointing to Proust by the order of his textual fragments, he is certainly referencing Proust expl icitly in their content. Within one such textual fragment, Barthes contrasts his experien ce with pseudo-Marcels in La Recherche : Chez Proust, trois sens sur cinq condui sent le souvenir. Mais pour moi, mise part la voix, moins sonore au fond que, par son grain, parfume, le souvenir, le dsir, la mort le retour impossible, ne sont pas de ce ct-l; mon corps ne marche pas dans lhistoire de la madeleine, de pavs et des serviettes de Balbec. De ce qui ne reviendra plus, cest lodeur qui me revient. ( RB 139) Of course, Barthes cannot live as pseudo-Marcel and cannot write like Proust. Barthes cannot fully perform the Proustian quest, but can only do so minima lly. He describes these limitations figuratively by representing hi s experience as involvi ng only one of the Proustian, involuntary memory-inducing stimuli, odeur. Barthes further complicates this in adding afterwards in parantheses, a nd in the first person, [j]e me rappelle avec folie les odeurs ; cest que je vieillis. A lthough Barthes initially references the inability to fully perform the Proustian quest as a sort of paradise lost, he then couches this regret as a result of the indulgence of age and not as a serious, completely intellectual impulse. The notes in parentheses that follow this cita tion suggest that it is a Dicte intended to be spoken. A dicte is an educational exercise where a text is read aloud by the teacher

PAGE 27

Sharko 23 and then written by the students. This citati on is not, then, an excl usively written text, but is ostensibly supposed to be spoken and re-inscribed. The power dynamic at work in this pedagogical tool is la ter considered by Barthes in another textual fragment: [a]ffinit carnavalesque du fragment et de la dicte: la dicte re viendra parfois ici, comme figure oblige de lcriture sociale, lambeau de la rdaction scolaire (49). Barthes underlines this element of author ity in the dicte by alluding to Mikhail Bahktins concept of the carnivalesque, where power structures are reversed temporarily in order to better reinforce that very hierarchy. In a se nse, the act of dicte involves a transfer of power: after all, the speaking voice declaiming th e words is not the scripter writing them; but because a dicte is ultimately evaluated by how much it corresponds to the original text, the power shift resembles the kind of temporary exchange described by Bakhtin. The social dimension of dicte involves the reproducti on of an original text that demonstrates an internalized know ledge of linguistic rules. The dicte is a means to reinforce and ensure the proper reproduction of social order. Repetition, which dicte essentially is, becam e a thematic thread in this work the moment Barthes entitled it Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes This is acknowledged and considered further: La copie nigma tique, celle qui intresse, cest la copie dcroche: tout en mme temps, elle reproduit et retourne ( RB 53). Barthes identifies repetition and reproduction as underlying influe nces in the work: M ille exemples de cette rverbration, toujours fascinante [... co mme un] crivain qui lit des livres (53-4). This kind of repetition is precise ly at work in Barthes, only at an even more complicated level: not simply a writer reading books, he is a writer writin g books about reading books. Barthess appropriati on of the Proustian works along these lines; the text is a

PAGE 28

Sharko 24 copy of La Recherche in the sense that its themes and goals are picked up, but profoundly distorted. Barthes describes this specific form of intertextual reproduction, noting that his work is [p]lutt une chambr e dchos: il reproduit mal les penses, il suit les mots; il rend visite, cest--dire ho mmage, aux vocabulaires, il invoque les notions, il les rpte sous un nom ( RB 78). Barthes here is articulating a fo rm of intertextuality that works as a sign system unto itself, an acknowledgement of the kind of literary shorthand involving Proust that we have seen in the photograph of Bayonne, for example. Barthes is in many ways responding to concerns that find their antecedent in Proust. This is not the same as attempting to rcrire Proust or the fiction of his own self, but rather more akin to creating a copie dcroche of each. As Barthes clarifies in the first person, [j]e ne cherch e pas mettre mon expression prsente au service de ma vrit antrieure [...], je ne cherche pas me restaurer (comme on dit dun monument). Je ne dis pas: Je vais me dcrire. Mais : Jcris un texte, et je lappelle R.B ( RB 60). This differentiation from Proust is critical for Barthes: it is necessary both because Barthes is writing from an hi storical and literary moment very different from that of Proust, but also because it establishes a differe nt goal than Prousts. The loss of faith in representation is a reflection of the period, as is the fact th at Barthes cannot write about himself without instead interrogati ng the language that is writing him In the fragment Mathsis, a term that Barthes coined to designate the specific kind of epistemological value derived from literature, the narrator observes in the third person: [l]isant des textes classiques ( de lAne dor Proust), il smer veille toujours de la somme de savoir amasse et ve ntile par luvre littraire ( RB 122). Of this champ

PAGE 29

Sharko 25 de savoir, he argues, le champ littraire nest pas infini : dune part, la littrature ne peut excder le savoir de son poque ; et dautre part, elle ne peut tout dire (122). This would seem to have interesting implications for Barthess treatment of Proust after all, La Recherche is for Barthes le texte infini ( Le Plaisir 59). In identifying Prousts limitations, Barthes is insinuating that they ar e rooted in Prousts belonging to another era. This association recurs in these text ual fragments and in these moves we can see Barthes differentiating his project from Prousts. Contrasting the modern time in which he is writing with his literary predecessors, the narrator explains in the third person, [ c]e livre nest pas un livre de confessions ; non pas quil soit insincre, mais parce que nous avons aujourdhui un savoir diffrent dhier (RB 124). This consciousness of the differe nce of the modern age, and thus a difference in epistemological significance, return s over and over in the textual fragments: il nest plus possible de rcrire ni Balzac, ni Zola, ni Proust, ni mme les mauvais romans socialistes [... L]e monde, comme objet littraire, chappe; le savoir dserte la littr ature qui ne peut plus tre ni Mimsis, ni Mathsis mais seulement Smiosis aventure de limpossible langagier, en un mot : Texte [... L]a littrature reprsente un monde fini, le texte figure l'infini du langage: sans savoir, sa ns raison, sans intelligence. (123) This loss of faith in the epistemological value of literature, mathsis, and its ability to represent the world, mimsis, coincides with a reduction of literature to text, smiosis Barthes, while praising La Recherche locates it within its literary and historical moment here, noting that Pr oust projette son criture dans un temps utopique. Parce quelle est tout fait indivi duelle et parfaitement intert extuelle, autobiographique et

PAGE 30

Sharko 26 raliste, la Recherche dbouche sans doute sur linvention dun nouveau sujet, celui que constituerait lart moderne dans son ensemble ( Prtexte 373). For Barthes, literature has become an antiquated form for both artistic representation and epistemological insight. With the death of the author, the reader was born; in announcing the death of literature, Barthes heralds in the age of Theory: Toute Valeur est rcrite () en Thorie (RB 181). Ultimately, as Paul Jay observe s of Barthes, [t]he story told by a narrative in a self-reflexive work is always in some sense the story of a Proustian paradise, a paradise that the writer has already lost and, for Barthes, such a story ends by affirming that loss (179). To go even furthe r, I would suggest that the paradise has been discarded, not lost, thrown over for Theory. Four years before the publication of Roland Barthes Barthes mused on the sort of work he wanted to undertake: Si jtais crivain, et mort, comme jai merais que ma vie se rduist, par les soins dun biographe amical et dsinvolte, quelques dtails, quelques gouts, quelques inflexions, disons des biographmes, dont la distinction et la mobilit pourraient v oyager hors de tout destin et venir toucher, la faon des atomes picurie ns, quelque corps futur, promis la mme dispersion; une vie troue en somme, comme Proust a pu crire la sienne dans son uvre. ( SFL 14) Although this is perhaps the impetus of Barthe ss project, intending to write his life in a distinctly Proustian manner, it is not the end product. The relationship that Barthes establishes with Proust in Roland Barthes is perhaps best encapsulated by a photograph of the infant Barthes taking his first steps and its accompanying caption. The caption

