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Confronting Japan's Past

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004146/00001

Material Information

Title: Confronting Japan's Past Nostalgia and Abandonment in Hayao Miyazaki's SPIRITED AWAY
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Mohai, Laura
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Miyazaki, Hayao
Film
Spirited Away
Japanese Studies
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis explores the cultural significance of the characters, aesthetics and values presented in Spirited Away with a special focus on Shinto and Japanese history in the 20th Century. The atrocities committed by Japan in beginning of the 20th Century have made the director, Hayao Miyazaki, ashamed to be Japanese, especially since his family was directly involved in the war industry of airplane building. Spirited Away, more than any of Miyazaki's other films, explores the themes of national and personal identity, memory and reconciliation with the past. While Miyazaki wishes to inform the youth of Japan of "the richness of its traditions," his method of root-seeking is ultimately a critical one. A close analysis of two scenes and main characters reveal that some values of traditional Japan are venerated and revived, while others are rejected and abandoned. Furthermore "traditional" Japan in Spirited Away is presented as ultimately interwoven with foreign cultures and contemporary Japan, warning against any unified view of history and any conception of Japan as culturally pure.
Statement of Responsibility: by Laura Mohai
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Cuomo, Glenn

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 M69
System ID: NCFE004146:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004146/00001

Material Information

Title: Confronting Japan's Past Nostalgia and Abandonment in Hayao Miyazaki's SPIRITED AWAY
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Mohai, Laura
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Miyazaki, Hayao
Film
Spirited Away
Japanese Studies
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis explores the cultural significance of the characters, aesthetics and values presented in Spirited Away with a special focus on Shinto and Japanese history in the 20th Century. The atrocities committed by Japan in beginning of the 20th Century have made the director, Hayao Miyazaki, ashamed to be Japanese, especially since his family was directly involved in the war industry of airplane building. Spirited Away, more than any of Miyazaki's other films, explores the themes of national and personal identity, memory and reconciliation with the past. While Miyazaki wishes to inform the youth of Japan of "the richness of its traditions," his method of root-seeking is ultimately a critical one. A close analysis of two scenes and main characters reveal that some values of traditional Japan are venerated and revived, while others are rejected and abandoned. Furthermore "traditional" Japan in Spirited Away is presented as ultimately interwoven with foreign cultures and contemporary Japan, warning against any unified view of history and any conception of Japan as culturally pure.
Statement of Responsibility: by Laura Mohai
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Cuomo, Glenn

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 M69
System ID: NCFE004146:00001


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C O N F R O N T I N G J A P A N S P A S T : N O S T A L G I A A N D A B A N D O N M E N T I N H A Y A O M I Y A Z A K I S S P I R I T E D A W A Y B Y L A U R A M O H A I A T he s i s S ubm i t t e d t o t he D i vi s i on o f H um a ni t i e s N e w C ol l e ge of F l o r i da i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f o r t he de gr e e B a c he l or of A r t s i n H um a ni t i e s U nde r t he s pons or s hi p of P r of e s s or G l e nn R C uo m o S a r a s ot a F l or i da M a y, 2009

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i i A c k n ow l e d ge m e n t s : F or e m os t I w ou l d l i ke t o t ha nk m y f a m i l y f or o f f e r i ng t he i r unde r s t a ndi ng a nd s uppor t t hr oughout m y unde r g r a dua t e s c hool i ng. Y our a c c e pt a nc e ha s be e n a n unbe l i e va bl e m ot i va t or i n m y a bi l i t y t o ove r c om e a c a de m i c obs t a c l e s T ha nk you f or l e t t i ng m e not be c om e a doc t o r I w oul d e s pe c i a l l y l i ke t o t ha nk m y m om w ho s a i d you ve ha ndl e d s o m uc h, gi ve m e a br e a k, yo u c a n ha ndl e a t he s i s M or ga n B oe c he r f or l e t t i ng m e bor r ow he r ka nj i di c t i ona r y f or s uc h e xt e nde d pe r i ods of t i m e a nd be i ng a ge ne r a l l y a w e s om e pe r s on. A l e j a ndr o, f o r o f f e r i ng w a r m w o r ds a nd c a l m i ng m e dow n e ve r y t i m e I br oke dow n i nt o a f r e nz y t hi nk i ng I w a s i nc a pa bl e of w r i t i ng a t he s i s T ha nk you f o r s t a yi ng up dur i ng t he ni ght a t S t a r buc ks a nd l ooki n g ove r m y t he s i s T w o f or e i gne r s a r e be t t e r a t E ngl i s h t ha n one M y r oom m a t e A l i c e f or de a l i ng w i t h di r t y di s he s a nd m y r a ndom books i n t he ki t c he n dur i ng t he l a s t c ou pl e of w e e ks of s c hool T o a l l of m y f r i e nds ( you know w ho you a r e ) w ho ha ve s a i d a w or d o f e nc our a ge m e nt or c om m i s e r a t e d a bout t he t he s i s p r oc e s s t ha nk you. F or e ve r yone w ho t ol d m e t he y w e r e i nt e r e s t e d i n m y t he s i s a nd w a nt e d t o a t t e nd m y ba c c t ha n k you. F i na l l y, I w oul d l i ke t o s ha r e m y de e p gr a t i t ude t o m y B a c c c om m i t t e e D r J i ng Z ha ng, D r C r i s H a s s ol d a nd D r G l e nn C uom o f or r e a di ng a nd r e s pondi ng t o m y t he s i s Y ou a r e a l l a m a z i ng a nd de di c a t e d pr of e s s or s I a m l uc ky t o ha ve ha d t he oppor t uni t y t o l e a r n f r om you t he s e l a s t f e w ye a r s A nd l a s t but c e r t a i nl y not l e a s t I w oul d e s pe c i a l l y l i ke t o t ha nk m y t he s i s s pons or a nd a dvi s or D r G l e nn C uom o w ho ha s be e n e xt r e m e l y pa t i e nt de di c a t e d a nd r e s pons i ve t o m y w or k T ha nk you f o r put t i ng up w i t h m y di f f i c ul t i e s Y our e f f or t s ha ve be e n e xt r e m e l y a ppr e c i a t e d.

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i i i T ab l e of C on t e n t s : I nt r oduc t i on 1 G ui de t o U nde r s t a ndi ng S hi n t o 6 S ur ve y of J a pa n i n t he 20 t h C e nt ur y 15 T he D ua l i t y o f C ha r a c t e r s 29 A C l os e A na l ys i s of T w o S c e ne s 49 C onc l us i on 71 R e f e r e nc e s 79

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i v C O N F R O N T I N G J A P A N S P A S T : N O S T A L G I A A N D A B A N D O N M E N T I N H A Y A O M I Y A Z A K I S S P I R I T E D A W A Y L a ur a M oha i N e w C ol l e ge of F l o r i da 2009 A B S T R A C T T hi s t he s i s e xpl or e s t he c ul t ur a l s i gni f i c a nc e of t he c ha r a c t e r s a e s t he t i c s a nd va l ue s pr e s e nt e d i n Spi r i t e d A w ay w i t h a s pe c i a l f o c us on S hi nt o a nd J a pa ne s e hi s t or y i n t he 20 t h C e nt ur y. T he a t r oc i t i e s c om m i t t e d by J a pa n i n be gi nni ng of t he 20 t h C e nt ur y ha ve m a de t he di r e c t or H a ya o M i ya z a ki a s ha m e d t o be J a pa ne s e e s pe c i a l l y s i nc e hi s f a m i l y w a s di r e c t l y i nvol ve d i n t he w a r i ndus t r y of a i r pl a ne bu i l di ng. Spi r i t e d A w ay m or e t ha n a ny of M i ya z a ki s ot he r f i l m s e xpl o r e s t he t he m e s of n a t i ona l a nd pe r s ona l i de nt i t y m e m o r y a nd r e c onc i l i a t i on w i t h t he pa s t W hi l e M i ya z a ki w i s he s t o i nf or m t he yout h of J a pa n of t he r i c hne s s of [ i t s ] t r a di t i ons hi s m e t hod o f r oot s e e ki ng i s ul t i m a t e l y a c r i t i c a l one A c l os e a na l ys i s of t w o s c e ne s a nd m a i n c ha r a c t e r s r e ve a l t ha t s om e va l ue s of t r a di t i ona l J a pa n a r e ve ne r a t e d a nd r e vi ve d, w hi l e ot he r s a r e r e j e c t e d a nd a ba ndone d. F u r t he r m o r e t r a di t i ona l J a pa n i n Spi r i t e d A w ay i s pr e s e nt e d a s ul t i m a t e l y i n t e r w ove n w i t h f o r e i gn c ul t ur e s a nd c ont e m por a r y J a pa n, w a r ni ng a ga i ns t a ny uni f i e d vi e w of hi s t or y a nd a ny c onc e pt i on of J a pa n a s c ul t ur a l l y pu r e ______________________ P r of e s s or G l e nn R C uom o H um a ni t i e s

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I n t r od u c t i o n P e r ha ps t he m os t pr om i ne nt phi l os ophi c a l pr ob l e m i n a na l yz i ng a J a pa ne s e f i l m a s a W e s t e r n s t ude nt i s t he de gr e e t o w hi c h a W e s t e r n l e ns of c r i t i c a l t he or y i n t he H um a ni t i e s i s r e l e va nt t o a w or k of a r t c r e a t e d out s i de i t s c ul t ur e H ow m uc h i s r e l e va nt t o t he w or k i t s e l f a nd how m uc h i s ove r p r i vi l e gi ng t he W e s t e r n c a non? O n t he one ha nd, f i l m i s pe r ha ps t he m os t i nt e r na t i ona l a nd t r a ns na t i ona l a r t f o r m A m i xt ur e of na t i ona l i t i e s of c a s t a nd c r e w i s o f t e n a t w or k du r i ng t he pr oduc t i on of a ny f i l m D i r e c t or s m a y ha ve t r oubl e f i ndi ng f unds f or a pr oj e c t w i t hi n t he i r ow n c ount r y, but m a y f i nd f undi ng or di s t r i but i on c ont r a c t s w i t h pr oduc t i on c om pa ni e s a br oa d F i l m f e s t i va l s s e e k t o b r i ng w or l d c i ne m a t o t he i r o w n c i t i e s O nl i ne r e nt a l c om pa ni e s l i ke N e t f l i x m a ke i t e a s y f or a udi e nc e s t o f i nd c i ne m a f r o m a r ound t he w or l d. F i ndi ng f or e i gn l a ngua ge f i l m s t ha t t r a ns l a t e d i nt o m ul t i pl e l a ngua ge s i s a l s o r e l a t i ve l y e a s y. U nl i ke t w o di m e ns i ona l a r t w or k l i ke pa i nt i ng, a vi e w e r doe s not ne e d t o t r a ve l a nd a t t e nd m us e um s or ga l l e r i e s a br oa d i n or de r t o e xpe r i e nc e t he a r t w or k; t he f i l m f or m c a n t r a ve l t o t he m t hr ou gh t he m a i l U nl i ke l i t e r a t ur e w hi c h w oul d r e l y e nt i r e l y on i t s t r a ns l a t or t o t r a ns c e nd i t s m e a ni ng, t he vi s ua l l a ngua ge of f i l m c i ne m a t ogr a phy, a r t d i r e c t i on, c om pos i t i on, c ol or a c t i ng doe s not r e qui r e t r a ns l a t i on, l e a vi ng t he vi e w e r t o e xpe r i e nc e a f i l m m or e c l os e l y t o i t s a ut he nt i c i nt e nt s a ns t he a ppr oxi m a t i ons o f t r a ns l a t i on. G r a nt e d, di a l ogue s t i l l r e qui r e s t r a ns l a t i ng, a nd c ul t u r a l ba r r i e r s r e m a i n H a vi ng n e ve r l i ve d i n or s t udi e d a c ul t ur e e xt e ns i ve l y, a vi e w e r m a y m i s unde r s t a nd t he m e a n i ng of t he us e of a c ol or o f a c e r t a i n ge s t ur e a r i t ua l a f a m i l i a l c onc e r n or t r a di t i on, or s i l e nc e R e gi ona l c ode s i n

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2 D V D s a r e a pr a c t i c a l f a c t or i n l i m i t i ng t he a m ount of i nt e r na t i ona l f i l m e xc ha nge I nde pe nde nt f i l m m a ki ng r e m a i ns a t ough bus i ne s s a nd i nt e r na t i ona l c i ne m a l i e s a t t he m e r c y of di s t r i but i on c ont r a c t s a nd f i l m f e s t i va l pr ogr a m m e r s w hi c h a r e a s w e l l l i m i t e d i n t i m e a nd r e s our c e s T he pr obl e m of f e t i s hi z i ng a c ul t ur e c a n f l our i s h a s i nt e r na t i ona l a udi e nc e s m a y be m or e i nt e r e s t e d i n t a l e s f r om a br oa d t ha t da z z l e r a t he r t ha n e l uc i da t e ( C opi e s of Z ha ng Y i m ou s H e r o a nd H ous e of F l y i ng D agge r s f e a t ur i ng f l y i ng m a r t i a l a r t s s c e ne s i n s t unni ng c ol or s c a n be f ound e xt e ns i ve l y t hr oughout c om m e r c i a l D V D s uppl i e r s i n t he U S A H i s f i l m T o L i v e a m or e qu i e t r e a l i s t i c por t r a i t of a f a m i l y l i vi ng t hr ough t he C ul t ur a l R e vol ut i on, i s unf or t una t e l y ove r l ooke d by di s t r i but o r s ) H a vi ng a ba l a nc e d a n d va r i e d e xpo s ur e t o a ny na t i ona l c i ne m a f r om a n i nt e r na t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve i s i nde e d a c ha l l e nge T he c om pa r a t i ve a c c e s s i bi l i t y of i nt e r na t i ona l c i ne m a a s ha ndi c a ppe d a s i t s t a nds s t i l l m a ke s i t a r gua bl y t he m os t t r a ve l e d c ont e m por a r y a r t f or m I t a ke l i be r t y i n un de r s t a ndi ng Spi r i t e d A w ay t hr ough undoubt e dl y a n unc ons c i ous W e s t e r n l e ns but a t t e m pt t o ke e p t r ue t o t he c l e a r l y J a pa ne s e s ym bol i s m a bunda nt i n t hi s f i l m T o a c c om pl i s h t hi s f e a t I w i l l be a na l yz i ng t hi s a ni m a t i on f r om a J a pa ne s e c ul t ur a l s t a ndpoi nt a s m uc h pos s i bl e H e nc e I w i l l be di s c us s i ng Spi r i t e d A w ay t hr ough t he l e ns of m ode r n J a pa ne s e hi s t or y, s oc i a l c ha nge s a nd r e l i gi on S pi r i t e d A w a y A s t he J a pa ne s e t i t l e ( S e n t o C hi hi r o no K a m i ka kus hi ) t r a ns l a t e s Spi r i t e d A w ay i s t he s t or y of a gi r l w ho i s k am i k ak us hi or hi dde n by gods T he s t or y be gi ns i n t he ba c ks e a t of he r pa r e nt s c a r w he r e C hi hi r o l ooks on t o t he

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3 pa s s i ng l a nds c a p e w i t h bor e dom a nd r e l uc t a nc e H e r pa r e nt s a r e m ovi ng t o a ne w t ow n w hi c h pr e pa r e s t he s t or y m e t a phor i c a l l y f o r a j our ne y br i ngi ng a bout gr e a t c ha nge A s t he y a r e l ooki ng f or t he i r ne w hous e t he y c om e a c r os s t or i i ga t e s ( S hi nt o s hr i ne ga t e s ) ne a r a t r e e a nd be c om e l os t on a p a t hw a y i n t he w oods l e a di ng t o a s t r a nge t unne l D e c i di ng t o e xpl or e t he y c r os s t he t unne l a nd c om e a c r os s a n a ba ndone d t he m e pa r k t ha t pr oba bl y w e nt dow n w i t h t he r e c e s s i on i n t he 90 s A f t e r w a l ki ng a r ound, C hi hi r o s pa r e nt s f ol l ow t he i r nos e s t o f i nd a gi a nt ba nque t o f f ood w hi c h t he y s t a r t de vou r i ng de s pi t e C hi hi r o s noi s y r e pr i m a nds U na bl e t o c on vi nc e he r pa r e nt s t o a ba ndon t he f ood, C hi hi r o w a l ks a r ound t he pa r k a nd i s gr e e t e d by a boy, w ho i s a l a r m e d by he r p r e s e nc e a nd t e l l s he r t o l e a ve i m m e di a t e l y. N ot unde r s t a nd i ng t he s i t ua t i on, C hi hi r o r uns ba c k t ow a r d he r pa r e nt s but t o he r gr e a t ho r r o r f i nds t h e y ha ve l i t e r a l l y t ur ne d i nt o pi gs f r om e a t i ng s o m uc h f ood T e r r i f i e d s he dodge s ghos t l i ke c r e a t ur e s a s s he t r i e s t o e s c a pe ba c k t hr ough t he t unne l but f i nds t ha t a l a r ge body of w a t e r ha s r e pl a c e d t he f i e l d l e a di ng t o t he s ubur ba n hum a n t ow n. T hi s ope ni ng s c e ne be gi ns C hi hi r o s a dve nt ur e i n t he ba t hhous e w or l d w he r e s he m us t l e a r n t o ove r c om e m a ny obs t a c l e s a nd a da pt i n or de r t o s a ve he r pa r e nt s a nd r e t u r n t o t he hum a n w o r l d. L e f t a l one by he r c a r e t a ke r s s he m us t l e a r n t o s ur vi ve w i t hout de pe ndi ng on t he m L uc ki l y s he f i nds s he doe s not ha ve t o ove r c om e t he j ou r ne y by he r s e l f e nt i r e l y a nd m a ke s f r i e nds a l ong t he w a y i n c l udi ng K a m a j i t h e boi l e r r oom s pi de r m a n, L i n, a f e i s t y ba t hhous e w or ke r H a ku t he bo y w ho i ni t i a l l y w a r ne d he r t o l e a ve t he ba t hhous e gr ounds be f or e s uns e t a nd Z e ni ba Y uba ba s t w i n s i s t e r w ho a r e a l l c r uc i a l t o he r s uc c e s s

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4 S he e ve nt ua l l y be c om e s e m pl oye d by t he ba t hhous e a t t he e xpe ns e of he r na m e C hi hi r o be c om e s s i m pl i f i e d t o S e n, a n a l t e r na t e r e a di ng of t he k anj i c hi H e r gi ve n na m e C hi hi r o t r a ns l a t e s t o t hous a nd w onde r S he m us t r e m e m be r he r r e a l na m e a nd i de nt i t y i n o r de r t o be a bl e t o r e t ur n t o t he r e a l w or l d. H e r f r i e nd H a ku he l ps he r c he r i s h he r na m e a nd t ow a r d t he e nd of t he f i l m s he r e t ur ns t he f a vor by r e m e m be r i ng hi s gi ve n na m e a nd t he r e f or e r e s t or i ng h i s a bi l i t y t o l e a ve t h e ba t hhous e w or l d a s w e l l H e r l i f e i n t he ba t hhous e w o r l d i s s t r e s s f ul a nd s e e s bot h s uc c e s s e s ( i n t he e pi s ode of t he f a m ous R i ve r G od) a nd gr e a t m i s t a ke s ( l e t t i ng N o F a c e e nt e r t he ba t hhous e ) S he pl unge s i nt o he r w o r k w i t h e f f o r t a nd s i nc e r i t y a nd t r i e s he r be s t t o r e s t or e or de r i n t he ba t hhous e w he n s he e nc ount e r s di s or de r H e r c our a ge ous e f f or t a nd a c c e pt i ng na t u r e ga i n he r m a ny f r i e nds a nd r e s pe c t w i t h t he ba t hhous e w or ke r s A f t e r m a ny obs t a c l e s s he i s e ve nt ua l l y a bl e t o e s c a pe t he ba t hhous e w or l d w i t h he r pa r e nt s H e r f i na l t a s k i s r e c ogni z i ng he r pa r e nt s i n pi g f or m w i t hi n a n e nt i r e g r oup of pi gs ( t ha t a l l l ook t he s a m e t o t he a udi e nc e ) W i t h ne w f ound c onf i de nc e a nd pe r ha ps s e ns i t i vi t y t ow a r d i de nt i t y, s he i s a bl e t o s pot Y uba ba s t r i c k a nd f r e e t he c a pt i ve s i nc l udi ng he r pa r e nt s f r om t he i r por c i ne e m bodi m e nt A s C hi hi r o a nd he r pa r e nt s pa s s t he t unne l onc e m or e on t he i r w a y t o t he c a r s he c l i ngs t o he r m o t he r s a r m i n a pa r a l l e l m a nne r t o t he w a y s he c l ung w he n t he y a l l f i r s t e nt e r e d t he t unne l T he s e t w o pa r a l l e l s hot s e m pha s i z e t he c ha nge i n C hi hi r o t ha t ha s t a ke n pl a c e i n t he ba t hhous e w or l d. W hi l e C hi hi r o f i r s t c l ung t o he r m ot he r out of f e a r a nd ne e di ng pr ot e c t i on, s he now c l i ngs t o he r m ot h e r i n o r de r t o pr ot e c t he r a n ul t i m a t e r i t e of pa s s a ge i n t he de ve l opm e nt t ow a r d a dul t hoo d.

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5 Spi r i t e d A w ay w a s r e l e a s e d i n J a pa n i n t he s um m e r of 2001. I t w a s r e l e a s e d f or t he f i r s t t i m e i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a ye a r l a t e r a t t he S a n F r a nc i s c o I nt e r na t i ona l F i l m F e s t i va l a nd w a s e ve nt ua l l y di s t r i but e d by W a l t D i s ne y P i c t ur e s I t ha s s i nc e be e n a w a r de d num e r ous t i t l e s i nc l udi ng t he A w a r d o f t h e J a pa ne s e A c a d e m y f or B e s t F i l m t he A m e r i c a n A c a de m y A w a r d f or B e s t A ni m a t e d F e a t ur e a nd t he G ol de n B e r l i n B e a r a w a r d a m ong m a ny ot he r nom i na t i ons a nd w i ns a c r os s f i l m c r i t i c c i r c l e s a nd f i l m f e s t i va l s A n i m por t a nt f i l m a t h o m e i t ha s a l s o ga i ne d w i de i nt e r na t i ona l a c c e pt a nc e be i ng di s t r i but e d a c r os s c ont i ne nt s ( I M D B ) I n m y t he s i s I w i l l e xpl or e t he S h i nt o r e l i gi on a nd gi ve a s ur ve y of J a pa ne s e 20 t h C e nt ur y hi s t or y, a s m y a na l ys i s of Spi r i t e d A w ay i s he a vi l y dr a w n f r om a s p e c t s of J a pa ne s e hi s t or y, r e l i gi on a nd c ul t u r e T he n I w i l l pr ovi de di s c us s i ons of a f e w ke y c ha r a c t e r s of t he ba t hhous e w or l d a nd di s c us s how t he i r a e s t he t i c pr e s e nt a t i on, pe r s ona l i t i e s a nd r ol e s w i t hi n s oc i e t y a r e r e f l e c t i ve of S hi nt o a nd ot he r hi s t or i c a l a s pe c t s of J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e T hi s c ha pt e r w i l l be f ol l ow e d by a c l os e a na l ys i s of t w o p i vot a l s c e ne s i n t he f i l m t he ope ni ng s c e ne a nd t he c l i m a c t i c T r a i n S c e ne w hi c h f ur t he r c ons i de r t he t he m e s of m e m o r y, s pi r i t ua l i t y r e ve r e nc e t o t he pa s t c r e a t i on of ne w va l ue s a nd C hi hi r o s r ol e i n s oc i e t y. T he l a s t c ha pt e r w i l l a t t e m pt t o br i ng t he s e e xpl or a t i ons t o a c onc l us i on a bout M i ya z a ki s i nt e nt i n m a ki ng Sp i r i t e d A w ay

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6 I n t r od u c t i o n t o S h i n t o K ur i s hi m u m o t anos hi m u m o k ok or o no m oc hi y o. 1 S hi nt o i s m o r e pr om i ne nt i n M i ya z a ki s Spi r i t e d A w ay t ha n a ny ot he r of hi s f i l m s w i t h t he e xc e pt i on o f M y N e i ghbor T ot or o ( 1988) i n w hi c h t he t ot o r o t he m s e l ve s a r e m a de up ka m i I n a f i l m t ha t e xpl or e s t he r e l a t i on s hi p be t w e e n a m ode r n, m ode r ni z i ng J a pa n a nd t h e c ul t ur a l va l ue s l e f t be hi nd by a m o r e t r a di t i ona l J a pa n, i nc l udi ng S hi nt o i s not onl y i m por t a nt i t i s ne c e s s a r y. T he m os t pr e va l e nt r e l i gi ons of J a pa n a r e B uddhi s m a nd S hi nt o w i t h C hr i s t i a ni t y be i ng i n t he m i nor i t y 2 M a ny J a pa ne s e c ons i de r t he m s e l v e s t o be l ong t o bot h r e l i gi ons a s S hi nt o a nd B uddhi s m a r e c om pa t i bl e t o a l a r ge de gr e e t hough e m pha s i z e di f f e r e nt s pi r i t ua l unde r l yi ng phi l os ophi e s a nd a r e di f f e r e nt r i t ua l i s t i c a l l y. W hi l e B uddhi s m w a s a n i m por t e n r out e t hr ough C hi na a nd K or e a S hi nt o h a d or i gi na t e d i n J a pa n. W hi l e B uddhi s m ha s e nj oye d a s i z e a bl e f ol l ow i ng i n t he W e s t t he S hi nt o t r a di t i on ha s not be e n e qua l l y i nt e r na t i ona l l y di s pe r s e d, w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of c om m un i t i e s w i t h a l a r ge J a pa ne s e i m m i gr a nt popul a t i ons S h i nt o i s i n de e d ve r y uni que t o J a pa n. F r om t he ve r y be gi nni ngs o f S h i nt o, s hr i ne s w e r e pr i m a r i l y c om m una l i ns t i t ut i ons t hough a f e w s hr i ne s w e r e c onne c t e d t o t he I m pe r i a l f a m i l y. T he s hr i ne s a c c e pt e d dona t i ons f r om t he c e nt r a l gove r nm e nt t he nobi l i t y, f e uda l l o r ds a nd i n f l ue nt i a l f a m i l i e s ye t t he a ut hor i t y of t he pr i e s t hood w a s a l w a ys r e s pe c t e d. D ur i ng t he M e i j i R e s t or a t i on, S hi nt o be c a m e t he s t a t e r e l i gi on a nd s hr i ne s w e r e i ns t i t ut i ona l i z e d unde r t he 1 B ot h s uf f e r i ng a nd ha ppi ne s s de pe nd on how w e be a r ( c a r r y t a ke f i r m hol d o f ) our kokor o. ( B oyd a nd T e t s uya 3 ) 2 84% obs e r ve bo t h a nd B uddhi s t ot he r 16% ( i nc l u di ng C hr i s t i a n 0. 7 % ) C I A W or l d F a c t book

