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Reflections of Cultural Voices in the Magic Mirror of "Snow White"

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004122/00001

Material Information

Title: Reflections of Cultural Voices in the Magic Mirror of "Snow White"
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Johnson, Ashley Rose
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Fairy Tales
Snow White
Brothers Grimm
Mirror
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis analyzes how the voice of the magic mirror of "Snow White," by the Brothers Grimm, reflects the cultural contexts that have made the story one of the most well known tales in the Western fairy tale canon. The primary text and films reflect the cultural context of their authors and directors. The Grimms' "Snow White" reflects the voice of nineteenth-century patriarchy. Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs presents the tale from a culture escaping the economic depression of the 1930s in the United States. Cohn's A Tale of Terror reflects the internalized value of motherhood and competition for females In a patriarchal context. Berz's Snow White presents the patriarchal voice that condemns age and promotes beauty. Kolditz's Schneewittchen, or Snow White, reflects the socialist values of Eastern Germany in 1961. Through an analysis of these films, a discussion of the female dichotomy of angelic and wicked fairy tale women created by cultural voices, and a discussion of a number of works by fairy tale scholars such as Zipes, Tatar, L�thi, and Bettelheim, this thesis looks at cultural reflections of fairy tales and the magic mirror in "Snow White."
Statement of Responsibility: by Ashley Rose Johnson
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Sutherland, Wendy

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 J6
System ID: NCFE004122:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004122/00001

Material Information

Title: Reflections of Cultural Voices in the Magic Mirror of "Snow White"
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Johnson, Ashley Rose
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Fairy Tales
Snow White
Brothers Grimm
Mirror
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis analyzes how the voice of the magic mirror of "Snow White," by the Brothers Grimm, reflects the cultural contexts that have made the story one of the most well known tales in the Western fairy tale canon. The primary text and films reflect the cultural context of their authors and directors. The Grimms' "Snow White" reflects the voice of nineteenth-century patriarchy. Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs presents the tale from a culture escaping the economic depression of the 1930s in the United States. Cohn's A Tale of Terror reflects the internalized value of motherhood and competition for females In a patriarchal context. Berz's Snow White presents the patriarchal voice that condemns age and promotes beauty. Kolditz's Schneewittchen, or Snow White, reflects the socialist values of Eastern Germany in 1961. Through an analysis of these films, a discussion of the female dichotomy of angelic and wicked fairy tale women created by cultural voices, and a discussion of a number of works by fairy tale scholars such as Zipes, Tatar, L�thi, and Bettelheim, this thesis looks at cultural reflections of fairy tales and the magic mirror in "Snow White."
Statement of Responsibility: by Ashley Rose Johnson
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Sutherland, Wendy

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 J6
System ID: NCFE004122:00001


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REFLECTIONS OF CULTURAL VOICES IN THE MAGIC MIRROR OF SNOW WHITE BY ASHLEY ROSE JOHNSON A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Humanities New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Dr. Wendy Sutherland Sarasota, Florida May, 2009

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Acknowledgments Twas brillig and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe, All mimsy were the borogoves And the momeraths outgrabe. --Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky The surprising unrealisticness of rea lity shows me that people and the world surprise me day by day. Id lik e to acknowledge everyone, but I find that by acknowledging everyone I thin k I will inevitably forget someone. So, first of all, Id like to acknowledge the people who always told me that I could write this in the allotted time, namely my family members (Mom, Dad, Uncle Cliff, and Spen cer) and Professor Clark. Second, my committee members Dr. Sutherland, Dr. Van Tuyl, and Dr. Clark. Especially I would like to thank my thesis sponsor Professor Sutherland, who continually offered valuable feedback; and who shed interesting lights on my perceptio ns of Germany and the Grimms. Third, the magical helpers in th e library, Sean Marlow and Patrick Young, for coming to my rescue when I needed technological help with capturing still images and clips from f ilm. (I learned so much from you!) Fourth, to my off-campus friends (and a few on-campus friends) who didnt ask me to play often when I was writing my thesis. Last, but far from least, I would like to acknowledge my roommates, Madi, Kathleen, and Jenn for thei r support and encouragement, proofreading, and communally providing sugar, coffee, and laughter. ii

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Table of Contents Acknowledgments...ii Table of Contents...iii List of Illustrations and Tables......iv Abstract...vii Chapter One Introduction to a Study and Analysis of Snow White .1 Chapter Two Magic Mirror on the Wall : The Frame of the Patriarchal and Matriarchal Voice in the Grimms Snow White..29 Chapter Three I See All: The Acousmatic Mirror and Reflections of Capitalist and Socialist Agendas in Snow White Films...52 Conclusion Works Consulted. Works Cited..14 iii

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Illustrations and Tables Table 1. Direct Dialogue in the Gr imms Snow White.. Fig. 1. Disneys Queen in the Mirror.64 Fig. 2. Disneys Mirror..64 Fig. 3. Disneys Witch with the Apple...64 Fig. 4. Snow White Bites the Apple (Disney)..65 Fig. 5. Suspense: the Hand and the Apple (Disney)..65 Fig. 6. The Expressive Monst er (Disney)......65 Fig. 7. Portrait of the Biological Mother (Cohn).77 Fig. 8. Portrait of the Stepmother (Cohn) Fig. 9. Portrait of the Biological Mother in the Locket (Cohn) Fig. 10. Lilly (Snow White) Framed by a Hand Mirror (Cohn).78 Fig. 11. The Special Ball (Cohn)...78 Fig. 12 Trapped in the Glass Coffin (Cohn)..79 Fig. 13. Cohns Dwarfs.79 iv

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Fig. 14. Lilly Awake in the Coffin (Cohn)..79 Fig. 15. Cohns Mirror Cabinet.80 Fig. 16. Cohns Mirror Closing..80 Fig. 17. Claudia Meets Her Stepdaughter (Cohn) Fig. 18. Claudia and Her Baby (Cohn) Fig. 19. Lilly Rejects the Stepmothers Dress (Cohn)..81 Fig. 20. Claudia Watches the Dance (Cohn)..82 Fig. 21. The Miscarriage (Cohn)...82 Fig. 22. Claudia Faints (Cohn)..82 Fig. 23. Motherhood Awry: Claudia Pois ons the Household (Cohn) Fig. 24. Motherhood Awry: Claudia, L illy, and the Apple (Cohn) Fig. 25. Motherhood Awry: Goodnight, Dearie (Cohn).83 Fig. 26. Acousmatic Mirror: Claudia and the Mirror (Cohn).84 Fig. 27. Acousmatic Mirror: Claudia Reaches to the Mirror (Cohn) v

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Fig. 28. Acousmatic Mirror: The Mirror (Cohn) Fig. 29. Youve been most fair, t is true, (Berz)..91 Fig. 30. The Mirrors Destruction (Berz) Fig. 31. The Aged Witch (Berz).91 Fig. 32. Queen, though you are fair, its true, (Kolditz)..99 Fig. 33. The Mirror and the Queen (Kolditz).99 Fig. 34. The Mirror and the Queen (Kolditz).99 vi

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REFLECTIONS OF CULTURAL VOICES IN THE MAGIC MIRROR OF SNOW WHITE Ashley Rose Johnson New College of Florida, 2009 ABSTRACT This thesis analyzes how the vo ice of the magic mirror of Snow White, by the Brothers Grimm, reflects the cultural contexts that have made the story one of the most well known tale s in the Western fairy tale canon. The primary text and films reflect the cultural context of their authors and directors. The Grimms Snow White re flects the voice of nineteenth-century patriarchy. Disneys Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs presents the tale from a culture escaping the economic depression of the 1930s in the United States. Cohns A Tale of Terror reflects the internalized value of motherhood and competition for females in a patriarchal context. Berzs Snow White presents the patriarchal voice that condemns age and promotes beauty. Kolditzs Schneewittchen, or Snow White reflects the socialist values of Eastern Germany in 1961. Through an an alysis of these films, a discussion of the female dichotomy of angelic an d wicked fairy tale women created by cultural voices, and a discussion of a number of works by fairy tale scholars vii

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viii such as Zipes, Tatar, Lthi, and Bette lheim, this thesis looks at cultural reflections of fairy tales and th e magic mirror in Snow White. _______________________________________ Wendy Sutherland Division of Humanities

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Chapter One Introduction to a Study and Analysis of Snow White We have heard the complaint, the book was far better than the movie! Why is this? At a time period when visual media is very popular, written words still foster a relationship between the pages of a book and a readers imagination; a co-creation of a world stimulated by an authors words. Within Snow White, a tale from one of the most magical yet relevant genres of literature and folk lore, the mirror reflects the voice of culture. By probing the surface of the glass, we can uncover the tradition and messages of the oral tale-tellers submerged in the edited and immortalized words of the Grimms. Just as the Grim ms imbued their tales with cultural messages, the Snow White films of the twentieth century reflect the dominant cultures of their film-makers. A film, however, by nature becomes more detailed than its ancestor fair y tale. The Grimms magic mirror takes on gender and personality in film adaptations, robbing an audience member of the poetic license of imagination. In the Grimms Snow White, the mirror is nongendered and its identity can vary from the voice of Snow Whites absent father to the voice of th e patriarchy or the voice of the mother contained in the domestic sphere. Maria Tatar writes, We each belong to an interpretive community for absorbing or analyzing the message of a story. 1

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Childrens literature in general but fairy tales in particular has traditionally addressed itself, broadly speaking, to two very different interpretive communiti es, each with its own vested interests and each in periodic conflict with the other. ( Off xvi, xvii) Tatar refers to the child and adult audience ( Off xvii). It is important to distinguish between the two groups that interpret fairy tales, since adults tend to analyze them and children tend to react to them. Tatar notes that, raconteurs report again and ag ain that when the boys head rolls, when he is dismembered fo r the stew, and when the father dines, children respond with gales of laughter. Interestingly, the laughter is rarely described as nervous, but as gleeful, in part, perhaps, because a child s worst fears about adult aggression are acted out in a wholly childlike way by the very figures authorized to monitor children and to keep their aggressive impulses in check. (Tatar, Off 215) To support this division, we need only l ook to the myriad of fairy tale scholars in many fields of study, from Max Lth i in the field of anthropology to Bruno Bettelheim and his psychoanalysis, to Maria Tatar and Jack Zipes more grounded textual, sociohistorical studies. To prove the popularity and impact of fairy tales for children, one need on ly look inside the scholars books and the shelves of libraries, or a film store. 2

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Fairy tales have been studied since their publication, but much less in the United States than in Europe. Perhaps this is because the United States was not the homeland of the evil queens and medieval kingdoms of the Grimms fairy tales. As someone who did not approach the academic study of fairy tales until adulthood, I recall the exact environment in which I sat down to take notes on the tales of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, Jacques Perrault, and Hans Christian Andersen and their differing styles of enchanting their published tales. It was winter. Outsid e the cold flakes drifted to the ground, not unlike feathers softly drifting in a windless night. The books still held the fresh smell of new paper in their pages and I sat in front of the fireplace, the warmest place in the house. Though this thesis analyzes the role of the evil queens magic mirror in the Brot hers Grimms Snow White and the dominant cultural voices that it reflec ts as the primary voice of judgment in the tale, this thesis begins with the prior cultural traditions captured in the texts of the Grimms tales. In imitat ion of many fairy tale scholars, this chapter will introduce the roots of Sno w White, and trace the evolution of the story to its place in various textual versions today. The second chapter is focused on the Grimms Snow White in text using arguments by Ruth Bottigheimer and Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar. The third and final chapter presents analyses of the reflecti ons of cultural voices in the mirror from four twentieth-centur y films: Walt Disneys Snow White and the Seven 3

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Dwarfs, Michael Cohns Snow White: A Tale of Terror, Michael Berzs Snow White and Gottfried Kolditzs Schneewittchen or [Little] Snow White. Fairy Tales The life of a fairytale is like a ca ndlewick that burns for hundreds, maybe thousands of years, before blinki ng out of existence. The wick may provide light for centuries for exploring topics like beauty and envy, marriage, maturation, greed, and fortune living the good life or the risky adventurous one. The wick burns for ce nturies because fairy tales are twined around something deep within our human ity. They address concerns that govern most people on the earthconcerns for well being, and happiness, and even survival. What are the origins of fairy st ories? That must, of course, mean: the origin of or origins of the fairy elements. To ask what is the origin of stories (however qualified) is to ask what is the origin of language and of th e mind.[...] There are many elements in fairy-stories (such as the detachable heart, or swanrobes, magic rings, arbitrary pr ohibitions, wicked stepmothers, and even fairies themselves) that can be studied without tackling this main question. Such studies are, however, scientific (at least in intent); they are the pursuit of folklorists or anthropologists: that is of peop le using the stories not as they were meant to be used, but as a quarry from which to dig 4

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evidence, or information, about matters in which they are interested. (Tolkien 18) Tolkiens words capture a quandary in the study of fairy tales. The simplicity of fairy tales cannot be ignored and yet folklorists and psychologists alike, as if there were a scientific method for gleaning information from them, study them. Fa iry tales are rife with symbolism, metaphor, and often innuendo if one trac es the roots sufficiently far back in the European fairy tale tradition. They are, in many cases, universal. They were also created as entertainment. This is why Tolkiens point is incredibly poignant: originally fairy ta les were likely meant to be taken in as a complete entity and enjoyed; otherwise they would not have survived. Imagine a raconteur of the seventeenth or eighteen th century thinking to himself: I shall tell a story and metaphorically desc ribe the psychological maturation of my protagonist in the process. No, this likely did not take place. His story will reflect human experience, and in doing so reflect a portion of the psychological maturation of the pr otagonist; but at the same time entertaining the audience must ha ve been far more important. The literary fairy tale authors, like the raconteurs before them, must also have conformed to conventions that catered to audiences. In seventeenth-century France we began to see men and women telling stories in salons, social places for people to gath er, tell stories, and play word games. Frances famous fairy tales also became incredibly didactic, whether for 5