PAGE 31

Sharko 27 reads: [c]ontemporains? Je commenais marc her, Proust vivait encore, et terminait La Recherche ( RB 27 ). Roland Barthes is caught up in the wake of Proust, following perhaps in his footsteps, but also in his shadow. Barthes is working from a number of similar angles, but writing from a markedly different literar y and historical moment of which he is deeply aware. Roland Barthes is partial performance of La Recherche in that it works along similar lines, but because Barthess work manifests a lack of faith in artistic production and language that for Proust is so critical, Roland Barthes is also a radically different text that undermines the very central goals and concerns of its predecessor. Barthes anticipates this relations hip here: [c]e qui d porte le travail crit ique loin de toute illusion de rsultat vers la simple producti on d'une criture supplmentaire, dont le texte tuteur (le roman proustien), si nous crivions notre recherche, ne serait que le pr-texte ( Ide 35). For Barthes, the descendents of Pr oust are not made in his image, but rather La Recherche has taken up a new form for a new literary moment, in Theory and not the novel.

PAGE 32

Sharko 28 Chapter Two Proust and the Particular: Towards th e Transnational, Transcultural and Translingual in Makines Le Testament franais Barthes is not the first to equate Proust and France, but he provides perhaps the most eloquent articulation of th is association; a more simp listic version lumps Proust in with a list of other supposed signifiers of French culture, including le camembert, Jean Renoir et le papier cigarette Job ( Postmodern 153). La Recherche is, for Barthes, lintertexte le plus vast e dune culture nationale porte par une langue, la langue franaise. Rien chez Proust dun travail transnational, il y aurait seulement dans la Recherche une multiplicit didiomes et leur traverse dans une langue nationale, maternelle, travaille au plus profond du sujet ( Prtexte 371). Barthes clearly did not anticipate the resonan ce of Proust among transnational audi ences, even the universality of La Recherche a phenomenon that can be found in a number of works that are situated outside of French culture and not necessarily in the French language, but that are still from a distinctly Proustian reference point (Craig 95; Chikhi 119) Andre Makines novel Le Testament franais is a Proustian intertext that is at once within a French context, by virtue of its engage ment with French culture and its elevated French literary language, and is also significantly transnationa l, being set in the S oviet Union, far from the French promised land known by the central protagonist largel y through its body of literature, and more specifi cally, known through Proust. This chapter is interested in how Makine establishes an intertextual relationship between Le Testament franais and La Recherche Through an inquiry into the nature of the intertext, we can see that Makine is putti ng forward the aesthetics of the transnational,

PAGE 33

Sharko 29 transcultural and translingual at the expense of the culturally speci fic. Narratives of identity, French and Russian, are in tension in this novel, which chronicles the development of a young boy in Russia after th e Second World War. Steeped in this culture of lack and deprivation, he comes to construct, from anecdotes of his grandmother Charlottes life in France, a fantasy world that renders his real ity palatable. His imaginary reconstruction of France is sustained by his exploration of its literary tradition, an influence in his development as a writer. This is a strategy employed to distance himself from the hardships of his daily life, but his difference also separates him from his cohort and troubles an otherwise coherent sense of cultural identity. Because the protagonist must perpetually navigate the two competing wo rlds of the Russian reality and the French fantasy that eclipses it, he also mu st create an identity that is intelligible in either world. As the protagonist grows, he must constantly resituate himself with respect to this conflict of culture a nd nationhood and resist the pull of a singular cultural identity. In the final section of the novel, the pr otagonist has come to maturity in exile from Russia in Paris. He learns, in his grandm others last letter, that he is the product of rape and was adopted by Charlottes daughter upon the death of his biological mother in a work camp; the myth of his own French birt hright is undone. There are, then, at least two different French testaments at work in this novel: Charlottes le tter, or testament, which exposes a final Russian reality and French fantasy, motivating the narrator to write a work that could contain the two at once; La Recherche, which prefigures this work as a kind of Old Testament to the New. As we w ill discover, this self-aware intertext draws heavily from Proustian structures, sign system s, and leitmotifs, but transforms them, bringing them into a new key. Through his extensive use of the mise en abyme to contain

PAGE 34

Sharko 30 the Proustian in his work and in the narrato rs attempts to live in his own (literary) reconstruction of France in Russia, Makine re veals the fictions that inform our idea of selfhood and our everyday life. Where Prous ts faith in art is wrapped up in selfpreservation from the annihilation of time, a nd in the ability of the artists subjective world to develop the readers understanding of his own, Makines quest is similarly personal and purposeful. The re solution to write in a univers al language to refaire le monde reinforces Makines conception of lite rary production as a way to heighten our sensitivity, often dulled by cultural and linguist ic specificity (324). Literature, then, is not just the means to arrive at self-knowledge, but also at a better understanding of how that self can be unbound from its national, linguistic identity. If Proust maintains that in art we see our own world multiply, Makine su ggests that through art, we can try to understand the various worlds which we already inhabit. The state of being entre-deuxlangues is also a state of being pe rpetually entre-deux-mondes. To clarify what constitutes the Proustian nature of the work, we will begin with an overview of the generic and structural co mmonalities between Ma kines and Prousts work; as David Ellison warns, the adjective P roustian [...] is usually far too general to be useful (208-9). The intertextual re lationship between the two works primarily betrays itself in the similarity of th eir genre: both are experimental, semiautobiographical novels that sk irt the edges of conventional generic categorization. In a nod to both the semi-autobiographical nature of La Recherche and its intertextual relationship with this work, Makine imagines for his narrator a lineage that is at once Proustian and self-referential: the protagonists great-grandm other is named Albertine (Makines actual great-grandmother is named Albertine, as is an important character in

PAGE 35

Sharko 31 La Recherche) and his grandmother is Charlotte (M akines actual grandmothers name, and also a character in Prousts Les Plaisirs et les jours ). There is also a Proustian evasiveness in naming the narrator of the novel, who considers himself a chercheur like pseudo-Marcel (Makine 106). Th e narrator is named only indi rectly and belatedly, once by the pet name Aliocha and another time by his youthful nickname Frantsouz meaning Frenchman in Russian (262, 246). Makine further obscures the distinction between the self-referential and the fictive in this co mment where the narrator notes that [m]es premiers livres y [dans une librarie] taient, serrs, men donner un vertige mgalomane, entre ceux de Lermontov et de Nabokov (313); such an occurrence would be possible if the narrator shar ed the authors last name. This is a knowing allusion to pseudo-Marcels famous line in La Recherche : Albertine disait: Mon ou Mon chri, suivis lun ou lautre de mon nom de baptme, ce qui, en donnant au narrateur le mme prnom qu lauteur de ce livre, et fait: Mon Marcel, Mon chri Marcel (Proust 1658). This critical commonality makes Le Testament franais another exception to the Lejeune-Eakin distinction be tween autobiography and fiction; although at times the identity of the author and the narrator seem to be the same, this is not a consistent or even fully acknowledged similarity. It is an almost-autobiography in the tradition of Proust that purposefully obscures the identity of the speaking I. Each novel also shares the basic traj ectory of the Knstlerroman, with each ending as the protagonist reso lves to write (perhaps) the work weve just finished reading. Another structural similarity invol ves the narrations attempt to situate itself outside of time, through the employment of the imparfait verb tense. A final structural similarity could include the use of Pr oustian signposts (Minogue 17). These are