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7 s upe r vi s i on of t he na t i ona l gove r nm e nt U nde r t hi s ne w l a w t he pr i e s t s t he r e f or e be c a m e publ i c of f i c i a l s T he r e w a s s t r i c t gove r nm e nt s upe r vi s i on of s hr i ne s ye t i t m os t l y a ppl i e d t o t he k ank ok u he i s ha, o r t he 224 s hr i ne s m os t c l os e l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he gove r nm e nt T hi s s upe r vi s i on w a s not om ni pot e nt a s t he pr i e s t s of t he pa r t i c ul a r s hr i ne s di d ha ve t he f i na l s a y t o a dm i ni s t r a t i ve a nd r i t ua l ove r s i ght s uc h a s pe r s onne l pr ope r t y, r i t e s a nd f e s t i va l s D ur i ng t hi s t i m e t h r e e na t i ona l o r ga ni z a t i ons of S hr i ne S hi nt o f or m e d: t he J i ngi K ai ( N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S hr i n e P r i e s t s ) K ot e n K ok y us ho ( R e s e a r c h I ns t i t ut e f or t he J a pa ne s e C l a s s i c s ) a nd J i ngu H os ai K ai ( G r a nd S hr i ne S uppor t e r s A s s oc i a t i on ) T hi s e r a of S hi nt o w a s i n pl a c e f o r a ppr oxi m a t e l y s e ve nt y ye a r s f r om t he M e i j i R e s t or a t i on t o t he e nd of W W I I O n D e c e m be r 15 t h 1945 t he S upr e m e C om m a nde r of t he A l l i e d O c c upa t i on i s s ue d t he S hi nt o D i r e c t i ve w hi c h di s e s t a bl i s he d s hr i ne s a s pa r t a ki ng i n s t a t e a f f a i r s a nd t u r ni ng t he m i nt o p r i va t e i ns t i t ut i ons P r i e s t s w e r e no l onge r gove r nm e nt o f f i c i a l s but r a t he r pr i va t e i ndi vi dua l s T he pe r t i ne nt s e c t i on of t he D i r e c t i ve pr ohi bi t e d f or t hw i t h t he s pons or s hi p, s uppor t pe r pe t ua t i on, c ont r ol a nd di s s e m i na t i on of S hi nt o by a ny gove r nm e nt a ge nc y or e m pl oye e a c t i ng i n a n of f i c i a l c a pa c i t y, but i t c ont a i ne d no pr ovi s i o ns r e g a r di ng a ny s ubs e que nt r e or ga ni z a t i on of t he s hr i ne s ( O no 17 ) T he s hr i ne s w e r e t he r e f or e l e f t s t r a nde d w i t hout r e c ogni z e d l e a de r s hi p or c onne c t i ons O n F e br ua r y 3 rd 1946, a ne w S hi nt o a s s oc i a t i on w a s de ve l ope d na m e d t he J i nj a H onc ho or A s s oc i a t i on of S hi nt o S h r i ne s T a ki ng l e a de r s hi p i n r e s t a bi l i z i ng S hi nt o o r ga ni z a t i ons i t ha d i nvi t e d l oc a l s hr i ne s f r om a l l ove r J a pa n t o j oi n, but onl y f e w ha d a gr e e d. A bout one t hous a nd s hr i ne s r e m a i ne d i nde pe nde nt a nd t w o hund r e d f i f t y ot he r s f or m e d t h e i r ow n s m a l l e r c ongl om e r a t i ons

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8 T he S hr i ne s ha d s uc c e e de d f a i r l y w e l l i n m a i nt a i ni ng t he i r un i t y a f t e r W W I I de s pi t e t he pr of ound c ha nge s s i nc e t he M e i j i R e s t or a t i on. ( O no 15 19) A t t he he a r t of t he t r a di t i on l i e t he K a m i T he na m e i s de r i ve d f r om t he C hi ne s e s hi n w hi c h m e a ns di vi ne be i ng a nd t ao w hi c h m e a ns w a y, t r a ns l a t i ng t o t he w a y of t he k am i N o doubt i t w oul d be a m i s t a ke t o s u ppos e t ha t ka m i c ove r e d t he s a m e r a nge of c onc e pt i ons a s god ; but e ve n i f w e t a ke i t t o m e a n onl y s om e t hi ng s u pe r i o r s om e t hi ng w i t h s pe c i a l qua l i t i e s of go od or e vi l i t s f r e que nt us e s how s t ha t t o t he e a r l y J a pa ne s e t he vi s i bl e a nd t he i nvi s i bl e w or l d w e r e p e opl e d w i t h pow e r f ul i nf l ue nc e s ( S a ns om 25) C r i t i c s B oyd a nd T e t s uya e xpl or e a d i f f e r e nt m e a ni ng f or t h e w o r l d o f S hi nt o a s i t unde r s t a nds t he w hol e of l i f e i nc l udi ng bot h hum a ns a nd na t ur e a s c r e a t i ve a nd l i f e gi vi ng. A ge ne r a t i ve i m m a ne nt f or c e ( m us ubi ; ki ; ka m i na t ur e ) ha r m oni ous l y pe r va de s t he w hol e phe nom e na l w or l d. T hi s c r e a t i ve pr oc e s s i s a c on t i nua l ongoi ng one a nd i s ne i t he r a r bi t r a r y nor de t e r m i ni s t i c U nus ua l or s upe r i or m a ni f e s t a t i ons of t hi s g e ne r a t i ve vi t a l pow e r c a l l e d ka m i c a n be e xpe r i e nc e d a s pos s e s s i ng a n a w e s om e pr e s e nc e a nd pot e nc y. A l l phe nom e na a r e c a ndi d a t e s f or t hi s de s i gna t i on, e g. t he s un, m oon m ount a i ns r i ve r s f i e l ds s e a s r a i n, w i nd pl a nt s a nd a ni m a l s or gr e a t pe r s ons he r oe s or l e a de r s H ow e ve r t o e xpe r i e nc e t he ka m i pr e s e nc e of a ny one of t he s e a s pe c t s of na t ur e r e qui r e s a n a e s t he t i c a l l y pur e a nd c he e r f ul he a r t / m i nd ( koko r o ) a nd e m ot i ona l m e nt a l a nd vol i t i ona l c ondi t i on t ha t i s not e a s i l y a t t a i ne d. ( 3) T he uni que c a s e t o S hi nt o a s a r e l i gi on i s t he a t t e nt i on pa i d t o r i t ua l pur i t y T hi ngs w hi c h a r e o f f e ns i ve t o t he gods w e r e c a l l e d by t he e a r l y J a pa ne s e t s um i a w or d w hi c h i s now r e nde r e d by di c t i ona r i e s a s gui l t or s i n. C hi e f a m ong t he of f e nc e s t o be a voi de d w a s unc l e a nne s s I t m i ght a r i s e i n m a ny w a ys none of w hi c h ne c e s s a r i l y i nvol ve d w ha t i n o t he r r e l i gi ons w oul d be m or a l g ui l t U nc l e a nne s s of t he pe r s on, f r om m e r e di r t w a s s c r upul ous l y a voi de d ( S a ns om 5 1)

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9 U nl i ke W e s t e r n r e l i gi ons t he r e i s no a bs ol ut e de i t y t ha t i s t he c r e a t or a nd r ul e r of a l l t hough A m a t e r a s u i s vi e w e d a s t he m os t e m i ne nt ka m i W he n s t a t e S hi nt o i s i ns t i t ut e d dur i ng t he M e i j i R e s t or a t i on, t he di vi ne w i l l of t he e m pe r or c om e s f r o m t he be l i e f t ha t he i s t he di r e c t de s c e nda nt of A m a t e r a s u. T hi s be l i e f be c om e s pr obl e m a t i c a s t he S un G odde s s he r s e l f unr i va l e d i n di g ni t y, d oe s not ha ve a bs ol ut e c ont r ol ove r t he H e a ve ns a nd c e r t a i nl y not o f l a nd a nd w a t e r ( A s t on 123) P or t r a yi ng a n e m pe r or a s ha vi ng a bs ol ut e c l a r i t y of j udgm e nt a nd di vi ne c on t r ol de s c e nde d ont o hi m by A m a t e r a s u i s i nhe r e nt l y pr obl e m a t i c a s i t i s a nt i t he t i c a l t o t he S un G odde s s r a nge of pow e r T o f ur t h e r i l l us t r a t e t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of s om e na t ur e de i t i e s t a ke i nt o c ons i de r a t i on A m a t e r a s u, he r br o t he r S us a no w o ( t he M ood G o d) a nd U ke m oc hi ( t he F ood G odde s s ) ( A s t on 123, 136 160 ) T he y a r e hi ghl y a nt hr opom or phi z e d a nd ha ve pe r s ona l i t i e s a nd pe r s ona l dr a m a s s i m i l a r t o t ha t of G r e c o R om a n g ods T hi s de i t y c onc e pt i s ve r y di f f e r e nt f r om J ude o C hr i s t i a n c onc e pt of G od N o t a l l k am i ha ve na m e s a nd a r e a nt hr opom or phi z e d, l i ke t he one s m e nt i o ne d a bov e S om e k am i r e pr e s e nt a t ype o f obj e c t or phe nom e non, s uc h a s t r e e k am i r i ve r k a m i a nd e c ho k am i O t he r s a r e e ve n m or e a bs t r a c t r e pr e s e nt i ng phe nom e na l i ke g r ow t h. A not he r s i z e a bl e di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n S hi nt o a nd W e s t e r n r e l i gi ons i s t he l a c k of a n a ut hor i t a t i ve t e xt T he r e a r e m a ny t e xt s i n w hi c h S hi nt o i s m e nt i one d, i nc l udi ng t he K oj i k i or R e c or d of A nc i e nt M a t t e r s w hi c h i s J a pa n s ol de s t hi s t or i c a l r e c or d da t e d 712 B C E T he N i hongi ( C hr oni c l e s of J a pa n ) a ppe a r e d e i ght ye a r s l a t e r a nd w a s a c t ua l l y w r i t t e n i n C hi ne s e T he s e t w o t e xt s a r e hi ghl y r e g a r d e d by S hi nt o i s t s but t he K uj i k i ( C hr oni c l e s of A nc i e nt E ve nt s ) K ogos hui ( G l e a ni ngs f r om A nc i e nt S t or i e s ) a nd E ngi Shi k i ( D e t a i l e d L a w s of t he E ngi P e r i od ) a r e a l s o i m por t a nt pr i m a r y m a t e r i a l on

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10 S hi nt o. I t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t t he s e t e xt s a r e n ot pr e s c r i pt i ve of t he k am i f a i t h a s t he B i bl e w oul d be t o C hr i s t i a ni t y, but r a t he r t he y a r e hi s t or i c a l r e c or ds w hi c h e m body t he k am i m yt hol ogy a nd hi s t or y. B e c a us e of t he l a c k of one r e l i gi ous a ut hor i t a t i ve t e xt i t i s of t e n di f f i c ul t t o w r i t e a bout S h i nt o a s one c ohe s i ve t he ol ogi c a l l y c ont a i ne d r e l i gi on T he l a c k of c ons i s t e nc y m a y not be a pr obl e m f or t he a ve r a ge pr a c t i t i one r a s i t i s s a i d t ha t t he J a pa ne s e a r e a w a r e of t he k am i i nt ui t i ve l y a t t he de pt h of t he i r c ons c i ous ne s s a nd c om m uni c a t e w i t h t he k am i di r e c t l y w i t hout h a vi ng f or m e d t he k am i i de a c onc e pt ua l l y or t he ol ogi c a l l y. ( O no 8 10) L a c ki ng a n a ut hor i t a t i ve t e xt S hi nt o doe s not ha ve a s e t c ode of e t hi c s a nd i m pur i t y o r s i n i s l a r ge l y r e l a t i ve a nd t a ke s i nt o c ons i de r a t i on c i r c um s t a nc e a n d i nt e nt I t doe s ha ve a body of pr ohi bi t i ons a nd r i t ua l s t ha t f a l l unde r t he c a t e gor y o f m o r a l i t y a nd c e r e m oni a l pur i t y l i ke ot he r r e l i gi ons ( A s t on 241) G e ne r a l l y s pe a ki ng, t he r i ght c onduc t f a l l s i nt o t h r e e c a t e gor i e s of m ot i ve s : f i r s t s e l f i s h pr ud e nc e f o l l ow e d by a l t r ui s m i n t he va r i ous f or m s of do m e s t i c a f f e c t i on, s ym pa t hy w i t h ot he r s a nd r e s pe c t f or t he i r r i ght s publ i c s pi r i t pa t r i ot i s m a nd phi l a nt hr opy a nd l a s t l y t he l ove o f G od C onduc t w hi c h doe s not r e s pe c t t he a bove m e nt i one d m o t i ve s i s c l a s s i f i e d a s f ol l y f or oppos i ng pr ude nc e c r i m e f or oppos i ng m or a l i t y a nd s i n f or oppos i ng hol i ne s s R e f r a i ni ng f r om e xc e s s i v e e a t i ng a nd dr i nki ng w oul d f a l l i nt o t he f i r s t c a t e gor y of pr ude nc e T he c a r e of c hi l dr e n a nd r e s t r a i nt f r o m t he f t m ur d e r or a dul t e r y a r e a m a t t e r of a l t r ui s m T he l o ve of G od w oul d be de m ons t r a t e d by di r e c t w or s hi p a nd a bs t i ne nc e f r om i m pi e t y a nd bl a s phe m y. ( A s t on 241 242) B y c ont r a s t t he K oj i k i s pe a ks of a c a s e of hom oc i de be i ng f ol l ow e d by a pur i f i c a t i on of t he a c t o r i n i t B ut t h e hom oc i de i s r e pr e s e nt e d a s j us t i f i a bl e a nd t he of f e nc e w a s t he r e f or e not s o m uc h m or a l a s r i t ua l ( 243) S hi n t o i s

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11 s a i d t o pr ovi de no s t r i c t m or a l c ode r a t he r r e l yi ng on i nt ui t i ve c ons c i e nc e f or e t hi c a l gui da nc e T hi s c om pa r a t i ve l y f l ui d a t t i t ude t o r i gh t a nd w r ong doe s not m e a n t ha t t he r e w a s l i t t l e s a nc t i on f or w r ongdoi ngs T he f t r obbe r y, r e be l l i on a nd f a i l ur e t o pa y t a xe s a r e c onde m ne d i n t e xt s a s ol d a s t he N i hongi G e ne r a l m or a l i t y i n S hi nt o w a s de r i ve d f r om a c t s t ha t pl e a s e d a n d di s pl e a s e d t he ka m i A s m e nt i one d e a r l i e r t he di s pl e a s i ng a c t s w e r e c a l l e d t s um i ( gui l t ) a nd t he a voi da nc e of t s um i w a s c a l l e d i m i ( a voi da nc e ) T s um i ge ne r a l l y c om pr i s e d o f unc l e a nl i ne s s s i n or c r i m e a nd c a l a m i t y A s t on m a ke s t he c l a i m t ha t t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n c e r e m oni a l i m pur i t y a nd m or a l gui l t w a s pr oba bl y not d i s t i ngui s he d i n a nc i e nt J a pa n. F ur t he r m or e c a l a m i t y w a s s e e n a s a s i gn o f di s pl e a s ur e t o t he gods w he t he r t he s our c e of t he c a l a m i t y w a s know n or unknow n. ( 2 48) A s t he r e l i gi on ha s d e ve l ope d, unc l e a nne s s ha s he l d f a r m o r e i m po r t a nc e i n S h i nt o t ha n m or a l gui l t D i r t i t s e l f i s s e e n a s di s r e s pe c t f ul t o t he gods I m pur i t y a s t he ul t i m a t e m i s c onduc t of S hi nt o m or a l i t y f i t s w e l l w i t h t he s e t t i ng of Spi r i t e d A w ay w hi c h i s c o nt e xt ua l i z e d w i t hi n a ba t hhous e a pl a c e f or pu r i f i c a t i on. T hough no t s t r i c t l y r e l i gi ou s or r i t ua l i s t i c t he ba t hhous e doe s s ha r e a t t he f ounda t i on a gr e a t r e s pe c t f or c l e a ns i ng. D ur i ng t he M e i j i E r a S hi n t o w a s r e de f i ne d a s t he s t a t e r e l i gi on, a nd a ny c onne c t i ons w i t h B uddhi s m w e r e di s e nt a ngl e d i n t he l a t e 19 t h C e nt ur y T he m i l i t a r y t he n i n t he 1930 s us e d t he pr e c e de nt gr ounde d on M e i j i a dj us t m e nt s t o j us t i f y t he i r m i l i t a r y pr opa ga nda a s i nt e r pr e t i ng t he w i s h of t he e m pe r o r w hi c h w a s t he n t he di r e c t w i s h of t he k am i I n a n e s s a y w r i t t e n a bout P os t W a r S hi nt o i n 1945, H ol t om poi n t s out : T he r e i s not a s i ngl e gove r nm e nt a l s a nc t u a r y i n a l l of S t a t e S hi nt o w he r e t he l i vi ng e m pe r or i s e ns hr i ne d a nd s uppl i c a t e d a s god. T he e ns hr i ne m e nt of a n e m pe r or ne ve r t a ke s pl a c e du r i ng hi s l i f e t i m e F ur t he r m or e i t i s a r e m a r ka bl e f a c t t ha t t he s pi r i t s of r e l a t i ve l y f e w of t he l ong l i ne of one

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12 hundr e d a nd t w e nt y t h r e e de c e a s e d r ul e r s a r e hon or e d w i t h c e r e m oni e s a t t he publ i c s hr i ne s of S hi nt o. I n a l l t he hundr e ds of l a r ge s hr i ne s of na t i ona l i m por t a nc e onl y s e ve nt e e n di f f e r e nt e m pe r or s a nd t h r e e e m pr e s s e s a r e w or s hi ppe d. E ve n s o, t he w or s hi p of f ul l y ha l f of t he e m pe r or s t hus honor e d ha d i t s hi s t or i c a l or i gi n i n B uddhi s t c om pa s s i on f or r ul e r s w ho ha d b e e n de po s e d, ba ni s h e d or m ur d e r e d by t he i r s ubj e c t s [ ] A l l t hi s poi nt s t o t he f a c t t ha t e m pe r or w or s hi p i n t he pr ope r s e ns e of t he t e r m i s l a r ge l y t he c r e a t i on of r e a c t i ona r y J a pa n e s e gove r nm e nt s i n t h e m ode r n pe r i od I t ha s s ha l l ow r oot s i n t he na t i ona l hi s t or y. ( 31 ) S i nc e t he l a t e r pa r t o f t he 19 t h C e nt ur y a nd t he e a r l i e r pa r t of t he 20 t h C e nt ur y, S hi nt o ha s be e n t a i nt e d by i t s pol i t i c a l a p pl i c a t i ons T hi s a s pe c t of S hi nt o i s a b i t t r oubl e s om e i n Spi r i t e d A w ay a s i t i s not a ddr e s s e d e xpl i c i t l y or m e t a phor i c a l l y. C e r t a i nl y t he ba t hhous e w or l d, r ul e d by Y uba ba ha s a ve r y s t r ong pol i t i c a l s ys t e m a nd t r i c kl e of pow e r a nd c o m m a nd. T he r e i s not hi ng ne c e s s a r i l y S hi nt o a bout Y uba ba s r e i gn a nd t he r e a r e no m e nt i ons o f he r r ul e be i ng a t t r i but e d t o di vi ne w i l l T hough t he or i gi ns of t he s or c e r e s s s i s t e r s a nd t he ba t hhous e w or ke r s a r e unknow n, Y uba ba i s pr oba bl y not a ka m i he r s e l f a s s he r uns a bus i ne s s t ha t ul t i m a t e l y s e r vi c e s t he k am i S he ga i ns he r pow e r f r o m m a gi c a nd m a gi c i s l a r g e l y t r e a t e d une ve nl y t hr oughout S hi n t o t e xt s T he r e a r e t e xt s l i ke t he O ho har ar i w hi c h i nc l ude s t he pr a c t i c e of m a gi c a s one of t he of f e nc e s a ga i ns t t he gods ( A s t on 337) S he us e s a m i xt ur e of ps yc hol ogi c a l m a ni pul a t i on ba s e d on i d e nt i t y l os s di r e c t c om m a nd, m a gi c a nd f e a r t o c ont a i n t he ba t hhous e w or l d t o h e r di c t a t or s hi p. W hi l e pa r a l l e l s m a y be dr a w n t o m i l i t a r y t a c t i c s i n t he e a r l y 20 t h C e nt ur y, he r r ul e w i t hout t he va l i da t i on of a gr e a t e r s pi r i t ua l s our c e i s m o r e a ki n t o f e uda l i s t i c r ul e r a t he r t ha n m ode r n m i l i t a r y pr opa ga nda T he pr ob l e m of pa t r i l i ne a l r ul e i n bot h S hi nt o pr i e s t hood a nd J a pa ne s e E m pe r or s hi p, m a y be i l l u s t r a t e d t hr ough t he p r obl e m a t i c

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13 e xi s t e nc e of t w i ns w hom a r e bot h w om e n no l e s s Y uba ba a nd Z e ni ba do not s pe a k of a br ot he r w hi c h of t he m i f a ny w oul d c on t i nue t o r ul e t he i r f a m i l y r e i gn? T he s e t up of t he s t or y of C hi hi r o r e l i e s he a vi l y on S hi nt o f ol kl o r e H e r j our ne y t o t he ba t hhous e m a y be r e l a t a bl e t o W e s t e r ne r s a s t h e dr e a m s t or i e s of A l i c e i n W onde r l and or T he W i z ar d of O z how e ve r i n J a pa ne s e f ol kl or e i t w a s a c om m on b e l i e f t ha t pe r s ons m a y di s a ppe a r f or da ys t a ke n by ka m i k am i k ak us hi ni au i n J a pa ne s e or t o e xpe r i e nc e ka m i ka kus hi m e a ns t o be hi dde n b y t he ka m i ( S a dl e r 219) T he pe r s on m a y not r e m e m be r w ha t ha d ha ppe ne d, but t he i r j o ur ne y of t e n i nvol ve d a c ha nge w i t hi n t he m T o be ne f i t f r om t he ka m i p r e s e nc e s t ha t i nha bi t s uc h a pl a c e s om e t hi ng s pe c i a l i s r e qui r e d: one m us t be s e ns i t i z e d t o t he i r pr e s e nc e T hi s c a n oc c ur i f one e xpe r i e nt i a l l y m ove s f r om t he m unda ne a nd e ve r yda y w or l d, i nt o a l i m i na l r e a l m ( S a ns om 5 ) T he a nt hr opol ogi s t K om a t s u K a z uhi ko w r i t e s t ha t k am i k ak us hi i s a ve r di c t of s oc i a l de a t h i n t hi s w or l d a nd c om i ng ba c k t o t h i s w or l d f r om k am i k ak us hi m e a nt s oc i a l r e s ur r e c t i on w hi c h c a n de s c r i be C hi hi r o s gr ow t h i n c ha r a c t e r f r om t he m om e nt of e nt e r i ng i nt o t he l i m i na l ba t hhous e w or l d a s a ne w s oc i a l be i ng a nd he r r e s ur r e c t i on upon he r r e t ur n. H e a dds t he t r ut h of k am i k ak us hi c oul d ha ve be e n a r una w a y di s l i ki ng a vi l l a ge l ong i ng f o r u r ba n c i t y o r e l ope m e nt T he r e a l m o f ka m i ka kus hi c o nve ni e nt l y s i t ua t e s a r una w a y i n t he r e a l m of de i t y. ( R e i de r 5 ) A s t he T ono T a l e s i l l us t r a t e pe opl e w i t h m e nt a l i l l ne s s e s w e r e s om e t i m e s e xpl a i ne d a s k am i k ak us hi a ki n t o be i ng pos s e s s e d. ( S a dl e r 219 ) T he r e a r e g r e a t di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he k am i k ak us hi of C hi hi r o, a nd t he m or e c om m on k am i k ak us hi t a l e s U s ua l l y t he pe r s ons w a nde r i ng i nt o k am i k ak us hi a r e w om e n s om e t i m e s young, l i ke C hi hi r o bu t t he y m a y a l s o be m e n. T he f ol kl or e s t a t e s t ha t i f

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14 w om e n w ho ha ve di s a ppe a r e d a r e s e e n a ga i n, t he y of t e n r e c ou nt t a l e s o f be i ng c a pt ur e d by pow e r f ul s om e t i m e s m ys t i c a l m e n w ho f or c e t he m t o be c om e t he i r w i ve s a nd be a r t he m c hi l dr e n, w hi c h t he y l a t e r c ons um e T he y of t e n a l s o e xpr e s s a S t oc khol m l i ke s yndr om e of r e m a i ni ng l oya l t o t he i r hus ba nds de s pi t e t he ove r a l l t e r r o r of t he s i t ua t i on a nd t he pos s i bi l i t y f o r e s c a pe L uc ki l y, C hi hi r o doe s not s uf f e r t he gr ue s om e f a t e of t he s e f ol kl o r e w om e n, t hough e l e m e nt s of t he or i gi na l k am i k ak us hi t a l e s c a n be di s c e r ne d. W hi l e not t o a m a n C hi hi r o doe s be c om e e ns l a ve d t o Y uba ba a nd t he ba t hhous e w or l d. Y uba ba r e i ns he r by s t e a l i ng t he k anj i i n he r o r i gi na l na m e w hi c h s l ow l y t ur ns i nt o t he l os s of i de nt i t y ( l uc ki l y, s he i s r e m i nde d o f he r na m e by H a ku a nd w a r ne d not t o l os e he r s e ns e of s e l f ) T he r e m a y be a pa r a l l e l t o m o r e t r a di t i ona l t a l e s of k am i k us hi i n w hi c h vi c t i m s of k am i k ak us hi m a y not f e e l a bl e t o r e t u r n t o t he i r t o w ns be c a us e t he y ha ve be e n s o f a r r e m ove d i n t he i r r o l e a nd t he r e f or e i de nt i t y t o s oc i e t y dur i ng t he i r d i s a ppe a r a nc e O ve r a l l t he us e of k am i k ak us hi i s t ypi c a l o f M i ya z a ki s c ol l a ge s t or yt e l l i ng s t yl e i n w hi c h he upda t e s or r e i nve nt s t r a di t i ona l f ol kl o r e I t a l s o he l ps t o s e t t he c ont e xt o f t he s t or y a s l ooki ng i nt o t he c ul t u r a l r oo t s of t he pa s t

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15 S u r ve y of Jap an i n t h e 20 t h C e n t u r y A f t e r C h i na s ope ni ng w i t h t he W e s t e r n w o r l d f or t r a de f ol l ow i ng t he N a nki ng T r e a t y of 1842, t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ha d a s pe c i a l i nt e r e s t i n J a pa n a s i t w a s i n t he c r os s r oa ds be t w e e n C hi na a nd C a l i f or ni a M a ny A m e r i c a n w ha l e r s a l s o hunt e d i n t he w a t e r s of t he N o r t h P a c i f i c w hi c h w oul d ha ve m a d e J a pa n a good pl a c e t o ob t a i n ne e de d s uppl i e s t o A m e r i c a n s hi ps ( K a r a n 61) E l e ve n ye a r s l a t e r M a t t he w C P e r r y a r r i ve d i n T okyo B a y t o de l i ve r a l e t t e r r e que s t i ng f or e i gn t r a de t o t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he e m pe r or H e r e t ur n e d i n F e br ua r y 1854, a nd w i t hi n a m ont h t he T r e a t y of K a na ga w a l a t e r know n a s t he T r e a t y o f Y okoha m a ope ne d t w o por t s t o s hi pw r e c ke d A m e r i c a n s a i l or s a nd A m e r i c a n t r a de B e i ng i m pr e s s e d by t he t e c hnol ogi c a l a dva nc e s of t he A m e r i c a ns m a ny J a pa ne s e t houg ht J a pa n ne e de d t o m ode r ni z e t o r e m a i n i nd e pe nde nt I n 1868 l e a de r s f r om S a t s um a a nd C hos hu s e i z e d t he I m pe r i a l P a l a c e i n K yot o br i ngi ng t he e nd o f t he t w o a nd a ha l f c e nt ur y T okuga w a s hoguna t e R e or ga ni z a t i on of t he gove r nm e nt be ga n dur i ng t he M e i j i R e s t or a t i on, s ha pi ng i t a l ong t he l i ne s o f m o de r n W e s t e r n e xa m pl e T he bus i ne s s m e t hods w e r e pa t t e r ne d f r om t he U ni t e d S t a t e s t h e l e ga l s ys t e m a f t e r t he F r e nc h, a nd t he na vy a f t e r t he B r i t i s h. B ut i t w a s B i s m a r c k s G e r m a ny t ha t i m p r e s s e d t he J a pa ne s e m o s t T he y bui l t a m i l i t a r y m a c hi ne a nd a n a ut ho r i t a r i a n gove r nm e nt a nd e duc a t i on s ys t e m on t he m ode l of t he G e r m a n e m pi r e ( K a r a n 62) F i ve i m por t a nt f a c t or s s ha pe d t he de ve l opm e nt a nd s pa t i a l i nt e gr a t i on o f J a pa n: w a t e r m a na ge m e nt a nd r i ve r a nd f l ood c o nt r ol r oa d c ons t r uc t i on a nd m a i nt e na nc e ha r bor c ons t r uc t i on a nd m a i nt e na nc e r a i l w a y c ons t r uc t i on, a nd c i t y a nd r e gi ona l