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children as in Perraults Cinderella, or to comment on life in the court. Mme Le Prince de Beaumont directed her fairy tale Beauty and the Beast toward young girls to encourage them to improve their social status (Zipes, Great 863). The Grimms, influenced by th e French tradition and others while creating their own, may have consciously addressed the maturation of children but not in such a way as to re late stages of sexual development as psychoanalytic scholars seek to divulge. Rather, they may have addressed developmental landmarks, or rituals, like marriage or becoming a man, with a religious Calvinist angle. To analyze a fairy tale is to pick it apart and ignore the intrinsic completeness; howeve r, there can be no escaping analysis if one desires to delve deeper in to symbolism and the human mind. An understanding of the term fairy tale and the kinds of tales that fall into this category is necessary in defi ning it as a genre. A fairy tale is a narrative that takes place in a world ve ry similar to our own; some might say the same, as many writers name specific countries in their tales. The fairy tales we know today are most often shor t in length and simple in structure, though some French writers such as Mme de Villaneuve are an exception: her version of Beauty and the Beast num bered over two hundred pages (Zipes, Great 863). Every fairy tale has a lesson of some sort, whether its tone is sardonic or serious, for children or adults, or both. There are elements common to fairy tales, repetitions within the genre that act as landmarks or familiar motifs, like the commonly used numbers three and seven in the 6

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Grimms tales. Readers encounter varying degrees of embellishment in fairy tales. The Grimms stories might be mo re accurately folk-fairy tales while Hans Christian Andersen, who wrote more descriptive and personal stories like The Little Mermaid and The Ugly Duckling in the later nineteenth century, might be better described as a literary fairy tale author. Tracing the evolution of the phrase f airy tale to its origin can reveal characteristics that are not obvious to day. The English word fairy tale comes from the French conte de fes. Conte meaning tale, and de fes meaning of fairies. The German word that has come to be associated with the genre is Mrchen the diminutive form of mr which means tale (Zipes, Great 851). The Italian tales of Giamba ttista Basiles seventeenth century frame narrative fall under the title Lo cunto de li cunti or The Tale of Tales. The genres evolution from the uncomp licated word tale signifies its simplicity and universality across many European traditions. If we want to extend farther than the Grimms and their tradition, and Basile, we would encounter the Italian tale-teller Giovanni Straparola and his frame narrative The Facetious Nights Little is known about Straparola, whose name may be a pseudonym and means the loquacious one; and his collection, Le piacanoli notti in Italian, may translate to the pleasant, entertaining, delectable, or facetious nights (Zipes, Great 852). Before Straparola we would find the Oriental Thousand and One Nights: the frame narrative containing Aladdin (Zipes, Splendor 50). Even farther back we 7

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would find common elements of the Greek and Roman epics and ancient novels like Apuleius The Golden Ass with The Tale of Cupid and Psyche, told by an old woman to a young woman in the company of robbers. Moving forward in time, we woul d find that the fairy tale is a simplified form of the Bildungsroman (Bildungsroman).1 A story like Snow White begins with the heroines birth and follows her life, focusing on her trials, until her rewa rd. Charles Dickens David Copperfield begins with his heros birth and follows him, focusing on his trials, until his reward. In both Snow White and David Copperfield we see sharp definitions between the embodiment of evil and good in characters. While the protagonist is more fully formed in David Copperfield and we see his faults, he is nevertheless the good character in opposition to those who stand in his way. In Grimm fairy tales with male protag onists, such as The Boy Who Went Out to Learn About Fear, the protagonist adventures out into the world more than almost all female protagon ists like Snow White, and therefore even more resemble the Bildungsroman. In his essay On Fairy Stories, J. R. R. Tolkien names the realm of fairy tales Farie, pointing out th e important elements of danger and enchantment. Appearing to be an ench anted otherworldly location, Farie is just out of reach for most of our versio ns of reality. At one time in history, nearer to the time when myths were us ed to explain the mysterious paths of 1 The Oxford English Dictionary Online defines the German word Bildungsroman as a novel dealing with someones formative years or spiritual education (Bildungsroman). 8

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nature, Farie was real in the sense that the world was less scientific and more magical. Like the characters of Farie, mythical characters existed on earth but just out of our physical sight. We saw evidence of the sun traveling across the sky but we did not see the go d in his fiery chariot (Tolkien 23). The magical is and was left up to our imaginations. The Plot of Snow White The name Snow White may ring in the ears of listeners, conjuring images of the dark-haired Disney film princess from the U. S. in 1937, or the mirror and evil stepmother of the Hallmar k miniseries The Tenth Kingdom. It might remind a reader of seven dw arfs with names like Doc, Dopey, and Grumpy; or if one is familiar with th e tales of the Brothers Grimm, the reader might think of the evil queen dancing to death in her red shoes, the poisoned staylace, comb, and apple, and a womans wish for a child. The Grimms story, though the basis for th e well-known Disney film, varies from Disneys simplified plotline. For instan ce, the queen does not die by accident in the Grimms tale and Snow White has a father and a mother in the beginning. She is cured from her poisoned sleep when a servant trips over a stone while carrying her coffin. As th e Grimms tale forms a basis for the further analyses of my thesis, I provide the plot as follows: Happily married, a king and a queen reign in a kingdom. One day in winter while the queen sews, she pricks her finger and her blood drips on the snow. Seeing her red blood, the whit e snow, and the ebony window frame, 9

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she wishes for a child of these colors. The child is born, and she names her Snow White. The mother dies soon af ter. Snow Whites father remarries a beautiful but vain and cruel queen who grows envious of her stepdaughter as the girl grows older and more beautiful. The king disappears from the story whereas the queen gains prominence. She often consults her magic mirror that proclaims the status of he r beauty compared to all others. In Snow Whites seventh year, the stepmother cannot stand her loveliness, and so she orders a huntsman to kill the girl, requesting her lungs and liver as proof. The huntsman fails and Snow White flees to the woods. She stays in the woods with seven dwarfs and keeps house for them to earn her stay. Meanwhile, the magic mirror re veals to the stepmother that Snow White is still the most beautiful of al l. The queen attempts three times to destroy Snow White by her own means an d disguises: the first time with a bodice lacing, the second time with a poisoned comb, and the third time with a red and white poisoned apple. The stepmother succeeds on her third attempt, when Snow White ingests the red half of the apple. Ev en dead she appears so beautiful that the dwarfs keep her in a glass coffin on the seventh and tallest mountain. One day a prince sees Snow White, falls desperately in love with her, and begs the dwarfs to allow him to take her away. As he leaves with her, a servant stumbles and the piece of apple dislodges from the girls throat. Snow White awakes and soon after, she marries the prince. Snow Whites 10

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stepmother attends the wedding, where red-hot iron shoes await her arrival. She dances to her death in them and Snow White becomes queen of the princes realm. (Summarized from Tatar, Annotated 240-255). The Brothers Grimm, Collectors of Tales In order to better understand the relevance of Snow White, we must also understand a bit about the intentions and lives of the tales rewriters. The Brothers Grimms Schneewittchen or Little Snow White is perhaps the best-known version today and has survived as part of the core fairy tale canon out of over a hundred stories pu blished by the Grimms in the same collection. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm pu blished their first sparse version of Snow White almost two hundred years ago, in 1812 (Zipes, Great 867). Their revised editions that continued until 1857 reflected the tales popularity as they shifted from a scho larly collection to a collection designed for a childhood audience (Zipes, Great 867). As they revised, the brothers added their own breath to the tales that reflected their lives and social movements of their time, such as the Ro mantic period, the political struggles of late eighteenthand nineteenth-centu ry Germany, the rising bourgeoisie, and their own religious upbringing, family, work values, and love for literature, folk tradition, and philology. Poesie is that which emanates from the soul and turns into words. Thus it springs conti nually from a natural drive and innate ability to capture this dr ivefolk poesie stems from the 11

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entire community []. All my work this is what I feel, is based on learning and showing how great narrative poetry ( epische Poesie) has lived and held sway ov er all the earth, how the people have gradually forgotten and neglected it, perhaps not entirely, but how the people are nourished by it. In this way, a history of poetry is for me bas ed on something unfathomable, something that cannot be entirely learned, and something that provides real pleasure. [Jacob Grimm, 1812] (qtd. in Zipes, Brothers 11) Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm may be best known today for their fairy tales, but their life stories as well as other accomplishments are far from uninspiring. The fairy tales that rest at the heart of this study relate to their own experiences remarkably. Though born into a high bourgeois class, they experienced class discrimination in school after their fathers death and the familys loss of income (Zipes, Brothers 5). At ages eleven and ten, they became caretakers for their four younger siblings and to a great extent, Jacob took over his fathers duties in maki ng sure the family was provided for (Zipes, Brothers 4, 9). Despite their social standing, Jacob and Wilhelm graduated at the head of their classes at university (Zipes, Brothers 6). The work ethic they displayed, which also appears in the heroes and heroines of many of their fairy tales, had been encouraged by their father and later their grandfather and aunt, whose funding enab led them to attend high school and 12

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then university (Zipes, Brothers 3-4). Upon their entrance into high school in Kassel their grandfather wrote to them: I cannot repeat enough to you to keep in mind the reason for which you are in your present position. [] you should apply yourselves as industriously as possible in and outside the classroom so that you may prepare for your future welfare, gain honor, and provide pleasure for your mother, me, and the entire family. (qtd. in Zipes, Brothers 4-5) The brothers learned from and worked al ongside other folklore collected such as Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brenta no as well as their professor and friend Professor Friedrich von Savigny at the University of Marburg (Zipes, Brothers 7, 10). Despite their initial ed ucation in law, they became librarians, collectors, schola rs, and political activists in a country of shifting governments, a choice that led to thei r expulsion from professorship at the University of Gttingen (Zipes, Brothers 20). They worked and lived side by side for most of their lives, even after Wilhelm married and had three children (Zipes, Brothers 18). In addition to their fairy tales, the brothers compiled legends, folk songs, and an etymological dictionary, still referred to today, that they worked on until their deaths (Zipes, Brothers 23).2 2 For more details on the lives of the Brothers Grimm, see Zipes book, The Brothers Grimm especially the chapters Once There Were Two Brothers Named Grimm: a Reintroduction and The Origins and Rece ption of the Tales. For more detailed information about the publication of Kinderund Hausmrchen, see Zipes essay Cross Cultural Connections in his anthology entitled The Great Fairy Tale Tradition 13

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The Grimms societal environmen t, including bourgeois ideals, Calvinist religious beliefs and family values, permeates their tales. Kinderund Hausmrchen, or Childrens and Household Tales the volume at the heart of this thesis, was published in several editions and underwent much change from beginning to end. The ed itions progressed from a collection of scholarly notes and rough transcriptions of oral tellings published in two volumes in 1812 and 1815, to didactic ta les for children and those who read the tales to children, in 1819 (Zipes, Great 867). By 1857, the brothers published seven editions and Wilhelm in particular stylized many tales (Zipes, Great 867; Zipes, Brothers 32). Their versions frequently grew more verbose, descriptive, and contained more direct dialogue. Wilhelm also intensified violent punishments and religious presence and emphasized patriarchal, Calvinist, and bourgeois va lues to teach children how to take care of themselves as they matured (Zipes, Brothers 46-47). Teaching young girls to accept or find a husband and k eep house was critical in attaining a decent quality of living in the early ni neteenth century; women, as a general rule, had little power in the politics of property ownership. Likewise, teaching young men, often simpletons in the tales, showed that they could rise above the low status to which they were born by employing their cunning. This reflected bourgeois social climbing and the desire to overcome an absolutist government. In scholar Jack Zipes words, the Grimms creatively contaminated the tales; meaning they used their artistry to add 14

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to the already existing stories ( Brothers 31). Their oral tale sources were often women and family friends belong ing to the middle class and often of French Huguenot ancestry (Zipes, Great 866). The French and Italian influence on the Grimms tales, then, is easily understood in the mix of ancestry occurring amongst the German people of the nineteenth century. The Grimms effort was one to preserve these oral ta les and contribute to a tradition, with the hope that their endeavor could help unite the German people. Tracing the Roots of Snow White Snow White has existed for hundre ds of years under various guises within the European tradition. Fairy tales as a rule evolve to fit their environments as storytellers make them relevant to generation after generation. Here I focus primarily on three Italian tales by Giambattista Basile, a Celtic tale from a 1891 manuscri pt by Lady Evelyn Stewart-Murray, and a milder version called Snow-Dro p by German M. M. Grimm of the early nineteenth century, that relate closely to the Grimms Snow White to show the interrelatedness of European ta les. These tales also represent the unique storylines and motifs of separate traditions. Giam battista Basile of Naples, Italy wrote the frame narrative, The Tale of Tales, or Entertainment for Little Ones (Lo cunti de li cunti, overo lo trattenemiento de peccerille) in the early seventeenth century, a time before our modern notion of childhood and public education (Tatar, Annotated 244). Basile fills his frame narrative 15