PAGE 36

Sharko 32 markers that hint, long before coming to full fruition, at the resolution of pseudoMarcels despair. An example of this is found in the Martinville steeples episode which suggests from the very beginning part of th e novel pseudo-Marcels future engagement with representing, in art, the movement of time and space (Proust 148-150). Makine adopts this device, peppering the work with moments that foreshadow the eventual resolve of the protagon ist; the indite language of barta velles et ortolans, which the narrator discovers to escape from the Soviet reality of long food lines into a fantasy of the strange foreign feasts of France, prefigures th e final, indicible langua ge that as an adult will allow him to share his experiences of navigating between these worlds (Makine 69, 343). In addition to these structural commonalities, Makines work is perhaps reminiscent of Prousts because they opera te along similarly didactic lines: in La Recherche, the reader, like the narrator, become s the apprentice to a number of sign systems (Deleuze 3). To make sense of our world, our romantic interests, and ourselves, pseudo-Marcel and the reader must decipher the clues, hence the prolonged inquiry into his lover Albertines true se xual orientation. Makine borrows from this strategy and creates a new sign system for his novel. This is an adoption of the system itself, but altered to suit the new context: we excha nge Prousts madeleine, signifying a lost paradise, for an Atlantis, a mythic fantasy. Ultimately, the in tertextual dialogue permeates Makines novel so completely that Proust, the author himself, surfaces in several anecdotes of Parisian life (44, 45, 122, 123, 153). Having established the Proustian framework of Le Testament franais, we can consider other aspects of the novel that furthe r this intertextual di alogue. Makines novel is preoccupied with nostalgia and memory, wh ich manifests the influence of one of his

PAGE 37

Sharko 33 two matres-penseurs Proust. According to Makine, [a]ll of Bunin, a ll of Proust: that is nostalgia, but nostalgia is a term that is so overused that is has become an equivalent for passisme an attachment to the past. On the contrary nostalgia refuses the past, it says that the past is always present (Knorr 2). In Le Testament franais nostalgia often reveals itself through a phenomenon akin to the Proustian experience of involuntary memory, where the sudden appearance of th e ever-present past is facilitated by encounters with material things: je commen ai pressentir lincr oyable destine des choses. Elles voyageaient, accumulaient sous leur surface banale les poques de notre vie, reliant des instants si loigns (Makin e 104). This externalization of remembrance through metonymic association recalls how involuntary memory is experienced in Proust: [i]l en est ainsi de notre pass [...]. Il es t cach hors de son domaine et de sa porte, en quelque objet matriel [...]. Cet objet, il d pend du hasard que nous le rencontrions avant de mourir, ou que nous ne le rencontrions pas (Proust 44). These descriptions of how involuntary memory functions are strikingly similar, with a te lling difference. Makines narrator refers to destine where pseudo-Marc el marvels at the coincidence that brings about the experience of involuntary memory. This dis tinction exposes a faith in the coherence of the world, on the part of the youthful narrator in Le Testament franais and already points to the dnouement of the nove l when the narrators disillusionment with the fictions of life that encourage a false co herence (destiny) leads him to the conclusion that life is instead a inter minable brouillon, chaotic a nd untidy (Makine 215). Although much in Makines treatment of memory suggests a Proustian template, the character of the nostalgia itself is of a slightly differe nt sort than in La Recherche The central nostalgic thrust of Proust involves the narrator s lost childhood paradise of

PAGE 38

Sharko 34 Combray. Pseudo-Marcel bites the sodden madeleine and tastes the very essence of his self and his past; the lost time that rises from his tea cup compels him to create, to write. The narrator of Le Testament franais has never lived the French past that is so present for him; instead, it has always been an imagin ed past. Makines narrator, from the very beginning of the work, is involved in a resu scitation of lost ti me, working with his grandmother to libr[er] quelque nouveau frag ment de cet univers en glouti par le temps (Makine 31). In a comparison betw een the scene of the madeleine in La Recherche and the narrators first experience of Atlantis in Le Testament franais we can see that both scenes suddenly transition to the present tens e to describe the emotional responses of the narrator, contributing to the se nse that these are moments that are outside of time. Also, the two scenes are situated similarly within their respective novels; each serves as an early signpost of future revelations. These e xperiences critically fo reshadow the eventual resolution, on the part of the protagonists, to write. Finally, the shared imagery of the past rising from the watery depths of oblivion reifies this association. In Makine, the memories of his grandm others France provide the foundation of his nostalgia, but there is also a sense of nostalgia involving the lost paradise of childhood summers on the steppe. This mise en abyme of nostalgia, nostalgia for nostalgia, attests to the degree of self-awareness under which Makine operates in his Proustian references. The treatment of nostalgia also distinguishes this project from that of La Recherche Instead of connecting isolated mo ments in his own history, he hoards these scraps of the French past: [m]oi, moi se ul sur cette terre, je prserve le dernier fil qui les unit au monde des vivants! Ma mmoire est leur ultime refuge leur dernier sjour avant loubli dfinitif, total (Makine 184). This kind of imaginative reconstruction

PAGE 39

Sharko 35 serves as a means to escape the realities of the conditions of Soviet Russia. This is a familiar strategy among his family members, because for them [r]aconter la vie de Charlotte tait pour eux aussi une faon de ne pas taler leurs propr es plaies et leurs souffrances (144). Although escapism may be th e initial impetus, th is kind of vicarious story-telling will soon develop into the resolve to write both the fantasy and the reality of their daily lives, the French and the Russia n, and especially that state of being entredeux-langues (279). There is a Russian reality for which ther e is no possible nostalgic veneer, whose brutality, at times, requires this distance of escapism for survival. When the protagonist is still a child, this is ecli psed by the busy world of his im agination and his interest in France; he later realizes that this escape is a kind of defiance in its elf: laisser vivre son me dans cette fabuleuse Atlantide, ntait pas innocent. Oui, ctait bel et bien un dfi, une provocation aux yeux de ceux qui vivaie nt au prsent (Makine 154). As the protagonist matures, he gradually becomes aw are of the many cruelties that are a daily fact in Soviet Russia, la vie relle, avec sa force arrogante, vint dfier mes chimres (201). With the arrival of sexual maturit y, these blind spots in the novel become fullblown preoccupations for the narrator. Much like his introducti on to France through the anecdotes of his French grandmother, the prot agonist becomes aware of the secret horrors of Soviet Russia through the st ories of his aunt, who embodies Russia itself (200). The protagonist identifies with the notorious rapist Bria, a gove rnment official who surveys the streets for women who are never seen again. With this affiliation, he decides that he is, after all, Russian; to be Russian is [c]onnatre la rsignation dun troupeau humain viol par un satrape. Et lhorreur de se sentir participer ce crime. Et le dsir enrag de