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16 pl a nni ng. ( K a r a n 62 63) I n 1894 J a pa n a t t a c ke d C hi na l a t e r a nne xi ng T a i w a n a nd K or e a I n 1904 i t a t t a c ke d R us s i a a nd de f e a t e d i t o n l a nd a nd s e a t a ki ng t he s out he r n ha l f of S a kha l i n I s l a nd a nd R us s i a s r a i l r oa d a nd p or t c onc e s s i ons i n s out h M a nc hur i a T he s e e ve nt s m a de J a pa n a n i nc r e a s i ngl y pow e r f ul f or c e i n E a s t e r n A s i a I n M a r c h 1919 J a pa ne s e t r oops br ut a l l y s uppr e s s e d t he M a r c h F i r s t m ove m e nt or t he S a m i l I nde pe nde nc e M ove m e nt w hi c h de m a nde d t he i nd e pe nde nc e of K or e a E m pe r or T a i s ho, s on of one o f E m pe r or M e i j i s c onc ubi ne s w a s l a t e r s uc c e e de d i n 1926 by H i r ohi t o E m pe r or S how a ( w hi c h m e a nt e nl i ght e nm e nt a nd ha r m ony) L i ke hi s f a t he r he d i d not i nvol ve hi m s e l f i n t he de ve l opm e nt o f J a pa n, l a r g e l y be c a us e of hi s i l l he a l t h. ( K a r a n 63) T he 1920 s i n J a pa n s a w a pol i t i c a l t r e nd t ow a r d a di ve r s i t y of t hought a nd pow e r T he m a i n a c t or s vy i ng f o r pow e r w e r e t he m i l i t a r y t he z ai bat s u w hi c h w e r e bi g f a m i l y ow ne d c or por a t i ons a nd l i be r a l i nt e l l e c t ua l s i n t he c i t i e s I n ur ba n a r e a s e nga ge m e nt w i t h pol i t i c s w a s gr ow i ng a nd ne w m i ddl e c l a s s w hi t e c ol l a r l i be r a l t r e nds w e r e pa l pa bl e i n t he D i e t U r ba n w or ke r s be ga n m obi l i z i ng a n d uni ons t r i pl e d i n num be r of m e m be r s ye t t he pe a s a nt r y, w ho s t i l l a c c ount e d f o r a m a j or i t y of t he popul a t i on w a s f a r r e m ove d f r om t he pol i t i c a l a t m os phe r e o f t he c i t y. ( R e i s c ha ue r 150 3) A n ur ba n popul a r c ul t ur e r e vol ut i on be ga n i n J a pa n, w i t h i t s ow n c ount e r pa r t t o A m e r i c a n f l a ppe r s m oga a c ont r a c t i on o f t he E n gl i s h w or ds m ode r n gi r l a nd m obo f or m ode r n boy C i t y l i f e be c a m e a l i ve w i t h c a f e s be e r j oi nt s a nd f i l m t he a t e r s of t e n s how i ng H ol l yw ood f l i c ks or J a pa ne s e f i l m s m a de i n t he H ol l yw ood s t yl e T he r e w a s a n i nc r e a s e i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on s ought by m e n i n ur ba n e nvi r onm e nt s a nd a l i t e r a t ur e m ove m e nt w a s buddi ng a s w e l l T he r e w a s a g r e a t e r de m a nd f o r m a r r i a ge s ba s e d on l ove

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17 i ns t e a d of a r r a nge m e nt f or a l l c l a s s e s ( 155 156) T he pe a s a nt r y a ga i n w a s f a r r e m ove d f r om t h i s ne w w a y of ur ba n l i f e a nd be i ng m or e c ons e r va t i ve t he y l ooke d dow n upon t hi s bour ge oi s l i f e s t yl e D ur i ng t hi s s a m e t i m e ul t r a na t i ona l i s t i c s e c r e t s oc i e t i e s s t a r t e d f or m i ng. ( 157 ) T he m i l i t a r y be ga n ga i ni ng s uppor t w i t hi n t he pe a s a nt r y. W hi l e ur ba n w or ke r s ha d uni ons a nd i nf l ue nc e w i t h i n t he m i ddl e c l a s s l i be r a l s phe r e t he ne e ds of pe a s a nt s w e r e unde r r e pr e s e nt e d by bi g bus i ne s s a nd t he l i be r a l i nt e l l e c t ua l s of t he c i t i e s w ho m os t l y vi e w e d f a r m e r s a s ba c kw a r ds W hi l e pe a s a nt a f f a i r s w e r e i gnor e d i n c i t i e s t he m i l i t a r y be ga n de ve l opi ng a pa t e r na l i s t i c r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h pe a s a nt r y. M os t boys w ho j oi ne d t he m i l i t a r y c a m e f r om pe a s a nt f a m i l i e s F o r t he di f f i c ul t dow nt r odde n l i f e t ha t w a s be i ng a f a r m e r l i f e i n t he a r m y w a s vi e w e d a s a gl or i ous a l t e r na t i ve I t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t boys j oi ne d t he a r m y a t t he a ge o f 14 a nd he nc e r e c e i ve d a s pe c i a l m i l i t a r y e duc a t i on i ns t e a d of t he uni ve r s a l e duc a t i on of f e r e d t o ot he r c hi l dr e n T hi s i ndoc t r i na t i on of s ol di e r s f r om a ve r y yo ung a ge c om bi ne d w i t h f a m i l i a l t i e s l e d t o a m ut ua l l y r e i nf or c i ng r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe a s a nt s a nd t he m i l i t a r y t ha t w a s i m por t a nt i n t he l e gi t i m i z a t i on of t he m i l i t a r i s t i c s t a t e t ha t f ol l ow e d ( 160 162 ) A s t he G r e a t D e pr e s s i on s e t t l e d i n t he l a t e 1920 s t he r e w a s a gr ow i ng di s s a t i s f a c t i on w i t h t he W e s t e r n e c onom i c a nd pol i t i c a l m ode l w hi c h now a ppe a r e d vul ne r a bl e A s pr ot e c t i ve t a r i f f s a r ound t he w o r l d w e r e be i ng put i nt o pl a c e J a pa n s e xpor t i ng e c onom y s uf f e r e d gr e a t l y F ur t he r m or e J a pa n de pe nde d on ot he r l a nds e s pe c i a l l y a r ound E a s t A s i a f or r a w m a t e r i a l s T he m i l i t a r y s a w a gr ow i ng ne e d t o be gi n c ol oni a l e xpa ns i on t o w i n t he ne e de d r a w m a t e r i a l s a nd s t a bi l i z e t he m a r ke t I n 1925 t he P e a c e P r e s e r va t i on L a w w a s pa s s e d by t he D i e t l i m i t i ng f r e e s pe e c h a nd f r e e pol i t i c a l

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18 a c t i on. I n t he w a ke of t he be gi nni ng o f pol i t i c a l a s s a s s i na t i ons by e xt r e m i s t s pa r l i a m e nt a r i a ns ha d f a i l e d t o t a ke d r a s t i c m e a s ur e s or s t a nd f i r m a ga i ns t t he m i l i t a r y a s i t w a s gr ow i ng. ( R e i s c ha ue r 163 4) I n 1931 t he m i l i t a r y be ga n a n i nva s i on of M a nc hur i a dubbe d t he M a nc hur i a n I nc i de nt w i t hout t he a ppr ova l o r know l e dge o f t h e c i vi l gove r nm e nt T he y s e i z e d t he s ur r oundi ng por t i ons of S ha ngha i a nd i n e a r l y 193 2 M a nc hur i a ha d be e n m a de i nt o t he puppe t s t a t e of M a nc hukuo. ( R e i s c ha ue r 170) M e a nw hi l e a t hom e t he he a d of t he m a j or i t y pa r t y P r e m i e r I nuka i ( of t he S e i uyuka i P a r t y) w a s a s s a s s i na t e d. T he a r m y de m a nde d t he e nd of pa r t y C a bi ne t s A ne w N a t i ona l G ove r nm e nt w a s i ns t a l l e d i n w hi c h t he c om pr om i s e C a bi ne t w a s t o b e m a de of a ba l a nc e of pr o f e s s i ona l bur e a uc r a t s c ont i nge nt s f r om ot he r pol i t i c a l pa r t i e s a nd t he a r m e d f or c e s T he m i l i t a r y t he n r e f us e d t o r e c ogni z e t he pow e r of t he D i e t ov e r t he ne w C a bi ne t ( R e i s c ha ue r 173) A n unde f i ne d s t a t e of na t i ona l c r i s i s w a s c onc oc t e d t o m a ke w a r s e e m i m m i ne nt a nd c i t i z e ns w e r e e nc our a ge d i ndul ge i n p r e j udi c e s a ga i ns t f or e i gne r s a nd s e e t he m a s pot e nt i a l s pi e s W he t he r t he y w on e l e c t i ons or not t he pa r l i a m e nt a r i a ns w e r e gr a dua l l y l os i ng c ont r ol of gove r nm e nt I n D e c e m be r 1926 t he P r i nc e R e ge nt T a i s ho be c a m e E m pe r or S how a H e w a s i nt e r pr e t e d a s a m ode r a t e gr ow i n g up dur i ng a pe r i od of de m oc r a t i c gr ow t h i n J a pa n, w e l l t r a ve l e d i n t he W e s t a nd w i t h a n i nt e r e s t i n m a r i ne bi ol ogy. D e s pi t e c ons c i ous e f f or t s t o di s s ua de t he m i l i t a r y f r om f u r t he r w a r e s pe c i a l l y w i t h t he W e s t hi s vi e w s m e a nt ve r y l i t t l e t o t he m i l i t a r i s t i c m a c hi ne A t t he s a m e t i m e t he m i l i t a r y w a s us i ng t he e m pe r or a s a puppe t c l a i m i ng t o be c a r r yi ng ou t hi s di vi ne w i l l a nd ga i ni ng j us t i f i c a t i on f r om a p or t i on o f t he pub l i c w ho ha d be e n i ndoc t r i na t e d i nt o

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19 bl i nd l oya l t y t o t he e m pe r or ( R e i s c ha ue r 182 183 ) T he r e ha s be e n gr e a t de ba t e i n t he l a s t ha l f c e nt ur y on H i r ohi t o s r ol e a s m a s t e r m i nd or puppe t be hi nd J a pa n s m i l i t a r i s t i c r e gi m e A m or e c ont e m po r a r y bi og r a phy of E m pe r or H i r ohi t o by H e r be r t P B i x ( 2000) l ooks a t of f i c i a l r e c or ds di a r i e s a nd m e m oi r s a nd pr ovi de s e vi de nc e of H i r oh i t o s i nvol ve m e nt i n i nva s i on m i s s i ons i n E a s t A s i a a s w e l l a s a ppr ova l of t he a t t a c k on P e a r l H a r bor ( K a r a n 65) I n F e b r ua r y 1936 t he vot i ng publ i c i n t he ge ne r a l e l e c t i ons e ndor s e d l i be r a l c a ndi da t e s s how i ng bot h t he i r pol i t i c a l l e a ni ngs b ut a l s o t he i r de s i r e f or t he p r e vi ous pa r l i a m e nt a r y a s oppos e d t o m i l i t a r y m ode l W i t hi n t he s a m e m ont h how e ve r t he m i l i t a r y a s s a s s i na t e d m a ny s t a t e s m e n, i nc l udi ng A dm i r a l S a i t o w ho w a s a c l os e a dvi s or t o t he E m pe r or a nd t he c om pr o m i s e c a ndi da t e t o s uc c e e d I nuka i V oi c i ng oppos i t i on t o t he m i l i t a r y w a s be c om i ng da nge r ous a s c i vi l i a ns w e r e t hr ow n i n j a i l a nd pol i t i c i a ns w e r e m ur de r e d. T he z ai bat s u w e r e a t f i r s t a f r a i d o f t he r i s ks a nd e xpe ns e of w a r t hough t he y be ga n t ur ni ng t o t he m i l i t a r y a s c ol oni a l ve nt u r e s be c a m e e c onom i c a l l y s uc c e s s f ul J a pa n a ppe a r e d t o be t a ki ng t he f i r s t s t e ps t ow a r d a c ur i ous s or t of s t a t e s oc i a l i s m bo r n of z ai bat s u c a pi t a l i s m a nd s i r e d by m i l i t a r i s t i c a ut hor i t a r i a ni s m ( R e i s c ha ue r 180) I n 1937 t he a r m y i n C hi na a dva nc e d a nd c a pt ur e d P e ki ng, dubbe d a t hom e onc e m or e a s t he P e ki ng i nc i de nt T he m a s s a c r e of N a nj i ng t ook pl a c e b r i e f l y a f t e r w a r d, a s 30 0, 000 c i vi l i a ns w e r e r obbe d, s l a ught e r e d or r a pe d a f t e r t he c a pi t a l w a s a l r e a dy c a pt ur e d. G r ow i ng t e ns i ons i n E ur ope s e ns i t i z e d t he U S t o t he ha ppe ni ngs i n E a s t A s i a a nd t he U S a dva nc e d f r om ve r ba l pr ot e s t s a nd non r e c ogni t i on o f J a pa n s c onque s t s t o e c o nom i c s a nc t i ons W i t h t he he l p of t he E ngl i s h a nd t he D ut c h, J a pa n w a s c ut of f f r om i t s i r on a nd oi l s uppl y, a ne e de d a m e ni t y f or a w a r m a c hi ne

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20 A s J a pa n w a s i nc r e a s i ngl y e c onom i c a l l y s pe nt f r om t he ne w e c onom i c s a nc t i ons a nd t he w a r i n C hi na t w o opt i ons s e e m e d t o pr e s e nt t he m s e l ve s T he e c onom i c a l l y m i nde d m ode l w a s t o w i t hdr a w f r om M a nc hur i a w hi c h w oul d r e ga i n i nt e r na t i ona l t r us t a nd e a s e t he e c onom y. T hi s m ode l how e ve r m e a nt t ha t t he ne w w a ve of c ol oni a l e xpa ns i on w a s a m i s t a ke on t he m i l i t a r y s pa r t L o s i ng f a c e w oul d m e a n a s hi f t i n s ym pa t hy t ow a r d bi g bus i ne s s a nd t he z a i ba t s u, a n d he nc e l os i ng pow e r i n J a pa n. T he ot he r m or e pe r t i ne nt c hoi c e w a s t o br e a k t he e c onom i c bl oc ka de i m pos e d by t he W e s t s o i n D e c e m be r 1941 J a pa n de c l a r e d w a r on t he U ni t e d S t a t e s by a t t a c ki ng P e a r l H a r bor ( R e i s c ha ue r 180 6) T he A m e r i c a ns a f t e r w a r d r e bui l t t he i r na vy qui c kl y a nd by t he s um m e r o f 1942 t he y s t oppe d t he a dva nc e of t he J a pa ne s e a t M i dw a y a nd G ua da c a na l a nd i n 1943 t he y t ook t he of f e ns i ve T he U S l a t e r c ut l i f e l i ne s of J a pa n t o S out he a s t A s i a r e c a pt ur e d t he P hi l i ppi ne s a nd s e i z e d O ki na w a t he m a i n i s l a nd i n t he R yukyu c ha i n. T he J a pa ne s e how e ve r f ought w i t h a f a na t i c i s m bo r n o f l ong i n doc t r i na t i on. ( R e i s c ha ue r 198) T he gr ow i ng di s a s t e r s of t he w a r ha d c om e t o di s c r e di t t he i ns t r um e nt of t he m i l i t a r y i n t he hom e l a nd. T he t w o a t om bom bs t ha t de s t r oye d H i r os hi m a a nd N a ga s a ki ga ve t he m i l i t a r y ve r y l i t t l e c hoi c e T he E m pe r o r a nd m i l i t a r i s t s a c c e pt e d t he unc ondi t i ona l s ur r e nde r f or m ul a i s s ue d by t he U S C hi na a nd G r e a t B r i t a i n i n P ot s da m on J ul y 26. T he w a r c a m e t o a n a br u pt e nd a s t he E m pe r o r hi m s e l f a nnounc e d t he s ur r e nde r on J a pa ne s e r a di o. ( R e i s c ha ue r 190 200) T he A l l i e d O c c upa t i on o f J a pa n t he n be ga n w i t h t h e a r r i va l o f G e ne r a l D oug l a s M a c A r t hur on S e pt e m be r 2 n d 1945 a nd l a s t e d s i x y e a r s unt i l A pr i l 28 t h 1952 T he r e w a s ve r y l i t t l e r e s i s t a nc e t o t he O c c upa t i on a s t he c om p l e t e di s a s t e r of t he f or m e r l e a de r s

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21 br ought a bout de e p di s i l l us i onm e nt w i t hi n t he J a pa ne s e publ i c I nt e r e s t i ngl y, t he a ve r a ge J a pa ne s e t hought t ha t he o r s he ha d be e n w r ong i n t he w a r bu t onl y be c a us e t he gove r nm e nt ha d m i s l e d t he publ i c V e r y f e w J a pa ne s e f e l t pe r s ona l gui l t f or t he w a r U nde r t he O c c upa t i on, J a pa n w a s t o di s s ol ve i t s m i l i t a r y, pa y r e pa r a t i ons f or t he w a r a nd b e de pr i ve d of t he E m pe r or ( R e i s c ha ue r 205) J a pa n w a s a l s o t o r e c e i ve a i d a nd gui da nc e i n bui l di ng a de m oc r a t i c e c onom i c a l l y s t a bl e m ode l T he r e w a s a pur gi ng of m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s D i e t m e m be r s hi gh r a nki ng bur e a uc r a t s bus i ne s s m e n a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l s b e l i e ve d t o ha ve be e n a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pe r pe t ua t i ng pr i or a ggr e s s i on. T he r e w a s a n a l m os t c om pl e t e t ur nove r of a l l t op pos i t i ons w hi c h a ve r a ge d t o a bout 200, 000 m e n. W a r c r i m e t r i a l s w e r e e s t a bl i s he d t o t r y t hos e s us pe c t e d of w a r c r i m e s ; of t hos e c onvi c t e d, s om e w e r e ha nge d, s om e w e r e i m p r i s one d f or l i f e a nd ot he r s w e r e ba r r e d f r om t he i r pos i t i on. A ne w c ons t i t ut i on w a s dr a f t e d i n 1946 by t he J a pa ne s e gove r nm e nt w i t h a dvi c e a nd pr e s s ur e f r om O c c upa t i on a ut hor i t i e s T he P ot s da m P r oc l a m a t i on c l a i m e d t ha t t h e ne w J a pa ne s e gove r nm e nt e s t a bl i s he d ne e de d t o be i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he J a pa ne s e pe opl e D i s e s t a bl i s hi ng t he E m pe r or w a s s e e n a s t oo dr a s t i c of a m ove f or a pe opl e s o de e pl y c onne c t e d t o i t s r ol e s o a de c i s i on w a s m a de t o ke e p t he E m pe r o r i nt a c t ye t on l y a s a s ym bol ( T hi s m ove w a s not s o c om pl e t e l y r e vol ut i ona r y a s t he t w o pr i o r e m pe r o r s ha d l i t t l e pow e r a nd a c t e d on a dvi c e of a dvi s or s ) T he D i e t w a s e s t a bl i s he d a s t he hi ghe s t or ga n of pow e r a nd a s t he s ol e l a w m a ki ng body. T he P r i m e M i ni s t e r s houl d be c hos e n by t he D i e t f r om i t s ow n m e m be r s T he C a bi ne t w hi c h ha d t a ke n c ont r ol dur i ng t he m i d 1930 s w a s de f i ne d a s t he e xe c ut i ve c om m i t t e e of t he D i e t I t w a s t o be f or c e d t o r e s i gn i n t he c a s e of a vot e of no c on f i de nc e by t he H ous e of R e pr e s e nt a t i ve s T he s e ne w r ol e s

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22 of t he E m pe r or D i e t a nd C a bi ne t r e s t or e d a s ys t e m of pa r t y gove r n m e nt ba s e d on pa r l i a m e nt a r y m a j or i t y. A H ous e o f C ounc i l l or s w hi c h i nc l ude d w om e n, w a s e s t a bl i s he d a s w e l l w i t h 250 c ounc i l l or s s e r vi ng 6 ye a r t e r m s A n i nde pe nde nt j udi c i a r y s ys t e m w i t h a S upr e m e C our t w a s i ns t a l l e d. T he r e w a s a n ove r a l l a t t e m pt t o s t r e ngt he n l oc a l gove r nm e nt w hi c h i nc r e a s e d i t s pow e r s f o r t a xa t i on a nd l e gi s l a t i on. ( R e i s c ha ue r 213 219) T he J a pa ne s e pe opl e w e r e r e c ogni z e d a s t he l oc us of s ove r e i gnt y T he r i ght s de f i ne d i n t he ne w c ons t i t ut i on i nc l ude d t he r i ght t o r e c e i ve e qua l e duc a t i on, t he r i ght a nd t he obl i ga t i on t o w or k t he r i ght of w o r ke r s t o or ga ni z e a nd ba r ga i n c ol l e c t i ve l y, a c a de m i c f r e e dom a nd e qua l i t y of t he s e xe s i n m a r r i a ge ( R i e s c ha ue r 218) W om e n w e r e f ur t he r m o r e gr a nt e d f ul l l e ga l e qua l i t y a nd e q ua l e duc a t i ona l oppor t uni t i e s w i t h m e n. L a w s t ha t ga ve a ut ho r i t y t o f a m i l y he a ds w e r e a bol i s he d. ( R e i s c ha ue r 221) E duc a t i ona l r e f o r m w a s e nvi s i one d t o e xt e nd e qua l i z e a nd l i be r a l i z e e duc a t i on. T e xt books w e r e r e vi s e d t o e l i m i na t e m i l i t a r i s t i c pr opa ga nda a nd e t hi c s c our s e s w e r e t r a de d i n f or s oc i a l s c i e nc e s T he c om pul s or y s c ho ol i ng w a s r a i s e d f r om 6 t o 9 ye a r s t hough m os t c hi l dr e n w e r e a t t e ndi ng s c hool f or a m uc h l onge r pe r i od of t i m e T he m ode l w a s t a ke n a f t e r t he U S a nd w hi l e s om e s a y i t c r e a t e d uni nhi bi t e d s t ude nt s m a ny J a pa ne s e f e l t t he qua l i t y of e duc a t i on ove r a l l s uf f e r e d. A not he r bi g c ha nge o f t he O c c upa t i on w a s t he s pr e a di ng of t he z ai bat s u s c onc e nt r a t i on of w e a l t h C hi e f e xe c ut i ve s of z ai ba t s u w e r e pur ge d, a s s e t s w e r e f r oz e n, bul ks of hol di ngs w e r e t a ke n ove r by t he gove r nm e nt a nd i nhe r i t a nc e t a xe s a nd gr a dua t e d i nc om e pol i c i e s w e r e i m pos e d t o c om pl i c a t e t he a c c um ul a t i on of w e a l t h. I n

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23 t he r ur a l a r e a s a bs e nt e e l a nd ow ne r s hi p w a s a bol i s he d, f u r t he r s pr e a di ng t he r e s our c e s of l a nd. ( R e i s c ha ue r 219 22) A s t he C ol d W a r c hi l l c r e pt a c r os s t he P a c i f i c i t b e c a m e obvi ous t ha t J a pa n w a s a pr i m a r y ba t t l e f i e l d f o r t he U S due t o i t s l oc a t i on ne a r R us s i a a nd C hi na A t t he s a m e t i m e i t s c hi e f m a r ke t s i n A s i a ha d di s s ol ve d due t o e c onom i c de c l i ne f r om c i vi l w a r a nd t he C ol d W a r E c onom i c r e c ove r y t he n be c a m e a m a j or obj e c t i ve i n J a pa n, a nd s om e m or e c ons e r va t i ve m e a s ur e s w e r e t a ke n, i nc l udi ng r e s t r i c t i ng t he l a bo r uni ons t ha t w e r e put i nt o pl a c e i n t he e a r l i e r pa r t of t he O c c upa t i on. C r i t i c i s m of ge ne r a l A m e r i c a n pol i c i e s i n J a pa n gr e w a s di d t he c r i t i c i s m of l uxur i e s of t he A m e r i c a n c onque r or s a t t he e xpe ns e of t he J a pa ne s e pe opl e I t be c a m e c l e a r t h a t W ha t w a s ne e de d w a s m or e i ni t i a t i ve a nd e xpe r i e nc e i n de m oc r a t i c p r a c t i c e s on t he pa r t of t he J a pa ne s e not m or e out s i de di r e c t i on. ( 226) B y 1947 t he U S w a nt e d t o b r i ng a n e nd t o t he O c c upa t i on a nd bui l d a pe a c e t r e a t y. T r e a t y e f f o r t s w e r e s t a l l e d by t he S ovi e t U ni on s i n s i s t e nc e t ha t pe a c e t e r m s s houl d be de c i de d on t he t e r m s of t he G r e a t P ow e r s not j us t t he U S N ot w a nt i ng t o s e e a de m oc r a t i c pr ogr a m f l ou r i s h i n a ne a r by c ount r y, t he S ovi e t U ni on w oul d ha ve us e d i t s pow e r t o ve t o t he pe a c e t r e a t y. W he n t he C om m uni s t r e gi m e o f N o r t h K or e a n i nv a de d i t s s out he r n ne i ghbor on J une 25 t h 1950, a t t e nt i on i n t he U S w a s di ve r t e d a w a y f r om dom e s t i c i s s ue s i n J a pa n a nd t ow a r d m i l i t a r y de ve l opm e nt s i n K o r e a T he K or e a n W a r ha s t e ne d t he de c i s i on t o t u r n pow e r ba c k t o t he J a pa ne s e T he pe a c e t r e a t y w i t h J a pa n w a s s i gne d a nyw a y on A pr i l 28t h 1952 by f or t y e i ght na t i ons but not by R us s i a or C hi na T he t r e a t y c ont a i ne d J a pa n t o t he m a i n i s l a nds of H ons hu, K yus hu, S hi nkoku a nd H okka i do. ( 227 229 ) I t o f f i c i a l l y

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24 e nde d t he A m e r i c a n oc c upa t i on i n J a pa n, ye t i t s e c onom i c t i e s w e r e not a s e a s i l y di s e nt a ngl e d. A s J a pa n s i m por t s e xc e e de d i t s e xp or t s i t s e c onom y w a s s t i l l he a vi l y de pe nde nt on t he U S F ur t he r m or e a s e c ur i t y pa c t w a s m a de w i t h t he U S f o r t he c ont i nua t i on of A m e r i c a n ba s e s i n J a pa n. T he pub l i c w a s s ha r pl y di vi de d on t hi s i s s ue of a r m a m e nt F ur t he r m or e t he A m e r i c a n a r m y ha d g r e a t l y i nc r e a s e d i t s pur c ha s e s of goods a nd s e r vi c e s i n J a pa n s t r e ngt he ni ng t he J a pa ne s e m a r ke t ( 228 231 ) J a pa n e c onom y a nd ur ba n a r e a s w e r e de va s t a t e d a f t e r t he w a r A bout ha l f o f ur ba n hous i ng w a s de s t r oye d by a i r r a i ds a nd T ok yo s popul a t i on de c r e a s e d by m o r e t ha n ha l f U r ba n i ndus t r y w a s de m ol i s he d, a nd m a r i ne m e r c ha nt s w hi c h ha d be e n a t t he he a r t of J a pa ne s e pr e w a r c ul t ur e a nd e c onom y ha d di s a ppe a r e d. A g r i c ul t ur e ha d m a i nt a i ne d i t s e l f be t t e r t ha n a ny ot he r i ndus t r y dur i ng t he w a r ye t i t c oul d not f e e d J a pa n s r a pi dl y gr ow i ng popul a t i on e ve n i n t he m o s t f r ui t f u l of s e a s ons T he u r ba n dw e l l e r s w e r e hi t t he ha r de s t t r a di ng w ha t e ve r w a s l e f t o f t he i r pos i t i ons t o obt a i n f ood f r om l ong t r i ps t o t he c ount r y s i de S om e a t t e m pt e d t o gr ow t he i r ow n f ood on w ha t e ve r ur ba n s c r a ps of l a nd t he y c oul d f i nd, but t he a ve r a ge ur ba n dw e l l e r l i ve d i n a s t a t e of s e m i s t a r va t i on. M e a nw hi l e i nf l a t i on w a s a bou nd, a nd t he ye n f e l l t o l e s s t ha n one hundr e dt h of i t s pr e w a r va l ue w hi l e t he bl a c k m a r k e t pr i m a r i l y do m i na t e d by K o r e a ns f l our i s he d. ( A r ound 600, 000 K or e a ns f o r c e d i nt o l a bor dur i ng t he F i f t e e n Y e a r s W a r ha d de c i de d t o r e m a i n i n J a pa n. ) T he J a pa ne s e how e ve r l ong a c c us t om e d t o r e s t or i ng t he na t ur a l de va s t a t i ons of e a r t hqua ke s a nd t yphoons t hr e w t he m s e l ve s w i t h c ha r a c t e r i s t i c de t e r m i na t i on a nd vi go r i nt o t he w o r k of r e s t or i ng t he i r c ount r y f r om t he g r e a t e r m a n m a de hol oc a us t of w a r ( 233 235)