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with jokes about sex and spouses, impregnation, slaves, and absurd attractions, among other subjects. Basiles three tales, The Little Slave Girl, The Crow, and The Three Citrons contain motifs familiar to Snow White but circulated over a hundred years before the Grimms.3 The Celtic version, published by Alan Bruford in 1965, circulated throughout Ireland and Scotland, and was recorded as a trad itional Scottish Snow White in an 1891 manuscript. The tale has several sim ilar plot points and characters to the Grimm. The Little Slave Girl recounts the story of Lisa, a girl cursed by a fairy that when she was seven years old, her mother would comb her hair and forget the comb on her head, where it would remain stuck and cause her to die (Basile 196). When the comb fulf illed Lisas curse, her mother locked her in a room within seven crystal casket s. The mother died and left all her belongings to her brother, a baron, and gave him a key to the room, which she forbade him to ever enter upon his word The baron, however, had a wife who was pulled by suspicion, driven by jeal ousy, and choked by curiosity, which is the prime endowment of women and she unlocked the room (Basile 196). While Lisa slept, she also grew, and when the wife found her, she saw a beautiful woman whom she took to be her husbands mistress. When she dragged her out of the coffin by the hair, the comb fell out and Lisa awoke, after which the wife sentenced her to li fe in slavery. The baron, not knowing 3 Bettelheim mentions The Young Slave, an alternate translation of The Little Slave Girl, in his chapter entitled Snow White (200, fn). 16

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the girls story, felt sorry for the sl ave whom his wife treated so badly and brought her a doll back from a trip to the market. Luckily for Lisa, the doll could listen and talk, and while Lisa told the doll her story, the baron listened at the keyhole and discovered their true relationship as uncle and niece. He hid this from his wife until the most effective moment: after they had a great banquet and the tables had been cleared, he asked Lisa to tell the story of the suffering she had undergone and the cruelty of his wife, which made all the guests cry. And then he kicked out his wife, banishing her to the house of some relatives, and gave a ni ce husband to his niece, just as her heart desired. And thus Lisa touched with her own hands the fact that when you least expect it the heavens rain down their graces. (Basile 198) The most important similarities to Snow White here include the crystal coffins, the cursed comb whic h appears in Lisas seventh year, the jealous wife, the fairies and their hous e where Lisas moth er sends her upon her birth, the patriarchal figure, and the spirit of punishment and reward given at the close of the story. Intere stingly, Basile explains Lisas growth over the time she spends dead within the caskets that gr ow as she does. His timing is unusual, however, as Lisa ages from seven to a woman within a year (Basile 196). The fairies, instea d of dwarfs, bestow gifts and in one case a curse. (As the last one came running to see the baby girl she twisted 17

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her foot so dreadfully that in her pa in she put a curse on her[] (Basile 196)) In both Snow White and The Li ttle Slave Girl the protagonist lives in exile with people of the woods.4 Both girls are punished out of jealousy of their beauty. In some Snow White ta les apart from the Grimm version, the Queen envies the Kings affection for hi s daughter, as the barons wife envies the desire she imagines the baron feels for Lisa.5 The speaking doll, though a talking object like the Queens magic mirror, does not have a similar role, and resembles more the talking doll of th e Russian tale Vasilisa the Brave.6 The comb could represent the childs on coming adolescence and desire to be sexually attractive as many analysts of Snow White suggest. The combs presence serves the exact same func tion as the comb in Snow White, making the tales strikingly similar. The Crow and The Three Citrons both contain another of the most well known themes of Snow White: the wi sh for a girl of white, black, and red. The Crow tells the story of th e king of Shady Thicket who encounters a freshly killed crow on a bl ock of marble while huntin g. When the king saw the bright red blood that had spattered the brilliant white stone, he heaved a great sigh and said, O heavens, couldn t I have a wife as white and red as 4 Snow White was exiled because of her step mothers jealousy and Lisa because her mother was impregnated when she swallowed a rose petal and therefore was born out of wedlock. 5 See pages 24-25 for an alternate version, about a wifes jealousy, related by Bettelheim. 6 Information about Vasilisa the Brave comes from a book called Women Who Run With the Wolves (1992) by Clarissa Pinkola Ests, Ph.D., a psychologist and raconteur. 18

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that stone, with hair and eyelashes as black as the feathers of this crow? (Basile 362). Unlike Snow White, in which the queen wishes for a lovely child to fulfill her desire, the king wishes for a lover to fulfill his desire. The Three Citrons, in contrast, tells the st ory of an obstinate bachelor son, not unlike Narcissus who refuses his suitors in Ovids first century story Echo and Narcissus, until he falls in love with the colors of blood on ricotta cheese. The prince was about to cut a ricotta cheese in half, and as he was concentrating on some crows that were flying by he cut one of his fingers by mistake, so that when two drops of his blood fell onto the ricotta they blended toge ther to create a color that was so beautiful and full of grace that [] he got the fancy to find a woman as white and red as that very ricotta stained with his blood. And he said to his father, My sir, if I do not have a little something with this sort of complexion, Im done for! Never has a woman moved my blood, and now I desire a woman like my own blood (Basile 434). The plots of both The Three Citrons and The Crow veer from the plot of Snow White after the wish. The Three Citrons becomes a tale of a false bride, with a slave who pretends to be the lover in ugly disguise. Basile removes the element of the jealous spouse from these two tales; however, the red, white, and black motif combined with themes from The Little Slave 19

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Girl, proves a tradition beyond the border s of Germany as the Grimms knew it. The speaking mirror is omitted from similar but older European tales and appears to be tied to the Grimms tr adition and times. In Lasair Gheug, the King of Irelands Daughter, a Sc ottish Gaelic version transcribed in 1891, a speaking animal judges the jeal ous stepmothers beauty instead of the mirror (Bruford 153). In contrast to an evil queen, the stepmother treats her stepdaughter well; until the eachrais rlair a conventional Gaelic and Irish Gaelic female character, tells he r that her daughter will gain a larger portion of the inheritance when the king dies. The eachrais rlair and the Queen then devise a way to get rid of the girl (Bruford 170). Later on, a magic fish tells the stepmother that Lasa ir Gheug still lives when she goes to a well and asks, Little trout, little trou t, am not I the most beautiful woman that ever was in Ireland? and the trou t replies: Indeed and indeed then, you are not, while Lasair Gheug, the king of Irelands daughter, is alive (Bruford 165). The connection with nature is stro nger in Lasair Gheug than with the queen of Snow White and her magic mi rror. The queens mirror represents artifice, while the fish in the well represents water, natures mirror. The difference here could reflect the differing cultures in which the tales became popular. The growing bourgeois class of the German states in the Grimms time meant that there were more people of the middle class who could afford to focus on appearances and artifice. Additionally, the Grimms tales 20

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especially, presented a movement from th emes of tales pagan past to themes of the nineteenth century patriarchy in which the Grimms lived. The stepmother, like the Grimm queen requests two of the daughters organs: her heart and liver (Bruford 161). Today, we likely associate the heart with love, but in earlier centuries the organs could have represented other intangible human feelings. In se venteenth-century England, at least, the liver and heart were thought to pr oduce love and emotion respectively (Shakespeare 2, in fn 37). 7 These associations could shed light on a deeper meaning for the queens desire to kill Sn ow White, suggesting that beauty is related to the attention given and received through love and emotion. The Grimms queen, by requesting the lung s and liver, suggests that she yearns for the breath of Snow White, her spir it as well as the organ in her that gives and receives love. Jealousy for love rather than beauty is unclear in the Grimms Snow White, but it corresponds to the wifes jealousy in The Little Slave Girl for the love or admiration from her husband. After the Grimms tale was publishe d, an alternate version of Snow White, Snow-drop, appears in a colle ction by M. M. Grimm, unrelated, who weakens the violence in the tale. The compilers Peter and Iona Opie note in their introduction to the tale that th e story was well known in Hesse in the early nineteenth century, as well as in other countries in Europe and Asia 7Twelfth Night published by Yale University Pre ss and edited by William P. Holden. Holden also notes the possibility of the Shakespeares plot being derived from an Italian play called Gl Ingannati of the sixteenth century, which further sanctions the international trading of tales and ideas related to performance, such as oral folk tale-telling. 21

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and even in North and West Africa (175) They also attribute the glass coffin of Snow-Drop to having come from Basiles Tale of Tales (175). The story is very similar to the Grimms version, mainly differing at the end when the Queen dies from choking to death from surprise at seeing Snow-drop as a bride rather than dancing in hot iron sh oes (Opie 182). Earlier in the story, the Queen does not command her servan t to bring back her daughters lungs and liver but says, Take Snow-drop aw ay into the wide wood, that I may never see her more (Opie 177). In this version, the hunter is also more kindhearted, feeling as if a great weight were taken off his heart when he made up his mind not to kill her, but leave her to her fate (Opie 178). This version of Snow-drop was published in German Popular Stories, Translated from the Kinder und Haus-Mrchen collected by M. M. Grimm, from Oral Tradition, in 1823 (Opie 175). The tale reve als how different yet similar versions can be. Master of Fairy Tale Psychoan alysis: Bruno Bettelheim and The Uses of Enchantment It would be unjust to entertain fairy tales without mentioning the father of fairy tale psychoanalysis: Bruno Bettelheim, influenced by his predecessor Sigmund Freud. Many, if not almost all texts on fairy tales published since Bettelheims The Uses of Enchantment (1975) mention his studies and analyses. 22

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Like Snow White, each child in his development must repeat the history of man, real or imagined We are all expelled eventually from the original paradise of infancy, where all our wishes seemed to be fulfilled without any effort on our part. Learning about good and evilgaining knowledgeseems to split our personality in two: the red chaos of unbridled emotions, the id; and the white purity of our conscience, the superego. As we grow up, we vacillate between being overcome by the turmoil of the first and rigidity of the second (the tight lacing, and the immobility enforced by the coffin). Adulthood can be reached only when those inner contradictions are resolved and a new awakening of the mature ego is achieved, in which red and white coexist harmoniously. (Bettelheim 214) Here, Bettelheim argues for the significance of Freuds Oedipus Complex and the Oedipal conflict in Snow White between a parent and her child and explains the structure and events of th e story according to Freuds stages of development. The Oedipal conflict defines a part icular type of struggle between a parent and a child, wherein the child desires to replace the same-sex or gender parent. Oedipal directly refe rs to the fourth century B.C.E. Greek play Oedipus Rex by Sophocles. As Bettelh eim claims, there are many parallels between Snow Whites fate in replacing her mother in beauty and as 23

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queen and Oedipus fate in replacing hi s father on the throne of Thebes. Unlike Snow White, Oedipus literally marries his mother and consummates the marriage to his mother in the proc ess of claiming his fathers throne, albeit without knowledge of their tr ue relationship. Thus, Freud and Bettelheim understand the Oedipus Complex to represent a childs unconscious desire. Bettelheim writes, t he fairy tale has full understanding that the child cannot help being subjected to the oedipal predicaments, and hence is not punished if he acts in line with them. But the parent who permits himself to act out his oedipal problems on the child suffers severely for it (Bettelheim 194, fn). Both Oedi pus father Laius, and Snow Whites stepmother fear replacement by their ch ildren to such an extent that they order the progeny killed. Both attempts fail, and both children succeed to the positions the parents fear them taking. Bettelheim includes one particular version of Snow White that emphasizes the jealousy of a wife for her husbands affection, an important aspect of the intrafamilial rivalry of the story. A count and a countess ride in a carriage along a road in the snow and the count wishes for a girl white as snow. As they continue riding they s ee three holes filled with blood and the count wishes for a girl red as blood an d then with hair as black as ravens feathers. The counts desire incarnate appears and they take her with them. She then represents the daughter, ma king the count and countess symbolic parents. The countess becomes jealous of the counts affection for the girl 24

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and plots to dispose of her. She su cceeds by dropping her glove from the coach as they ride and having the girl retrieve it, and then driving away without her (Bettelheim 200). The count, as the patriarchal figure, has a stronger presence in this Oedipal conf lict than in the Grimms Snow White, and the story focuses on the jealousy of the spouse rather than the jealousy of the queen whose husband the writers hard ly mention. In the Grimms Snow White, the lack of detail concerning the father allows readers to focus on the rivalry between the mother and daughter. While Bettelheims theory is an important one to think about, it is not foolproof. He claims that the roles of a nuclear family should be as follows: the father should be a protector and a provider and the mother should be a nurturer, and one who satisfies the imme diate needs of a child such as the need for food (206). An unbalanced nuclear family, he says, results in a childs desire for escapism, which, in Snow Wh ite, literally manifests in the childs escape into the forest (206). Snow Whites family destroys Bettelheims ideal portrait, with a practically absent father and a narcissistic rather than nurturing stepmother. The weak husband and domineering wife occur in many fairy tales, such as the Gri mms Hansel and Gretel and Perraults Little Tom Thumb. Bettelheim sugge sts that the common occurrence of this type of marital relationship in fa iry tales proves its common existence in reality and thus is relevant to childhood development (206). Parental roles, however, are not as inflexible as Bettelheim suggests. 25

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Bettelheim relates much of Snow White to stages of emotional development in the characters and plot. The conflict of the story takes place during Snow Whites adolescent phase, when she begins to doubt her own place in the family, and becomes jealous of the privileges of her parents. She projects this jealousy onto her stepmo ther, so that she fears the mothers anger at her own imagined superiority (Bettelheim 207). The mirror, Bettelheim, says, has the voice of a ch ild. As the small girl thinks her mother is the most beautiful person in the world, this is what the mirror initially tells the Queen. But as the older girl thinks she is much more beautiful than her mother, this is what the mirror says later (207). Bettelheims focus on the protagonists point of view, as a child patient, relates the mirrors voice to the inner voice of Snow White. Conclusion Fairy tales are cultural mirrors. Their universality makes them relevant to many generations. Unlike im ages in true mirror s, fairy tales can be interpreted in many ways. A solid mirror can only tell the truth from the physical properties of what it reflects while fairy tale mirrors reflect ideas, customs, experiences, and relationships of living people. In many ways, the characters of fairy tales are more aliv e than the faces that stare back at us from a mirror. From a closer examination of the mirrors voice in the Grimms Snow White text and in select twentieth-cent ury films, this thes is will consider the 26