PAGE 40

Sharko 36 rejouer toutes ces histoires passespour en ex tirper la souffrance, linjustice, la mort (211). These frustrated, conflic ting desires return to the marg ins of the narration, as they become overshadowed in the passing of a few pages by the revelations of the protagonists final summer w ith Charlotte in Saranza. While these Russian realities mostly haunt the text, the nostalgia of the narrator for his reconstructed France is a central thrust of the novel. Aliochas imagined France is a complete Other to Russian daily life, givi ng the narrator access to a deuxime regard sur les choses (Makine 66). The young narrato r marvels at this means to move from habit into a perspective that renders the everyday unfamiliar; this valorization of life unbound from routine has its roots in Proust. The narrator here describes the experience of listening to a French poem about Russia: Pour la premire fois de ma vie, je regardais mon pays de lextrieur, de loin, comme si je ne lui appartenais plus. [...] Je voyais la Russie en franais! Jtais ailleurs. En dehor s de ma vie russe. Et ce dchirement tait si aigu et en mme temps si exaltant que je dus fermer les yeux. Jeus peur de ne plus pouvoir revenir moi, de rester dans ce soir parisien. En plissant les paupires, jaspirai profondment. Le vent chaud de la steppe nocturne se rpandait de nouveau en moi. (57-8) The language of this experience evokes La Recherche, where disrupting the truncated perception of the habitual makes the experience of the everyday suddenly unfamiliar; pseudo-Marcel, after all, takes tea with the madeleine co ntre son habitude and not as a routine (Proust 44). The narrator experiences ag ain this sort of defamiliarization, this inbetween cultural plurality, when his knowledge of bartavelles et ortolans, delicacies

PAGE 41

Sharko 37 served at a French banquet that he hears about in an anecdote, makes him feel his difference from the other Russians in the food line: Nous ne nous sentions pas suprieurs aux gens qui se pressaient dans la file. Nous tions comme eux [...] Et pourtant, en entendant les mots magiques, appris au banquet de Cherbourg, je me sentis diffrent deux. Non pas cause de mon rudition (je ne savais pas, lpoque, quoi ressemblaient ses fameux bartavelles et ortolans). Tout simplement, linstant qui tait en moi avec se s lumires brumeuses et ses odeurs marines avait rendu relatif tout ce qui nous entourait. (Makine 68-9) This transformation of the everyday brings to mind the magic lantern of Proust, a childhood toy whose light moves across the bedr oom wall making the familiar space into a strange new setting with shadowy figures that represent the story of Golo (Proust 18). As a result of this experience, a signpost of his future resolution to share this cultural hybridity is established: Au lie u de la colre envers ces ge ns qui mavaient repouss, je ressentais maintenant une tonnante compassion leur gard [...]. Une terrible envie de le dire tout le monde me saisit. Mais le dire comment? Il me fallait inventer une langue indite dont je ne connaissais pour linstant que les deux premiers vocable s: bartavelles et ortolans (Makine 69). An underlying goal of La Recherche is perhaps its desire to heighten the readers sensibilities and pe rception of the everyday; Roger Shattuck describes this aspect of the novel as reading for my life, suggesting the urgency with which the reader is encouraged to experien ce the world outside of habit (231). Makine reveals here his affinity with Proust, as they both identify a similar objective of artistic production. By the expression of difference, readers will arri ve at a new perspective on

PAGE 42

Sharko 38 the mundane and will thereby expand their capacity to understand and feel. Makine is surely working from this Proustian tenet: Gr ce lart, au lieu de voir un seul monde, le ntre, nous le voyons se multiplier (Proust 2285). If in Proust we discover new worlds in reading, in Makine, we experience the simultaneity of living in all these worlds at once. The narrators first attempts to move be tween these two perspectives, French and Russian, begin in translation. Recounting a Victor Hugo short story for his friend Pachka, the narrator discovers for the first time the value of artistic production: je compris que ce ntaient pas les anecdotes quil fallait rechercher dans mes lectures. [...] Ctait quelque chose de bien plus profond et en mme temps, de bien plus spontan: une pntrante harmonie du visible qui, une fois rvle par le pote, devenait ternelle (Makine 165). This promise of eterna l redemption through artistic production will reoccur at the close of the novel, but for now it is a signpos t of this final conclusion. The protagonist betrays this early resolution in his later acts of translati on, where he caters to the tastes of his classmates and transforms the Hugo short story to correspond with specific sensibilities of his audience, there by bleeding it of its cultural specificity to France: [j]e remarquai assez rapidement quil fallait assaisonner mes rcits franais selon le got de mes interlocuteurs. [...] Fier de mon talent de confr encier, je variais les genres, adaptais les niveaux de style, triais les mots (224). This is represented in the novel as an act of bad faith because the protagonists desire to gain popularity overwhelms what he considers his responsibility as an artist to defamiliarize the everyday; his translation reinforces the worldvi ew of his audience, it does not undercut it. This is portrayed as an obstacle to th e honest expression and experience of art.

PAGE 43

Sharko 39 This resistance to becoming absorbed entire ly by either Russian or French culture becomes burdensome over time as the narrator matures. He comes to resent living on the borders of cultural identity, be ing constantly identified with the Other by his cohort, who call him Frantsouz, meaning Frenchman (Makine 246). This graft, his greffe franaise, has scind[] la r alit en deux (249). After a series of humiliations, the protagonist decides to effacer pour toujour s [s]on illusion franaise and become like everyone else, wholly absorbed into a single, familiar identity (212). He resolves to remove himself from any feelings of allegi ance to Charlottes France qui avait fait de [lui] un trange mutant, incapable de vivre dans le monde rel (248). But, as he discovers during his final summer with his gran dmother, it is this Otherness that makes reality more than simply bearable, but even b eautiful; the narrators cu ltural fluidity bares the harmony obscured by the everyday (263). In some ways, the Proustian analogue for the imagined world that Makines narrator creates of France is found in pseudoMarcels fascination with Venice, a place that signifies Otherness in La Recherche. Venice importantly compresses a number of leitmotifs in the work, being at once occidental and oriental, part of the natural world and the urban, both foreign and familiar. It is a promised land for pseudo-Marcel that, like so much in Proust, remains a fantasy deferred for a large part of the novel; he visits Venice at the end of the second-to-last volume, Albertine disparue ushering in the revelations of Le Temps retrouv. The impetus for this desire for Venice has its roots in the fecundity of young pseudo-Marcels imaginati on: Ils exaltrent lide que je me faisais de certains lieux de la terre, en les faisant plus particuliers, par consquent plus rels (Proust 312).

PAGE 44

Sharko 40 This creative process involves th e association of the very sounds of the citys name with its signifiers: Je neus besoin pour les faire renatre que de prononcer ces noms: Balbec, Venise, Florence, dans lintrieur desquels avait fini par saccumuler le dsir que mavaient inspir les lieux quils dsignaient. [... M]me par un jour de tempte le nom de Florence ou de Venise me donnait le dsir du soleil, des lys, du palais des Doges et de Sainte-Marie-des-Fleurs. (312) The fetishization of these cu ltural signifiers, and the e uphonic quality of their sound, resembles how Makines narrator sustains his nostalgia for his grandmothers France with his literary reconstruction of France. During the narrators exile from Russia, hi s days in Paris recall pseudo-Marcels in Venice, where the experiences of his ow n past becomes contained and heightened within the other: [ Venise, je] gotais des impressions analogues ce lles que javais si souvent ressenties autrefois Combray, mais transposes selon un mode entirement diffrent et plus riche (Prous t 2074). Makines na rrator learns that his construction of France, his literary vision of Paris as en couraged by his grandmothers memories, is a false one. As he observes, [c]est en Fr ance que je faillis oublier dfinitivement la France de Charlotte (Makine 297) Pseudo-Marcels own fant astical vision of Venice is likewise defrauded, revealed as the product of his own imagination: La ville que javais devant moi avait cess dtre Venise. Sa personnalit, son nom, me semblaient comme des fictions menteuses que je navais plus le courage dinculquer aux pierres (Proust 2096). The troubling discovery of the false Other exposes an anxiety common to each work, but is especially develope d in Makine. In order to gi ve coherence to this cultural