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25 N e w i n dus t r y w a s bui l t i n t e xt i l e s a nd s t e e l a nd a ne w s ur ge i n s hi pbui l di ng e l e c t r oni c s a nd phot ogr a phi c e qui pm e nt be ga n t ha t s uc c e e de d i nt e r na t i ona l l y. T he G N P of J a pa n r i ght a f t e r t he w a r i n 1946 w a s a di s m a l 1 3 bi l l i on U S D gr ow i ng t o 10 9 b i l l i on i n 195 0, 15. 1 bi l l i on i n 1951 ( due t o t he K o r e a n W a r ) a nd f i na l l y by 1962 i t ha d j u m pe d t o 53. 6 bi l l i on ( or 44. 8 bi l l i on i n 1951 va l ue ) A s bus i ne s s w a s f oc us e d on ur ba n i ndus t r y, t he r e w a s r a pi d u r ba ni z a t i on of J a pa n s popul a t i on. T he f a r m e r l a bor f or c e ha d b e e n r e duc e d f r om 41% t o 29 % or f r om 17 m i l l i o n t o 13 m i l l i on f a r m e r s ( 236 238 ) I n t he pos t w a r ye a r s i t w a s c l e a r t ha t J a pa n, de p e nde nt a s i t i s on l a r ge s c a l e t r a de f or i t s ve r y e xi s t e nc e w oul d he nc e f or t h ha ve t o be a c ha m pi on of w or l d pe a c e a nd i nt e r na t i ona l t r a de ( R e i s c ha ue r 232) T he e c onom i c m i r a c l e w a s a t t r i but a bl e t o t he de t e r m i na t i on, o r ga ni z a t i ona l s ki l l s a nd hi gh l e ve l s of e duc a t i on of t he J a pa ne s e c om bi ne d w i t h hi gh t e c hnol ogi c a l a dva nc e s ( 241 ) T he r e w a s s t i l l a de pe nde nc e on t he ou t s i de w or l d f o r s oybe a ns w he a t ot he r c e r e a l s r a w m a t e r i a l s s uc h a s c ot t on, w ool r ubbe r a nd m i ne r a l s a nd oi l ( w hi c h ha d r e pl a c e d c oa l a s t he ne w m a j or pow e r s our c e ) T o c om ba t t he l a r ge a m ount of i m por t s t ha t J a pa n s e c onom y i s ba s e d on, J a pa n m us t e xpor t he a vi l y. R unni ng on a ve r y na r r ow m a r gi n, J a pa n ha s c on s t a nt l y be e n on t he e dge of ba l a nc e of pa ym e nt s pr obl e m s T oo r a pi d a r a t e of dom e s t i c gr ow t h s o s t i m ul a t e s or ove r he a t s t he e c onom y t ha t i m por t s a nd dom e s t i c c ons um pt i on r i s e m or e r a pi dl y t ha n e xpor t s ne c e s s i t a t i ng a be l t t i ght e ni ng ope r a t i on t o c ut dow n on dom e s t i c i nve s t m e nt a nd i m por t s a nd t o m a xi m i z e e xpor t s S uc h c r i s e s w e r e f a c e d, pe r i odi c a l l y i n 1953, 1957 a nd a ga i n i n 1961 ( R e i s c ha ue r 240) W i t h t hi s ne w e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt un f or t una t e l y a l s o c a m e a n i m ba l a nc e of pr i va t e a nd publ i c s e c t or s a s hous i ng, s c hool s r oa ds a nd ha r bor f a c i l i t i e s f e l l be hi nd dur i ng t he 1960 s ( 238 ) T he ove r c r ow de d ur ba n a r e a s pr oduc e d t ypi c a l pr obl e m s o f

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26 ur ba ni z a t i on s uc h a s j uve ni l e de l i nque nc y, l o w w a t e r s uppl i e s a nd i na de qua t e s e w a ge di s pos a l ( 246) O n t he ot he r ha nd, ot he r s t a nda r ds of l i vi ng w e r e r i s i ng, a nd by t he 1960 s J a pa n ha d t he hi ghe s t num be r of s t ude nt s a t t e ndi ng c ol l e ge ne xt t o t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd I s r a e l ( 244 ) T he a r t s i nt e l l e c t ua l a nd l i t e r a r y l i f e w a s f l our i s hi ng onc e m or e by t he 1960 s G e ne r a l a f f l ue nc e b r ought t he pos s i bi l i t i e s f or a de ve l opi ng ni gh t l i f e but a l s o a ne w s t r a nd of c ons um e r i s m f or e nt e r t a i nm e n t a nd c om f o r t i t e m s s uc h a s c a r s w a s hi ng m a c hi ne s a nd e l e c t r i c r e f r i ge r a t o r s ( 247 ) A n a r r a y o f pol i t i c a l pa r t i e s e m e r ge d pos t w a r T h e f our m a i n pa r t i e s w e r e t he L i be r a l s D e m oc r a t s S oc i a l i s t s a nd C om m uni s t s T he L i be r a l s ha d a l e a d w i t h Y os hi da S hi ge r u, a f or m e r di pl o m a t a t t he he a d. M e a s ur e s of de c e nt r a l i z a t i o n t a ke n du r i ng t he O c c upa t i on w e r e r e ve r s e d, a nd s om e m e n w ho ha d pr e vi ous l y be e n pur ge d f r o m of f i c e ha d be e n r e t une d t o t he i r pos i t i on. A t t e nt i on w a s gi ve n t o r e m ove t he e xt r e m e l e f t o r C om m uni s t s f r om of f i c e ( B e a s e l y 254 255) U nd e r A r t i c l e I X of t he C ons t i t ut i on J a pa n ha d t o gi ve up w a r a nd pr om i s e not t o m a i nt a i n l a n d, s e a a nd a i r f or c e s ( R e i s c ha ue r 252 3) U nde r a l i be r a l i nt e r p r e t a t i on o f A r t i c l e I X t he N a t i ona l P ol i c e R e s e r ve be c a m e t he S e l f D e f e ns e F or c e i n 1954. T he S e l f D e f e ns e F or c e i s n ot a r e gul a r s t a ndi ng a r m y, a t l e a s t i n na m e but i s r a t he r e f f i c i e nt l a r ge a nd w e l l e qui ppe d. ( B e a s l e y 255) Y os hi da s c ha nge s c a us e c ont r ove r s y i n J a pa n, a s t he m e m or y of nuc l e a r w a r w a s f r e s h i n t he m i nds of J a pa ne s e T he r e i s e nough oppos i t i on i n t he c ount r y t o br i ng hi s r e s i gna t i on i n 1954. B us i ne s s l e a de r s pr opos e pl a ns t o br i ng L i be r a l s a nd D e m oc r a t s t oge t he r t o f or m a n a l l e m br a c i ng c ons e r va t i ve pa r t y T he L D P ( L i be r a l D e m oc r a t i c P a r t y ) pa r t y w a s t he n f or m e d t o ga i n pow e r ove r a m ul t i t ude of pa r t i e s a nd t o ke e p t he s oc i a l i s t s i n c he c k. T he L D P ha s be e n i n pow e r s i nc e e xc e pt f or a br i e f r e s pi t e i n t he 1990 s T he L D P s

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27 s uc c e s s r e s t e d on c e nt r a l bur e a uc r a c y a c t i ng a s e xp e r t s a dvi s e r s a nd e xe c ut i ve s w hi c h w e r e l a t e r r e c r u i t e d i nt o t he pa r t y f a vor i ng e c onom i c gr ow t h, a nd uni t y a nd l oya l t y t o t he L D P i t s e l f T he pa r t y s ought not br oa d m e m be r s hi p, but r a t he r t he c ul t i va t i on of i nf l ue nt i a l pe opl e ( B e a s e l y 256) I n t he 1980 s J a pa n ha d be c om e t he w or l d s s e c ond s t r onge s t i ndus t r i a l e c onom y, I t s e xpor t s of s t e e l a nd a ut om obi l e s w e r e g r e a t e r t h a n t hos e of t he U S a nd i t be ga n bus i ne s s a s a n i nt e r na t i ona l c r e di t o r T he r e w a s di r e c t i nve s t m e nt a nd f a c t or i e s e s t a bl i s he d ove r s e a s T he ye n s t r e ngt he ne d, bu t t h i s be c a m e a di s a dva nt a ge i n t he l ong r un a s i t c ut J a pa ne s e c om pe t i t i ve ne s s ( 261) I t s d e pe nde nc e on oi l br ought t he oi l s hoc ks of 1973, 1979 a nd 1980, w he r e A r a b oi l p r oduc e r s s ha r pl y i nc r e a s e d t he pr i c e of oi l T he s e oi l s hoc ks put a de nt i n J a pa ne s e pr os pe r i t y, a nd a nnua l g r ow t h r a t e s d e c r e a s e d by 5% T hough J a pa n r e c ove r e d m or e t hor oughl y t ha n o t he r na t i ons gr ow t h w a s ne ve r r e t ur ne d t o t he r a t e of t he 1960 s ( 259) I n t he 1990 s J a pa n unde r w e nt a r e c e s s i on c a us e d by gr ow i ng r i gi di t y i n bus i ne s s s t r uc t ur e m a j or f i na nc i a l m i s c a l c ul a t i ons a nd f i e r c e c om pe t i t i on f r o m t he A s i a n t i ge r e c onom i e s T he L D P w hi c h t ook c r e di t f or t he e c onom i c m i r a c l e be ga n t o s hr i nk N ow t ha t t he C ol d W a r w a s ove r s us pi c i on of C om m uni s m ha d he a vi l y de c r e a s e d. T he L D P w a s r e s t or e d t o t he C a bi ne t how e v e r a nd i s now t he c ur r e nt l y r ul i ng p a r t y. ( B e a s e l y 257) I ve c hos e n t o f oc us a bi g pa r t o f m y t he s i s on t he unc ove r i ng of J a pa ne s e hi s t or y be c a us e i t he l ps t o e xpl a i n M i ya z a ki s quot e r e ga r di ng S pi r i t e d A w a y: S ur r ounde d by hi gh t e c hnol ogy a nd i t s f l i m s y de vi c e s c hi l d r e n a r e m or e a nd m or e l os i ng t he i r r oot s W e m us t i nf or m t he m o f t he r i c hne s s of ou r t r a di t i ons H a ya o M i ya z a ki ( R e i de r 4 ) R e i s c ha ue r e l uc i da t e s t he pr obl e m of ge ne r a t i ona l l os s of r oot s a s he e xpl a i ns :

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28 D i f f e r e nc e s i n a t t i t ude s by ge ne r a t i on a r e m a r ke d e nough i n t he W e s t bu t t he y a r e va s t l y gr e a t e r i n J a pa n. A yout h c om i n g t o hi s m a j or i t y i n t he 1960 s hi s f a t he r w ho r e a c he d m a t ur i t y i n t he w a r ye a r s a nd hi s gr a ndf a t he r w ho gr a dua t e d f r om t he uni ve r s i t y i n t he e a r l y 1920 s a r e pr oduc t s not j us t of di f f e r e nt ge ne r a t i ons but of di f f e r e nt w or l ds T he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd t he out l ooks t he s e ha ve pr oduc e d a r e s o di s s i m i l a r t ha t t he di f f e r e nt ge ne r a t i ons ha r dl y s pe a k t he s a m e l a ngua ge ( R e i s c ha ue r 248 9)

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29 T h e D u al i t y of C h ar ac t e r s H a ku: H a ku s gi ve n na m e i s N i gi ha ya m i K oha kunus hi B y de s c r i pt i on he a ppe a r s t o be a k am i hi m s e l f be l ongi ng t o t he c l a s s of r i ve r gods T he r i ve r gods ha ve no i ndi vi dua l na m e s i n m yt h; t he y a r e c l a s s e s of gods r a t he r t ha n i ndi vi dua l gods o r p r ope r t y gods H a ku a ppr opr i a t e s t he na m e o f t he r i ve r i t s e l f t he K oha ku R i ve r T he r i ve r gods a r e ge ne r a l l y c a l l e d m i dz u c hi or w a t e r f a t he r a nd t he y a r e us ua l l y de s c r i be d a s a n a ni m a l of t he d r a gon s pe c i e s w i t h f our l e gs t he e xa c t de pi c t i on of H a ku s dr a gon pe r s ona I t i s e a s y t o unde r s t a nd how a r i ve r w i t h i t s s i nuous c our s e a nd i t s m ys t e r i ous m ove m e nt w i t hout l e gs s houl d c om e t o be t hought of a s a gr e a t s e r pe nt e s pe c i a l l y i f w e r e m e m be r t he a qua t i c ha bi t s of t he ophi di a R i ve r s ha ve t h e i r f a vour a bl e a nd t he i r m a l e f i c e nt a s pe c t s O n t he one ha d t he y f ur ni s h w a t e r f or i r r i ga t i on, a nd on t he ot he r t he y c a us e de s t r uc t i on a nd l os s of l i f e by t he i r f l oods m e t a phor i c a l l y e x pr e s s e d by t he s e r pe nt s poi s on. ( A s t on, 150) W e m us t r e m e m be r t ha t i n ph i l os ophy, t he k am i a r e t he obj e c t s t he m s e l ve s not t he s pi r i t s t ha t a r e c ont a i ne d w i t hi n t he obj e c t s T he r e f or e i f t he H a ku R i ve r ha d d r i e d, t he n t he c ha r a c t e r o f H a ku s houl d ha ve va ni s he d. H e r e m a i ns i n our f i l m i n hum a n a nd dr a gon f or m bu t t he l os s of hi s i de nt i t y i s p r oba bl y m e t a phor i c a l t o t he l os s of t he r i ve r P e r ha ps t he c e s s a t i on of t he r i ve r a l s o ba ns hi m t o hi s ot he r f o r m s t ha t of dr a gon a nd t ha t of m a n but i t i s une xpl a i ne d w he r e he de r i ve d hi s a nt hr opom or ph i c f o r m L i ke t he c om m on r i ve r gods H a ku h i m s e l f ha s a s i ni s t e r s i de H e w or ks f o r Y uba ba a nd i s c l a i m e d by ot he r c ha r a c t e r s t o be gu i l t y o f c a r r y i n g out he r di r t y w or k. H e a l s o e ns l a ve s hi m s e l f i n t he ba t hhous e i n or de r t o l e a r n m a gi c f r om Y uba ba a nd i n t he

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30 pr oc e s s f or ge t s hi s o w n i de nt i t y T hough he a ppe a r s a t f i r s t t o gu i de a nd pr ot e c t C hi hi r o hi s dua l na t ur e m a ke h i m e l us i ve a nd unt r us t w or t h y on s e c ond gl a nc e T he f ul l na m e he f or ge t s i s N i gi ha ya m i koha kunus hi T he s hor t e ne d ve r s i on a s i t a ppe a r s i n t he ba t hhous e i s s i m pl y H a ku m e a ni n g w hi t e w hi c h r e f e r s t o t he w hi t e dr a gon f or m he m a ni f e s t s i nt o. C r i t i c T a c hi ba na l i ke ns t he s t or y of H a ku w i t h t he f ol kl or e o f H a ku N i gi ha ya m i koha kunus hi i n N i gi ha ya hi H e s a ys : N i gi ha ya hi i s a n i m por t a nt na m e i n a nc i e nt J a pa n e s e hi s t or y D ur i ng t he E m pe r or J i m m u s e a s t e r n e xpe di t i on, t he e m pe r or m e e t s t he r e s i s t a nc e of N a ga s une hi ko [ l i t a m a n w i t h l ong l e gs ] a c hi e f o f a pow e r f u l na t i ve c l a n N i gi ha ya hi ha d m a r r i e d t o N a ga s une hi ko s s i s t e r w ho bo r e hi m a s on; t he r e f or e he i s s uppos e d t o be on N a ga s une hi ko s s i de B ut N i gi ha ya hi a ba ndons N a g a s une hi ko a nd c om e s t o t he e m pe r or s s i de W i t h t he de f e a t of N a gs une hi ko, Y a m a t o r e gi on i s pa c i f i e d. H a ku i s Y uba ba s a ppr e nt i c e but [ N i g i ha ya hi s a c t of de c e i vi ng N a ga s une hi ko] i s s i m i l a r t o H a ku s be t r a yi ng Y uba ba P r oba bl y H a ku s n a m e i s ba s e d upon t hi s na r r a t i ve [ o f N i gi ha ya hi ] ( R e i de r 5 ) A l t hough H a ku ha s a t a i nt e d a nd di f f i c ul t r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h Y uba ba bot h c a r r yi ng out he r w i s he s w hi l e w or ki ng be hi nd he r ba c k, m e a nw hi l e de pe ndi ng on he r f o r hi s s t a t us i n t he ba t hhous e hi s l i ve l i hood a nd hi s l e a r ni ng o f m a gi c he r e m a i ns l oya l t o C hi hi r o t hr oughout t he s t or y. A f t e r he a ppe a r s i n Y uba ba s qua r t e r s du r i ng t he s c e ne w he r e C hi hi r o a s ks Y uba ba f or w or k t he dua l na t u r e of hi s c ha r a c t e r i s pr e s e nt e d t hr ough t he e ye s of C hi hi r o. H a vi ng t r us t e d hi s a dvi c e e a r l i e r C hi hi r o f i nds he r s e l f a c c om pa ni e d by a de e p s i nki ng f e e l i ng, w hi c h i s l a t e r e xpr e s s e d i n he r ge s t ur e a nd f l i m s y voi c e dur i ng he r c onve r s a t i on w i t h L i n H a ku s c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on i s t ypi c a l of M i ya z a ki s w or k w hi c h di s t i ngui s he s i t f r om m a ny s i m i l a r W e s t e r n f a i r y i n c l udi ng a w e l l de f i ne d i nnoc e nt or ul t i m a t e l y good p r ot a goni s t a ga i ns t a n unr e de e m a b l e a nt a goni s t Y uba ba s c ha r a c t e r

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31 f unc t i ons t he s a m e w a y; s he w i l l be di s c us s e d l a t e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r W he n H a ku a ppe a r s i n Y uba ba s qua r t e r s he a ppe a r s s t oi c a nd l a t e r ke e ps hi s pe r s ona i n t he e l e va t or t o m a i nt a i n t he s uppos e d di s t a nc e be t w e e n hi m a nd C hi hi r o, pr e ppi ng he r f or t he dyna m i c t ha t t he y m us t f ol l ow i n or de r not t o a r ous e s us pi c i on i n t he ba t hhous e H i s di s t a nt de m e a nor t ow a r d he r i s j a r r i ng how e ve r a nd t he s i nc e r i t y be hi nd hi s be ha vi or i s a m bi guous I t i s not unt i l l a t e r t ha t w e di s c ove r hi s l oya l t y t o he r A ga i ns t t he V i c t or i a n de c or a t i ons o f Y uba ba s c a s t l e H a ku a n d C hi hi r o a ppe a r s t r i ki ngl y s i m i l a r B ot h ve r y young a nd r a t he r a nd r ogynous t he y a ppe a r f l i m s y a nd t hi n c om pa r e d t o t he ove r s i z e d f ur ni t u r e s uc h a s t he c e r a m i c j a r s i n t he ba c kgr ound. W hi l e t he r oom i s e xt r e m e l y de t a i l e d, not j us t i n t he s he e r num be r of ob j e c t s vi s i bl e but a l s o i n t he w a y t he y a r e m e t i c ul ous l y r e nde r e d w i t h m uc h va r i a t i on i n s ha di ng, C hi hi r o a nd H a ku a ppe a r s i m pl e w i t h onl y t w o t one s of va r i a t i on i n t he i r s ki n, ha i r a nd c l ot hi ng. P a r t of t hi s di f f e r e nc e i s l a r ge l y be c a us e of t he na t u r e o f a ni m a t e d f i l m m a ki ng t he

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32 ba c kgr ound i s t e di ous l y pa i nt e d w hi l e t he c ha r a c t e r s a r e r e nde r e d on t op i n a m uc h m or e s t yl i s t i c a l l y s i m pl i s t i c f or m T he i r s t yl e of dr e s s i s di s t i nc t l y s i m pl e e s pe c i a l l y w he n c ont r a s t e d t o Y uba ba s r obe ( w hi c h i s a l s o r e nde r e d i n t he s a m e s i m pl i s t i c t ype of a ni m a t i on) T he c ol or s of t he i r d r e s s a r e a l s o m uc h s i m pl e r w hi t e a ga i ns t bl ue o r l i gh t gr e e n, w hi l e t he ba c kgr ound t he hous e of Y uba ba f e a t ur e s a s ha m e l e s s a r r a y of c ol or s f r om f us c hi a pi nks t o gol ds a nd ol i ve s T houg h H a ku s c ha r a c t e r i s f i r s t i nt r oduc e d he r e a s Y uba ba s he nc hm a n, t he r e f or e di s t a nc i ng or pe r ha ps e ve n be t r a yi ng t he or i gi na l s e nt i m e nt be hi nd hi s r e l a t i ons hi p t o C hi hi r o t he ba c kgr ound a c t s a s a f o i l r e i nf o r c i ng t he i r s i m i l a r i t i e s T he bi gge s t di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he m i s s t i l l e xpr e s s e d t hr ough t he i r dr e s s ; H a ku w e a r s c om m on r obe w e a r f o r pr i e s t s 3 of t he H e i a n pe r i od w hi l e C hi hi r o w e a r s a n out f i t c om m on of m ode r n J a pa ne s e or W e s t e r n c a s ua l w e a r T hi s di s t i nc t i on i n d r e s s i l l us t r a t e s H a ku a s c l os e r t o or m or e a w a r e of t r a di t i ons w hi l e C hi hi r o i s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of a m ode r ni z e d w or l d on t he ot he r s i de f a r r e m ove d f r om t he t r a di t i ona l J a pa n. T hough H a ku s c ha r a c t e r i s f i r s t pr e s e nt e d a s a m bi guous l y l oya l t o C hi hi r o C hi hi r o c a n ul t i m a t e l y r e di s c ove r c ul t ur a l r oot s t hr ough he r f r i e nds hi p t o hi m H a ku s r e l a t i ons hi p t o C hi hi r o i s r e ve r s e d t h r ough out t he m ovi e T ow a r d t he be gi nni ng he t a ke s t he l e a d i n t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p. C hi hi r o i s a ppr e he ns i ve i n t r us t i ng hi m t hough ul t i m a t e l y s he ha s no ot he r c hoi c e S he c a nnot s ur vi ve i n t hi s ne w w or l d w i t h a m yr i a d of r ul e s a nd w i t h t he ni ght m a r i s h m e m or y of l os i ng he r pa r e nt s a l one S he 3 T he [ S hi nt o] pr i e s t s ga r b i s m ode l e d a f t e r t he c os t um e of c our t of f i c i a l s o f t he H e i a n pe r i od. I t ha s no s ym bol i c m e a ni ng a nd i s n ot i nt e nde d a s a m e a ns of di s t i ngui s hi ng t he c l e r gy f r om l a ym e n. W he n l a y m e n pe r f or m r i t ua l f unc t i ons i f t he y a r e of f i c i a l s of t he s hr i ne t he y a l s o w e a r t he ga r b. I n a c c or da nc e w i t h a nc i e nt t r a di t i on, t he c ol or a nd s t yl e i ndi c a t e d t he c l a s s or r a nk of t he w e a r e r ( O no 44)

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33 e ve nt ua l l y t r us t s hi m be c a us e s om e c ue s i nt o t he b a t hhous e w or l d, e ve n i f unc e r t a i n i n i nt e nt i on a r e l e s s f r i ght e ni ng t ha n no c u e s w ha t s oe ve r D ur i ng t he be gi nni ng of t he f i l m C hi hi r o r e s e m bl e s a m or e t r a di t i ona l f e m a l e r ol e of t he da m s e l i n di s t r e s s S he i s i nde e d a young gi r l a nd i n g r e a t di s t r e s s w i t h no r e s our c e s of he r ow n L i ke a c a va l i e r H a ku s w e e ps i n t o he r r e s c ue gi vi ng he r a pl a n t o e ns ur e he r s ur vi va l i n t he ba t hhous e U nl i ke t he u s ua l c a va l i e r da m s e l i n di s t r e s s dyna m i c w he r e he w oul d f i ght of f m a gi c a l c r e a t ur e s a nd C hi hi r o w oul d w a i l on t he s i de l i ne s he c a nnot a nd doe s not he l p he r f ur t he r C hi hi r o m us t f a c e c on vi nc i ng K a m a j i a nd Y uba ba ( ve r y f r i ght e ni ng c ha r a c t e r s ) t ha t s he i s w i l l i ng t o w or k. L a t e r i n t he f i l m w he n H a ku be c om e s ve r y i l l f r o m Z e ni ba s c ur s e s he r e t ur ns t he s e a l t o Z e ni ba t o a s k f o r f or gi ve ne s s on hi s be h a l f S he gi ve s hi m t he l a s t pa r t o f t he m a gi c a l c a ke gi ve n by t he f a m ous r i ve r god ( T he r i ve r god w a s r e vi ve d by pu r i f i c a t i on a nd s o H a ku i s ha nde d t hi s m a gi c a l bun gi f t i n hop e t o be pu r i f i e d f r om t he c ur s e ) W i t h he r he l p he r e c ove r s f r om hi s i l l ne s s a nd l a t e r w i t h he r m e m o r y he r e ga i n s hi s i de nt i t y. T hi s m i xt ur e of m e m or y be t w e e n t he m i l l us t r a t e s t he i r m ut ua l h i s t or y ( e ve n t hough t he y ha ve c om pl e t e l y di f f e r e nt r ol e s i n non i n t e r c ha ngi ng s oc i e t i e s ) l i nki ng t he m t o c om m on J a pa ne s e a nc e s t r y, a nd pe r ha ps t he k am i t he m s e l ve s T he i r r e l a t i ons hi p i s t he r e f o r e not one s i de d. I n a pl a c e w he r e C hi hi r o w a s out of he r e l e m e nt H a ku i s he r r e s our c e w hi l e s he l a t e r be c om e s hi s r e s our c e T he y a r e bot h t he r e f or e i nt e l l i ge nt m ot i va t e d a nd r e s our c e f ul on l y a t di f f e r e nt t i m e s w i t hi n t he f i l m M i ya z a ki s f i l m c a n c ons i de r e d a f e m i ni s t f i l m i n a s oc i e t y w he r e doe e ye d young g i r l s be i ng pr e m a t ur e l y s e xua l i z e d dom i na t e m a nga ( L i da 430) C hi hi r o i s not a c ha r a c t e r t o be gi ve n a s a n obj e c t t o t he ga z e B ot h H a ku a nd C hi hi r o ha ve ve r y a ndr ogynous

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34 a pp e a r a nc e s l ooki ng m uc h m or e s i m i l a r t ha n di s s i m i l a r T he i r ge nde r r ol e s c oul d ha ve be e n e a s i l y r e ve r s e d; i t c oul d ha ve be e n a l i t t l e boy w ho s t um bl e d upon t he ba t hhous e w or l d a nd w a s he l pe d by a gi r l k am i a nd t he ove r a l l s t or y a nd dyna m i c be t w e e n H a ku a n d C hi hi r o w oul d not ha ve c ha nge d ve r y m uc h i f a t a l l T he i r c ha r a c t e r s e m pha s i z e s i nt e r c ha nge a bi l i t y of t he i r ge nde r bot h a e s t he t i c a l l y a nd f unc t i ona l l y m a ki ng a s t r ong s t a t e m e nt a bout t he r ol e of ge nde r i n a s oc i e t y t ha t ha s be e n l a r ge l y pa t r i a r c ha l Y uba ba a nd Z e ni ba T he a s c r i pt i on of t he f e m a l e s e x t o t he m os t pr o m i ne nt a m ong t he G ods [ t he S un G odde s s ] i s not o w i ng m e r e l y t o c a pr i c e M yt h m a ke r s ha v e of t e n m or e s ubs t a nt i a l r e a s ons f or t he i r f a nc i e s t ha n m i ght be s uppos e d. I n t he pr e s e nt c a s e t he r e i s e vi de nc e t ha t w om e n pl a ye d a ve r y i m por t a nt pa r t i n t he r e a l w or l d of a nc i e nt J a pa n a s w e l l a s i n t ha t of i m a gi na t i on. W om e n r ul e r s w e r e a t t hi s t i m e a f a m i l i a r phe no m e non. B ot h J a pa ne s e a nd C hi ne s e hi s t or y gi ve us gl i m ps e s of a f e m a l e M i ka do w ho l i ve d a bout A D 200 a nd w hos e c om m a ndi ng a bi l i t y a nd s t r ong c ha r a c t e r ha ve not be e n w hol l y obs c ur e d by t he m i s t s of l e ge nd W om e n c hi e f t a ns a r e f r e que nt l y m e nt i one d. I nde e d t he C hi ne s e s e e m t o ha ve t hought t ha t f e m i ni ne gove r nm e nt w a s t he r ul e i n J a pa n, f or t he i r hi s t or i a ns f r e que nt l y r e f e r t o i t a s t he Q ue e n c ount r y. I n m or e hi s t or i c a l t i m e s s e ve r a l of t he M i ka dos w e r e w om e n. I n s om e f a m i l i e s de s c e nt w a s t r a c e d by t he f e m a l e l i ne F r om t he K oj i k i w e l e a r n t ha t i n S ui ni n s t i m e i t w a s t he c us t om f o r t he m ot he r t o gi ve c hi l d r e n t he i r na m e s ( A s t on, 13 3) A s m e nt i one d a bove Y uba ba a nd Z e ni ba s i m i l a r t o t he r ol e s o f t he w i c ke d a nd t he good w i t c h i n t he w e s t e r n w or k T he W i z ar d of O z a r e a f a s c i na t i ng duo. O n t he s ur f a c e Y uba ba a ppe a r s c r ue l a nd f r i ght e ni ng. S he r ul e s t he ba t hhous e a nd a ppe a r s t o f ul l y e nj oy a nd t a ke a dva nt a ge of t he pow e r s he hol ds F o r i n s t a nc e s he ha s m a de a pr om i s e t o g i ve w or k t o a nyone w ho a s ks f or i t ye t s he s t i l l a t t e m pt s t o a s s e r t he r dom i na nc e ove r t hi s c ur s e by t r yi ng t o c i r c um ve nt he r obl i ga t i ons t hr ou gh de t e r r i ng C hi hi r o f r om a s ki ng f or w or k.