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implications of a greater cultural voice that issues from within the mirrors frame, and in doing so, suggest that the mirror has a powerful voice that influences not only the evil queen but also the audience of Snow White films. Chapter two focuses on analyzing the Grimms text based on two essays that support the patriarcha l voice and one that supports the matriarchal voice of the mirror. Ruth Bottigheimers essay Silenced Women in the Grimms Fairy Tales: The Fit Between Fairy Tales and Society in Their Historical Context, and Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubars essay The Queens Looking Glass: Female Creativi ty, Male Images of Women, and the Metaphor of Literary Paternity, impl y an extreme female dichotomy caused by male authors that is specifically pr esent in the Grimms fairy tales. In her article, Reading Snow White: The Mothers Story, Shuli Barzilai suggests a different point of view, and argues that the mirror reflects the voice and experience of the stepmother, or, histor ically, the female tale-teller of Snow White. Disneys animated Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Kolditzs Schneewittchen (1961) from East Germanys film company DEFA, Michael Berzs musical Snow White (1987), and Michael Cohns horror film Snow White: A Tale of Terror (1997) provide a basis for my analysis of the mirror in the popular visual and auditory medium of film. In chapter three I also refer to Joe Nussbaums modern adaptation Sydney White (2007), but focus the analysis on the first four films. Each adaptation of Snow White portrays 27

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the mirror in a different way that reflects the dominant cultural voices that control the material or social capital of the films. The acousmatic, or unnaturally disembodied, voice of the mi rror especially represents the power of the stepmother, which, in turn influences how audiences perceive standards of fairness and beauty. 28

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Chapter 2 Magic Mirror On the Wall: The Frame of the Patriarchal and Matriarchal Voice in the Grimms Snow White Historically, the narrative voice in the Grimms fairy tales was patriarchal and praised the domestic hard-working, and often beautiful heroine. The magic mirror, as the authoritative voice that judges the stepmother and daughter in Snow White, selects Snow White, who embodies particular female characteri stics. Bottigheimers essay Silenced Women in the Grimms Tales and Gilb ert and Gubars text The Queens Looking Glass explain a history of patriarchal definitions of female beauty. This results in the magic mirrors pa triarchal voice. However, another interesting argument in Barzilais article, Reading Snow White: A Mothers Story, presents the voice of Snow Whites biological mother in the animated looking glass, and has very little to do with the patriarchy. The combination of these studies suggests th at the identity within the mirror changes according to the voice that imbues it with life. In the Grimms text, the mirror reflects the patriarchal cultur al standards of fairness that the authors chose to praise or condemn in the characters of Snow White and her evil stepmother. Once upon a time, fairy tales might have been told around the fireplace at night, or among women as they worked (Tatar, Spinning 112-3). Spinning and weaving, two such female duties, are indeed associated with 29

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the very idea of telling tales. Spinni ng a yarn, for example, is a common metaphor for creating a story (Tatar, Spinning 133).8 In Germany, the Spinnstube or spinning room, of the nine teenth century served as both a work room and a setting for tale telling (Tatar, Spinning 112-3). While illustrations from the nineteenth century portray men as well as women weaving tales for entertainment in the Spinnstube it is important to note the possibility of female storytelling traditions that preceded the publication of the Grimms didactically influe ntial tales (Tatar, Spinning 111, 113). Karen Rowe suggests, in the history of folktale and fairy tale, women as storytellers have woven or spun their yarns, speaking at one level to a total culture, but at another to a sisterh ood of readers who will understand the hidden language, the secret revelations of the tale (57). This tradition of female storytelling, in the context of Snow White, suggests that the judgmental voice in the tale could reflect a maternal voice hidden beneath the surface of the Grimms text, which conveyed the patriarchal and Christian values that they wished to instill in their (often young) bourgeois audience. By understanding the cultural context of Kinder und Hausmrchen we can further analyze the role of the mirror in the Grimms text, and especially come to understand the roots of the qu estion, who is fairest of us all? 8 The tradition of weaving or spinning a tale can be traced as far back as Ovids Metamorphoses and the rape of Philomela, who, without a tongue, can only express her story through the art of weaving a tapestry (Rowe 56). For more on the history of the weaving and spinning of stories, see Karen Rowes essay To Spin a Yarn: The Female Voice in Folklore and Fair y Tale in Ruth Bottigheimers book, Fairy Tales and Society (53-74). 30

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Bottigheimers Silenced and Unsilenced Women In her essay Silenced Women in the Grimms Tales, Ruth Bottigheimer suggests that female eloquence was discouraged in the Germanic regions during the rise of th e Grimms fairy tales, and that literary salons were far fewer in Germany than in other parts of Europe.9 Through examining the tales of Kinderund Hausmrchen she found that heroines are often silenced by the narrative voic e, and that wicked female characters and authority figures have the largest pr oportion of active speech (128). In contrast to Germany, Frances literary salon tradition was very strong in the eighteenth century, with many female writers such as Mme Le Prince de Beaumont and Mme Villaneuve, both of who wrote and published lengthy versions of Beauty and the Beast. The Grimms, in fact, received many of their tales from female sources and were acquainted with Bettina Brentano von Arnim, a prominent leader of a Berlin literary Salon (Zipes, Brothers 21). Many of their oral sources were bourgeois women they knew from the towns and cities in which they lived, such as Dorothea Viehmann, Do rtchen, Gretchen, Lisette, and Marie Elisabeth Wild, the Hassenpflug fam ily, and friends in the Haxthausen estate in Westfalia (Zipes, Great 866). However, if their sources had displayed a maternal voice for the mirror of Snow White, the Grimms 9 This is Ruth Bottigheimers opinion. In late eighteenth to early nineteenth century Germany, there were prominent literary salons in both the cities of Berlin and Sachsen Weinmar. These salons were led by upper class women of Jewish lineage in the cities: notably Duchess Anna Amalia in Sachsen Weinmar, and Rahel Varnhagen and Hennriette Herz in Berlin. (Bottigheimer 115) 31

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covered any trace of it with their religious, political, and patriarchal ideologies. The clearly differentiate d portrayal of activeness, laudable characteristics, and conspicuous lack of silence in male protagonists or wicked female characters and silence in female protagonists can lead us to associate the mirrors voice with the vo ice of the patriarchy in nineteenth century Germany, as Bottigheimer suggests (118). For example, Bottigheimer presents stories in whic h a heroines punishment is silence (The Virgins Child), and stories in wh ich a heroine must remain silent for up to seven years to break a spell an d redeem her brothers (The Twelve Brothers, The Six Swans) (120). In contrast, she suggests, heroes remain silent to redeem themselves or, for a short amount of time, to redeem others (The Three Black Princesses) (122). The positive characteristics of passivity and/or naivet in the six Snow Whit e films, evolved from the Grimms cultural context. The silenced women of the Grimms tales are exemplified not only by many heroines but also by good, an d often deceased, biological mothers (Bottigheimer 126). In Snow White, both the marriageable daughter and her deceased mother are faultless exa mples of silenced women (Bottigheimer 126). In contrast to Snow White an d her biological mother, the active, unsilenced characters appear in the ev il queen/witch, the dwarfs, the mirror, and the prince. Reasons for a heroines silence reflect designs that engender her submissiveness, and thus dependence on the patriarchal figures in fairy 32

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tales. Outside Snow Whites context, in Andersens The Little Mermaid, for example, the protagonis t chooses to suffer in silence with only the hope that the prince will love her. In the Grimms tales, break ing a girls will, reducing a girls pride, and sewing and spinning are all apt reasons for silencing female character in the Grimms tales (Bottigheimer 129). A Grimm character may also be silent for the sake of Christian piety (Bottigheimer 129). Fairy tales offered an apparently innocent and peculiarly suitable medium for both transmitting and enforcing the norm of the silent woman, Bottigheimer concludes (130). To the extent that these tales corroborated and codified the values of the society in which they appeared, they reinforced them powerfully, symbolizing and codifying the status quo and serving as paradigms for powerlessness. (Bottighei mer 130) Though the portrayal of heroines has altered in popular media, such as film, and fairy tale females are more active than their nineteenthand early twentieth-century counterparts, they often still have less po wer than patriarchal or evil figures. By looking at the canon of popular anim ated Disney fairy tale films, we can see the perpetuation of the sweet, yo ung, and beautiful heroines who often need saving by princes or their fathers. Disneys version of Andersens The Little Mermaid, for example, is a story in which silence is an ordeal for the sea princess to endure so she can win her princes love. Disney studios redesigned the story to revolve around Ariel, the rebellious but devoted 33

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teenage mermaid. Like many other Disn ey heroines, Ariel is motherless and this is once again a case of the s ilent versus unsilent woman. Ursula, Disneys wicked, intelligent, and voluptu ous sea witch, trades Ariels voice for a human body, rendering the heroine silent in her attempt to woo the prince. The complacent and silent female in Disn eys fairy tale productions, including Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) arose from these nineteenth century paradigms for passive and submissive women. One of Bottigheimers helpful analytical tools for looking at silence in Snow White is a comparison of direct an d indirect dialogue in the tales. By tallying the appearance of the verbs, s peak or say, in conjunction with a character in seven tales, the witch figure spoke the most, followed by male authority figures (a prince or a king), followed by the heroine and then the heroines usually dead mother (Botti gheimer 128). Using this strategy for Snow White, the Grimms give the qu een the most direct speech with the strong verb to say. The dwarfs speak wi th the most variation, which reflects an activeness and can be associated with their maleness. The prince, in contrast to all the others, speaks openly and directly; to say is the simplest and most dependable dialogical verb. He also only appears fo r one page of the story, during which he speaks more than any other character present. Snow White engages in direct dialogue with the queen, the prince, and the dwarfs, suggesting that she is relatively acti ve in her speech; however she pleads and cries out, both of which sugge st helplessness. Conversely, she is 34

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relatively active because she pleads for her life and disobeys the dwarfs three times. While her pleading leads to the huntsman forgoing her murder, her violation of the dwarfs warnings le ads to her death. In other words, her helpless, angelic qualities save her life, but her active defiance of rules set by male guardians kills her. The quality of verbs corresponds wi th the characters as well. Snow White replied as many times as she sp oke, which shows that she initiated dialogue little in comparison with the queen, prince, and dwarfs. The dwarfs appear the most paternal through aski ng questions and warning Snow White while the prince appears the most auth oritative in his speech. The mirror differs from all the other figures because its speech pattern suggests that it is only able to respond to the call of the evil queen. This could reflect subversiveness, or it could reflect the authorial voice that drives the plot. The mirror does not display the direct authority of the prince or of the dwarfs; however, the queens attachment to it cannot be discounted. Its replies spur the queen to murder or to contentment, and it represents the sole magical object in the story. The King s absence of speech or thought is troubling in accordance with Bottigheimers theory; however, the lack of his presence focuses the story completely on the conflict between women. We can conclude, as Ruth Bottigheimer did, that the antagonist and the male authority figures vocalize more strongly than any other characters in Snow White. 35

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Table 1. Direct Dialogue in the Grimms Snow White. say ask reply or answer think other: First queen/mother 1 Snow White 4 1 4 1 plead 1; cried out 1 King Queen/stepmother/witch 11 5 2 burst out laughing 1; called out 2; cried out 1 Mirror 5 Huntsman 1 1 Dwarfs 3 9 1 What is the patriarchal setting? You ma y wonder; and what does the patriarchal setting have to do with th e mirror? The patriarchal setting is the social construction of expectations for gender roles and ideals in a society in which males hold primary authority in the state.10 There are two main tiers within the patriarchal voice: the ac tive and authoritative voice of the patriarchal culture and the subtle and critical voice that has internalized the expectations of the patriarchal setting. The transformations of Snow White shouted 1 each; told 1 each; exclaimed 1 each; gave a stern warning 1 each Prince 4 10 The roots of patriarchy are pater meaning father ( L.); patria, meaning fatherland ( L.); archia, meaning form of government ( L); and archos meaning leader ( Gk .). Patriarchy, defined as the rule of the father, implies authority. 36

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from oral lore to literary text solidified the tiers of the mirrors voice in its nineteenth-century European setting. The Grimms mirror is nongendered, which I suggest, reflects not only the most stable voice of society but also, and just as importantly, the structure of the fairy tale. Swiss anth ropologist and fairy tale scholar Max Lthi wrote extensively on fairy tale formulas and structure, providing a basis for my structural analysis of S now White. The mirror can be seen as a narrative reference point and a stable element in the tale that contrasts to the sudden rise and fall of the qu een and Snow White, and other rapidly occurring events (Lthi 44, 66). 11 The mirror, in effect, speaks in conjunction with the queen, and in the following structure of Snow White, I begin sections with the mirrors reply; bu t it should be understood that the stepmother first requests the mirrors answer. I. Exposition: the narrator explains Snow Whites birth and the stepmothers introduction into her life along with her magic mirror, which always spoke the truth. The queen asks it who is fairest of all and the mirror answers, You, O Queen, are the 11 Stable elements of fairy tales include structural elements such as repetitive phrases and events. For instance, the repetition of the phrase Mirror, mirror, on the wall and the mirrors two unvaried replie s provide structure (stability) for the tale as a whole; they function to orient the audience with optical clarity as the story progresses (Lthi 44). Tripling, such as the queens three visits to the dwarfs residence, represents structure that can cause tension as well as stability; three is a common number in European fairy tales t hat suggests that the third event will bring about some sort of change (Lthi, Fairy 44). In contrast, sudden changes of fortune, like Snow Whites sudden (chance) recovery and the queens sudden demise represent unstable events. 37