PAGE 45

Sharko 41 hybridity, the narrator seems to require some kind of internal logic, destiny perhaps, which would resolve the conflicting pulls of each cultural world. A crucial difference in the creation of thes e imagined places lies in the manner in which Makines narrator reinforces the fantas y with his (also imagin ed) French heritage: [l]a nuit, je retrouvai dans ma mmoire l image que javais toujour s crue une sorte de rminiscence prnatale me venant de mes an ctres franais et dont, enfant, jtais trs fier (Makine 340). This kind of inheritance, which ultimately is exposed as being falsified, represents another element in dial ogue with Proust. The Proustian narrator returns to this preoccupation w ith heritage over and over in La Recherche a leitmotif that collapses two common modes of discourse, the scientific theorist and the acute social observer. Pseudo-Marcels hereditary characteristics offer th e narrator a means to expose a genealogy of selfhood. Resembli ng ones relations is a kind of determinism, but with a promise of redemptionbecause the traits of dead loved ones are restored in pseudoMarcel, these relatives are spared fr om complete oblivion in time. In La Recherche the theme of heredity can be seen as part of the Proustian impulse to viser le gnral travers le particulier, la race travers lin dividu, dexpliquer lun en fonction de lautre, de dcrire lhomme comme ayant la longueur de son pass ancestral (Mein 174-175). The dnouement of Makines novel, where the na rrator discovers his true parentage, is a reworking of this aspect of Proust. By de bunking the myth of the protagonists French heritage, Makine is undermining this tendency of Prousts to conflate the individual with such firm ideas of cultural identity. Biological and nationa l inheritances are problematically entangled in Proust, whereas Makine defuses this sense of naturalized nationalism.

PAGE 46

Sharko 42 There is, however, a second kind of heredity found in Proust that seems more compatible with Makine. Although minor figures, like his Aunt Lonie, may be biologically responsible for some of pseudo-Marcels quirks, it is Swann who is le pre spirituel du narrateur (Mein 145); this move could be indicative of Prousts thematic objective to forward subjectiv ity over science (Thiher 101). A literary and spiritual heritage is then validated at the expense of a more literal, biological inheritance. PseudoMarcel identifies Swann as his social and artistic forebear: En somme, si jy rflchissais, la matire de mon exprience, laquelle serait la matire de mon livre, me venait de Swann (Proust 2300). Richar d Goodkin expands upon this connection by observing that Swann is repr esented as a wanderer in La Recherche, with Odette as the embodiment of the elusive promised la nd (40). Swann, then, following Goodkins model, prefigures pseudo-Marcel in a manner that suggests the relationship of the Old and New Testament. This kind of spiritual inheri tance reappears in the Charlotte-narrator relationship. Charlottes life anticipates many of the experi ences that will return, in a new key, for the central protagonist. Her life of exile and her being perp etually entre deux langues importantly anticipates the na rrators life in France. A lthough Charlotte exposes the narrator to a number of important ideas (she is a catalyst for the concept of universal language and introduces him the literary tradition that he will later engage with as a writer), she is described as a dilettante (Mak ine 285); like Swann, she is not an artist in her own right. Finally, she is, like Swann, portrayed as a wanderer: Notre mythologie familiale attestait quun petit volume la couverture fatigue et la tranche dun or terni su ivait Charlotte au cours de tous ses

PAGE 47

Sharko 43 voyages. Comme le dernier lien avec la France. Ou peut-tre, comme la possibilit constante de la magie. [... L]a vraie littrature tait cette magie dont un mot, une strophe, un verset nous transportaient dans un ternel instant de beaut. (324) The language of this passage, with its self-aware references to lineage, legacy, and to a divine mythology, further reinforces this association with the Old Testament. In Le Testament franais there are three spiritual in heritances. First, as Swann is the forebear to pseudo-Marcel, so is Ch arlotte to Makines narrator. Secondly, the narrator considers himself the inheritor of both the Russian and especially the French literary tradition (Makine 324325). Finally, because intert extuality is itself an inheritance, Makine is setting hi s own work up as an inheritor of Proust. If there is any sort of New Testament in Le Testament franais it is the novel the protagonist intends to write, which may or may not have been the novel the reader just finished. The narrators imagined novel will realize his id ea of a langue universelle which channels the promised land, or the enchantment of these eternal moments of beauty contained within literary language. The resolution of the national, linguistic and cultural tensions that inform Le Testament franais is in the development of a langua ge which voices the universal and the eternal and which will transform the specific and the momentary. In the representation of this universal language, the protagonist intends to create une uvre absolue [...] qui pourrait par sa beaut refa ire le monde (Makine 324). For Makines narrator, the central artistic objective is to bring forward the universal and eternal through language: Une langue universel le! Je pensai de nouveau cet entre-deux-langues que

PAGE 48

Sharko 44 javais dcouvert grce mon lapsus, la langue dtonnement [... et] cette pense exaltant me traversa lesprit: Et si lon pouvait exprimer cette langue par crit? (279). Makine is framing his treatment of language, es pecially at the close of the novel, as an avatar of the Proustian preoccupati on with time. At the close of La Recherche pseudoMarcel describes his artistic ambition as the exposition of the problem of time: ctait cette notion du temps incorpor, des annes passes non spares de nous, que javais maintenant lintention de mettre si fort en relief (Proust 2400). Just as involuntary memory is the impetus behind the Proustian search, Makine has cette voix involontaire that compels his artistic proj ect (Makine 287, my emphasis). Pseudo-Marcel fears that not enough time remains for him to write. Fo r Makines narrator, it is a question of language: Seuls me manquaient encore les mots qui pouvaient le dire (343). The parallel concerns of time and language manife st the shared anxiety of representation in Proust and Makine, respectiv ely. Makines work refl ects the changing literary consciousness appropriate for his time: language itself must be interrogated because it is not a stable system of expression. The artist in Proust is imagined as a tra ducteur whose task is only to expose the commonalities of the human condition resting en chacun de nous (Proust 2281). Makine expands the responsibilities of this translator to include destabilizing language itself. Makines narrator is not simply b ilingual, but is actually moving between cultures and languages as a translator. Where the Proustian translator presupposes certain universal commonalities inherent in the human condition, Makine is using the concept of universal language to underc ut this sentiment, instead, employing it as a means to unsettle such schemas. For Makine, language clearly contains the Ot her, its strangeness

PAGE 49

Sharko 45 acting for Aliocha as a langue dtonnement par excellence that renders the everyday of Russia strange (272). Language is cast as a sort of langue-outil to defamiliarize, and transmits at once Charlottes memories, an alien culture, and, importantly, a literary tradition: La langue, cette mystrieuse matire, invisible et omniprsente, qui atteignait par son essence sonore ch aque recoin de lunivers que nous tions en train dexplor er. Cette langue [...] palpitait en nous, telle une greffe fabuleuse dans nos curs, couverte dj de feuilles et de fleurs, portant en elle le fruit de toute civilisation. (56) By the end of the novel, the language of bar tavelles et ortolans, the euphonious words that conjure French feasts, is exchanged fo r Koukouchka, the name of a mournful bird that lives on the Russian steppe (193); the narrator considers the birdsong to be the first word of his universal language. Where the French language once palpitait en nous, the Russian reality has come into greater focus: [Charlotte] en avait distill lessence dans les douleurs et les joies de ses jours. Et cette densit palpitante du minuscule goulag de la prisonnire et son enfant (339). This double allegiance to both cu ltures and languages provides the means to write a Russian consci ousness into French, an act of translation that will constitute the work that Makines narrator anticipates and, perhaps, has just completed by the end of the novel; the work will be neither French, nor Russian but significantly between both (Allen 183). If we consider the media frenzy and the number of literary accolades that celebrated this work upon its publication, Makine could be seen as having claimed the inheritance promised in Le Testament franais In Le Testament franais the Proustian

PAGE 50

Sharko 46 is refracted through Makine in the careful use of mise en abyme : nostalgia for nostalgia; (Makines narrators) subjective world work ing as framed within (pseudo-Marcels) subjective world. Through a Proustian lens Makine is clearly forwarding a Russian consciousness. Makines use of Proust in Le Testament franais suggests that the task of the writer is to reorient the readerto see Russia through France, France through Russia, and even to see Proust through Makinethat is, to undercut the national, cultural and even linguistic ties that bind an identity to one monde and, instead, to see it among many.