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35 A t t i m e s s he i s por t r a ye d a s a t ot a l i t a r i a n r ul e r a ki n t he t o Q ue e n of he a r t s i n A l i c e i n W onde r l and ( R e i de r 7) ; ot he r t i m e s s he i s pr e s e nt e d a s a n a s t ut e a nd a bl e l e a de r W he n t he f a m o us R i ve r G od e nt e r s t he ba t hhous e f or i ns t a nc e s he i s f i r s t t o c onc l ude t ha t t hi s gue s t w a s no s t i nk god but w a s a f t e r a l l a r i ve r god W i t h qui c k a c t i on a nd de l e ga t i on, s he di r e c t s he r w or ke r s t o he l p S e n r e m ove t he s pl i nt e r f r om t he R i ve r G od s s i de W i t h e ve r ybody s he l p i n t he ba t hhou s e ( t he i m por t a nc e o f t he uni f i e d w or ke r s ) t he R i ve r G od i s pur i f i e d. S he t he n a l s o e nt hus i a s t i c a l l y e m br a c e s C hi hi r o, a s i gn of gr a t i t ude a nd a f f e c t i on unpr e c e de nt e d by h e r a r c he t ype H e r na m e i s r e m i ni s c e nt o f B a b a Y a ga ol d ha gs i n W e s t e r n f ol k c hi l dr e n s t or i e s ye t a c c or di ng t o R e i de r s he i s a : de s c e nda nt of a y a m a uba J a p a ne s e m ount a i n w i t c h. T o m a ny c ont e m por a r y J a pa ne s e a ya m a uba c onj ur e s up t he i m a ge of a m ount a i n dw e l l i ng ha g w ho de vour s uns us pe c t i ng hum a ns w ho ha ppe n upon he r pa t h. [ ] Y a m a uba a r e a l m os t a l w a ys e ndow e d w i t h s upe r na t ur a l pow e r s [ ] Y a m a uba i s r e gul a r l y por t r a ye d i na a n unf l a t t e r i ng m a nne r but one of ya m a uba s l e s s e r know n t r a i t s i s he r n ur t ur i ng c ha r a c t e r of t e n a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot he r ho od. ( 7 ) T hough a n un f or gi vi ng l e a de r Y uba ba a l s o ha s a n e xt r e m e w e a kne s s f or he r ove r s i z e d ba by. W hi l e s he i s a de s c e nda nt of a c o m m on f ol k c ha r a c t e r c r i t i c s ha ve a l s o de e m e d Y uba ba s ove r pr ot e c t i ve pa r e nt i ng s t yl e t o be r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he t ypi c a l m o de r n J a pa ne s e pa r e nt w ho c oddl e s hi s or he r c hi l d e xc e s s i ve l y. T he por t r a ya l of he r hous e i s ve r y de l i be r a t e W hi l e t he ba t hhous e i s bui l t of w ood a nd pa pe r t r a di t i ona l J a pa ne s e a r c hi t e c t ur a l m a t e r i a l s m e a nt t o buf f e r J a pa ne s e hom e s f r om t he m yr i a d num be r s of e a r t hqua ke s J a pa n e xpe r i e nc e s ye a r l y Y uba ba s s e c t i on i n t he hous e i s m a de o f c onc r e t e o r s t one i n a di s t i nc t l y m e di e va l E ur ope a n f a s hi on. H ow a hous e of w ood a nd pa pe r c oul d po s s i bl y s us t a i n a r oom of s t one i s ve r y

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36 di f f i c ul t t o unde r s t a nd, but s uc h que s t i ons of pr a c t i c a l i t y ne e d not be a ns w e r e d i n a f i l m ove r w he l m i ngl y dom i na t e d by f a nt a s t i c a l ha ppe ni ngs Y uba ba s hom e i s e xt r e m e l y or na t e W he r e a s t he r e s t of t he i ns i de o f t he ba t hh ous e e xhi bi t s t he s i m pl i c i t y of J a pa ne s e a r c hi t e c t ur e s t r a i g ht l i ne s l ow unc om pl i c a t e d f u r ni t ur e s uc h a s t he J a pa ne s e f ut ons t he w or ke r s s l e e p i n Y uba ba s hous e i s t e e m i ng w i t h f ur ni t u r e t ha t undoubt e dl y no one us e s W he r e a s t he r e s t of t he f u r ni t ur e i n t he hous e i s pr a c t i c a l he r f u r ni t ur e ha s a m us e um l i ke q ua l i t y. T he e l e m e nt s of t he r oom i n t ot a l i t y a r e ove r w he l m i ngl y E u r ope a n. T he r e a r e ga udy door w a ys a nd c ha nde l i e r s ha ngi n g, O r i e nt a l ove r s i z e d j a r s s of a s a nd c ur t a i ns T he c ol or s a r e f l a s hy a nd r e ga l pur pl e s l a ve nde r s pe r i w i nkl e s a nd a n obs c e ne a m o unt of gol d l e a f I t a ppe a r s a s t hough Y uba ba s ha bi t a t w a s m ode l e d a f t e r V i c t or i a n a f f l ue nc e W hi l e t he r e s t o f t he ba t hhou s e w or ke r s ha ve s i m pl e ga r b a nd f e w be l ongi ngs Y uba ba l i ve s i n ove r w he l m i ng opul e n c e F u r ni t ur e r i ngs on e a c h f i nge r a nd pi l e s of m one y s he l a c ks not hi ng m a t e r i a l l y. S he i n f a c t ha s s o m a ny j e w e l s s he i s c a ught e ye i ng t he m w i t h he r m a gni f yi ng gl a s s a s a pa s t i m e H e r ba by s r oom i s e xpl i c i t l y de c or a t e d i n a E u r ope a n m e di e va l s t yl e f e a t ur i ng pa s t ur e s a nd c a s t l e s pa i nt e d on t h e w a l l s s i m i l a r t o m e di e va l E ur ope a n t a pe s t r i e s C i r c us t he m e s a nd a m pl e a m ount s of pi l l ow s a l l f ur t he r i l l us t r a t e t he E ur ope a n ki t s c h t a s t e T hough he r ba by ha s t he k aw ai i f e a t ur e s of J a pa ne s e a ni m a t e d ba bi e s Y uba ba r e s e m bl e s a G r i m m B r ot he r s w i t c h r a t he r t ha n a J a pa ne s e ya m a uba H e r c l ot hi ng a nd ha i r s t yl e a r e di s t i nc t l y E ur ope a n, a nd he r of f e ns i ve l y ove r s i z e d nos e m a y a l s o be a f e a t ur e o f he r E ur ope a nne s s ( w ho i nde e d a ppe a r t o ha ve ove r s i z e d nos e s by c ont r a s t t o J a pa ne s e ) I t i s di f f i c ul t t o ove r l ook t he s ugge s t i ons of t he s t yl i s t i c i nc ons i s t e nc i e s be t w e e n a r c hi t e c t ur e of t he ba t hhous e ( s i m pl e i ns i de ve r y J a pa ne s e but or na t e on t he out s i de a

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37 di f f e r e nt ve r s i on a l s o us e d w i t hi n J a pa ne s e a r c hi t e c t ur e m or e c om m on t o s hr i ne s ) a nd Y uba ba s E ur ope a n w onde r l a nd. S he m a y ve r y w e l l be a m e t a phor f o r t he W e s t e r n f or c e s i n J a pa n i n t he 20 t h C e nt ur y T hough s he r e i gns i n t he ba t hhous e s he i s s e e n a s a n out s i de r w i t h he r c ul t u r e va l ue s a nd a e s t he t i c s c om pl e t e l y a t odds w i t h t he r e s t o f t he ba t hhous e s e xi s t e nc e Y uba ba s or na t e hom e a nd c ol l e c t i on of w e a l t h de e m he r a s ve r y gr e e dy, a hum a n w e a kne s s of t e n l a m e nt e d i n m a ny of M i ya z a ki s w or ks s uc h a s N aaus i c a of t he V al l e y of t he W i nd ( 1984) a nd P r i nc e s s M ononok e ( 1997 ) G r e e d s poi l s ot he r c ha r a c t e r s i n t he f i l m a s w e l l s uc h a s t he ga t e ke e pe r w ho i s e a t e n b y N o F a c e a s a r e s ul t of hi s g r e e d, C hi hi r o s pa r e nt s w ho a r e t ur ne d i nt o pi gs f or gob bl i ng up t he ba t hhous e gue s t s f ood, a nd m or e i m po r t a nt l y N o F a c e hi m s e l f w hos e gr e e d f e e ds m or e gr e e d i nt o a n i ne s c a pa bl e c yc l e G r e e d a nd m a t e r i a l i s m pos e pr a c t i c a l pr obl e m s t o t he e nvi r onm e nt a s w e l l T he j unk pol l ut i ng t he f a m ous R i ve r G od w a s not a na t ur a l t oxi n; i t w a s t he a ba ndone d r e m a i ns of pr oduc t s t ha t w e r e onc e s e e n a s us e f ul a nd de s i r a bl e s uc h a s bi c yc l e s a nd f i s hi ng pol e s M i ya z a ki w a r ns us a ga i ns t m a t e r i a l de s i r e t h r ough m a ny of t he c ha r a c t e r s pe r ha ps a B uddhi s t m e s s a ge e ngr a i ne d i n a m os t l y S hi nt o i ns pi r e d w or k I n he r gr e e d, Y uba ba m a y be r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of m o de r n c ons um e r i s m i n J a pa n, w hi c h w a s m a de pos s i bl e t hr ough t he a dopt i on of W e s t e r n e c onom i c m ode l s bot h dur i ng t he M e i j i R e s t or a t i on a nd i n t he pos t w a r ye a r s B e c a us e of he r a ge s he m a y be m or e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he M e i j i E r a t hough t he l os s of r oot s due t o f l i m s y t e c hnol ogy a s de s c r i be d by M i y a z a ki a r e s ym pt om s of m ode r ni t y I t w oul d be i nc o r r e c t t o w r i t e of f M e i j i e r a a nd O c c upa t i on W e s t e r ni z a t i on of J a pa n a s t he s ol e i nt r oduc t i on o f a gr e e dy

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38 s oc i e t y, a s t he z ai bat s u s s uppor t of m i l i t a r y i nva s i on s t r e ngt he ne d t he m i l i t a r i s t i c r e gi m e dur i ng t he 1930 s

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39 E nt e r Z e ni ba t he t w i n s i s t e r a nd be t t e r ha l f of Y uba ba t hough s he t oo a ppe a r s a s pow e r f ul a nd hos t i l e du r i ng t he e pi s ode of H a ku Z e ni ba l i ve s a qui e t l i f e i n S w a m p B ot t om out s i de t he f r e nz y of t he ba t hhous e I t i s s ugge s t e d t ha t Z e ni ba ha s t he s a m e m a gi c a l pow e r s a s Y uba ba how e ve r s he ha s l e s s of a de s i r e f or pow e r or m a t e r i a l l uxur i e s s o s he l e a ve s s i m pl y by c hoi c e Z e ni ba s hous e i s r e m a r ka bl y E ur ope a n a s w e l l gi ve n a w a y by t he f ur ni t u r e B e c a us e Z e ni ba i s bu i l t i n t he s a m e i m a ge a s Y uba ba i t he l ps t he vi e w e r t o s ubc ons c i ous l y c ons t r uc t a m or e e m pa t he t i c unde r s t a ndi ng of Y uba ba I f Y uba ba i s a c onde m na t i on f o r W e s t e r n i nf l ue nc e t he n Z e ni ba i s a m e t a phor f or a m i a bl e o r pot e nt i a l l y a m i a bl e r e l a t i ons M i ya z a ki s e l dom s e e s ph e nom e na or c ha r a c t e r s i n bl a c k a nd w hi t e I f he be l i e ve s i n s i m pl i c i t y, t he n Z e ni ba i s one c ha r a c t e r t ha t w hol e he a r t e dl y e xe m pl i f i e s i t E ve n t hough he r r oom doe s not ha ve t he s i m pl i c i t y of t r a di t i ona l J a pa ne s e a r c hi t e c t ur e i t s s i m pl e W e s t e r n i nt e r i o r de s i gn s i gni f i e s t ha t a pe r s on c om pl e t e l y r e m ove d f r om t r a di t i ona l J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e c a n s t i l l be a t t une d t o c e r t a i n pa r t s of i t s phi l os ophy, w hi l e t hos e i m m e r s e d f ul l y i n t r a di t i on s uc h a s t he w or ke r s of t he ba t hhous e c oul d a bs or b not hi ng of i t a s t he y a l l bow unque s t i oni ngl y t o N o F a c e t he gi ve r of gol d

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40 D e va K i ngs T he bounc i ng he a ds of Y uba ba s hom e w e r e ve r y di f f i c ul t t o unde r s t a nd unt i l I r e a l i z e d t he y m i ght be a n a l l us i on t o t he D e va K i n gs s e e n i n B uddhi s t t e m pl e s a nd S hi nt o s hr i ne s a c r os s J a pa n. T he N i o s am a a r e o f I ndi a n or i gi n, a nd t he y a r e us ua l l y f ound e nc l os e d by ga t e s ne a r t he e nt r a nc e s of t he t e m pl e s W hi l e s e m i hum a n, t he y a r e m uc h l a r ge r t ha n hum a n s i z e a nd a ppe a r r a t he r f e r oc i ous dr e s s e d i n a nc i e nt c our t c os t um e s a nd c a r r yi ng a s w or d a bow a nd a r r ow s W hi l e k i nd i n ge ne r a l t he i r f e r oc i ous na t ur e i s

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41 ne e de d t o w a r d of e vi l s pi r i t s f r o m e nt e r i ng t he t e m pl e s F o r a l l pr a c t i c a l pur pos e s t he y a r e l i ke a nc i e nt t e m pl e bounc e r s ( O no 32 ) T he r ol l i ng N i o s am a he a ds a c t a s a gua r d a ga i ns t Y uba ba s hom e t hough t he y a r e r a t he r poo r a t t he i r j obs onl y s uc c e e di ng i n be i ng a nui s a nc e t o i nt r ude r s A s c ha r a c t e r s t he y ha ve no s i gni f i c a nt r ol e or pur pos e i n t he f i l m I t i s di f f i c ul t t o unde r s t a nd w hy Y uba ba w oul d bot he r w i t h s uc h c l um s y m or bi di t i e s T he pr e s e nc e of t he de c a pi t a t e d D e va s how e ve r m a y be a not he r f oot no t e t o t he s ur r e nde r o f J a pa n s c ul t ur a l va l ue s t o t he A l l i e d O c c upa t i on a nd t o c ons i s t e nt i m por t of A m e r i c a n c ul t u r e i nt o M ode r n J a pa n. I t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t a ut hor i t i e s dur i ng t he O c c upa t i on w e r e e xt r e m e l y s us pi c i ous of S hi nt o a s i t ha d be e n us e d t o j us t i f y t he di vi ne pow e r of t he E m pe r or w ho w a s t he n us e d t o j us t i f y t he a c t s of t he m i l i t a r y ( H ol t om 29) T he de c l i ne of S hi nt o i n pos t w a r ye a r s ha s be e n due t o bot h a t op dow n di s e s t a bl i s hm e nt a nd a s l ow e r r e pl a c e m e nt f or C hr i s t i a n r i t ua l s i n s om e c a s e s s uc h a s w e ddi ngs ( K a r a n 72 ) K a m a j i K a m a j i i s one of t he f i r s t c ha r a c t e r s of t he ba t hhou s e i nt r oduc e d i n t he f i l m H e w or ks i n t he boi l e r r oom a nd i s i n c ha r g e of hot w a t e r a nd t he he r ba l a ddi t i ons f o r t he e nt i r e hous e T he s c e ne of hi s i nt r oduc t i on i s ve r y s t r e s s f ul f or C hi hi r o a s s he m us t c onf r ont a n i nt i m i da t i ng e i ght l e gge d ol d m a n w i t hout t he he l p o f he r pa r e nt s or H a ku. W hi l e m os t of t he s hot c om pos i t i o ns a r e ove r w he l m i ngl y c e nt e r e d a nd ba l a nc e d i n t hi s f i l m m os t c om pos i t i ons i n t hi s s c e ne s how C hi hi r o a ga i ns t a c or ne r pe e ki ng out f r om be hi nd a w a l l or ge ne r a l l y ne a r t he out s i de of t he f r a m e T he c om pos i t i ons a r e ove r w he l m e d by i m a ge s of m a c hi ne r y: p i pe s s t e e l i r on a nd s t e a m C hi hi r o i s puny i n

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42 c om pa r i s on t o t he g r a nde ur of i ndus t r i a l t e c hnol og y. T he m e na c i ng p r e s e nc e of t he i nne r w or ki ngs of t he ba t hhous e t ha t ove r w he l m C hi hi r o s pl a c e i n t he f r a m e s e t up a n a nt i c i pa t i on of m e e t i ng a f r i ght e ni ng c ha r a c t e r C hi hi r o s body pos t ur e i s ve r y r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of he r e m ot i ona l s t a t e a s s he c l i ngs t o w a l l s duc ks he r he a d s he e pi s hl y a nd w a l ks w obbl y. W e f i r s t s e e K a m a j i s i m a ge a s a s ha dow on t he w a l l s of t he boi l e r r oom T he y f l i c ke r l i ke f i r e a nd a r e r e m i ni s c e nt of t he s m oke i n t he f o r e gr ound o f t he i m a ge T hi s vi s ua l t e c hni que i nt r oduc e s K a m a j i a s be i ng f u l l y i nt e gr a t e d i nt o hi s p l a c e of w o r k. W i t h l i m bs t ha t e xt e nd a nd m ove ge om e t r i c a l l y he h i m s e l f a ppe a r s l i ke a m a c hi ne a m ong m a c hi ne s K a m a j i h ow e ve r i s not hi ng l i ke a c ol d he a r t e d m a c hi ne H e i s pr ot e c t i ve of C hi hi r o a nd H a ku, a nd a bl e t o r e c ogni z e t he l ove b e t w e e n t he m H e a l s o s a c r i f i c e s t he t r a i n t i c ke t s he ha s s a ve d f or f o r t y ye a r s f or C hi hi r o. K a m a j i i s dr e s s e d i n bl a c k a nd ha s e i ght a r m s a nd l e gs r e s e m bl i ng a n e a r t h s pi de r or t s uc hi gum o O n t he s ym bol i c s i gni f i c a nc e of t he s pi de r M e r r i l y B a i r d w r i t e s w i t h t he i m por t a t i on of C hi ne s e t r a di t i ons t he J a pa ne s e a dopt e d t he vi e w of t he s pi de r a s a n e m bl e m of i ndus t r y a nd a bi l i t y. ( B a i r d 2001, 120) [ ] A s pi de r ha s a n om i nou s a s pe c t t oo. [ ] S pe c i f i c a l l y t e r m e d a n e a r t h s pi de r t s uc hi gum o i s a n a ppe l l a t i on us e d de r oga t or i l y i n a nc i e nt J a pa ne s e l i t e r a t ur e f o r t hos e w ho de f i e d i m pe r i a l ( c e nt r a l ) a ut hor i t y [ ] A n ove r w he l m i ng m a j or i t y of t s uc hi gum o ha d f ought a nd be e n e l i m i na t e d i n bl oody ba t t l e s ; onl y a f e w s ur vi ve d by a pol ogi z i ng pr of us e l y a nd e s c a pi ng c a pi t a l puni s hm e nt ( R e i de r 10 11) T hough not a ggr e s s i ve l y de f i a nt of Y uba ba s r ol e of a ut hor i t y he doe s de c i de t o pr ot e c t C hi hi r o i ns t e a d of t u r ni ng he r i n a s t he hu m a n t ha t i s c a us i ng t he ba t hhous e t o s t i nk. A s he i s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of a n oppr e s s e d a nc i e nt J a pa ne s e gr oup, i t i s l ogi c a l t ha t he

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43 i s e ns l a ve d t o t he bot t om r ungs of di f f i c ul t phys i c a l l a bor w i t h l i t t l e t o no s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he w or ke r s a nd gue s t s of t he ba t h hous e T he r e a r e a f e w l e s s ons t o be l e a r ne d f r om K a m a j i K a m a j i l i ke t he m ys t e r i ous da r k f i gur e s i n t he t r a i n s c e ne ( w hi c h w i l l be d i s c us s e d l a t e r ) i s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he O t he r i n J a pa ne s e s oc i e t y. E ve n t hough K a m a j i i n hi s e nvi r onm e nt i s t he m os t vi s ua l l y f r i ght e ni ng c ha r a c t e r i n t he f i l m he i s i n r e a l i t y t he m os t s e ns i t i ve a nd m os t gi vi ng c ha r a c t e r M a r gi na l i z e d g r oups i n s oc i e t y a r e unf o r t una t e l y j udge d w hol l y by t he s upe r f i c i a l l a ye r of t he i r a p pe a r a nc e or ou t w a r d de m e a nor K a m a j i t a ki ng pa r t of t hi s gr oup, e xe m pl i f i e s t he f a l l a c y of di s c r i m i na t i on. ( I t i s a l s o i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t K a m a j i ut t e r s t he onl y E ngl i s h i n t he f i l m gudo r oku, t he J a pa ne s e a ppr opr i a t i on of good l uc k. M uc h l i ke t he ot he r c ha r a c t e r s i n t hi s f i l m he i s a s s oc i a t e d s i m ul t a ne ous l y w i t h a n a nc i e nt J a pa ne s e gr oup a nd a f or e i gn gr oup, m i xi n g e t hni c i t i e s a nd c ul t ur e ) K a m a j i i s a l s o t he c ont r ol l e r of t he hot w a t e r i n t he ba t hhous e D e s pi t e be i ng m a r gi na l i z e d i n s oc i e t y, hi s a c t ua l r ol e i s t he m os t i m por t a nt a s he w or ks w i t h t he ve r y s our c e of pur i t y

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44 N o F a c e T he m os t i nt r i gui ng ye t ha r de s t c ha r a c t e r t o unde r s t a nd i s N o F a c e L i ke C hi hi r o he i s a f or e i gne r t o t he ba t hhous e w or l d ye t i s vi s u a l l y di s t i nc t i ve m uc h l i ke t he ot he r gue s t k am i w hi c h m a ke hi m a ppe a r l i ke j us t a not h e r gue s t t o C hi hi r o H e ha s no f a c e

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45 a nd no voi c e ye t i s f o l l ow e d by a m us i c a l l e i t m ot i f t hr oughout t he f i l m T he E ngl i s h t r a ns l a t i on of hi s na m e m a y l e a d one t o t h i nk di r e c t l y of t he t r a di t i ona l J a pa ne s e t he a t e r N oh ( or N o) N o F a c e how e ve r i s a l i t e r a l t r a ns l a t i on of K a ona s hi w hi c h m e a ns t he a bs e nc e of a f a c e R e ga r dl e s s of t he di f f e r e nc e i n t he l i t e r a l t r a ns l a t i on, N o F a c e doe s i nde e d w e a r a N oh m a s k. T he us e of t he N oh m a s k f or t hi s c ha r a c t e r i s ve r y i nt e r e s t i ng. A s you c a n s e e i n t he phot ogr a ph of a N oh m a s k a bove t he e x pr e s s i on of t he m a s k c ha nge s dr a m a t i c a l l y ba s e d on i t s a ngl e t o t he v i e w e r A s a c t or s of t e n w e a r one m a s k t hr oughout a pl a y, t hi s opt i c a l i l l us i on he l ps t o d e m ons t r a t e di f f e r e nt s e nt i m e nt s T he us e o f t he m a s k hi de s not onl y hi s i de nt i t y but a l s o hi s e m ot i on a nd i nt e nt f r om t he ba t hhous e w or ke r s a nd t he a udi e nc e A s e ns e of i de nt i t y a nd be l ongi ngne s s i s a n i m por t a nt va l ue t o t he J a pa ne s e ps yc he ( L e br a 23 27 ) a nd N o F a c e l a c ks a n i de nt i t y, a hom e a nd a de s t i na t i on. H e i s a f or e i gne r t o t he ba t hhous e i n t he s e ns e t ha t he doe s not be l ong t o t he ba t hhous e w or l d, a nd a l s o i n t he s e ns e t ha t hi s pl a c e l e s s ne s s i s a nt i t he t i c a l t o t r a di t i o na l J a pa ne s e va l ue of be l ongi ng. N o F a c e a l s o di s pl a ys t r a di t i ona l l y J a p a ne s e e l e m e nt s w hi l e be i ng a pl a c e l e s s f or e i gne r e xhi bi t i ng s i m i l a r t e ns i ons be t w e e n J a pa ne s e a nd non J a pa ne s e t r a di t i ons a nd pa t t e r ns of be ha vi or a s e xpl or e d i n ot he r c ha r a c t e r s T he r e a r e m a ny i nt e r p r e t a t i ons o f w ha t e xa c t l y t hi s m ys t e r i ous c ha r a c t e r r e pr e s e nt s C r i t i c R e i de r w r i t e s t ha t he m a y be i n t e r pr e t e d a s a l one l y young J a pa ne s e pe r s on w ho doe s not know how t o m a ke f r i e nds ( 13) B oyd a nd T e t s uya w r i t e he l i ke l y r e pr e s e nt s t he t ype o f pe r s on w ho ha s l i t t l e i nt e r e s t i n t hi ngs i s gl oom y a nd m e l a nc hol y, a nd s ubj e c t t o m or bi d i nt r os pe c t i on. A s one w hos e e ne r gy [ k i ] i s i nk i i e