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fairest of all. The stepmother is static while Snow White matures and becomes increasingly beautiful. (Tatar, Annotated 243-244) II. Snow White is now seven years old. The mirror replies: My queen, you may be the fairest here, / But Snow White is a thousand times more fair. The queen orders Snow White killed. The huntsman spares her life. She finds refuge in the dwarfs cottage. (Tatar, Annotated 244-248) III. Episode 1: The mirror replies: Youre the fairest here, dear Queen, / but Little Snow White, though far away / with the seven dwarfs in her hideaway / is now the fairest ever seen. The queen goes to the dwarfs cottage to kill Snow White with the staylace. The dwarfs revive her. (Tatar, Annotated 248-249) IV. Episode 2: The mirror replies: Youre the fairest here, dear Queen, / but Little Snow White, though far away / with the seven dwarfs in her hideaway / is now the fairest ever seen (Tatar, Annotated 250). The queen goes to the dwarfs house to kill Snow White with the comb. Th e dwarfs revive her. (Tatar, Annotated 250-251) V. Episode 3: The mirror replies wi th the same answer. The queen goes to the dwarfs cottage and k ills Snow White with the apple. The dwarfs cannot revive her. (Tatar, Annotated 251-252) 38

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VI. The mirror replies: O Queen, you are the fairest in the land. Both Snow White and her stepmother are static until the prince comes upon Snow White in her glass coffin. His servants accidentally trip while carrying th e coffin and dislodge the apple from her throat. She awakes an d agrees to marry the prince. (Tatar, Annotated 252-254) VII. The mirror replies: My Queen, you may be the fairest here, / but the young queen is a thou sand times more fair. The stepmother (wicked woman), full of fear and envy, attends the wedding and dies from dancing in iron slippers [that] had [] been heated up for her over a fire of coals. (Tatar, Annotated 255) The mirrors absolute truth has an inhuman power over the queen that is more influential than the prince or fa ther as singular ch aracters, as Gilbert and Gubar and Bettelheim suggest. Nothing could be simpler than the mirrors existence to always tell the trut h; just as the voice of the patriarchy exists without conscious effort to defi ne the qualities that make Snow White good and angelic and the queen wicked and monstrous. Though physical beauty is the superficial source of the queens jealousy of Snow White, beauty in the Grimms fairy tales is associated with everything the queen does not embody: youth, domesticity, naivet, sweetness, timidity, and, as the heroines name suggests, purity. 39

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Gilbert and Gubars Monster and Angel Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar ascribe these opposing entities of monster and angel to two parts of th e female self. Like the white and red halves of the apple, one deadly and one delicious, the stepmother and the daughter represent two halves of a sing le entity. Gilbert and Gubar, focusing primarily on European literature from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, seek to expose the patriarch al portrayal of femininity caused the two, opposing extremes of the female persona in literature. A passage from Goethes Eternal Feminine exemplifies this pattern of praising the passive, pure, and largely silent angel: She [] leads a life of almost pure contemplation. [] In considerable isolation on a country estate [] a life without external events a life whose stor y cannot be told as there is no story. [] She shines like a beac on in a dark world, like a motionless lighthouse [] She is an ideal, a model of selflessness and purity of heart. (qtd. in Gilbert and Gubar 22) In fairy tales, the heroine almost always does have a story, otherwise the plot would be very uninteresting; however, the angelic qualities in Goethes passage serve to exemplify the extr emely passive and self-less female character that Gilbert and Gubar suggest. In the context of Snow White, the queen, in contrast, is both powerful and artful, threateningly not feminine and repulsive, and thus she is portrayed as a cruel witch. Gilbert 40

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and Gubar see many of th e queens wicked qualitie s as positive qualities skewed by the male authorial voice. The queen [] is a plotter, a plot -maker, a schemer, a witch, an artist, an impersonator, a woma n of almost infinite creative energy, witty, wily, and self-absor bed as all artists traditionally are. [] adult and demonic, [the queen] plainly wants a life of significant action, by definition an unfeminine life of stories and storytelling. And therefore, to the extent that Snow White, as her daughter, is a part of hers elf, she wants to kill the Snow White in herself the angel who would keep deeds and dramas out of her own house. (Gilbert and Gubar 39) Keeping dramas out of [the] house encourages the perpetuation of Bottigheimers silent woman of the Grim ms tales and casts a rosy glow on the angel, Snow White, childlike, do cile, submissive, the heroine of a life that has no story (Gilbert and Gubar 39). According to the Gilbert and Gubar, th e voice of the mirror must be the kings voice. Rather than directly re lating the mirrors voice to the Grimms cultural context, Gilbert and Gubar suggest that the voice must the voice of the king, whose patriarchal voice of judgment [need not appear in the story because it] rules the Queensand every womansself evaluation (38). The reason it rules the Queen is because she has internalized the patriarchal expectations, though Gilbert and Gubar relate this directly to assimilat[ing] 41

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the meaning of [] sexuality. They sugg est further, that, as the second wife, the woman has internalized the Kings rules : his voice resides now in her own mirror, her own mind. (Gilbert and Gu bar 38). This internalized voice is the second tier of the patriarchal voice. Definitions of womens characteristic s, personalities, and actions that either deserve loathing or admiration have percolated through the decades. Gilbert and Gubar assert that these defi nitions, from works by male authors from a time when writing was widely thought to be a male creative art, influence ideas of beauty, self-image, an d self-criticism that can easily be seen in Snow White. Mirror madness, the Queens intense attention to, or obsession with, beauty is imperative to the plot of Snow White, and drives the queen to narcissistic obsession (Gilbert and Gubar 34). The killing of oneself into an art object the pruning and preening, the mirror madness, and concern with odors and aging, with hair which is invariably too curly or too lank, with bodies too thin or too thick al l this testifies to the efforts women have expended not just trying to be angels but trying not to become female monsters. (Gilbert & Gubar 34) This idea of the art object correspo nds to Snow White as well as the Queen. Snow Whites attraction to the stay lace, comb, and apple kills her into playing the part of an art piece that fi rst the dwarfs cannot bear to bury and 42

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then that the prince cannot bear to leave behind. In her silent and breathless sleep, Snow White becomes a timeless angel. Frames or enclosures, like the mirro rs frame, in Snow White also symbolize the entrapment of femaleness within definitions of beauty. When the dwarfs lay Snow White in the gl ass coffin, she ornaments the mountain on which they place her; and to compl ete the image, three birds fly to the coffins side to mourn her. The owl, raven, and dove, notes Maria Tatar, represent the synthetic new mythology that the Grimms wanted to produce from the symbolic birds of ancient Greek mythology, Germanic lore, and Christian texts ( Annotated 254, fn 20). Additionally, birds can represent the supernatural feminine, or the fragilit y, flightiness, elusiveness, and ephemerality of female beauty. Though the three birds are often discarded in Snow White films, the association of the raven with dark magic remains in popular culture. Think of Edgar Allen P oes The Raven, for instance. With their imagery, the Grimms frame thei r heroine with representatives of femaleness from patriarchal mythologie s to create their own ideal of beauty within their cultural context. When Snow White becomes an orna ment, she simultaneously becomes a possession that her male guardians keep vigil over, until she can be passed along to another guardian worthy of her status (Gilbert and Gubar 41; Tatar, Annotated 254). The Prince proves his worthiness, first by being the son of a king to parallel Snow White, the daughter of a king, which the 43

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dwarfs inscribe in gold letters on the coffin (Tatar, Annotated 254). Let me have the coffin. I will give you whatev er you want for it, the prince says. Make me a gift of it, for I cant live without being able to see Snow White (Gilbert & Gubar 41; Tatar, Annotated 254). Through this statement the Prince also proves his romantic love for Snow White. Gilbert and Gubar see the heroines transition upon her wa king, as trading one glass coffin for another (42). From the coffin to the castle, Snow White will become as the first queen, trapped in a window frame, dreaming of the perfect child; and then she will become the second queen imprisoned by th e mirror-voice of the King (Gilbert and Gubar 37, 42). The mirror is the ultimately volatile frame that encourages mirror madness to the effect of self-destruction. Shuli Barzilais The Mothers Story In her article Reading Snow Wh ite: The Mothers Story, Shuli Barzilai suggests, as do Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar, that the first and second queen, Snow Whites deceased mother and her stepmother, represent the same woman at two stages of her life. Unlike most other analyses of Snow White, Barzilai argues that th e mirrors voice reflects the angry and frustrated mother. While Bettelheim su ggests that the conflict begins when Snow White enters into the oedipal co mplex, Barzilai suggests that from the mothers perspective, the conflict begins when her daughter separates her ego-identity from her mothers, at age seven (Bettelheim 201; Barzilai 523, 526-7). Bettelheim and Barzilai both sugge st that from birth until this point 44

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in Snow Whites life, the mother sees the daughter as part of herself; and during her early youth, the daughter does not deny this (Bettelheim 203; Barzilai 528-9). One bright morning, for example, Snow White might have woken up and said: I want to dr ess all by myself. Then she might not have stood still while her mother tried to comb her hair. She might even have stamped her little foot and said: I dont want pigtails anymore! Or: Cant you do anything right? (Barzilai 527). During the early years of parenting and childhood, the mirror recognizes the mother and daughter as the same entity, therefore the narrator does not describe their relation ship explicitly. The mothers dream of maternity is cracked when Snow White begins to desire autonomy (Barzilai 527). The remnants of the female narrator are very visible in Snow White, especially in view of the strong moth er-daughter conflict. Looking at the story from the maturation process of a girl suggests a female experience or tradition within a domestic sphere. Barz ilai notes that the story is told from Snow Whites perspective as if she were the storys dreamer (524). Unlike Bettelheim, who suggests that Snow White endures a period of latency in the dwarfs house with the pre-oedipal dwar fs, Barzilai suggests that the dwarfs house represents a doll-like haven wher e the dreamer can play without her 45

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mother, until her daydreams, her erotic and ambitious wishes are fulfilled, when a prince comes along and falls in love with her at first sight (Bettelheim 210, 211; Barzilai 524). A maternal narrative voice, such as a tale tellers voice, could be revisiting her own experience of maturation. By contrasting her maternal frustration with the growing pains of a child, she can vent maternal frustration in the company of sympathetic mothers. In the sense that the story could have been shared among female storytellers before the Brothers Grimm edited it, we can imagine the narrator playing the parts of Snow White and the Queen, as well as the male figures, with vocal variation. A storys meaning, when told orally, depends on many variables, including the storyteller s style, biases, intentions, and vocalizations. Maria Tatar, in the preface to her book Off With Their Heads! Fairy Tales and the Culture of Childhood specifically notes the possible accuracy of the maternal perspective in Snow White. At a time when many children died before reaching adulthood and mothers were more likely to die due to childbirth, the stepmother played an important role in taking care of children when a father could no t (paraphrased from Tatar, Off 46). Psychoanalyst Bruno Bettelheim transposes the conflict from a mothers jealousy to a childs projected jealousy of the parent: Snow White, if she were a real child, could not help being intensely jealous of her mother and all her advantages and powers. (qtd. in Tatar, Off xii). Tatar responds, 46

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If Snow White had been a real ch ild, as Bettelheim puts it, she would have to be jealous of her mother, if for no other reason than the fact that filial jealousy is, like so much else in fairy tales, an age-old phenomen[o n][] Had Snow White been a real child at the time when the Grimms published their Nursery and Household Tales she would have been far more likely to be the target of angry resentment from a stepmother (who ha[d] to raise someone elses child, usually in addition to her own) than the agent of jealous rancor. (Tatar, Off xxii) Tatars point, though she maintains the stepmothers separate identity from the biological mother, is significant to a reading of the mirrors maternal voice. Whether the evil queen is a stepmother or a continuance of the good biological mother, historically, bringing up children was a very difficult task. The absence of the king/father in Snow White is not important in this reading, as it is to Gilbert and Gubars, because the mirror speaks with the angry and frustrated voice of the mother Barzilai likens the mirrors voice to a projection of the mothers fears concerning her daughters changing attitudes (527). Correspondi ng to separation anxiety in children, to the fear of being cut off from the parental love and protection, there is a comparable anxiety in adults: a fear of freedom from the thousand and one tasks that structure the life of a mother (Barzilai 527). This interpretation, unlike the 47

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internalized patriarchal voice that Gilbert and Gubar and Bottigheimer suggest, implies that the mothers je alousy arises from a fear of her daughters autonomy. The deceased mothers creative artistry in designing her child and the second mothers creative efforts to kill her child suggest that the two may represent a single entity (Barzilai 525). The first mother designs her daughters appearance as if fashioning her out of the materials around her. For example, she thinks, If only I had a child as white as snow, as red as blood, and as black as the wood of the window frame (Tatar, Annotated 243). The narrator continues, Not long after that, she gave birth to a little girl who was white as snow, red as blood, an d black as ebony, and she was called Snow White (Tatar, Annotated 243-4). The first mother uses her imagination to conjure the imagery of her perfect dream-daughter. The second mother displays a striking sim ilarity to the first when she exclaims, white as snow, red as blood, black as ebony! after she kills her (step)daughter (Barzilai 526; Tatar, Annotated 252). Not only does the second mothers exclamation represent her bitterness at ever wanting a child, but also the phrase marks the beginning and end of Snow Whites life (Barzilai 526). Snow White, however, has gained autonomy by the time she bites the apple, and does not die complet ely; she is independent of the mother who created her and the mother who poisoned her. 48