PAGE 51

Sharko 47 Conclusion Pop culture, popular fictions and the myth of the Do-It-Yourself Proust Having examined two experimental se mi-autobiographical works of theory and fiction that establish an intertextual dial ogue with Proust, we will now consider more recent works that are, in different ways, ar ticulating the very personal experience of reading (and in some cases, not reading) Pr oust. Proust, in recent years, has become something of a cultural phenomenon, judging by the frequent mention in the media of his name, his uvre and the various works and activities it has inspired (Crosman xv). Observing of the recent abundance of works and people engaging with La Recherche Andr Aciman argues that the figure who lies at the heart of todays Proust revival is the intimate Proust, that is, the Proust who sets fo rth a narrative of the individual, subjective experience (In Search 82). From this understanding, we will survey a wide range of texts that approach the Proustian and the personal in different ways and with varying degrees of self-awareness. Lurking throughout these works is pop cultures Proust, the su bject of Margaret Grays study in Postmodern Proust an emptied signifier which is if anything, more pervasive today. This collective imagining of Proust necessarily involves reducing his work to something more easily digestible than a mu lti-volume novel made of notoriously long and complicated sentences. The length of La Recherche makes it incompatible with modern sensibilities; when inquiring who is todays reader of Proust, Gray concludes that it is someone w ho surfs the Web for hours, inclined to agree with Anatole France, who, despite writing a preface for Prousts first published volume, Les Plaisirs et les jours, confessed that he didnt act ually read Proust, for life was too short and Proust was

PAGE 52

Sharko 48 too long (Maintenant 61). Where Gray joked about a Monty Python comedic sketch called the All-England-Summarize-Proust compe tition, in which contes tants are asked to review La Recherche in fifteen seconds, Daniel Ford has gotten his summary down to only fourteen minutes in the audio-re cording, The Fourteen Minute Proust ( Postmodern 154; Ford). The advertisement boa sts of being only ,335 words in lengthall that it takes to master La Recherche, or as it is billed in the title, Everyones Guide to the Greatest Novel Ever Written. La tent in the titles pr omise is the suggestion that everyone should be reading La Recherche if only for the assurance of its greatness. The title plays on the equation of Proust with literary el itism, suggesting that Proust can be accessible to everyone and im plying that, with Fords help, you too can belong to this select group of Proustian initiates. But why do contemporary readers attempt to read Proust at all? As Gray observes, many consider daily life in c ontemporary culture [to leave] no time for obsolete activities such as nostalgia and re trospection. Proust is not only punishment, hes a dinosaur (Maintenant 62). But in th is age of the tell-all confessional, of the self-involvement rampant on social-networki ng websites, and of re ality television, the mediums for self-expression are more profuse than ever. On a daily basis, we are, through these different channels, consuming the stories of others just as we are constantly telling our own. Identity na rratives and the availability of new media are undergoing a mutually reinforcing renaissance. From th is perspective, the Pr oustian imperative to chronicle the experience of the individual doveta ils with our modern imperative to create selfhood, broadcasting this story, our own st ory, through a number of mediums, and sometimes, through Proust.

PAGE 53

Sharko 49 With this in mind, we will begin with Phyllis Roses A Year of Reading Proust a straightforward memoir that chronicles an experience of reading Proust, taking up his invitation to the reader to use the fictive sp ace of the novel as a mean s of self-reflection. This kind of impulse is compatible with the project of La Recherche : as Roger Shattuck points out, it allows us to find our own life through its finely ground lens (159). In Roses account, she began applying the fruits of Prousts research to [her] own life, and the two narratives of Proust and her past became intertwined, each bringing forward the truth of the other (22). Rose tells her life story beginning each chapter with a quote from Proust. Although it is clear from these quotes that she is telling he r life chronologi cally and not necessarily reading in order, Rose write s at length about her anxiety over Prousts influence, fearing Proust is taking over her ow n story. She confides, Proust is deeply competitive: its always a choice between yourse lf and him (24). The parentheses seem suggestive of an undercurrent in Roses text that seems unresolved. In her introduction, she reveals her concerns regard ing her legacy as a writer; Pr oust is, perhaps, exacerbating this fear. Despite explicit a ttempts to imitate Proustian style (17, 44, 69), Rose is a more conventional narrator than Proust. The reader is always certain th at the speaking I of the narration is the I of the author. This distinguishes her project from Prousts, and for that matter, from Barthess and Makines; he r work, like the other texts we will consider, lacks their generic ambiguity and complexity. Aside from these limited attempts to mi mic Proustian style, Proust is functioning in the text as a way to clarify and certify Ro ses life experiences. Shattuck calls this experience Proustify[ing], which refers to th e urgent, involuntary recollection that we

PAGE 54

Sharko 50 all experience from time to time [in read ing Proust] and that now took on crucial significance because we had read Proust and accepted this experience as something no longer trivial (Shattuck 227). In addition to this, Rose asse rts that Proust has continuing relevance, as his social observations stil l hold true today. During a dinner party conversation, she is asked if Proust still a ppl[ies] (252). Her re sponse is that [our society is] amazingly the same. When he de scribes Balbec, it might as well be Key West (253). Prousts observations rega rding personal experiences and society are figured as the payoff for Ro ses reading experience. If for Rose, La Recherche is the Whole Earth Catalogue of Human Emotions and Proust and his truths are the definitive aspect of his work, for Alain de Botton, La Recherche is the Proustian guide book (29, 9). In his book How Proust Can Change Your Life de Botton takes seriously the Prous tian imperative of the readers apprenticeship to pseudo-Marcel, and encour ages others, even t hose unfamiliar with Proust, to undertake such a relationship. Perhaps taken less seri ously is his parodic invocation of the pseudo-psychological self-he lp genre. The Proust of de Bottons title refers to La Recherche, to additional writings by Proust, and to the example of Prousts life itself; this is cr iticized by Joshua Landy as an example of the conflation of the Proustian I to mean more than pseudoMarcel, but also, mist akenly, to refer to Proust himself. However, de Botton is caref ul to distinguish which Proust he is alluding to, if at times only to underscore th e difficulty of followi ng Prousts advice, even (or perhaps especially) for the writer hims elf. We can see this here, in de Bottons account of Prousts advice, given in a newspape r, on how to live outside of the everyday: Prousts own suggestions (Louvre, love, India) were no more helpful. For a start, they