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46 one w hos e he a r t i s c l os e d ( k ok or o o t oj i r u ) he ha s a vor a c i ous s e l f c e nt e r e d a ppe t i t e ( 5) N a pi e r c onc l ude s i f t he r i ve r god m a y be s e e n a s r e pr e s e nt i ng a s oi l e d but s t i l l pot e nt i a l l y vi br a nt t r a di t i ona l J a pa n, N o F a c e s ugg e s t s a J a pa n t ha t i s out of c ont r ol l a c ki ng i n s ubj e c t i vi t y, una bl e t o c onne c t w i t h ot he r s a nd a ni m a t e d onl y by t he e m pt y ur ge t o c ons um e ( 305) N o F a c e ha s a vor a c i ous a ppe t i t e r e m i ni s c e nt o f C hi hi r o s pa r e nt s e a r l i e r f ol l y. U nl i ke Y uba ba w ho c r a ve s pow e r a nd t he ba t hho us e w or ke r s w ho c r a ve gol d N o F a c e c r a ve s a not he r ki nd of f ul f i l l m e nt pe r ha ps s pi r i t ua l I t m a y be a voi c e a s by hi m s e l f he c a n onl y ut t e r a w e a k a h; ye t c a n s pe a k t hr ough t he voi c e s of t he ba t hhous e w or ke r s he ha s s w a l l ow e d. H e i n f a c t us e s one t ype of gr e e d ( gol d) t o l ur e ba t hhous e w or ke r s a nd i ndul ge i n hi s ow n gr e e d. W hi l e he ove r c ons um e s f ood a nd doe s not be gi n t o e a s e hi s a pp e t i t e e ve n a s hi s be l l y be c om e s m or bi dl y l a r ge W hi l e he us ua l l y gobbl e s dow n f ood a nd w or ke r s i ndi s c r i m i na t e l y, t ow a r d t he e nd o f hi s c ons um pt i on or gy, he s pe c i f i c a l l y c ha s e s S e n a l l a r ound t he ba t hhous e W hi l e t he s i t ua t i on be t w e e n hi m a nd t he ba t hhous e w or ke r s a r e ba s e d on m ut ua l l y de ve l opi ng g r e e d, S e n i s t he onl y ba t hhous e w or ke r t ha t ha s r e f us e d hi s m one y a nd e xt r a he r ba l pa c ke t s A s he i nc or por a t e s t he voi c e s ( a nd pos s i bl y pe r s ona l i t i e s ) of t he ba t hhous e w or ke r s h e s w a l l ow s he pr oba bl y w a nt s t o s w a l l ow S e n pr e c i s e l y t o a bs or b he r i ndi f f e r e nc e t o a va r i c e I w oul d ha ve t o a gr e e w i t h B oyd a nd T e t s uya s i nt e r pr e t a t i on of N o F a c e a s h a vi ng a c l os e d he a r t or be i ng s pi r i t ua l l y de pr i ve d. A s C hi hi r o i s a r gua bl y t he pu r e s t c ha r a c t e r by t hi s po i nt i n t he f i l m N o F a c e a t t e m pt s t o f e e d on he r vi r t ue U nl i ke t he ba t hhous e w or ke r s w ho ha ve a n ol f a c t o r y di s t a s t e f or out s i de r s C hi hi r o i s e xt r e m e l y a c c e pt i ng of N o F a c e e ve n a f t e r he a t t e m pt s t o c ons um e he r S he

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47 r e m a r ks t o L i n t ha t he c a n j oi n he r on he r j our ne y t o S w a m p B ot t om be c a us e i t i s onl y t he ba t hhous e t ha t m a ke s hi m c r a z y C hi hi r o i s up hol di ng t he S hi n t o be l i e f t ha t i m pur i t y ( gr e e d i n t he c a s e of N o F a c e w hi c h i s a l s o a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a c l e a r l y unc l e a nl y s e s s i on of pr oj e c t i l e vom i t i ng ) c om e s f r om t he o ut s i de a nd i s not i nhe r e nt f r om w i t hi n. I n t he c a s e of N o F a c e C hi hi r o doe s not j um p t o t he c onc l us i on t ha t he i s a n i nhe r e nt l y ba d guy, but r a t he r t ha t he t oo m a y be pur e by de f a ul t but t a i nt e d i n t he c ont e xt of c e r t a i n e nvi r onm e nt s s uc h a s t he ba t hho us e H e r a c c e pt a nc e of N o F a c e ( a nd e ve r y ot he r c ha r a c t e r i n t he ba t hhous e i nc l udi ng Y uba ba s r ol e ) m a y a l s o be l i nke d t o B uddhi s t pr i nc i pl e s N o F a c e e ve nt ua l l y f i nds be l ongi ng i n Z e ni ba s hom e a nd t hi s be l ongi ng s e e m s t o c a l m hi s t e m pe r T he va l ue o f be l ongi ng i s pa r a l l e l e d t o pu r i t y, a s he m us t c r os s a l a r ge body o f w a t e r t o ge t t o Z e ni ba s hous e T he c ha r a c t e r s a na l yz e d a bove a r e a l l a pi e c e t o t h e puz z l e of J a pa ne s e hi s t or y, va l ue s r e l i gi on a nd s oc i a l i s s ue s H a ku a nd t he D e va ki ngs a r e ba s e d on s ym bol s of S hi nt o a nd B uddhi s t f a i t hs K a m a j i i s r e p r e s e nt a t i ve of t he O t he r e d t s uc hi gum o of a nc i e nt J a pa n. Y uba ba a nd Z e ni ba a r e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he yi n a nd ya ng of W e s t e r n r e l a t i ons N o F a c e i s a c ha r a c t e r of p l a c e l e s s ne s s w hos e a ppe t i t e i s uns a t i s f i e d unt i l he r e a c he s a s e ns e of be l ongi ng. T he a m bi gu i t y of a l l t he s e c ha r a c t e r s r e pr e s e nt s t he pa s t a s ul t i m a t e l y a m bi va l e nt a nd w ove n w i t hi n W e s t e r n c ul t ur e Y uba ba i s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he gr e e d of W e s t e r n c ul t ur e a nd pe r ha ps t he t op dow n i m pos i t i o n of l a w s dur i ng t he A l l i e d O c c upa t i on. Y e t he r s i s t e r Z e ni ba w ho i s e qua l l y a e s t he t i c a l l y W e s t e r n e nj oys a c om f or t a bl e ye t s i m pl e l i f e una dul t e r a t e d by w e a l t hy c l ut t e r N ot onl y do t he t w o s i s t e r s r e pr e s e nt bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve a s pe c t s of W e s t e r n ( a s bot h c ons um e r i s t a nd hum bl e ) t he y t he m s e l ve s a r e p r e s e nt e d a s a m bi va l e nt c ha r a c t e r s Y uba ba i s ve r y c a r i ng

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48 f or he r c hi l d a nd i s a n a bl e l e a de r w hi l e Z e ni ba i s e xt r e m e l y hos t i l e t ow a r d H a ku. H a ku a nd t he D e va ki ngs a r e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t r a di t i ona l J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e ye t t he y a r e s e e n a s i r r e ve r s i bl y c ha nge d t hr oug h t he e ve nt s o f t i m e T he y a r e t r a di t i ona l obj e c t s w e a t he r e d w i t h t he pa s s a ge of t i m e H e nc e t he y c a nnot be on l y c ons i de r e d t r a di t i ona l but a m i xt u r e of t he a nc i e nt a nd m ode r n K a m a j i r e p r e s e nt s a hi s t or i c a l gr oup i n a nc i e nt hi s t or y t ha t w a s vi ol e nt l y s uppr e s s e d. T he e xi s t e nc e of hi s c ha r a c t e r i n a f i l m t ha t s e e ks c ul t ur a l r oot s a nd hi s t or i c a l m e m o r y i s i m por t a nt i n e s t a bl i s hi ng s ke pt i c i s m N ot e ve r y a s pe c t of a nc i e nt or t r a di t i ona l c ul t ur e w a s pos i t i ve a nd a c c e pt i ng i t b l i ndl y, or i ndul gi ng i n nos t a l gi a w i t hout que s t i on pos e s de e p pr obl e m s H e i s a n a nc i e nt J a pa ne s e c ha r a c t e r ye t he a l s o e xe m pl i f i e s s om e A m e r i c a n a s pe c t s a s he i s t he onl y c ha r a c t e r t o s pe a k E ngl i s h H e i s a l s o pe r ha ps t he ol de s t pa t r on of t he ba t hhou s e ye t he i s t he m os t unde r s t a ndi ng o f C hi hi r o a nd H a ku, pr opos i ng t ha t t he r e m a y be ho pe i n br i dg i ng t he ge ne r a t i ons i n J a pa n.

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49 A C l os e A n al ys i s of T w o S c e n e s P e r ha ps M i ya z a ki s s t a t e d m i s s i on i n Spi r i t e d A w a y a r i s e s f r om a m or e i nt e r na t i ona l uni ve r s a l w oe a bout i nt e r ge ne r a t i ona l di s c onne c t e dne s s T he ol de r ge ne r a t i ons c om pl a i n t ha t c hi l dr e n a nd yout h a r e a pa t he t i c a bout t he i r ow n t r a di t i ons I n J a pa n t hi s phe nom e non m a y be e xa gge r a t e d, s i nc e t he pos t w a r e c onom i c boom ne w m i ddl e c l a s s br ought a ne w c ons um e r i s m t ha t e ng ul f s t he da i l y a c t i vi t i e s of yout h A ni m e m a nga vi de o ga m e s a t hom e a nd i n a r c a de s a nd t oys ha ve r e pl a c e d a l i f e t ha t i s m or e c om m una l l y i nvo l ve d. M i ya z a ki doe s not s p e c i f y w ha t t hi s l i f e w oul d e nt a i l but he s e ns e s a ne e d t o r e ga i n t ouc h w i t h O l d J a pa n. W ha t i s s pe c i f i c a l l y di f f i c ul t a bout r e vi vi ng a n a m bi guous O l d J a pa n or T r a di t i ona l J a pa n i s t he r e l a t i ve l y r e c e nt p r e w a r na t i ona l i s t i c z e a l t ha t us e d t he c ul t ur a l uni que ne s s of J a p a n t o i ns t i l l s e nt i m e nt s of e t hni c s upe r i or i t y a nd ul t i m a t e l y pr opa ga t e m i l i t a r i s t i c a ge nda s T hough M i ya z a ki s f i l m s s hy a w a y f r om pol i t i c a l s t a t e m e nt s ( e s pe c i a l l y ove r t one s w i t h t he di s t i nc t e xc e pt i on o f e nvi r onm e nt a l i s m ) hi s que s t f o r J a pa n s c ul t ur a l he r i t a ge c oul d be c ons i de r e d pr obl e m a t i c by s om e F ur t he r m or e t he t r a di t i ons M i ya z a ki s t a t e s a r e not s pe c i f i e d w h a t c ons t i t ut e s t r a di t i ona l J a pa n a f t e r a l l ? D oe s he m e a n a r e t ur n t o hi e r a r c hi c a l s hoguna t e s oc i e t y, t o M e i j i r e s t or a t i on i de a l s t o pr e w a r or pos t w a r s oc i e t y? A s w i t h m a ny of hi s ot he r f i l m s M i ya z a ki i s s ke pt i c a l of r e a dopt i ng t r a di t i ona l va l ue s w i t hout que s t i on i n Spi r i t e d A w ay T he f i l m i s nos t a l gi c f or c e r t a i n J a pa ne s e a s pe c t s s uc h a s t he t r a di t i ona l l y J a pa ne s e a e s t he t i c s of s i m pl i c i t y, a r e ve r e nc e a nd r e t ur n

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50 t o na t ur e t he va l ue o f be l ongi ngne s s a c ons c i ous ne s s of k am i a nd c e r t a i n i de a l s s uc h a s ha r d w or k a nd pol i t e ne s s O t he r va l ue s how e ve r a r e di s t i nc t l y w e s t e r n, or c a n be c l a s s i f i e d a s N e w J a pa n s uc h a s t he i m por t a nc e of l ove i ndi vi dua l m ot i va t i on ( e s pe c i a l l y on be ha l f of w om e n) a nd t he l i m i t a t i on s of a hom oge nous s oc i e t y. I t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t t he i ndi vi dua l i s m i n Spi r i t e d A w ay i s di f f e r e nt f r om t he W e s t e r n i de a of i ndi vi dua l i s m w hi c h i s c ol or e d by t i r e l e s s l one l y he r oi s m B y c ont r a s t M i ya z a ki s he r o C hi hi r o i s a nyt hi ng but a l one l y i ndi vi dua l i s t H e r s t or y e xe m pl i f i e s a ve r y di f f e r e nt ki nd of he r oi s m t ha t w ha t w e ha ve s e e n i n R obi ns on C r us oe C hi hi r o s a ve s he r s e l f not t h r ough he r ow n s ol i t a r y e f f o r t s but t hr ough t he he l p o f f e r e d by he r f r i e nds ( H i r os hi 244) I f t he ba t hhous e w or l d w e r e t o be r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he O l d J a pa n C hi hi r o e nc ount e r s t he e l us i ve ne s s of a uni f i e d O l d J a pa ne s e ne s s i s hi ghl i ght e d i n t he l i m i na l na t ur e o f ba t hhous e w or l d w hi c h i s vul ne r a bl e t o i nt r ude r s F ur t he r m or e t he ba t hhous e w or l d i t s e l f i s a l r e a dy f ul l of W e s t e r n i n t r us i ons O pe ni ng S c e ne T he f i r s t s c e ne of t he m ovi e i s i m po r t a nt i n e s t a bl i s hi ng C hi hi r o a nd he r pa r e nt s r e l a t i ons hi p t o he r s ur r oundi ng c ul t ur e a nd t he t e ns i ons be t w e e n t he m

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51 I n t he t h i r d s hot of t he ope ni ng s c e ne w e s e e C hi h i r o i n t he ba c ks e a t of he r pa r e nt s A udi on t he w a y t o t he i r ne w hous e T he f i l m i t s e l f be gi ns i n a s t a t e of f l ux C hi hi r o s m ove t o a ne w ne i ghbor hood. I ns t e a d of e m b r a c i ng t he c ha nge w i t h c ur i os i t y, C hi hi r o l i e s dow n i n t he ba c ks e a t c l ut c hi ng w ha t a ppe a r s t o be a bouque t of s a kur a t he J a pa ne s e c he r r y bl os s om S he e nc l os e s he r s e l f i n a t i ght s pa c e a t t e m pt i ng t o m a i nt a i n a s t a t e of s t a s i s a m i ds t be i ng e nc l os e d i n a ve hi c l e t ha t i s l i t e r a l l y m ovi ng t hr ough s pa c e T he a l r e a dy s m a l l s pa c e i s m a de e ve n m or e s uf f oc a t i ng by t he m yr i a d a m ount of s hoppi ng ba gs s ur r oundi ng C hi hi r o, w hi c h a r e pl a c e d i n t he f or e gr ound. S he dr a pe s he r f e e t ove r t he ba gs how e ve r ha vi ng no i nt e r e s t i n t he m S i nc e C hi hi r o i s not de pi c t e d t hr oughou t t he f i l m a s a gr e e dy pe r s on, unl i ke N o F a c e or he r pa r e nt s s he di s pl a ys a s ui t a bl e i nhe r e nt s t a t e of m i nd t ha t c a n be r e a c qua i nt e d w i t h O l d J a pa ne s e be l i e f s S he i s m os t i nt e r e s t e d i n he r bouque t of f l ow e r s w hi c h s he l oo ks a t ( i n t he f i r s t s hot of t he s e que nc e i n he r pe r s pe c t i ve ) a nd c l ut c he s de a r l y t o he r c he s t C hi hi r o, t hough bo r e d a nd ba dl y

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52 m a nne r e d, ha s a di s pos i t i on o r r a t he r a p r e di s pos i t i on t o r e l e a r n s om e va l ue s of J a pa n. T he m e s s a ge i n t hi s s c e ne m i ght be t ha t c hi l dr e n e ve n t he m os t unl i ke l y s e e m i ng, do a f t e r a l l pos s e s s a n i nt ui t i ve a t t r a c t i on t ow a r d t he i r c ul t ur e T hi s a t t r a c t i on i s l a t e r de pi c t e d by he r w onde r m e nt a t t he l i t t l e s pi r i t hous e s a nd ga t e l a t e r dur i ng t hi s s c e ne T hi s s hot r e p r e s e nt s C hi hi r o, a nd t o a gr e a t e r e xt e n t J a pa n a t a c r os s r oa ds T hr ough t he c a r w i ndow w e c a n s e e t he r oo f o f a m or e t r a di t i ona l l y J a pa ne s e s ubur ba n hom e w hi l e i n t he r e f l e c t i on o f t he c a r w i ndow w e s e e a s qua r e m ode r ni s t a pa r t m e nt bui l di ng t ypi c a l o f pos t w a r r e c ons t r uc t i on. I n t he c a r a l i m i na l s pa c e C hi hi r o i s c a ught be t w e e n t w o vi s i ons of m a nm a de J a pa n, w hi l e t he l us h na t ur a l gr e e ne r y s i nks i nt o t he ba c kgr ound m os t l y c ove r e d. C hi hi r o a ppe a r s e nt i r e l y a pa t he t i c t o t hi s d i vi s i on a nd he r r ol e t o he r c ha ngi ng na t i on E nc a ps ul a t e d i n t he c a r s he f oc us e s he r t hought s on t he l a m e nt a t i ons of he r ow n pe r s ona l l os s H e r e ye s l o ok f or l o r n t o t he s i de w hi l e he r m out h i s c ove r e d by t he c a r e m pha s i z i ng he r f ut u r e l a c k of a voi c e i f s he c ont i nue s he r a pa t hy. T he pi nk f l ow e r s r e m i ni s c e nt o f s a kur a pe e k be s i d e he r w i t h a s hoppi ng ba g

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53 m e t i c ul ous l y pl a c e d i n t he ba c kgr ound T hi s i m a g e e nc a ps ul a t e s C hi hi r o be t w e e n a t e ns i on of c ul t ur e s w i t hi n a l i m i na l s pa c e w he r e s h e a t t e m pt s t o c ont a i ns he r s e l f T he c a r how e ve r l i ke h i s t or y ke e ps m ovi ng de s pi t e he r w i l l i ngne s s t o a c c e pt or s ha pe c ha nge A s C hi hi r o a nd he r pa r e nt s ne a r a di r t r oa d, t he y s t op t o c he c k di r e c t i ons T he i r s t op i s by a r oa ds i de m i ni s hr i ne de pi c t e d by t he t o r i ga t e s a nd s pi r i t hous e s T hi s s h ot i s i m por t a nt i n e s t a bl i s hi ng C hi hi r o s pa r e nt s r e l a t i o ns hi p t o t he i r ow n c ul t ur e T hough t he y ha ve s t oppe d by t hi s s m a l l s hr i ne he r pa r e nt s pa y no a t t e nt i on, e ve n l e s s r e ve r e nc e t o i t o r t he s ur r oundi ng a r e a O n t he c ont r a r y t hi s s hot f r om t he i r po i nt of v i e w e xpos e s t he i r a t t e nt i on on t he i r ne w bl ue hous e w hi l e c om pl e t e l y i gnor i ng t he s hr i ne be f o r e t he m I t hi ghl i ght s t he i r p r i or i t y on t he i r ow n m a t e r i a l a c c om pl i s hm e nt s i n a hous e w hi c h m a y be i s ol a t e d f r om i t s c om m uni t y e s pe c i a l l y i f no a t t e nt i on i s gi ve n t o t he s ym bol s of S hi nt o, w hi c h i s t r a di t i ona l l y a c om m un i t y ba s e d r e l i gi on. T he t or i i ga t e i s c ut of f i n t hi s s hot unde r m i ni ng i t s i m po r t a nc e f r om t he s ubj e c t s poi nt of vi e w de s pi t e i t s a c t ua l s i z e

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54 T he t r e e of t e n a dw e l l i ng p l a c e f or k a m i a c c or di ng t o S hi n t o be l i e f i s c ut of f hor i z ont a l l y a s w e l l e m pha s i z i ng i t s c a s t r a t e d r ol e i n m ode r n s oc i e t y. T he bl ue of t he hous e bl e nds i n w i t h t he s ky, m a ki ng i t s e e m a s t r a ns i e nt a s a i r or t he c l ouds be hi nd i t c om pa r e d t o t he s t ur dy t r e e r e p r e s e nt i ng t he pe r e n ni a l e xi s t e nc e of a nc e s t or s a nd s pi r i t s F r om t he ba c k s e a t C hi hi r o i s m or e a m a z e d a t t he l i t t l e hous e s a nd t he ga t e a s oppos e d t o t he hous e t ha t a w a i t s he r S he i nqui r e s a bout t he m e a ni ng of t he hous e s w hi c h m e a ns s he ha s not be e n e xpo s e d t o t he m be f o r e I n t hi s s e ns e C hi hi r o s pa r e nt s s e e m f ur t he r a w a y f r om a nc i e nt s oc i e t y t ha n C hi hi r o; t he y do n ot e ve n t a ke t he t i m e t o e duc a t e he r da ught e r a bout he r c ul t ur a l s ur r oundi ngs M i ya z a ki m a y ha ve f e l t a c e r t a i n c a s e of l os s w i t h a n a dul t ge ne r a t i on ol de r t ha n C hi hi r o but yo unge r t ha n hi m s e l f w ho, a s pa r t o f t he ne w m i ddl e c l a s s ha ve gi ve n up on t he i r c ul t ur e C hi l dr e n on t he o t he r ha nd ha ve a n i nhe r e nt c ur i os i t y a nd w onde r m e nt w hi c h he l ps t h e m m or e e a s i l y l e a r n a bout t he r e c ul t ur e A t t h e s a m e t i m e t he y m a y a l s o ha ve a n i nt ui t i ve c ol l e c t i ve know l e dge of t he i r pa s t a s Z e ni ba r e m i nds C hi hi r o t ha t not hi ng i s e ve r f o r got t e n.

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55 A s t he f a m i l y p r oc e e ds i nt o t he t unne l t he y c om e a c r os s a bui l di ng t ha t a ppe a r s l i ke a n a ba ndone d c hur c h w i t h s por a di c a l l y pl a c e d pa r k be nc he s T he r e a r e c ol um ns o f s t one R om a ne s que a r c he s f l ow e r s ha pe d l i ght s a n d s t a i ne d gl a s s w i ndow s T hi s a ba ndone d s pa c e i s t he f i r s t of a f e w s t r a nge pl a c e s C hi hi r o e nc ount e r s du r i ng he r

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56 k am i k ak us hi T hi s s pa c e i s a l s o t he ba c kgr ound du r i ng t he e ndi ng c r e di t s of t he f i l m T he c hoi c e of t hi s ope ni ng f r om t he t unne l t o de m a r c a t e t he be gi nni ng o f k am i k ak us hi i s a pe c ul i a r c hoi c e I t m a y be a t r a i n s t a t i on, a nd s i nc e t he r a i l w a y s ys t e m w a s he a vi l y de ve l ope d dur i ng t he M e i j i R e s t or a t i on w he n a l ot of E u r ope a n a e s t he t i c s e nt e r e d J a pa n, i t w oul d e xpl a i n t he de vi a t i on f r om t r a di t i ona l J a pa ne s e a r c hi t e c t ur e T he s t a i ne d gl a s s w i ndow s a nd c ol or e d r a ys of l i ght i nf i l t r a t i ng t he d us t y da r ke ne d s pa c e gi ve t he r oom a n ove r a l l c hur c h l i k e a t m os phe r e T he s t i l l ne s s a nd m onoc hr om i s m of t he s pa c e f unc t i on l i ke a c a l m be f o r e t he s t or m of c ol or a nd e ve nt s t h a t a w a i t C hi hi r o. P e r ha ps t hi s s pa c e i s i nt e nde d t o c r e a t e a n unc a nny e xpe r i e nc e f or W e s t e r n a udi e nc e s w ho a r e a t t r a c t e d by a n ove r a l l f a m i l i a r i t y o f a e s t he t i c but c a n ne i t he r s pe c i f y t he pl a c e i t s e l f nor i t s pur pos e T he c a l m a nd a us t e r i t y, c om bi ne d w i t h t he r a ys of l i ght s t a i ne d gl a s s a nd R om a ne s que a r c he s t ha t a r e t ypi c a l o f C hr i s t i a n c hur c he s gi ve t he pl a c e a n a i r o f s pi r i t ua l i t y. I t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t ha t a pl a c e e voki ng a W e s t e r n r e l i gi on w a s us e d t o be gi n a s e r i e s of e nc ount e r s w i t h k am i of t he a nc i e nt r e l i gi on of J a pa n. C hr i s t i a ni t y w a s br ought t o J a pa n i n t he s i xt e e nt h c e nt ur y; l i ke B uddhi s m i t i s a non na t i ve i m po r t e d r e l i gi on t h ough m a ki ng i t s w a y ont o t he i s l a nd a bout t e n c e nt ur i e s l a t e r ( K a r a n 74) T h ough i n t he m i nor i t y C hr i s t i a ni t y i s a pe r s i s t e nt r e l i gi on i n J a pa n. T hi s s c e ne pr ovi de s a n i nt e r t e xt ua l i t y be t w e e n t he r e l i gi ons s ugge s t i ng t ha t a n e nc ount e r w i t h one r e l i gi on i n t hi s c ont e xt C hr i s t i a ni t y, m a y be a ve hi c l e t o a c l os e ne s s w i t h a not he r S hi nt o T hi s vi e w of r e l i gi on w oul d be ul t i m a t e l y a c c e pt e d by S hi nt o, a s i t i s not a n e xc l us i ve r e l i g i o n i t i s one t ha t i s ba s e d on pr a c t i c e a nd m a y be pr a c t i c e d by a nyone i nc l udi ng C hr i s t i a ns

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57 N e ga t i ve a s pe c t s of W e s t e r ni z a t i on a nd m ode r ni z a t i on a r e f ur t he r br ought f or w a r d a nd a ga i n t hr ough t he pa r e nt s T he f a t he r e xc l a i m s t ha t he ha s c r e di t c a r ds a nd c a s h a s he be gi ns t a ki ng t he f ood t ha t i s a va i l a bl e he i s c ons um i ng w i t hout ha vi ng f i r s t bought hi s f ood a n A m e r i c a n m ode l of e c onom i c s t ha t i s w a r ne d a bout a s t he ve r y pl a c e t he y a r e e a t i ng i s a a dve nt ur e pa r k t ha t w e nt dow n w i t h t h e e c onom y i n t he e a r l y ni ne t i e s T he pr obl e m i s not i s ol a t e d t o a bs t r a c t c ha r t s a nd e c onom i c t he or y i t e xi s t s i nc a r na t e d i n t he f or m o f gr e e d T he ba nque t of f ood i n f r ont o f C hi hi r o s pa r e nt s i s a bs ur dl y e xt r a va ga nt I t i s a l s o m os t l y m a de of m e a t di s he s poul t r y, por k, s a us a ge s a nd r e d m e a t s T h i s t ype of m e a t he a vy c ui s i ne i s t he di r e c t a nt i t he s i s t o t r a di t i ona l J a pa ne s e c ui s i ne w hi c h i s m a de of f i s h, s e a w e e d, s oups l ot s of r i c e s oba no odl e s a nd f r e s h a nd pi c kl e d ve ge t a bl e s : ove r a l l a r e l a t i ve l y l i ght a nd he a l t hy m e a l B uddhi s t t e m pl e c ui s i ne i s us ua l l y c om pl e t e l y ve ge t a r i a n, e ve n f u r t he r r e m ove d f r om t he a bove s c e ne T hough por k a nd r e d m e a t ha ve m a de t he i r w a y i n t o J a pa ne s e c ui s i ne e s pe c i a l l y i n t he m ode r n s pr e a d of bur ge r f a s t f ood j oi nt s t he y a r e s t i l l r e l a t i ve l y l i t t l e us e d a nd e xpe n s i ve a s J a pa n us ua l l y i m por t s i t s r e d