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The identity of the mirrors voice is not inherent within the plot itself, but instead reflects the context of the tale teller. The temporal situation of Snow White suggests that the Grimms infused their tales with patriarchal values; however, in an oral context, a female narrator could have produced a version of the tale to express maternal frustration. Take for example the following nineteenth century British lullaby (Tatar, Off 32).12 Baby, baby, naughty baby, Hush, you squalling thing, I say. Peace this moment, peace, or maybe Bonaparte will pass this way. [] Baby, baby, if he hears you, As he gallops past the house, Limb from limb at once hell tear you, Just as pussy tears a mouse. And hell beat you, beat you, beat you, And hell beat you all to pap, And hell eat you, eat you, eat you, Every morsel snap, snap, snap. (qtd. in Tatar, Off 32) The frustration accompanying motherhood, at a time before widespread healthcare and other luxuries we know today, could have prompted a story 12 Similar versions are known from ninet eenth century France and Spain (Tatar, Off 32). 49

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such as Snow White in which the mo ther as well as the daughter is the victim of intrafamilial frustration. Ther efore, the importance of family in the domestic sphere to Barzilais reading of the mirrors maternal voice is necessary in accepting it as a possible theory. Snow White is going to be ever so sorry when the babies start co ming, and the king goes out hunting, and no woman really close and caring is around to help her, Barzilai concludes (534). After all, the fairy tale itself is a cultural mirror, and in it we find reflections of every-day people woven into the characters of princesses and kings. Conclusion In general, fairy tales lend themselves to various plausible analyses due to the range of authorial voices an d media through which they travel to reach the pages of a book, or the fram es of a film. Based on historical evidence, Ruth Bottigheimer suggests that the mirror represents the cultural voice both the fathers and the authorial voice. Shuli Barzilai argues that the mirror channels the queens maternal disappointment and projects it in terms of envy for physical beauty.13 Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar claim that the mirror speaks specifically with the influential voice of the king/father/husband, which intimates definitions created by privileged males in patriarchal societies, such as educ ated male authors. In Gilbert and Gubar and Bottigheimers analyses, the queens envy and mirror madness 13 In contrast to Bettelheim, who projects the childs jealousy onto the stepmother. 50

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are exaggerated effects that reflect the suggestive power of popular literature. Barzilais argument may neglect the patriarchal voice that surely infiltrated the Grimms text, but she proposes the importance of family ties and relationships at the heart of the co nflict of Snow White. Many scholars who examine cultural or psychological implications for the mirror disregard the implications for a reflection of th e mothers voice in Snow White, and instead see the queen as the ultimate antagonist. While a reading of the mirror as the voice of the patriarchy ex amines the reasons behind the queens antagonism, with the supposition that the queen is an independent and nonmaternal woman, a reading of the mi rror that speaks with the mothers voice probes a deeper meaning about the stages of a womans creative and reproductive life, from childhood to motherhood. 51

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Chapter 3 I See All : The Acousmatic Mirror and Reflections of Capitalist and Socialist Agendas in Snow White Films The much greater percentage of scholarship attributing the mirrors voice to a patriarchal identity rather than a matriarchal identity calls forth an important question: are fairy tale sc holars perpetuating the valuation of women based on their physical appearance? In some ways, the answer is yes. The only Snow White adaptation s that truly defeat the centrality of physical beauty in the film either (a) do not have a mirror at all; or (b) do not reflect capitalist society. Thes e two films are Joe Nussbaums Sydney White (2007) and Gottfried Kolditzs Schneewittchen ( Little Snow White) (1961, DEFA). Why do these films succeed where others have failed to transcend superficial judgments of beauty? The judgment of fairness lies not with authority, but with the peers of the two Snow Whites. In both Schneewittchen and Sydney White the leading female integrates herself into the working class, or the exploited class, and su bsequently demonstrates fairness of character. For instance, in Schneewittchen, which Kolditz sets in feudal times, the heroine works alongside the kitchen servants in contrast to the queen and her aristocratic guests, who consume the fruits of the workers labor. In Sydney White set on a college campus, Sydney joins and inspires the 52

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seven dorks she lives with to save their home and unite students with various interests, in opposition to the dominant and hierarchical Greek house run by Rachel Witchburn. The directors of each film successfully develop the personalities of these Snow Whites so that they are active, just, playful, optimistic, and hard working in contrast to the passive and/or nave Snow Whites of Disneys, Berzs, Co hns, and Thompsons films. We may look at the Grimms tale and the Snow White films as intertexts, or intermedia which reinforce particular values based on the author or directors interpretation and intentions. All of the five Snow White capitalist films that include th e mirror, from the United States from 1937 to today, maintain the focus of physical beauty and envy that perpetuates the female dichotomy of a ngel versus monster, youth versus age, love versus loss of love, and secu rity versus insecurity. These films also perpetuate the female dependency on marriage, and the male prince figure, or the patriarchy, alternatively represented by capitalism and consumerism. The only capitalist film that transcends the primary valuation of physical beauty did not have a mirror. The inherent value of the Snow White figure shifted from physic al beauty to fairness in character. Comparably, the socialist propaganda film from the German Democratic Republic, DEFAs Schneewittchen (1961) severs the ties between the mirrors association of fairness with pulchritude to promote socialist values exemplified by Snow White, the dwarfs, and the king, Snow Whites suitor. 53

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What then, we may ask, does the mirro rs voice say to its audience, and why does the mirror cause the most injury to the tales female characters in its patriarchal, capitalist context? The shift from text to film for Sno w White represents a shift that all literature-to-film stories experience; the story requires less participation of imagination from the audience. This lo ss of active imagination of film audiences, compared to readers, applies to both the image and the voice. In the context of Snow White films, the di rector must fully realize the physical embodiment of the mirror. The conflict becomes more straightforward, and the comparison between the angel and the monster, using Gilbert and Gubars terms, becomes more superficia l. While Michel Chion focuses on the transition from silent film, rather than literature, to talking film, the following passage from The Voice in Cinema represents this shift very well (Chion 12). [I]ts not so much the absence of voices that the talking film came to disrupt, as the spectato rs freedom to imagine them in her own way (in the same way that a filmed adaptation objectifies the features of a character in the novel). Were no longer allowed to dream the voices in fact, to dream period: according to Marguerite Duras, the cinema has closed off the imaginary. (Chion 9) 54

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In the evolution of Snow White throug hout talking film history, we can see that the values associated with fai rness almost always represent Snow Whites beauty, and the Queens comparabl e lack of beauty in a way that the Grimms text left to our imaginations. For example, in the text, the Grimms reveal that Snow White is born as whi te as snow, red as blood, and black as ebony (Tatar, Annotated 243). Later we learn that she is beautiful as the bright day and more beautiful than the queen herself (Tatar, Annotated 244). The details of her features are left to the readers imagination. These standards of beauty are much more flexib le in the text than in the films, in which the filmmakers present pre-imagin ed, and fully realized beauty, along with the mirrors voice of judgment. The Power of the Acousmatic Mirror The power of the mirror in film is not only conveyed with its words and stable function, as it is in the Gri mms text, but also with the timbre, inflection, and authority of its voice. In his book, The Voice in Cinema Michel Chion defines an acousmatic sound as a sound that is heard without its cause or source being seen (qtd. in Chion 18). The acousmtre, by definition, has the ability to instill fear or a feelin g of power over others because of its unnatural, or inhuman power. The acou smatic voice has the power of (a) ubiquity (the ability to be everywhere); (b) panopticism (the ability to see all); (c) omniscience (to know all); and (d) omnipotence (to be all-powerful) (Chion 24). 55

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While the stepmothers mirror in Sno w White films is a solid object in all adaptations, the mirrors voice is not always trapped within its frame. In Cohns A Tale of Terror, and Disneys Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs the mirrors supernatural power and its rela tionship to the queen illuminate why the audience perceives these particular queens as unnaturally evil. Kolditzs Schneewittchen portrays the mirror with a non-malevolent voice. Disneys Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Disneys magic mirror reflects the cu lture of the United States in the 1930s, not directly through the patriarchal voice, but through the lens of the what was popular in films. The mi rror plays an important role, and its incorporeal voice gives it a supernatural and malevolent power during its scenes. Instead of patriarchal power, subtly emanating from the mirrors character, its owners unbridled malice originates in the queen herself. Jack Zipes, notably anti-Disney in his discourse, suggests that instead of associating evil with the oppressive rule of capitalist or fascist governments or with inegalitarian socioeconomic conditions [as we see in DEFAs Schneewittchen ], it is equated with the conniv ing, jealous female, with black magic and dirty play, with unpredictable forces of turbulence that must be cleaned and controlled (Brothers 61). The mirrors persona itself, which appears from behind the flames and smok e of farther space, represents the mask of drama, and the dramatic atmosphere of early (1920s and 1930s) suspense and horror films (Disney; Oxberry 2) (see fig. 2). 56

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In her article, I Didnt Mean to Frighten You: The Disney Gothic, Victoria Oxberry suggests that Disney Studios successfully blend elements of the gothic film tradition with the utopian nature of Snow White (5). Oxberrys examples of gothic-style films readily support Disneys presentation of the events and characters of Snow White. Specifically, I will use Oxberrys argument to support the mirrors association with the queens wicked power, rather than the overa rching patriarchal voice of the film. Oxberry cites Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1920), Dracula (1931), and Frankenstein (1931) to show that all four of these horror films present the dichotomy of man versus monster, often a monster within himself, metaphorically or superfic ially (3, 4). Disneys Snow White translates the primary male transformative man/monster into the female queen/witch but otherwise the technique is very similar. For instance, to begin with[,] Dr. Jekyll, like the Queen, is very refined looking, he is smart in his top hat and cloak, bow tie and walking stick. While he is working in his lab mixing chemicals to create a potion to change himself into another entity capable of immoral behaviour, the Queen is in her cellar mixing less conventional ingredients (A scream of fright) to create a guise for herself so she can commi t murder. (Oxberry 3) The entire transformation from human to alter ego in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Disneys Snow White are similar, Oxberry suggests, also noting 57

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that in general, transformation scen es were popular in the thirties, and reference was made by Disney specifically to [Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde] in the story conferences (qtd. in Oxberry 3). Dramatic moments and elements also fill Disneys Snow White with the suspense common to early horror f ilms. For example, Disney studios created tension through suggestion rather than completely rendered events: throughout the film there is the anticipa tion of death, manifested on screen by two vultures who follow the Witch through the forest to the Dwarfs cottage (Oxberry 4). Even after Sn ow White bites the apple and appears dead, the vultures follow the queen, suggesting that it will be the queen who they feast on, not Snow White (Oxberry 4). Oxberry aptly describes this collection of scenes. Literally backed against the wall by the Witch, Snow White takes a bite. As she does so, the camera moves away from her, focussing [sic] on th e Witchs reaction to what is happening off screen, Oh, I feel strange. [Snow White says.] The Witch can hardly contain her excitement, bouncing up and down, wringing her hands togeth er and muttering words from the spell under her breath, all the while, we hear Snow White making breathless choking sounds. Still on the Witch, the camera follows her gaze down to the floor. With a crescendo of 58

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music, we see Snow Whites fore arm fall to the ground and into shot, the apple rolling from her lifeless hand. The subtlety of this moment makes it more dramatic, more hard-hitting. It also proves that a gratuitous death sc ene is not needed in order to have an impact on an audience (Oxberry 4) (See figs. 4-6). Disneys Gothic-styled castle and highly emotional and panicked women (both Snow White fleeing th rough the forest at night and the queen fleeing from the dwarfs exemplify this) reflect the horror film genre. The mirror represents a piece of the development of horror in Disneys Snow White. The mirrors dramatic and acousmatic voice is not completely independent such as the case of a fully acousmatic presence.14 While it enmasks the powers of omniscience, (apparently) panopticism, and perhaps omnipotence (it is never destroyed, and is aligned with immortal rather than mortal powers), it does not po ssess the fourth power of the acousmtre : the power of ubiquity. The partially acousm atic mirror is trapped by its frame and enslaved by the queen; therefore it s power is naturally associated with her own. It is important to note that Disneys mirror does not have an antagonistic personality, nor is it a destructive and influential confidant, as it is in other film adaptations (Berzs Snow White, Cohns A Tale of Terror ). As a partially acousmatic voice with a ma sk, but not a mortal body, the mirror 14 Chion cites the computer, Hal from 2001: A Space Odyssey whose voice embodies an entire space ship, and is omniscient and panoptic despite having no apparent eyes, ears, or localized body (44-45). 59

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functionally has a malevolent and supe rnatural presence, made stronger by association with the evil and inhumanly unfeeling queen. Chion writes, In the case where [the acousmtre ] remains not-yet-seen, even an insignificant acousmatic voice becomes invested with magical powers as soon as it is involv ed, however slightly in the image [] Being involved in the image means that the voice doesnt merely speak as an observer (as commentary), but that it bears with the image a relationship of possible inclusion a relationship of power and possess ion capable of functioning in both directions; the image may contain the voice, or the voice may contain the image. (23) The possible inclusion refers to the omniscient power of the mirror in association with the witch-like and ev il power of the queen. The two entities support each other in wickedness. For example, the mirrors dialogue with the queen shows that it functions as the closest being that the stepmother has to a confidant.15 QUEEN: Slave in the magic mirror: come from farther space. Through wind and darkness I summon thee. Speak! (See fig. 1). MIRROR: What wouldst thou know, my Queen? QUEEN: Magic mirror on the wall, 15 Notably, the other creature that the queen addresses as a peer is her raven, which associates her with both malevolence and witchcraft. Again, think of the dark connotations of Poes raven and death in The Raven. 60