PAGE 55

Sharko 51 were at odds with what one knows of his character (7). De Botton defends his treatment of Proust because Proust, in La Recherche is clearly privileging a nd inviting this kind of reading, forwarding within the text the lesson that art can properly affect rather than simply distract us from life (25). In reading de Bottons guide to Proust, then, we accomplish more than personal transformation (chang[ing] your life), but we also fulfill this important Proustian imperative, which de Botton articulates here : a genuine homage to Proust would be to look at our world through his eyes, not to look at his wo rld through our eyes (196). In contrast to Rose, literaturespecifically Prous ts literary workhas more than utility in so much as it does something for us. In orde r to truly and properly read Proust, according to de Botton, the reader must perform this pe rsonal insertion into the fictive space, and, ideally, return with a heightened perspective on ones own life. Just as de Bottons intended audience does not necessarily need to be familiar with Prousts work, a familiarity with Proust is not necessary to understand how he is being referenced in Louis Ferrantes memoir Unlocked: From Prison to Proust. Although Proust would ostensibly occupy a place of considerab le importance in the text considering the title, Proust does not appear in this memoir at all aside from an epigraph; the Bronts, Flaubert, and Mein Kamf among others, are discussed at length as part of Ferrantes educative and spiritual transfor mation while serving a prison sentence for mafia-related activities. Proust functions in this title as shorthand for this kind of redemptive experience of literature. Proust seems especially compatible with this kind of signification, and we have seen it, in a variety of guises, in a number of other works. Barthes, for example, refers to

PAGE 56

Sharko 52 his reading experiences of La Recherche as une consultation biblique ( Le Plaisir 241). Rose equates her reading of Proust with a re ligious encounter (2 9). Besides playing upon the cultural myth of Proust and its association of redemption with La Recherche textual evidence within Unlocked suggests possible marketing interference (Ferrante was discouraged from pursuing the publication of his novel, because, according to his agent, his own story was a better sell). From em ail correspondence with Fe rrante, I learned he has read Proust and was inspired by his read ing experience (Re: I nquiry). Considering Prousts conspicuous absence in the body of hi s memoir, its prominence in the title is still curiouswhich leads one to interrogate th e motivations behind putting Proust in the spotlight. One possibility is that, even as it is emptied, the name of Proust as a sign suggests a particular kind of cultural co mmodity. We can see evidence of this in Roses memoir, where she notes that [a]s a college professor, as a literary critic, I s hould have been more ashamed than I was not to have read Proust (229). She admits to having the vague familiarity with Proust common to members of her (privileged) class, as she reveals here: Who can have reached adulthood in our times in literate circles without knowing how much Marcel wanted his mother to come upstairs and kiss him goodnight? (15). This association of Proust with cultur al refinement is developed further: Roses mother got to like the idea of my writing what she cal led Prousts memoirs. She saw the books potential, if not for making money, then for asserting our familys intellectual and education superiority (255). The importance of this cla ss consciousness is clear, given that Roses mother has the last words of th e memoir: speaking of a social acquaintance, her mother observes that [s]hes not of our class, dear. She doesnt know Marcel

PAGE 57

Sharko 53 Proust (255). The conflation of Proust and elit ist social class is another topic of inquiry in Margaret Grays investigation into how we collectively imagine Proust in the postmodern age, even (and perhaps especially) when we have not actually read his work (as is the case with Roses mother). When Proust meets pop culture, Gray asserts, the idolatrous literalism phenomenon sets in: we commodify [Proust, and also Ruskin, an idol of Prousts], venerating their cultural chic as we buy gadgety madeleine pans and name drop Proust ( Postmodern 167-168). The common equation of Proust and the elitist literary canon carries with it the social equivalences of snobbery, status, intellectualism, refinement, elegance, and so on (169). Hence, the logi c of a marketing strategy that anticipates the surprise of going from prison to Proust: it is the same kind of slippage (from Proust to high class) that marks Roses a nd her mothers understanding of La Recherche before reading it. If unfamiliar (and likely some of the more familiar) readers imagine Proust as connoting these class-la den qualities, Aciman demonstrates in his Proust Project that no singular Proust is ever reached in the reading process. The Proust Project is a collection of twenty-eight piec es that [beckon] a Proust we never knew existed, a Proust we never would have thought possible until so meone told us that their Proust was no less real than ours (xix). More than simply approaching Proust from different angles, each contributor has a unique way of describing this kind of Proustian encounter that is often, if not always, couched in deeply personal experiences. For example, J.D. McClatchy analyzes a passage from La Recherche with critical detachment, but includes its personal significance within parentheses (71-73). Ma ny blend the anecdotal with the experiences

PAGE 58

Sharko 54 described in the novel: Lara Vapnyar associ ates Swanns pursuit of Odette with her youthful crush on a boy who didn't pay much a ttention to [her] (30); John Jeremiah Sullivan recounts his own belated realization of his fathers death when his dog dies, comparing it with pseudo-Marcels sudden e xperience of grief long after his grandmother has died (91-96). As Aciman suggests, these equations of the personal and the Proustian perform the invitation inherent in La Recherche to graft, to bookmark our own past onto [Prousts] so that his readers are so stitched into his life, and his is so woven into ours (xi). We can find this kind of relationship among many writers expressing their reading of Proust. An entire internet program, called The Proust Experience, uses interviews to document the individual encounter with La Recherche; as the host observes, [w]hen we talk about Proust, we talk about the Proust experience. Because the book is one thing and what happens to you reading the book is another thing (Baer). In other words, when we talk about reading Proust, we are really shar ing our very personal experience of Proust. Hence, Proust and the personal become inse parable, as this Peace Corps volunteer in Botswana attests, noting that his own experi ence of Proust is inextricably tied to [his] experience of Africa (Conlon). Unbound from the particularities of s ituation, the reader of Proust experiences more than recognition; according to Aciman, the reader undergoes a necessary fusion between Proust and us, incorporating Proust within the personal while at the same time locating the personal within Proust (xi). This rapport is not always grounded within the realm of the novel, according to some readers-turned-writers of Proust. Jere my Eichler describes going to concerts with his most frequent companion, the one who always arrives just as the lights have dimmed

PAGE 59

Sharko 55 and the silence fallen, [...] Marcel Proust. I ndeed, ever since [Eichler] first read Proust, [his] musical sensibilities have joined [Eichler] in the concert hall, for [...] Proust is the poet of listening (Aciman 140). This evoc ative application of Proust, a sort of channeling of the writer himself, can find its analogue in the Mar cel Proust Journal, where we are invited to write our own revelations in this jo urnal inspired by the world of Marcel Proust (Russo). Th is blank notebook with quotes from the influential French author as well as fanciful imagery from tu rn-of-the-century France throughout its pages features plenty of room for writing about your ow n thoughts, memories, and discoveries (Russo). This invitation to see through Proust can also be seen in the Louvres recent decision to mount quotes from La Recherche on signs accompanying Chardin still-lifes, which enable the viewer to experience the painting through Prousts perspective. Gray, in her undergraduate courses, encourages this kind of Proustian fusion, devising a number of activit ies that intend to meld La Recherche and the readers personal experiences. In additi on to assigning excerpts from the novel, she asks students to keep a journal of thei r own experiences between sl eeping and waking, and after students have read the madeleine scene, th ey can be asked to write about a similar experience of dj-vu (Maintenant 62). Gray argues these exercises help students break down the barrier they may perceive betw een their lives and th e events Proust wrote about (62). In order to c onnect readers with Proust, Gray asks them to fuse the Proustian narrative with their own, harnes sing the current cultural obsession with constructing and sharing our stories of self hood. Grays studies of appropriations of