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58 m e a t f r om N e w Z e a l a nd a nd t he U S T hi s e pi s ode of g r e e dy m e a t e a t i ng m a y a l s o be a n a l l us i on t o pos t w a r po l i c i e s t ha t t r i e d t o i nt r oduc e W e s t e r n f oods t o J a pa n i n o r de r t o i m por t A m e r i c a n f ood s t a pl e s T hough C hi hi r o s pa r e nt s r e a di l y buy i n t o a non J a pa ne s e unhe a l t hy ove r c ons um pt i on, C hi hi r o a s be f or e he s i t a t e s t o j oi n t he m T hough C hi hi r o s a pa t he t i c a t t i t ude i s a nui s a nc e i n e a r l i e r s c e ne s a nd m a ke s he r a ppe a r s poi l e d, i t i s he r s a m e he s i t a nt a t t i t ude t ha t s a ve s he r f r o m s uf f e r i ng he r pa r e nt s f a t e I t i s t h i s s a m e a t t i t ude t ha t a l l ow s he r t o r e j e c t N o F a c e s da nge r ous of f e r i ngs l a t e r i n t he f i l m T he di f f e r e nc e i n r e a c t i ons be t w e e n C hi hi r o a nd h e r pa r e nt s i s c r i t i c a l i n de s c r i bi ng a ga i n t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e s W hi l e he r pa r e nt s i nd ul ge i n W e s t e r n l i ke m e a t he a vy c ons um pt i on, unde r t he pr om i s e of a W e s t e r n s t yl e e c onom i c c r e di t s ys t e m C hi hi r o w i t hhol ds f r om s uc h hunge r l us t T hough a r gua bl y ha vi ng be e n bor n i n a t i m e e ve n f a r t he r r e m ove d f r om a t r a di t i ona l J a pa n, C hi hi r o s t i l l i nt ui t s t he pr obl e m s of ove r c ons um pt i on T he pr obl e m of m e a t i s l a t e r vi s ua l i z e d a s H a ku a nd C hi hi r o r un t h r ough t he ki t c he n of t he ba t hhous e O ve r s i z e d f i s h a r e t os s e d i n gi a nt ba r r e l s a nd ha ng f r o m hooks i n t he ba c kgr ound F e a t he r e d duc ks a nd s a us a ge s ha ng f r om hooks i n t he f or e g r ound, w hi l e a de c a pi t a t e d f i s h he a d t a ke s up a l a r ge po r t i on of t he l ow e r l e f t c or ne r A gi a nt ove r s i z e d f i s h i n t he ba c kgr ound l i e s on t he f l oo r bl e e di ng f r om i t s gi l l s T he c ol or s i n t hi s s hot a r e pr e dom i na nt l y m uddy p i nks o r a nge s gr e e ns a nd a va r i e t y o f b r ow ns I t i s a n i m a ge of di s gus t i ng a nd t e r r i f yi ng e xc e s s T he c ol or of t he m e a t s be i ng c l os e t o t he br ow n c ol or of t he f l oo r e m pha s i z e t he c l os e ne s s be t w e e n t he m e a t a nd i t s f i l t hy e xi s t e nc e T he f i s h i n t he ba c k gr ound i s pl a c e d di r e c t l y on t he f l oor bl e e di ng f r e e l y i n t o t he s pa c e T hi s s c e ne i s e s pe c i a l l y f r i ght e ni ng a s i t pr e c e de s a r oom f ul l of pi gs w hi c h

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59 t he a udi e nc e know s m a y c ont a i n C hi hi r o s pa r e nt s W hi l e t he s e s c e ne s m a y f ur t he r t he t he m e of a nt i e xc e s s i t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t t h e s e l a t e r s c e ne s c ont a i n m os t l y f i s h t he m os t c om m onl y c ons um e d a ni m a l pr oduc t i n J a pa n. T he m e t a phor of e xc e s s i n c ons um pt i on doe s not onl y e xi s t i n W e s t e r n s t yl e c ui s i ne but m a y a s w e l l e xi s t i n c ui s i ne t ha t i s t y pi c a l l y J a pa ne s e T he e xc e s s i ve c ons um p t i on of f i s h m a y be a r e p r i m a nd t o t he c ur r e nt e xc e s s i ve w ha l i ng t ha t t a ke s pl a c e t hough none of t he f i s h e xe m pl i f i e d a r e a c t ua l l y w ha l e s T hi s ope ni ng s c e ne e l uc i da t e s s om e of t he t e ns i ons be t w e e n m ode r ni z i ng W e s t e r ni z i ng J a pa n, a nd a t r a di t i ona l J a pa n. C hi hi r o s pa r e nt s a r e pa r t i c ul a r l y pr obl e m a t i c a s t he y r e pr e s e nt a ge ne r a t i on t ha t ha s l os t t ouc h w i t h J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e T he y i gno r e t he be a ut y of na t ur e a nd a s m a l l s hr i ne be f or e t he m i n t he i r q ue s t f or t he i r ne w hous e T he y i ndul ge i n ove r c ons um pt i on, a nd a r e ge ne r a l l y out o f t ouc h w i t h t he i r da ught e r C hi hi r o i s s e e n a s i gnor a nt a nd a pa t he t i c of t he c ul t u r a l t e ns i ons a r ound he r pr e f e r r i ng t o s t a y i n he r ow n

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60 w or l d. A s a t e n ye a r ol d i t m a y be unde r s t a nda b l e but s he i s a bout t o e m ba r k on a c ul t ur a l a nd c ol l e c t i ve a w a ke ni ng. T r a i n S c e ne T he t r a i n s c e ne i s pe r ha ps t he m os t i m po r t a nt s i ngl e s c e ne i n t he f i l m t hough i t doe s not do m uc h t o a dva nc e t he pl ot T hough p l a c e d a bout t hr e e f ou r t hs of t he w a y i n t o t he na r r a t i ve w he r e t he c l i m a x w oul d ge ne r a l l y t a ke p l a c e a nd t e ns i ons w oul d bui l d, Spi r i t e d A w ay us e s a n oppos i ng s t r uc t ur e T he f i r s t t hr e e f our t hs of t he f i l m i s e xt r e m e l y pl ot dr i ve n a nd f u l l of a dve nt ur e a nd m i s ha p f r om t he s t a r t of C hi hi r o s k am i k a k us hi H e r j our ne y t o S w a m p B ot t om i s a c l e a r b r e a k i n t he s t r e s s f ul pa t t e r n of he r e xpe r i e nc e T he s c e ne pr e c e di ng t he t r a i n s c e ne i nvol ve s N o F a c e c ha s i ng C hi hi r o t hr ough t he ba t hhous e a f t e r he ha s be e n f e d t he m a gi c f ood gi v e n t o C hi hi r o by t he f a m o us R i ve r G od. T he s c e ne i s vi vi dl y di s gus t i ng f e a t ur i ng N o F a c e pur gi ng a l l t he f ood a nd

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61 ba t hhous e w or ke r s he ha s c ons um e d. F r om o f f e r i ngs of f ood t o a s t a m pe de of ba t hhous e w or ke r s r unni ng a w a y f r om N o F a c e t he s hot s i n t he s c e ne a r e c l ut t e r e d a nd c ont a i ne d. A s de m ons t r a t e d i n t he a bove i m a ge di r t y pot s a n d pa ns on t he l ow e r l e f t c or ne r w i t h t he i r ha ndl e s poi nt i ng di a gona l l y i nt o t he s c e ne e m pha s i z e s t he gr i m i ne s s of t he s pa c e a nd a dds t e ns i on. T he m i dg r ound i s ove r t a ke n by f r ogm e n w ho c ow e r a nd a pl e nt i t ude of ki t c he n a ppl i a nc e s w hi l e N o F a c e a nd C hi hi r o t he m a i n a c t o r s i n t hi s s c e ne a r e ba r e l y vi s i bl e t ow a r d t he ba c kgr ound. T he l a m ps a dd a s i c kl y ye l l ow l i ght t o t he s c e ne T he c ol or pa l a t e i s ove r w he l m i ngl y br ow n, r e m i ni s c e nt of t he m e a t s c e ne s i n t he e a r l i e r pa r t of t he f i l m T he f r ogm e n a s w e l l s i nk i nt o t he s ur r oundi ngs a nd t he y ha ve a r oun de d c ont a i ne d phys i c a l i t y t o t he m t ha t i s r e m i ni s c e nt of t he pot s t o t he l e f t M a n a nd hi s a ppl i a nc e s a l l c l e a r l y f i l t hy s e e m t o bl e nd t oge t he r a s t he f a n on t op ga s ps f or a i r T he out s i de of t he ba t hhous e e xhi bi t s a s i m i l a r m o noc hr om a t i c hot f i l t hy s t r e s s T he c ol or pa l e t t e a ga i n i s ove r w he l m i ng l y br ow n a nd N o F a c e a ppe a r s t o a l m os t f a de i nt o t he ba c kgr ound T he s t e a m r e e m pha s i z e s t hi s poi nt be i ng a vi s ua l pa r a l l e l t o N o

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62 F a c e hi m s e l f I t m a y s e r ve a s a m e t a phor f o r t he f ur y of t he gr e e d he ha s e xpe r i e nc e d, w hi c h a c c or di ng t o C hi hi r o a r i s e s f r o m t he ba t hhous e i t s e l f I t a l s o d r a w s pa r a l l e l s t o N o F a c e a s a t r a ns i e nt c r e a t ur e w hos e i de nt i t y i s o ve r t a ke n by t he a e s t he t i c s a nd va l ue s of hi s s ur r oundi ngs C om pa r e d t o t he ove r s i z e d pi pe be ne a t h hi m N o F a c e i s c e nt e r e d i n t he s hot ye t a ppe a r s f r a i l a nd s m a l l c om pa r e d t o t he pow e r of hi s e nvi r onm e nt T he ne xt s e r i e s of s hot s s t a r kl y c ont r a s t t hos e of t h e pr e c e di ng s c e ne a nd t he us ua l s hot s of t he ba t hhous e U nl i ke t he br ow ns r e ds a nd pi nks t ha t a ppe a r on t he s i de of t he ba t hhous e t he s e ne xt s hot s a r e pr e dom i na t e d by bl ue s T he hor i z on l i ne i s o f t e n ve r y l ow a nd r e f l e c t s l i ne s of w hi t e c l ouds U nl i k e t he s i de of t he ba t hhous e w hi c h i s bl ot c hy, t he s ky i s a n uni nt e r r upt e d s ha de of bl ue T he s hot s a r e e xt r e m e l y w i de e xpos i ng t he br e a dt h of t he l a nds c a pe a nd t he l ow hor i z on l i ne hi ghl i ght s t he w i de s e ns e of s pa c e T he w i de ope n s hot s a r e a l s o pa r a l l e l e d i n t he l e ngt h of t he s hot s w hi c h a r e m uc h l onge r a nd us e pa nni ng a s w e l l t o di s pl a y t he s c e ne r y, i ns t e a d of j us t us i ng a f e w qui c k c ut s

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63 T hi s dr a s t i c c ha nge of a e s t he t i c m a r ks a n e m ot i ve c ha nge w i t hi n t he f i l m a t a n i nt e r e s t i ng t i m e A t a f i r s t gl a nc e t hi s c ha nge i n f e e l i ng of t he f i l m i s pe c ul i a r a s C hi hi r o i s s t i l l i n a hi ghl y c ha ot i c s i t ua t i on a s H a ku i s i n c r i t i c a l c ondi t i on, he r pa r e nt s f a t e i s s t i l l t hr e a t e ne d, t he ba t hhous e i s i n di s or de r be c a us e of he r m i s t a ke a nd N o F a c e i s s t i l l f ol l ow i ng he r a r ound. R e ga r dl e s s of t he c ha os of he r s ur r oundi ngs s he e m ba r ks on a m i s s i on w i t hout i ns t r uc t i on, s ol i di f yi ng he r ne w f o und i nde pe nde nc e a nd he r w i s h t o r e s t or e or de r by r e t u r ni ng Z e ni ba s s e a l T he w a t e r he r e i s r e p r e s e nt a t i ve of a c a l m s he ga i ns f r om he r c onf i de nc e a nd a pu r i t y o f he r k ok or o I t s e e m s a s t hough t hi s s c e ne i s a n a l l us i on t o a f e w J a pa ne s e r e l i gi ons T he c l e a ni ng of t he ba t hhous e t ha t w i l l f ol l ow t he pur gi ng of N o F a c e a nd t he r e s t or a t i on of or de r w oul d be s m i l e d upon by S hi n t o pr a c t i t i one r s F ur t he r m or e t he us e of w a t e r i s not onl y a c a l m i ng a e s t he t i c a ge nt but a l s o one of pu r i t y, a t t he he a r t o f S hi nt o be l i e f a nd pr a c t i c e T he s i m pl i c i t y of t he s e s hot s a nd r e l a t i ve l y c a l m a r e i n l i ne w i t h Z e n B uddhi s t a e s t he t i c s w hi l e t he i m a ge of C hi hi r o w a l ki ng on w a t e r a l ong t he t r a i n t r a c ks a ppe a r s t o ha ve C hr i s t i a n s ym bol i s m

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64 T he m e di t a t i ve c a l m a t m os phe r e of t hi s s c e ne gi ve s t hi s pa r t of t he f i l m a n a s pe c t a ki n t o a r e l i gi ous or s pi r i t ua l e xpe r i e nc e I t i s i nt e r e s t i n g t ha t t hi s r e l i gi ous a w a ke ni ng, or r e l i gi ous r e t ur n t a ke s pl a c e not i n t he ba t hhous e i t s e l f a s ynonym f or O l d J a pa n a nd a pl a c e w he r e k am i a r e pr e s e nt a pl e nt y, but r a t he r i n a l i m i na l s pa c e out s i de c om pl e t e l y r e m ove d f r om t he ba t hhous e w or l d T he f a c t t ha t C hi hi r o c om e s t o t hi s a w a ke ni ng out s i de t he ba t hhous e m a y be a c r i t i que on t he ba t hhous e w or l d s a bi l i t y t o e nc om pa s s r e l i gi ous e xpe r i e nc e T hough i t i s t e e m i ng w i t h r e l i gi ous s ym bol i s m t he w o r ki ng s t r uc t ur e of t he ba t hhous e l e a ve s l i t t l e t i m e f or r e l i gi ous e xpe r i e nc e T he onl y i ns t a nc e of c onne c t i ng w i t h t he k am i i n t he ba t hhous e w a s dur i ng t he S t i nk G od s c e ne T he e xpe r i e nc e be s i de s c om i ng i nt o di r e c t c ont a c t w i t h a k am i c om e s f r om ha vi ng a n ope n k ok or o or a n ope n m i nde dne s s ( he a r t ) t o ne w e x pe r i e nc e c om bi ne d w i t h a s i nc e r e e f f or t t o he l p a nd pu r i f y T hough t he c a s e of t he S t i nk G od pr ove d t o be t he m os t r e w a r di ng none of t he ot he r ba t hhous e a t t e nde e s i nc l udi ng Y uba ba he r s e l f i n t he be gi nni ng w i s he d t o he l p pur i f y t he R i ve r G od T hi s i nc i de nt i s m e t a phor i c f or t he a t t e nde e s i na bi l i t y t o a s s e s s r e l i gi ous pot e nt i a l a nd pa r t a ke i n r i t ua l T hi s l i m i t a t i on e xe m pl i f i e s t ha t i t i s not e nough t o be a pa s s i ve pa r t of a w or s hi ppi ng c om m uni t y, but r a t he r t ha t a c t i on r e qui r e s i ndi vi dua l w i l l i ngne s s t o he l p T he c om m un i t y a s pe c t of S hi nt o i s t he r e f or e c r i t i c i z e d f or t he l i m i t a t i on i t pl a c e s on r e l i gi ous e xpe r i e nc e t hr o ugh m i s t a ke n hom oge nous t hought a nd a c t i on. I t i s a l s o not s uf f i c i e nt t o s i m pl y pa r t a ke i n a n e r a de e m e d O l d J a pa n. T he f or e i gn i nt r ude r t he c hi l d of m ode r ni t y C hi hi r o, w a s a f t e r a l l t he R i ve r G od s s a vi or T he he a r t o f S h i nt o r i t ua l i s l e s s de pe nde nt on t i m e e r a s ur r oundi ng c ul t u r e a nd t o s om e e xt e nt c om m uni t y i t s e l f a nd m or e on i nde pe nde nt a c c e pt a nc e a nd m ot i va t i on. T o s om e e x t e nt t hi s vi e w i s a hi ghl y m ode r ni z e d pe r s pe c t i v e on a n a nc i e nt r e l i gi on f oc us e d on t he

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65 c ol l e c t i ve a nd s oc i a l or de r T he s c e ne t hough dr i v e n by C hi hi r o i s not a s i m pl i s t i c t e s t a m e nt t o t he i ndi vi dua l a s s he i s he l pe d t r e m e n dous l y by L i n s w i l l i ngne s s t o pur i f y, Y uba ba s f i na l r e a l i z a t i on a nd di r e c t i on, a nd t he s he e r f or c e o f t he ba t hhous e a t t e nde e s I n t he e nd of t he s c e ne t he r e i s c om m una l r e j oi c i ng a nd t h r ough i nd i vi dua l w i l l C hi hi r o ga i ns a c c e pt a nc e i nt o t he gr oup. T he f o l l ow i ng t r a i n s c e ne how e ve r r e i nf or c e s t he i de a t ha t c onne c t i ng w i t h t he k am i i s f or e m os t a qui e t m e di t a t i ve t a s k, a nd t ha t c om m uni t y hi e r a r c hi e s m a y be a boi s t e r ous di s t r a c t i on t o w o r s hi p. P r e s e nt i ng C hi hi r o s r e l i g i ous upl i f t dur i ng t he t r a i n s c e ne pr e s e nt s f ur t he r E a s t / W e s t O l d/ N e w di c hot om y pr obl e m s T he i ns i de of t he t r a i n i s hi ghl y r e m i ni s c e nt of s t r e e t c a r s t hough t he m a j o r di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n a t r a di t i ona l s t r e e t c a r a nd t hi s t r a i n i s t he di r e c t i on of t he s e a t s i n t he f i l m be i ng s i de w a ys w hi l e i n N e w O r l e a ns f a c i ng t he f r ont of t he s t r e e t c a r S i nc e t he y a r e goi ng t o S w a m p B ot t om a s us pi c i ous l y s out he r n A m e r i c a n na m e i t w oul d no t be s e e m c om pl e t e l y out of pl a c e t ha t t he t r a i n i s a

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66 de s c e nda nt of t he s t r e e t c a r T he r e i s a not he r e l e m e nt of s l ow ne s s t o t he ge s t ur e s of t he pa s s e nge r s on t he t r a i n t ha t i s r e m i ni s c e nt of t he s l ow i ng he a t of N e w O r l e a ns T he da r k f i gur e s t r a ns l uc e nt a nd i n s i l houe t t e m uc h l i ke N o F a c e a r e c a pt i va t i ng. T he y a l s o l a c k s pe c i f i c f a c i a l f e a t ur e s a nd do not s pe a k t hr oughou t t he s c e ne T he s e f i gur e s m a y be k am i how e ve r t he y l a c k t he c ol o r f ul f e a t ur e s of t h e k am i gue s t s i n t he ba t hhous e F ur t he r m or e t he i r dr e s s w hi c h i s di s c e r ni bl e a pp e a r s t o be W e s t e r n a nd w or k i ng c l a s s w hi c h w oul d not pu t t he m i n t he r a nk o f ka m i S i n c e a l l t he s e f i gu r e s e xi t t he t r a i n f o r t he s a m e s t op, t he r e m a y be a n a l l us i on t o s e gr e ga t i on e i t he r t ha t o f t he U ni t e d S t a t e s or a n a l l us i on t o t he e xc l us i ve a s pe c t s of J a pa ne s e s oc i e t y. T he s e f i gu r e s a ppe a r m a r gi na l i z e d, goi ng t o a pl a c e f a r r e m ove d f r om t h e hum a n o r t he ba t hhous e w or l ds T he w oode n s i gn a ddr e s s i ng t he s t op a l s o ha s t he R om a j i N um a H a r a a l ongs i de t he hi r agana a nd k anj i c ha r a c t e r s w hi c h i ndi c a t e t he s pa c e i s a de s t i na t i on f or f or e i gne r s ( C uom o) I t f ur t he r e m pha s i z e s t he l i m i na l i t y of t h e i r e xi s t e nc e s e t i n a s t a t i on w i t h a l o t of m ove m e nt be t w e e n pe opl e of di f f e r e nt c ul t ur e s T he i r s ui t c a s e s s how t he i r pl a c e l e s s n e s s i n a s oc i e t y t ha t c a nnot i nt e gr a t e t he m S i nc e t he s e f i gu r e s a r e ghos t l i ke a nd s pi r i t l i ke t he i r c ondi t i on i s pe r ha ps m or e t hor ough. A s a nc e s t or s of t he l a nd t he y c a nnot r oa m f r e e l y or f i nd a hom e e ve n i n t he i r s pi r i t ( i f not k am i ) f or m P e r ha ps t hi s s c e ne i s a w a r ni ng t o t he c ont r a di c t i on be t w e e n k a m i r e l i gi on w hi c h i s i nc l us i ve a nd t he s om e t i m e s e t hni c a l l y e xc l us i ve s t r a i ns of t hought i n J a pa n. T ha t C hi hi r o w oul d ha ve a r e l i gi ous e xpe r i e nc e i n t hi s s pa c e of out c a s t s or f or e i gne r s w he t he r A m e r i c a n o r J a pa ne s e ( or be l ongi ng t o a m i nor i t y gr oup i n J a pa n s uc h a s t he bur ak um i n ) f ur t he r di ve r s i f i e s t he s pa c e w hi c h a l l ow s he r t o pa r t a ke i n r e l i gi ous e nc ount e r I t br i ngs he r e xpe r i e nc e e ve n f a r t he r f r om e t hni c a l l y hom oge nous

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67 O l d J a pa n w he t he r pr e M e i j i or pr e w a r a nd c l o s e r t o a s pa c e t ha t i s i nha bi t e d by t hos e de e m e d uni nha bi t a bl e P e r ha ps M i ya z a ki w a s t r yi ng t o br i ng a w a r e ne s s t o t he p r obl e m of m a r gi na l i z i ng m i nor i t y gr oups C hi hi r o s l a c k of i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he s e t r a i n f ol k m a y be a c r i t i que on C hi hi r o he r s e l f or i t m a y be a c r i t i que on t he yout h s i na bi l i t y t o c ope o r pr ovoke s oc i a l c ha nge i n J a pa n. S i nc e C hi hi r o i s a l r e a dy on he r w a y t o t a ke c a r e of one t ype of s oc i a l p r obl e m di s or de r s he ha s l i t t l e t i m e or e m ot i ona l a bi l i t y t o c a r e f or t he s ur r oundi ng f ol k w ho a r e i n j us t a s m uc h ne e d of he r a s s i s t a nc e a s t he y ne e d a voi c e H e r i na bi l i t y t o c a r e f or t he m a l s o s t e m s f r om t he f a c t t ha t t he m a r g i na l i z e d a r e a s oc i a l pr obl e m t ha t r e qui r e s a c ol l e c t i ve r e s pons e i n or de r t o c ha nge H e r unw i l l i ngne s s t o i nt e r a c t pe r ha ps a n e t i que t t e l e a r ne d i n ur ba n s oc i e t y i s de e pl y p r obl e m a t i c a s s he c a nnot be c om e a l e a de r i n s oc i a l c ha nge a s s he onc e di d w i t h t he R i ve r G od

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68

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69 T he t r a i n s c e ne t a ke s pl a c e on f l oode d r a i l r oa d t r a c ks a nd s e r ve s a s a not he r l i m i na l s pa c e t ha t s ol i di f i e s C hi hi r o s c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt B y t hi s t i m e s he ha s ga i ne d c on f i de nc e a nd i nde pe nde nc e s e e ki ng t o s a ve H a ku, r e ve r s e t he i r r ol e s a nd r e t ur n he r a l t r ui s m S he s e e ks t o r e s t or e or de r by r e t ur n i ng t he s e a l t o Z e ni ba a nd a pol ogi z i ng on be ha l f o f H a ku. S uc h a c t i ons of pu r i f i c a t i on a t one m e nt a nd r e t u r n t o or de r w oul d be c r e di t e d by a l l t hr e e r e l i gi ons di s c us s e d, t hough e m pha s i z e d di f f e r e nt l y H e r c ha r a c t e r c ha nge i s e xe m pl i f i e d by t he s w e l l i ng of w a t e r i n t o t he r i ve r T he w a ve l e s s ne s s a nd c l a r i t y of t he w a t e r c om bi ne d w i t h t he ope n c a l m s ki e s a c t a s a t a pe s t r y t o he r ne w c l a r i t y of m i nd. T he w a t e r i t s e l f i s a s ym bol of pur i t y a nd i t s s l ow s w e l l i ng pr ovi de s a ge s t ur a l f e e l i ng o f r e l i e f T ho ugh i n da nge r C hi hi r o i s a bl e t o ha ve s om e t hi ng c l os e t o a s pi r i t ua l e xpe r i e nc e bot h t h r ough he r a c t i on a nd w i t hi n he r hone d s t a t e of m i nd T he f a c t t ha t t hi s r e l i gi ous e xpe r i e nc e i s t a ki ng pl a c e i n a s pa c e out s i de t he ba t hhous e i s a t e s t a m e nt t ha t t he c l os e ne s s t o pur i t y c a n be c a r r i e d out i ndi vi dua l l y a nd w i t hout a di r e c t c ul t ur a l ba c kgr ound t ha t s uppor t s i t S i nc e t he s c e ne ha s hi nt s of A m e r i c a n a nd E u r ope a n

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70 a e s t he t i c s c om bi ne d w i t h t he m ys t e r i ous m a r g i na l i z e d f i gur e s i t m a y be c onc l ude d t ha t a c l os e ne s s t o k am i c a n t a ke pl a c e e ve n i n a c ul t ur a l l y f us e d s oc i e t y, or l i ke Z e ni ba i n a s oc i e t y c om pl e t e l y r e m ove d a ny s t r a i ght J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e W hi l e t he ba t hhous e i s s e e n a s c l ut t e r e d a nd gr i m y t he l a nds c a pe i n t he t r a i n s c e ne i s por t r a ye d a s e nt i r e l y s e r e ne a nd c e r t a i nl y pur e M or e t ha n a l a nds c a pe i t f unc t i ons a s a m e t a phor t o C hi hi r o s i nt e r na l s t a t e of m i nd one t ha t i s c l e a r a nd c a l m de s pi t e t he c a l a m i t i e s s ur r oundi ng he r