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Who is the fairest one of all? MIRROR: Famed is thy beauty, majesty, But holda lovely maid I see. Rags cannot hide her gentle grace. Alas, she is more fair than thee. QUEEN: A lash for her. Reveal her name. MIRROR: Lips red as the rose; hair black as ebony; skin white as snow. QUEEN: Snow White! The lack of association of the mirror with the patriarchal voice supports its primary function as contributor to the ov erall aspect of suspense for the film. Though the mirror speaks with a male voice, it does not represent the authoritative power that destroys the queen in other films (Berzs Snow White Cohns A Tale of Terror ). The patriarchal voice in Disneys Snow White has more to do with the voice of the chaste and just prince who restores the fallen female, Snow White, to life (Zipes, Brothers 60). As Jack Zipes points out, in each and every case [of the early Disney fairy ta le films] the female protagonist is reduced to singing a version of some day my prince will come and is characterized by waiting, suffering, helplessness, and sweetness ( Brothers 61). For reference, Snow White sings Some Day My Prince Will Come while the dwarfs are away in the mines and she is left at home to clean, cook, and 61

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sew. Though she sings and befriends th e animals of the forest while she lives with the dwarfs, she seeks the illu sory possibilities for happiness and salvation, that Zipes suggests was a message intended for Disneys 1930s audience ( Brothers 61). Contextually, Disney studios created Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs during the Depression, and the film was meant to illustrate a utopian escape, or a distraction from the evil [that people] confronted in their daily lives in the economic depression (Zipes, Brothers 61). While the mirror speaks with a male voice, it is decidedly nonpatriarchal, in the guardian-like sense of the role of a male figure found in the dwarfs and the prince. Zipes continues, the rugged male hero is, of cour se, daring, resourceful, polite, chaste, and the conqueror of evil. This evil is always associated with female nature out of co ntrol[] witches and a bitchy stepmother and her nasty daughters [in the early Disney films, Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, and Cinderella ]. The ultimate message of all three film s is that, if you are industrious, pure of heart, and keep your faith in a male god, you will be rewarded. (60) Zipes understanding is harsh, but th e trend is easy to see in Disney films; even in later fairy tale films wi th more active heroines, a male prince or suitor must save or protect the heroine and marry her to complete the storys happy ending ( The Little Mermaid (1989) Beauty and the Beast 62

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63 (1991)). Zipes continues further, He [the male god, or prince,] will find you and carry you off to the good kingdom that isnt threatened by the wiles of female duplicity ( Brothers 60-61). The mask of th e mirror reflects the element of suspense that it helps to enge nder in Disneys film, at a time when suspense and horror films were popular. Thus the mask, though it doesnt reflect the patriarchal voice that the pr ince embodies, for example, reflects a cultural desire to escape into suspen se, and consequently in the case of Disneys film, into the utopia of Snow White.

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Cohns Snow White: A Tale of Terror A second film that employs the darkly malevolent and partiallyacousmatic mirror is Michael Cohns Snow White: A Tale of Terror. The back cover of the DVD case provides a fitting introduction: If you thought Snow White was only a fairy tale, youre about to discover the truth, but lock up your children first. The real tale of Snow White [] is a tale of relentless terror and unimaginable horror. When young Lillians mother dies during childbirth, the father soon remarries the well-intentioned Lady Claudia [played by Sigourney Weaver]. However, Claudias heart is ruled not by her husband, but by an evil mirror with the power to make Claudia Queen over all living things until they are dead. A failed attempt to murder young Lillian leaves her wandering lost in a deep dark forest where she comes across seven dwarfs but wait, you think you know the rest of the story? Far from it. Handsome pr inces and dwarfs cannot always save the day. This movie will prove once and for all that blood is thicker than water; and evil, like an apple, comes around. (Cohn) Cohns Tale of Terror indeed takes a new twist on Snow White. For example, Cohn transforms the oft port rayed dwarfs into robbers and exiles living in the forest and mining for their fortunes. The film, however, does not 66

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escape the patriarchal voice in the mi rror. While the mirrors persona is Lady Claudias own reflection, animated with a partially acousmatic and malevolent power over its owner, the mirrors words reflect the standards for fairy tale women, and the dichotomy found in literature between the monster and angel, as Gilbert and Gubar stressed. Unlike Disneys mirror, Cohns mirror becomes a vehicle for the externalization of Lady Claudias inner conflicts, anger, and envy that culminates in her desire for murderous revenge. The mirror is introduced early in the film. Though the story begins with the first mothers death and Lillys (Snow Whites) birth, the film quickly cuts to the arrival of the stepmother-to-be, when Lilly is approx imately seven. Almost immediately, Cohn foreshadows impending disaster as Lilly refuses to accept Claudia as a new mother and we see that Claudia desires, almost above all else, to be loved and admired. For instance, in the following scene Claudia speaks to her brother, Gustav, who is a mute magician of harmless tricks, about her feelings concerning her upcoming marriage. CLAUDIA, in her new bedroom: Tomorrow I will be a wife, a Hoffman. What would mother say if she could see me now, here; would she be happy for me? Would she smile? Or would she be angry, knowing that the world that so despised her, has embraced me? I do love him, Gustav. 67

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Claudia opens the cabinet doors to reveal the recessed mirror. CLAUDIA: They will love me. From the beginning, Cohn associates Claudia with magic arts. She keeps a raven in a shrouded cage in her bedroom, and later when she becomes pregnant she attributes the concepti on to casting the runes (Cohn)1. Prior to the above scene, Claudia reveals that the mirror belonged to her mother, so that every member of Claudias blood-family is ensconced in magic or witchcraft. If the title of the movie hasnt given away Claudias evil side, Cohn lets the audience know when the mi rror first shows its true evil colors. The evening that Friedrich (Lord Hoffman/the father) and Claudia are to celebrate their marriage, Lilly withholds her blessing, runs away from the ceremony, and hides under a bed in Claudias room. Lillys nurse, Nannau, follows her in, and, de ciding that Lilly must be under the bed, begins to bend down when she hears a creak from the mirrors cabinet doors. Captivated, she walk s closer and opens the door wider with her hand, until she can see a stri p of her face in the mirror. At first she looks pleased, but as lights begin to play across the mirrors surface, and the camera shows us Lillys view from the bed, of Nannaus legs and feet, we hear her chokes and gasps. At last she falls to the ground, and the camera swit ches back and forth from Nannaus point of view to Lillys, and the nurse asphyxiates on the floor. 1 A process for divination. 68

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Cohn never explains this physical power of the mirror; why doesnt the mirror kill Lilly later, when she confronts Clau dia and destroys her? Instead, we are made readily aware that the mirror is murderous early in the film, even if Claudia appears willing to make her new life positive and good (see figs. 1719). The female, critical, internalized vo ice of the mirror, and its reflections of patriarchal definitions of womanhood are made exceptionally clear when Claudia fails to be a successful mother Her maternal failure prompts her spiral into evil and madness; coinciding with the introduction of the mirrors persona, triggered by Lilly (Snow Whit e). Up until the climax of the film, nine years after her marriage to Friedric h, the mirror is silent. It is the sudden change of fates, when Lilly re fuses to wear the gown Claudia wore when she was a girl and instead chooses the biological mothers dress from a box in the attic to wear to a special ba ll. This handing down, that is, of mother passing down her effects to her daughter, is a powerful theme for Claudia and the mirror. The female rivalry does not only represent the rivalry for the fathers attention be tween Claudia and Lilly, but also the rivalry for power in the household between the first mother and the second mother. Lilliana, the first wife and mo ther, never seems to leave the castle completely. When Claudia arrives at the Hoffman estate, a portrait of the mother Lilliana hangs in the hallway of th e castle (see fig. 7). Pale of face and dark of hair, Lilliana gazes from the frame amidst a background of 69

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verdant green and twining ivy, not complacently but with an expression of ownership that could be mistaken, if one looked long en ough, for shrewd power. The first wife, Lilliana, althou gh dead, remains eternally young and beautiful through her portrait; not un like Snow White who, after she dies, does not decompose but instead remain s young and beautiful, becoming an object of art, as Gilbert and Gubar sugge st (see figs. 12-14). Even as a corpse, she remains attractive enough to capture the attention of the prince figures, the robber Will and Dr. Gutenberg. Later, the portrait in the hallway is replaced with Claudias image, again pale, with sharper angles to her face, hair a rich burnt-orange, set amidst a background of gray (see fig. 8) ; however, the first portrait lingers in the attic and the colors of Lillianas face linger, immortal through this portrait. By wearing her mothers wh ite gown, Lilly reasserts her mothers power in the household by usurping the pregnant Claudias place in the home, causing her miscarriage. The underlying competition between the biological mother and the stepmother remains throughout the film. In fact, the cinematic passage of time from Claudias arrival to nine year s later is conveyed with the biological mothers portrait, the same as the portra it in the hallway, trapped in a locket that fades and becomes the reflection of the daughter Lilly, framed in a hand mirror (see figs. 9-10). The biological mother almost seems to reach out through Snow White when she appears the ball in the first mothers gown 70

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(see fig. 11). At the ball, the assemb ly turns their attention to Lilly, and Friedrich admires her beauty, almost as if she were her mother. During this scene, we see the culmination of negl ect for Claudia, and the injury this causes her and her ever-important baby. The sequence of climactic scenes ends with the voice of mirror. At the ball, Claudia sings; her operatic voice extends over the audience and Friedrich smiles up at her, momentarily not wondering where Lilly could be. Lilly enters the room from the rear door, opposite Lady Claudia singing on a raised dais. As Lilly walks forward, people turn to stare at her, and finally her father turns to look. FRIEDRICH: Lilly, why are you wearing your mothers gown? LILLY: I wanted you to be proud of me. FRIEDRICH: You look so like her. He chuckles to himself. Addressing the assembled band, and ignoring Cla udia who is still on the stage, he commands, Play. Claudia descends from the platform and we see, from a higher camera angle, Friedrich dancing with Lilly. The timbre of the stringed band casts a dark, uncontrollable tone over the scene, and the guests laughter crescendos with the music as Claudia grows more pale and ill (see figs. 20-22). CLAUDIA: Friedrich Gasping, Claudia falls to the ground. 71

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The spiral of the music and the spinning dancers create a feeling of madness, and reflect the inner turmoil of Lady Claudia that concludes with death, not only her own death at the end, but her babys stillborn death and the death of her brother, Gustav. [] An evil mirror with the power to make Claudia Queen over all living things until they are dead, the back cover reads. Claudias obsession with becoming maternal becomes clearer when she attempts, and eventually succeeds, at restoring her dead son to life. Claudias association between happiness and motherhood is directly explained by her husbands aloof treatment toward her. After the stillbirth, Friedrich does not go in to Claudias chamber to comfort her; instead, her brother Gustav does, again proving the im portance of family to Claudia. In view of the entire film, the mirrors in stigations reflect a cultural voice that places a womans worth on her ability to bear children. While the mirrors voic e does not directly represent the patriarchal voice of authority, because it speaks with a female voice, it reflects the inner dialogue caused by conflict between Claudias nurturing nature and the desires of others, notably the biolog ical mother, Lilly (Snow White) and Friedrich. In the context of Cohns A Tale of Terror which is set in feudal times, the biological role of the stepmother is incredibly important. Cohn portrays Friedrich in the church, praying for a son in front of a large crucifix, and Claudia, casting runes to bring fo rth the male heir. The aristocratic, patriarchal desire to keep the Hoffman th rone within the family also reflects 72

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the power they wish to maintain. Friedr ich may want to pass his estate to a son, but Claudia wants to transcend her natural death through the life of her son. When the baby is born already dead it is not just a personal loss for Claudia but also a loss for the handing down the family name. Due to the complexity of events and characters in A Tale of Terror I will focus now on specific scenes and elements that align the mirror with female wickedness. The acousmatic voic e of the mirror, like Disneys mirror, effectively creates a tone of malevole nce and dread that contributes to the horror of the film. Unlike Disneys mirro r, the independent reflection of Lady Claudia also reflects the cultural voic e of patriarchal expectations for women as maternal, delicate figures. Lady Claudia, though physically tall and striking, is not delicate. Her connect ion to witchcraft and her commanding, abrupt interactions with servants sh ow that she does not represent the beloved and angelic good mother of Gilbert and Gubars female dichotomy; rather, she and the character of the mi rror represent the repulsive female power of the monster. Instead, they represent the maternal instinct gone madly awry. For instance, Claudia dons a feminine mask, so to speak, in order to trick others into (a) eating what she believes to be Lillys cooked internal organs, (b) eating a poisoned st ew that kills most of the household, and (c) eating the poisoned apple (s ee figs. 23-25). From her mirror, Claudias voice is amplified and resona tes beyond the mirrors frame. Cohn creates suspense by withholding the sou rce of the mirrors voice in dramatic 73