PAGE 60

Sharko 56 Proust in this cultural moment at once reve al and reinforce the myth of you can do Proust too! Having considered diverse texts and pop-cu ltural phenomena, it is clear that to see our world through Prousts eyes, as de Botton suggests, is not enough. After all, readers have come so far with ps eudo-Marcel by the end of La Recherche that not becoming writers ourselves would seem to be denyi ng ourselves the redemption made possible through literary creation. Perhaps this account s for the profusion of references to this reading experience. As Ar nold Weinstein observes of La Recherche along with the uvre of Faulkner, Joyce, Morrison and Woolf: they restore us; they re-story us (473); Weinstein is suggesting here that the works of these writers a llow the reader to use fictive space as a means for self-reflection, growth, a nd even for their own creative production. Through Proust, and other artists, we can see other worlds multiply. When we consider the ways in which these texts have invoked Proust, it is the singul ar world of our own personal experiences and their umbilical cord to the Proustian universe that we feel compelled to share. From the Proust of Barthes to Maki nes to todays per sonalized Proust, we can begin to trace out the in tertwined evolution of Proust and various cultural trends. Writing from the apex of the post-structur al movement, Barthes acknowledges personal and textual kinship wi th Proust, but in Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes he is invested in the deconstruction of the Proustian monolith of yesterdayBarthes is writing in the wake of Proust, using both th e literary figure of Proust and La Recherche to contrast with contemporary sensibilities that explore new ge neric, stylistic, a nd textual terrains. Makine is working during a moment marked by its renewed interest in more traditional

PAGE 61

Sharko 57 novels, turning from the recalcitrance which characterizes postmodern texts. He is writing, moreover, in a period of particular interest in Francophone literatures from outside the hexagon (Makine won the Gonc ourt less than a decade after Tahar Ben Jelloun, three years after Patrick Chamoisea u, and two years afte r Amin Maalouf). Le Testament franais can be seen as a reformed Recherche, as a Knstlerroman in dialogue with Proust, but with a focus, reflective of its milieu, on the transnational, translingual, and transcultural. Finally, the descrip tive, often simplified treatments of Proust encountered in this past decade seem to be a product of a cultural moment in which the story of the individual is co mmodified and reproduced th rough a number of channels; kitsch, like Proust, is on the rise.

PAGE 62

Sharko 58 Works Cited Aciman, Andr. In Search of Proust. New Yorker (1988): 81-85. The Proust Project New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004. Allen, Sharon Lubkemann. Makines Testament: Transposition, Translation, Translingualism, and the Transformation of the Novel. RiLUnE 4 (2006): 167186. Baer, M.D. The Proust Experien ce. Retrieved 30 March 2009 at {http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SiUeimqb480}. Barthes, Roland. Longtemps je me su is couch de bonne heure . Le bruissement de la langue. Paris: ditions du Seuil, 1984. 313-325. Le plaisir du texte. Paris: ditions du Seuil, 1973. Proust par Roland Barthes. Prtexte: Roland Barthes Paris: Union Gnrale dditions, 1978. 370-382. Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes Paris: ditions du Seuil, 1975. Sade, Fourier, Loyola Paris: ditions du Seuil, 1971. Une ide de recherche. Recherche de Proust. Paris: ditions du Seuil, 1980. Chikhi, Beda. Motifs et effets prous tiens: une leon de polyphonie dans le roman francophone du Maghreb. Marcel Proust aujourdhui 1 (2003): 119-138. Conlon, Christopher. Proust in Africa. Retrieved 30 March 2009 at {http://www.christopherconlon.com/proustIA.htm}. Craig, Herbert E. Marcel Proust and Spanish America: From Critical Response to Narrative Dialogue. Cranbury, NJ: Associated UP, 2002.

PAGE 63

Sharko 59 Crosman Wimmers, Inge. Introduction: Why Proust Now? Approaches to Teaching Prousts Fiction and Criticism New York: MLA of America, 2003. xiii-xvii. De Botton, Alain. How Proust Can Change Your Life. New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 1998. Deleuze, Gilles. Proust and Signs Trans. Richard Howa rd. New York: George Braziller, Inc., 1972. Eakin, Paul John. Fictions in Autobiography: Studi es in the Art of Self Invention Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1985. Touching the World: Reference in Autobiography Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1992. Elbaz, Robert. The Changing Nature of the Self: A Critical Study of the Autobiographic Discourse. London: Croom Helm, 1988. Ellison, David E. Proust and Posterity. The Cambridge Companion to Proust. Ed. Richard Bales. Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 2001. 200. Ferrante, Louis. Unlocked: From Prison to Proust New York: Harper Collins, 2008. Re: Inquiry about Unlocked. E-mail to Madison Sharko. 31 March 2009. Ford, Daniel. The Fourteen Minute Proust. Retrieved 15 April 2009 at {http://www.amazon.com/Fourteen-Minute-Marcel-Proust-EveryonesGreatest/dp/B001CQC9CS/ref=sr_1 _1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239769474&sr =8-1}. Gide, Andr. Journal 1889-1939 Paris: Gallimard, 1951. Goodkin, Richard E. Around Proust Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1991.

PAGE 64

Sharko 60 Gratton, Johnnie. Expressivism: The Vicissitudes of a Theory in the Writing of Proust and Barthes Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. Gray, Margaret E. Maintenant, Regard ez: Proust in a Postmodern Context. Approaches to Teaching Prous ts Fiction and Criticism Ed. Inge Wimmers Crosman. New York: MLA of America, 2003. 61-65. Postmodern Proust Philadelphia, PA: U of Pennsylvania P, 1992. Gunn, Janet Varner. Autobiography: Towards a Poetics of Experience Philadelphia, PA: U of Pennsylvania P, 1982. Jay, Paul. Being in the Text: Self-Representatio n from Wordsworth to Roland Barthes Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1984. Knight, Diana. Roland Barthes, or the Woman Without a Shadow. Writing the Image after Roland Barthes Ed. by Jean-Michel Rabat. Philadelphia, PA: U of Pennsylvania P, 1997. 132-143. Knorr, Katherine. Andre Maki nes Poetics of Nostalgia. The New Criterion 14 (1996): 32-36. Landy, Joshua. Proust, His Narrator, a nd the Importance of the Distinction. Poetics Today 25.1 (2004): 91-135. Lejeune, Phillipe. On Autobiography Foreword Paul John Eakin. Trans. Katherine Leary. Minneapolis, MN: U of Minnesota P, 1989. Makine, Andre. Le Testament franais Paris: Mercure de France, 1995. Marty, ric. Marcel Proust dans La Chambre Claire Esprit Crateur 46 (2006): 125133. Mein, Margaret. Thmes proustiens Paris: ditions A.G. Nizet, 1979.

PAGE 65

Sharko 61 Minogue, Valrie. Proust: du ct de chez Swann London: Arnold, 1973. Proust, Marcel. La Recherche du temps perdu Paris: Gallimard, 1999. Rose, Phyllis. The Year of Reading Proust: A Memoir in Real Time New York: Counterpoint Press, 2000. Russo, Scott. Marcel Proust 5x7 Hardcover Journal New York: Random House, 2007. Schlossman, Beryl. The Descent of Orpheus: On Reading Barthes and Proust. Writing the Image after Roland Barthes Ed. Jean-Michel Rabat. Philadelphia, PA: U of Pennsylvania P, 1997. 144-159. Shattuck, Roger. Prousts Way: A Field Guide to In Search of Lost Time. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2000. Sontag, Susan. On Photography New York: Macmillan Press, 1997. Thiher, Allen. Fiction Refracts Science. Columbia, MO: U of Missouri P, 2000. Weinstein, Arnold L. Recovering your story: Proust, Jo yce, Woolf, Faulkner, Morrison New York: Random House, 2006. Zurbrugg, Nicholas. The Photographic Fix: Imaging the Modern/Postmodern Sensibilities. Literary Modernism and Photography Ed. Paul Hansom. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2002. 219-234.


ERROR LOADING HTML FROM SOURCE (http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu//design/skins/UFDC/html/footer_item.html)