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71 C O N C L U S I O N : M i ya z a ki s Spi r i t e d A w ay e nc a ps ul a t e s a j our ne y t ow a r d s e e ki ng a n i de nt i t y a s J a pa ne s e t hr ough t he s e a r c h f o r c ul t u r a l r oo t s or o r i gi n. T he ove r a l l que s t f or o r i gi n a nd na t i ona l be l ongi ng a c c or di ng t o L e br a i s i t s ow n di s t i nc t i ve f a c e t of J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e w he r e i ndi vi dua l s de ve l op a n i nt e r de pe nde nc e l oy a l t y a nd s e ns e of i de nt i t y f r om a gr oup, w he t he r i t i s t he i r f a m i l y t he i r s c hool a s s t u de nt s or t he i r c om pa ny l a t e r i n l i f e T hi s pe r ha ps ve r y J a pa ne s e que s t f or be l ongi ng a r r i ve s a t a t i m e of c r os s r oa ds f or c ont e m por a r y J a pa n. J a pa n unde r w e nt ve r y m a j or pol i t i c a l a nd s oc i a l c ha nge s f r om t he T okuga w a pe r i od t o pr e s e nt goi ng f r om a f e uda l hi e r a r c hi c a l s oc i e t y, t o a n e c onom i c pow e r t o a n i m pe r i a l i s t i c a nd m i l i t a r i s t i c na t i on, t o be i ng oc c upi e d by W e s t e r n f or e i gne r s w ho i m pos e d a ne w c ons t i t ut i on w i t h a ne w s e t of va l ue s t o a n e c onom i c boo m a nd a r i ght i s t r e t ur n a nd l a t e r a r e c e s s i on dur i ng t he l a t e t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y. T he E m pe r or e s t a bl i s he d dur i ng t he M e i j i e r a a s ha vi ng di vi ne r i ght ha s be e n r e m ove d f r om s t a t e pow e r a nd ha s be c om e s ol e l y a c e r e m oni a l s ym bol T he g r oups vyi ng f or pol i t i c a l pow e r ha ve c ha nge d f r om t he ol i ga r c hs of t he M e i j i R e s t or a t i on t o t he z ai bat s u i nt e l l e c t ua l s a nd t he m i l i t a r y i n t he e a r l y t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y, t o t he r e i ns t a t e d D i e t dur i ng t he O c c upa t i on a nd now t o t he one pa r t y pa r l i a m e nt a r y de m oc r a c y dom i na t e d by t he L D P S oc i a l c ha nge s ha ve be e n pr of ound a s w e l l i n 1925 s uf f r a ge w a s gr a nt e d f o r m a l e s a nd i n 1947 i t w a s gr a nt e d f or f e m a l e s T he ol d hi e r a r c hi c a l s ys t e m of t he T okuga w a pe r i od w a s di s m a nt l e d, t hough di s c r i m i na t i on a ga i ns t l ow e r c l a s s e s a nd i m m i gr a nt s r e m a i ns a s a ve s t i gi a l pa r t t o t hi s l ong t r e nd i n s oc i e t y. A s t r on g m i ddl e c l a s s a r os e a f t e r t he w a r w h i c h di c t a t e d ne w t a s t e s C ons um e r i s m be c a m e a s t a pl e of J a pa ne s e ur ba n c ul t ur e t ha t

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72 dr ove pr oduc t i on a s w e l l T he r ol e o f w om e n i n s o c i e t y ha s c ha nge d dr a m a t i c a l l y a s w e l l s hyi ng a w a y f r om t he s e l f s a c r i f i c i a l good w i f e w i s e m ot he r t r a di t i on S uc h d r a m a t i c pol i t i c a l a nd s oc i a l c ha nge s de s t a bi l i z e a n i ndi vi dua l s a bi l i t y t o de r i ve a s e ns e of be l ongi ngne s s f r om J a pa n ove r a l i f e t i m e a s t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of J a pa n ha ve be e n i n gr e a t f l ux. F ur t he r m o r e t he s t a r k c ha nge s c r e a t e a c ul t ur a l ge ne r a t i ona l g a p. T oda y s J a pa ne s e yout h ha ve pl e nt y of pa s t i m e s t o di s t r a c t t he i r a t t e nt i on a w a y f r om hi s t or i c a l a nd c ont e m por a r y c ul t ur a l a nd s oc i a l i s s ue s T he de di c a t i on ne e de d t o s uc c e e d i n t he of t e n ve r y c om pe t i t i ve s c hool i ng s ys t e m i n J a pa n m a y be a not he r f a c e t t o i gnor i ng or a c c e pt i ng m ode l s of hi s t or y. ( K a r a n 181) M i ya z a ki s e ns e s t hi s c ul t ur a l ga p be t w e e n ge ne r a t i ons a nd us e s a ni m e a w i de l y f ol l ow e d f o r m of yout h e nt e r t a i nm e nt t o e xpos e yout h t o J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e t ha t m a y be ove r s ha dow e d or c om pl e t e l y l o s t i n t he w a ke of gl oba l i z a t i on. T he s t or y o f a n a ve r a ge m ode r n J a pa ne s e gi r l be i n g c onf r ont e d by a n unc a nny J a pa ne s e pa s t t hr ough t he ve hi c l e o f k am i k ak us hi h e nc e e vol ve s T he r e m a y be a n i nhe r e nt m e s s a ge of t he da nge r s of a pa t hy s i nc e C hi hi r o a nd he r p a r e nt s s uf f e r gr e a t c ons e que nc e s by m e r e l y s t um bl i ng upon t he ba t hh ous e w or l d. S i nc e t he y ha ve not t a ke n c a r e t o c onf r on t t he pa s t t he pa s t ha s t a ke n c a r e t o c onf r ont t he m i n a r a t he r a ggr e s s i ve m a nne r T he w or l d t hr ough t he t unne l i n Spi r i t e d A w ay i s a w or l d r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of a pr i or or t r a di t i ona l J a pa n f or got t e n w i t hi n m ode r n s oc i e t y. B y e xpos i ng t hi s w or l d t o a r e l a t a bl e he r oi ne r e p r e s e nt a t i ve of m ode r n J a pa n, M i ya z a ki i s a bl e t o e xpos e hi s a udi e nc e t o t he r i c hne s s of t he i r a nc e s t or s c ul t u r e a s t he y f o l l ow C hi hi r o on he r j our ne y. T he f or m a t i on o f na t i ona l i de nt i t y i s t he n i nt e r w ove n w i t h m e m or y a nd c ul t ur a l r e

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73 a c qua i nt a nc e T he que s t i on i s t he n r e f i ne d t o how J a pa n s houl d be r e m e m be r e d, a nd w ha t e r a i n t he di ve r s i t y o f J a pa ne s e hi s t or y s houl d t he m ode r n J a pa ne s e r e t ur n t o i n t he s e a r c h f or or i g i n. T he s e a r c h f or a n e r a i n J a pa ne s e hi s t or y t ha t i s e x e m pl a r y of J a pa ne s e ne s s s e e m s i nhe r e nt l y pr obl e m a t i c a s e a c h e r a r e de f i ne s i t s c ul t ur e va l ue s a nd e xpe c t a t i ons f o r i ndi vi dua l s i n i t s s oc i e t y. A r e t h e s am ur ai or pac hi nk o m or e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of J a pa n? D oe s i k e bana or m anga r e ve a l m or e a bout t he J a p a ne s e ps yc he ? A s t he e xpe c t a t i ons f r om e r a t o e r a a r e ove r t ur ne d, l ooki ng ba c k doe s not s e e m ne c e s s a r y a t a l l Y e t i n a c ul t ur e w hos e i ndi ge nous r e l i gi on e m pha s i z e s t he i m por t a nc e of a nc e s t r y, m a ki ng s e ns e of t he pa s t a dopt i ng a nd a ppr opr i a t i ng i t i s ne c e s s a r y. T he pa s t f or J a pa n, e s pe c i a l l y i n t he e a r l y t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y i s f ul l o f ugl y s t or i e s of i m pe r i a l i s m s l a ve r y a nd w a r c r i m e s T he s e a r c h f or c ul t ur a l r oot s c oul d c om p l e t e l y c i r c um ve nt t he ugl y pol i t i c s be f or e t he w a r i f t he m i l i t a r i s t i c s ys t e m ha d not us e d J a pa n s uni que c ul t ur e i t s e l f a s a ba s i s e t hni c s upe r i or i t y a nd a j us t i f i c a t i on f or c ol oni a l i z a t i on. C a n c ul t ur e a nd pol i t i c s e ve r be f u l l y di s e nt a ngl e d i n t he hi s t or y of J a pa n? C hi hi r o ge t s t r a ns por t e d i n t o a w o r l d a l i ve w i t h r i c h, di s t i nc t l y J a pa ne s e i m a ge r y, ye t one t ha t i s ove r a l l ve r y a m bi guous T he s t r e e t t ha t w a s us e d t o i ns pi r e t he ba t hhous e w or l d e xi s t s i n T okyo ne a r t he G hi bl i s t udi os T he a r c hi t e c t ur e of t he ba t hhous e i s a da z z l i ng br i c ol a ge w hi c h i nc l ude s e l e m e nt s of M e i j i a nd T okuga w a t e m pl e a r c hi t e c t ur e m i xe d w i t h C hi ne s e r e s t a ur a nt s t yl e s a nd e ve n, a s S hi m i z u poi nt s out t ouc he s of t he gr ot e s que vi s i ons of P e t e r B r e ughe l a nd H i e r nony m ous h B os c h. ( N a pi e r 298) T he ba t hhous e t ow n i s one t ha t i ns pi r e s w onde r w i t hi n C hi hi r o a s s he e xpe r i e nc e s a m i xt ur e

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74 of r e c ogni t i on of t he m or e t r a di t i ona l a r c hi t e c t ur a l f or m s c om bi ne d w i t h a n a l i e na t i on f r om t he unr e c ogni z e d f o r m s a nd t he i nhe r e n t pl a c e l e s s ne s s of t he t ow n. A m i xt ur e o f bot h t ypi c a l l y J a pa ne s e a r c hi t e c t ur e a nd W e s t e r n a r c hi t e c t ur e i s f u r t he r s e e n i n t he ba t hhous e M os t of i t e xhi bi t s t he w oode n f l oo r s a nd r i c e pa pe r s l i di ng door s o f J a pa ne s e i nt e r i or s T he w a l l s of t he ba t hi ng a r e a s of t e n e xhi bi t a N oh t r e e t he of t e n s i ngul a r s e t de s i gn f e a t ur e of t he t r a di t i ona l J a pa ne s e t he a t e r O t he r a s pe c t s of t he ba t hhous e a r c hi t e c t ur e a r e pa r t i c ul a r l y W e s t e r n, s uc h a s Y uba ba s hous e T he a ddi t i on o f Y uba ba a s a l e a de r i s bot h a n a l l us i on t o ve r y e a r l y m a t r i a r c ha l s oc i e t i e s of J a pa n, but a l s o t o t he i m pos i t i on of t he U S dur i ng t he O c c upa t i on. H e r dua l r ol e bot h a s a J a pa ne s e a nd a s a R us s i a n w i t c h a r c he t ype ( Y a m a uba a nd B a ba Y a ga ) pa r a l l e l s t he f or m a l i t y of c ha nge s t a ki ng pl a c e dur i ng t he O c c upa t i on. A s Y uba ba s a ppe a r a nc e i s ve r y W e s t e r n, i t i s e a s y t o a s s um e t h a t pe r ha ps s he he r s e l f w a s onc e a n out s i de r l i ke C hi hi r o a nd N o F a c e t o t he ba t hhous e w or l d. H e r r ol e i n t he ba t hhous e a s a l e a de r e nf or c i ng t op dow n no r m s a nd l a w s c a n be s e e n a s a n a l l us i on t o t he A l l i e d O c c upa t i on. M uc h l i ke t he O c c upa t i on onl y f or m a l i z e d i n t he or y a f e w t r e nds t ha t ha d be e n t a ki ng pl a c e i n p r a c t i c e l i ke t he m o r e s ym bol i c r ol e o f t he E m pe r o r Y uba ba s out w a r d a ppe a r a nc e m a y onl y be a f o r m a l i t y of m or e e s s e nt i a l l y J a pa ne s e w a ys of l i f e T hough t he O c c upa t i on w a s ve r y r a di c a l l y i m pos e d, Y uba ba s t ot a l i t a r i a n r ul e of t he ba t hhous e i s i nde e d m or e r e m i ni s c e nt o f e a r l i e r f e uda l J a pa ne s e s y s t e m s unl i ke t he A l l i e d O c c upa t i on f or c e s w hi c h w e r e l i m i t e d i n pow e r a s t he P ot s da m P r oc l a m a t i on s pe c i f i e d t he ne w gove r nm e nt ne c e s s i t a t e d e s t a bl i s hm e nt i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he f r e e l y e xpr e s s e d w i l l of t he J a pa ne s e pe opl e ( R e i s c ha ue r 215) T h e A l l i e d O c c upa t i on a l s o de c e nt r a l i z e d e c onom i c a nd pol i t i c a l pow e r w hi c h w oul d no t be a f a vor a bl e t a c t i c f o r Y uba ba T he

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75 i nc l us i on of Y uba ba i n t he pol i t i c s of t he ba t hhous e i s c ha nge i n t he po l i t i c a l t a pe s t r y o f J a pa n c r ys t a l l i z e d w i t hi n one pl a c e I f t he ba t hhou s e w or l d i s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of O l d J a pa n, a ny c onc r e t e de f i ni t i on i s c i r c um ve nt e d. T he ba t hhous e w or l d i s a s i m ul t a ne ous di s pl a y of c ha nge t hr ough t i m e T hi s w a y o f e xpl o r i ng t he pa s t de f i ne s i t not a s a c ul t ur e s pr i ngi ng f r om one unt a i nt e d s our c e but r a t he r a m i xt ur e of e l e m e nt s f r om di f f e r e nt c ul t ur e s a nd t hr ough di f f e r e nt m om e nt s t h r ough t i m e T hi s e nga gi ng a ppr oa c h t o hi s t or y a l s o t a ke s i nt o c ons i de r a t i on t ha t hi s t or i c a l e nde a vor s i nc l ude t he t i m e of t he onl ooke r T he s a m e pa s t i s i nt e r pr e t e d a nd r e i nt e r pr e t e d, a nd t he r e f or e c ha nge s a s i t i s s e e n t hr ough t he vi e w e r s upda t i ng f r a m e w or k of va l ue s T he m os t i m po r t a nt a s pe c t of t hi s f i l m i s t he m a nn e r i n w hi c h i t c onf r ont s t he pa s t F r om t he di da c t i c pe r s pe c t i ve of t he f i l m C hi hi r o ha s ye t t o i nc or po r a t e t he pos i t i ve a s pe c t s of he r t r a di t i ona l c ul t ur e W hi l e t he s ubur ba n C hi hi r o i s w hi ny a nd ungr a t e f ul i n t he ope ni ng s c e ne of t he c a r s he m us t l e a r n t he t r a di t i ona l e t i que t t e of bow i ng a nd s a yi ng t ha nk you ( a s s he i s r e p r i m a nd e d by L i n ) a nd t he va l ue o f ha r d w or k a nd di s c i pl i ne w i t hout c om pl a i nt i n o r de r t o s ur vi v e i n t he ba t hhous e w or l d. A l ongs i de ha r d w or k i s t he va l ue o f c l e a nl i ne s s S ubu r ba n C hi hi r o ( a s I w i l l c a l l he r ) w a s not s how n t o be pa r t i c ul a r l y unke m pt t hough a l ot of c l ut t e r i s pr e s e nt i n t he ba c ks e a t of t he c a r i nc l udi ng f a l l e n f l ow e r pe t a l s a nd a c a ndy w r a ppe r A s s he e nt e r s t he ba t hhous e he r c a r e l e s s be ha vi or i s no l onge r a c c e pt a bl e S he m u s t f ol d a nd c l e a n he r onl y pa i r of c l ot hi ng. S he m us t l e a r n t o t a ke of f he r s hoe s w hi l e i n t he hous e a ve r y i m por t a nt J a pa ne s e e t i que t t e T he s e va l ue s a r e unc ov e r e d i n s uc h a w a y i n t he f i l m t ha t t he y a r e not s uppos e d t o be t e m por a r y hoops t ha t C hi hi r o m us t j um p t hr ough i n o r de r t o r e t u r n t o t he

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76 na t ur a l w or l d but r a t he r t ha t t he y a r e uni ve r s a l v a l ue s s he s houl d ha ve know n a l l a l ong, a nd onc e l e a r ne d, t he y w i l l f ol l ow he r i nt o t he hu m a n w or l d. O t he r va l ue s t ha t C hi hi r o m us t l e a r n a r e not t r a di t i ona l l y J a pa ne s e a t a l l ( I a m us i ng t he w or d t r a di t i ona l he r e t o s i gni f y pr e m ode r n J a pa n, be f or e t he 20 t h C e nt ur y dur i ng t he T okuga w a pe r i od t hough I r e a l i z e t he u t t e r l i m i t a t i ons of t h i s a bs ol ut e t e r m ) P e r ha ps one of t he bi gge s t f o r m s of r e s i s t a nc e t o t h e t r a di t i ona l pa s t i s t he r ol e of C hi hi r o a s a w om a n. A s m a ny of M i ya z a ki s pr ot a goni s t s C hi hi r o i s a s t r ong he r o i ne w ho m e di a t e s be t w e e n oppos i ng f or c e s a nd ove r c om e s he r c ha l l e nge s H e r r ol e i s not one of a w om a n, or a c hi l d w ho m us t a ns w e r t o t he he a d o f t he f a m i l y. H e r f a t he r i s a c t ua l l y por t r a ye d a s goof y a nd unw i s e ye t r e ga r dl e s s of t h e l e ve l of he r f a t he r s w i s dom C hi hi r o i s l e f t a l one i n t he ba t hhous e w or l d w i t hout a ny f a m i l i a l f i gu r e of a ut hor i t y t o r e s pond t o. I ns t e a d of l e a r ni ng t o a ppe a s e he r pa r e nt s a nd be o be di e nt t o t he i r di r e c t de m a nds C hi hi r o m us t l e a r n t o be i nde pe nde nt a nd a c t o f he r ow n vol i t i on w i t hi n t he ba t hhous e w or l d. A t t he s a m e t i m e s he pr ove s t o be ve r y l oy a l t o he r pa r e nt s by p r om i s i ng a nd s uc c e e di ng t o r e t ur n t he m s a f e l y t o t he hum a n w o r l d. F a m i l i a l l oya l t y c a n be c ons i de r e d a J a pa ne s e t r a di t i ona l va l ue ( e ve n t hough i t w a s i m por t e d t hr ough C onf uc i a ni s m f r o m C hi na a s e a r l y a s t he s i xt h c e nt ur y ) T he w i s h t o s a ve one s pa r e nt s f r om be i ng c ons um e d c a n how e ve r be unde r s t ood a c r os s c ul t u r e s I n Spi r i t e d A w ay t he ki nd of f a m i l i a l l oya l t y e m pha s i z e d i s one ba s e d on e m pa t hy a nd c a r e t h r ough t he ve hi c l e of i nde pe nde nt t hought a nd a c t i on r a t he r t ha n b l i nd o be di e nc e of t he he a d o f t he f a m i l y ( A pa r a l l e l de ve l opm e nt c a n be s e e n w i t h Y uba ba s b a by, a s he gr ow s s t r e ngt h a nd i nde pe nde nc e w i t hout Y uba ba s ove r s i ght )

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77 C hi hi r o a s a gi r l di s pl a ys s om e t r a di t i ona l l y f e m i ni ne qua l i t i e s of be i n g ve r y nur t ur i ng a nd m e di a t i ng. S he nur t u r e s H a ku a nd t he f a m ous R i ve r G od t o good phys i c a l he a l t h a nd N o F a c e t o good s pi r i t ua l he a l t h. S he a l s o nur t ur e s s t r e ngt h a nd a r gua bl y a voi c e i n B o. T he s e qua l i t i e s c a n e a s i l y be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he r ol e of m ot he r hood S he i s by f a r t he m os t a c c e pt i ng c ha r a c t e r i n t he ba t hhous e w or l d, s e e i ng pur i t y a nd pot e nt i a l i n a l l t he ot he r c ha r a c t e r s e ve n N o F a c e T he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of a c c e pt a nc e c a n be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he unc ondi t i ona l l ove of a m o t he r S he a l s o m e di a t e s be t w e e n oppos i ng f or c e s : Y uba ba a nd Z e ni ba Z e ni ba a nd H a ku, N o F a c e a nd t he ba t hhous e w hi c h c a n be pa r a l l e l e d a m ot he r m e di a t i ng be t w e e n he r c hi l dr e n or he r c hi l dr e n a nd he r hus ba nd. U nl i ke t he t r a di t i ona l r ol e of w om e n, s he i s ne i t he r pa s s i ve nor bl i ndl y obe di e nt nor f a t e d f or dom e s t i c l i f e I n t he ba t hhous e s he m us t e a r n he r ke e p, w o r ki ng a l ongs i de m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s I n or de r t o r e s t or e or de r be t w e e n t he s or c e r e s s s i s t e r s s h e m us t l e a ve t he ba t hhous e w or l d a nd t r a ve l a l ong di s t a nc e by t r a i n a c c om pa ni e d by no one w ho c a n pr ot e c t he r H e r f a t e a nd t he f a t e of t hos e a r ound h e r de pe nd on he r a c t i ve de t e r m i ne d pa r t i c i pa t i on w i t hi n he r ne w w o r l d, a nd he r r ol e a s a l e a de r C hi hi r o i s a m i x t ur e be t w e e n t he t r a di t i ona l l y f e m i ni ne a nd m a s c ul i ne di s pl a yi ng bot h a c t i ve s t r e ngt h a nd nur t ur a nc e A e s t he t i c a l l y s he i s hi ghl y a ndr ogynous l i ke H a ku, a nd w e a r s uni s e x c l ot hi ng. U nl i ke t he t r e nds of o ve r s e xua l i z e d s hoj o t ha t m a y a ppe a r i n c ont e m por a r y J a pa ne s e m a nga he r ove r a l l pr e s e nt a t i on doe s not gi ve he r a w a y t o t he pl e a s ur e of t he ga z e A s t he a ve r a ge gi r l t ur ne d h e r oi ne of t he f i l m s he i s a l s o c r e a t e d a s a r ol e m ode l f or he r a udi e nc e s T he a s pi r a t i ons f or young gi r l s ( a nd boys ) a r e t he r e f or e : w or k ha r d, a da pt be pol i t e be a c c e pt i ng o f e ve r yo ne be pe r s e ve r a nt be s t r ong be

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78 c onf i de nt be m ot i va t e d ye t m a ke f r i e nds a s t he y w i l l be a n i r r e pl a c e a bl e he l p t o you. T he y a r e c e r t a i nl y not : be s e xy or be a ut i f ul o r obe di e nt T he c ol l a ge of va l ue s a nc i e nt a nd c ont e m por a r y J a pa ne s e a nd W e s t e r n t ha t i s ve ne r a t e d w i t hi n t hi s f i l m i s a t e s t a m e nt t o bo t h t h e nos t a l gi a f or c e r t a i n e l e m e nt s of J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e a nd t he a ba ndonm e nt or r e j e c t i on of ot he r a s pe c t s of J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e T hi s m e t hod o f r oot s e e ki ng i s ul t i m a t e l y a c r i t i c a l one I ns t e a d of bl i ndl y a c c e pt i ng or be i ng ove r l y nos t a l gi c o f t he pa s t M i ya z a ki ur ge s vi e w e r s t o t hi nk c r i t i c a l l y a bout t he i r na t i on a nd c ul t ur e T he e c l e c t i c a e s t he t i c s a nd m ul t i f a c e t e d c ha r a c t e r s pr e s e nt e d i n Spi r i t e d A w ay f ur t he r c om p l i c a t e a s i ngl e uni f i e d vi e w o f J a pa ne s e hi s t or y. T he c ha r a c t e r s a r e i nt e r w ove n m os a i c s of a nc i e nt J a pa ne s e s ym bol s W e s t e r n f ol kl or e va l ue s c a l l i ng t o k am i a nc e s t r y a nd m ode r n i ndus t r i a l s oc i a l c ha nge a nd gr e e d a nd s oc i a l pr obl e m s pr e s e nt i n bot h E a s t a nd W e s t T hi s s ynt he s i s of v a l ue s i m a ge s a nd a l l us i ons de pi c t J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e a s ul t i m a t e l y e nm e s he d w i t h f or e i gn i nf l ue nc e s I t a l s o w a r ns vi e w e r s a ga i ns t a ny a s s um pt i ons of t he pur i t y of t r a di t i on a l J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e a nd de pi c t s hi s t or y a s f l e e t i ng a nd s ubj e c t t o c ha nge a nd de ba t e T hi s phi l os ophy t ow a r d hi s t or y a nd r oot s e e ki ng i s ul t i m a t e l y t i m e l y, a s J a pa n i s s t i l l s t r uggl i ng w i t h t he r e c ogni t i on a nd r e c onc i l i a t i on of i t s e a r l y 20 t h C e nt ur y h i s t or y.

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81 F r om I m pr e s s i oni s m t o A ni m e : J a pa n a s F a nt a s y a nd F a n C ul t i n t he M i nd o f t he W e s t N e w Y or k: P a l gr a ve M a c m i l l i a n, 2007 M a t t e r O ut o f P l a c e : C a r ni va l C ont a i nm e nt a nd C ul t ur a l R e c ove r y i n M i ya z a ki 's Spi r i t e d A w ay J our nal of J apane s e St udi e s 32. 2 ( 2006) N e w i t z A nna l e e M a gi c a l G i r l s a nd A t om i c B om b S pe r m : J a pa ne s e A ni m a t i on i n A m e r i c a F i l m Q uar t e r l y 49. 1 ( 1995 ) N or be c k, E dw a r d C ha ngi ng J a pa n N e w Y or k: H o l t R i ne ha r t a nd W i ns t on, I nc 1967 O no, S okyo S hi n t o t he K a m i W a y L ondon: B r i dg e w a y P r e s s 1962. P ow e r s R i c ha r d G i d a nd H i de t os hi K a t o e ds H a ndbook of J a pa ne s e P opul a r C ul t ur e N e w Y or k: G r e e nw ood P r e s s I nc 1989. R e i de r N or i ko T S pi r i t e d A w a y: F i l m of t he F a nt a s t i c a nd E vol vi ng J a pa ne s e F ol k S ym bol s ( C r i t i c a l E s s a y) F i l m C r i t i c i s m 29. 3 ( 2 005) R e i s c ha ue r E dw i n O J a pa n, P a s t a nd P r e s e nt T hi r d E di t i on, R e vi s e d e d. N e w Y or k: A l f r e d A K nopf I nc 1964. R i c hi e D ona l d, a nd J os e ph L A nde r s on. T r a di t i o na l T he a t e r a nd t he F i l m i n J a pa n. F i l m Q uar t e r l y 12. 1 ( 1958) S a dl e r A W T he S pi r i t C a pt i ve s of J a pa n's N or t h C ount r y: N i ne t e e nt h C e nt ur y N a r r a t i ve s of t he K a m i ka kus hi A s i an F ol k l or e St udi e s 46. 2 ( 1987) S a ns om G B J a pa n A S hor t C ul t u r a l H i s t or y T o kyo: T ut t l e P ubl i s hi ng, 1931. S c hne l l S c ot t a nd H i r oyuku H a s hi m ot o G ue s t E di t or s I nt r oduc t i on : R e vi t a l i z i ng J a pa ne s e F ol kl or e A s i an F ol k l or e St udi e s 62 2 ( 2003) S e ddon, T e r r i P ol i t i c s a nd C ur r i c ul um : A C a s e S t udy of t he J a pa ne s e H i s t or y T e xt book D i s put e 1982. B r i t i s h J our nal of Soc i ol ogy o f E d uc at i on 8. 2 ( 1987) S t a e m m l e r B i r gi t V i r t ua l K a m i ka kus hi a n E l e m e nt of F o l k B e l i e f i n C ha ngi ng T i m e s a nd M e di a J apane s e J our nal of R e l i gi ous St udi e s 32. 2 ( 2005) S uga ya M i nor u. T he D e ve l opm e nt o f F i l m P o l i c y i n C a na da a nd J a pa n f r om C ul t ur a l t o E c onom i c K e i o C om m uni c at i on R e v i e w 28 ( 2006 ) T a i E i ka R e t hi nki ng C ul t ur e N a t i ona l C ul t ur e a nd J a pa ne s e C ul t ur e J apane s e L anguage and L i t e r at ur e 37 1 ( 2003)

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