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scenes meant to portray terror. For in stance, the mirror says to Claudia, you know the truth. Youve failed [to cause Lillys death] while the camera shows a close-up of Claudias face (Co hn). The supernatural persona of the mirror suggests that it is omniscient, as it claims, however, it clearly also reflects Claudias inner fears. The mirrors voice also has a reverberative quality that differentiates it from Cl audias mortal voice, and supports its inhuman-like quality. While Disneys mirror represents a separate entity from the evil stepmother, Cohns mirror embodies a supernatural connection to the maternal power gone awry. Early in the film, Claudia reveals that the mirror belonged to her mother. Though there is no direct evidence to support that Claudias reflection is actually her moth er in the mirror, trapped, like Lillys mother in an art object, and extendin g her reach through her daughter to fight for maternal power in the home. Like the invisible bond between mother and child, Claudias life is intrinsically linked to her reflection. Cohn portrays this eerie connection throughout the film, but most effectively during the scene leading up to Claudias death, during which Lilly stabs Claudias reflection with a dagger. Up until this point, the mirrors voice issued from its own, distorted yet beautiful, disembodied image of the stepmothers face. When Lilly stabs the mirror, we do not see Claudias perfect face, but rather the reflection of her entire body. This reflection makes the same motions as the corporeal Claudia, desp ite that Lilly intrudes 74

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between the reflections. This uncanny el ement, of the reflection that cannot be a reflection, suddenly joins the independent mirror with her counterpart. As they become reflections of the same, incorporeal, entity called Claudia, they both feel the daggers fatal sting, and their unnatural beauty transforms into the haggard appearance of an aged Claudia. During this scene, Cohn shows us that Claudia and her supernatur al reflection represent parts of the same out-of-control female nature (Zipes, Brothers 60). What have you done to me? Claudia demands from the mirror. Her face shows the wrinkles of age, and her once vibrant red hair has turned grey. As she touches her face, the mi rror cracks, and the camera shows fire burning behind it. Claudia reaches toward her splintered and aged reflection; but the mirror, heated by the flames, ex plodes. Hundreds of tiny shards cut Claudias face; the pain drives her backward into the fire that has spread throughout the castle. Claudias scre ams resound through the frames of the scene as we see her spinning in flames and madness. The camera pans back to the mirror, and we see its surface slow ly resolidify, and it s reflection of the stepmothers flaming death in its placid exterior. Cohn intimates that the power and allure of reflections and the stepmothers desire for unnatural beauty and immortality extends beyond the story contained in the film. The above sc ene is the last we see of the mirrors glass; however, Cohn eerily hints that the mirror reflects his audience. With the closing of night and snow, falling onto the three figures of Lilly, her 75

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76 prostrate father, and her beau, the heroic exile Will, the film concludes with the closing of clasped wooden hands over the scene (see fig. 16). Cohn pushes us back into the real world and away from his terrible reflections of human envy and pride and the competition between mothers awry.

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Michael Berzs Snow White Berzs mirror stands out as a strong and mocking male-gendered personality in his film Snow White Unlike the incorpor eal personas of the mirror that reflect subconscious conflic t or non-superficial beauty in other films (Cohns A Tale of Terror and Kolditzs Schneewittchen ) the source of the mirrors voice is trapped in a solid mask. The looking glass itself is unadorned, but it is bordered by a large white frame, in which five white masks, with black recesses for eyes, are set (see fig. 29). The masks of the mirror come to life when anyone recite s the magic words Mirror, mirror, on the wall, turn around and show me al l. The masks of the mirror serve as counterparts to the jeering and jeal ous queen. Unlike Disneys and Cohns Snow White films, Berz portrays hi s queen as vain and ego-centric with costumes that mock her beauty. The port rayal of the evil queen as a jealous, semi-comic character greatly contrast s with Disneys and Cohns striking queens, such as Lady Claudia, who embo dies mature and vengeful jealousy in A Tale of Terror (Cohn). Berzs mirror neither func tions as a confidant, as in Disneys film, nor as a partner in crime, as in Cohns film, but rather reflects the queens jealousy of superficial beauty and the films patriarchal voice that mocks the stepmothers desire to remain youthful and fairest. From the beginning of the film, Berz s queen is vain and selfish. In contrast to Disneys and Cohns st epmothers, she does not undergo a substantial transformation of character but does employ a motherly disguise, as a farmers wife selling apples, in order to defeat Snow White. The queen 85

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also utilizes her witchs kitchen, a se cret room behind the magic mirror, to create the poisoned apple from The Po isoned Cookbook (Berz). This shows that she, like Lady Claudia in A Tale of Terror, represents the maternal nature gone awry. Though Berzs f ilm is much less substantial than A Tale of Terror and Schneewittchen, the strong delineation between good and wicked, and the domestic Snow White versus the authoritative stepmother supports Bottigheimers assertion that the good deceased (and silent) mothers and quiet, marriageable daughters are prai sed in the Grimms fairy tales. The mirror reflects the queens evilness an d immaturity back to her through a male voice, while it doubles as th e voice of the films patriarchal condemnation for the queens character. The mirror is both aligned with and in opposition to the queen. For exampl e, the queen often argues with the mirror, despite its omniscience: MIRROR: Thou art most fair, my dearest Queen, But Snow White is the fairest that I have seen. QUEEN: She is not! MIRROR: She is too. QUEEN: Is not. MIRROR: Is too. QUEEN: Is not. MIRROR: Too. QUEEN: Not. 86

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MIRROR: Too. QUEEN: But she is dead. LOWER MASK: She is not. (Berz) In general, it is the combination of th e queens immature behavior juxtaposed with her age, which should suggest gr eater wisdom or experience, but does not. The mirror, a judgmental male voice, however, has an entity that is independent from the vision of just patr iarchal authorities that Berz presents in the prince and kings. Berz aligns the mirrors voices with the stepmother, but the mirrors mocking nature suggests that it, too, represents a critical judgment of the queen that Berz is unw illing to give to the kind fathers, kings, and princes. Gilber t and Gubar wrote of the containment of the female identity in frameswhether the fema le is trapped by the words of a nineteenth-century novel or the frames of the mirror, window or glass coffin (37-8). Along with Disneys Snow White, Berz presents the adaptation that traps Snow Whites royal females in patriarchal frames that engender silence and subservience as positive qualities. For instance, when Snow White awakens, the prince immediately says, arise my beloved, and be my queen. She looks at him, hardly smiling, and does not speak for the remainder of the film, apart from greet ing the princes father with your majesty. The king responds; instead of addressing Snow White, he looks to the prince and says, It is true, son, she is the fairest treasure in all the 87

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world. Berzs Snow White conspicuousl y represents the art object, the beautiful possession that will be trappe d in the castle even though she is freed from the glass coffi n (Gilbert and Gubar 41-2). Berzs Snow White hearkens back to Bottigheimers theory of silent versus unsilent women. Th e stepmother in Berzs Snow White embodies unsilence: she does not follow the rule s of patriarchal expectations for fairness, or take into account any pe rspectives other th an her own. Snow White, in contrast, is not only compl acent, but willfully subservient to patriarchal figures in the film, such as her father, the prince, and the princes father who embody the beneficent figu res of patriarchy, or, what Jack Zipes would call the virile innocence of male power ( Brothers 60). The mirror, in contrast, represents the only malevolent male personality: Snow Whites father is kind and just, the prince is heroic, the dwarfs are paternal, sexually nonthreatening, and friendly, and the pr inces father speaks with the calm voice of authority. Fortunately, the mirror and the queen contrast with the rest of the films calm characters. Like Disneys mirror, Berzs looking glass only speaks when spoken to, and, like its owner, is trapped within the frame of the looking glass. The entrapment of both the male and female, the mirror and the queen, undermines their power. In fact, the entire film seems to suggest that, even though the two characters take themse lves seriously, the audience should not. 88

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In Berzs Snow White, it is important to note the timbre of the mirrors voice because it represents another su perficially revealing aspect of the mirror. In contrast to the smooth timbre of Cohns mirror, or the rich deeper tone of Disneys mirror, Be rzs mirror speaks with a harsh, grating voice that lacks the depth of reverberation that we experience in A Tale of Terror, for example In terms of acousmatic power, it ha s very little, if any, because its source contains no mystery. The mirro r is omniscient, but the mask, a human face that protrudes into reality when it speaks, differs fr om the unconscious or incorporeal entities that we see in Disneys and Cohns films. The frame of Berzs mirror represents its body. The lack of presence of the acousmatic voice in Berzs entire film again refl ects its superficial presentation. The queens voice represents the female co unterpart to the mirrors voice. Diana Rigg, who plays the evil queen, also speaks with a relatively grating and gruff voice, which contrasts with the musi cal soprano voice of Snow White and associates the queen with masculine po wer and Snow White with femininity. Perhaps the most important moment in Berzs film is the coinciding destruction of the mirror and the queen. The queen causes both the mirrors destruction and her own in an act of rage when the mirror reveals that the princes (unknown) bride is fairer (s ee fig. 29). The queen throws a glass sphere at the mirror, causing it to spin out of control and crack. This does not prevent the queen from attending the wedding, but she, like the mirror is soon to be destroyed. The cracking of the mirror coincides with the sudden 89

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90 decay of the queen that renders her dress torn, her hair unkempt, gray, and thinning, and her body aged to at least eighty or ninety years old. Snow White she says at the wedding, after spitting out a tooth loosed by her sudden age (see fig. 31). The queen ha s now been destroyed by the natural process that she feared most: the age th at would take away her power. Snow White looks at the queen, a mix of fear and surprise on her face, and a female voice from the crowd says, thats the evil queen! The laughter from the congregation echoes the mocking cackles of the mirror, and this is enough to humiliate the queen and she hobbles silently from the church. The camera cuts back to the mirror, and we see the face of the top mask explode, and the mirror crumbles into dust (see fig. 30). When the camera cuts again to the queen, her face explodes and all that rema ins is a pile of dust, some hair, and cloth from her dress. Now you are sa fe, the prince assures Snow White. The spark of life that animated the queen is snuffed out by the cultural voice that places character value on exte rnal appearances and the simplistic message of Berzs film that, like Disney s, places the protagonist in the hands of her male protectors. Sheldon Cash dan suggests that the witch must die in order for Snow White to be free of her stepmothers jealousy; and yet the audience might find that Berzs queen, at all times fated to be destroyed by the voices around her, is the underd og who we want to win the beauty competition in Snow White (57)

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Socialism Versus Capitalism and Kolditzs Schneewittchen (DEFA) As weve seen, the filmic mirror, lik e Snow White and the queen, shifts from a sparsely detailed character in text to fully represented in film, with a gendered voice and often a supernatural image. Like in the Grimms tale, the mirrors voice in film adaptations continues to embody a cultural message; however, it begins, most often, to reflect the media rather than the bildung or educational, utopian voice that the Brothers Grimm first exemplified (Zipes Brothers 61). In the United States, th e voice of the media largely encourages consumerism, induced by lo nging for satiety from desires. The longing reflects the beloved angel who is desperately trying not to be the despicable monster. To reiter ate Gilbert and Gubars words, The killing of oneself into an art object the pruning and preening, the mirror madness, and concern with odors and aging, with hair which is invariably too curly or too lank, with bodies too thin or too thick al l this testifies to the efforts women have expended not just trying to be angels but trying not to become female monsters. (Gilbert and Gubar 34) Makers of capitalist media, in this way, exploit their audiences desires to feel fulfilled and appreciated by suggesting that the more physically beautiful a person is, or the more A-Brand toothpaste we use, or the more Z-labeled perfume we spray, the more likely he or she is to achieve a happy ending (Zipes, Brothers 63). 92

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The capitalist medias commodifi cation of happiness presents unattainable goals, i.e. the goal of perfect beauty, and aligns the goals with true happiness. This capitalist approa ch applies to Snow White films as well as many other facets of media such as popular music, film, television, and magazines, and even literature. Desire for achieving happiness, however, can never by nature be sa tisfied (Coats 82-3). Karen Coats suggests, because we experience something that we call desire and because that experience of desire is bound up with an experience of lack, we posit retroactively a place where there was no lack, a place of plenitude (83). The retroactive position of lack occurs in everyday life; for example, when a person goes to the grocery story for ban anas but leaves with bananas, a new set of pencils, and a large measuring cup. The person did not know they were lacking pencils and a larger-sized measuring cup until they perceived that the lack could be filled. The Snow White films that focus primarily on physical beauty as a cause for the pr otagonists reward, support capitalism and consumerism because they suggest that the audience is lacking something that cannot actually be purchased (physical beauty), but that the film temporarily fulfills by drawing the viewer into the drama. In contrast to capitalist films, Kolditzs Schneewittchen which literally translates to Little Snow White, hints that happiness can more likely be obtained through the embodiment of positive, attainable traits, while appearances are secondary. Kolditzs film suggests that Snow Whites 93

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qualities, such as her optimism, abilit y to engage others in conversation regardless of social class, and desire to work with others rather than for others, cause other characters to love and protect her. Schneewittchen is beautiful, but she is also hard-wor king, kind, good-humored, and just. Kolditzs mirror reflects the judg mental voice of socialism that condemns greed and aristocracy rather th an envy solely for physical beauty. Jack Zipes notes that DEFA fairy tale productions emphasize the profound humanitarian aspect of the fairy tale s written by the Brothers Grimm and other writers ( Brothers 257). The humanitarian voice of DEFA, the state film company from former East German y, in the voice of the mirror also largely encourages socialist values, such as hard work, teamwork, and egalitarian status for all (Zipes, Brothers 257). The dwarfs, in great contrast to the messy and cartoonish dwarfs of Disneys Snow White (Doc, Dopey, Sleepy, etc.) or the dwarfs of Berzs Snow White (Iddy, Biddy, Liddy, Diddy, etc.), are portrayed as kind and though tful characters of the working class who joke amongst themselves but neve r put each other down. The mirror itself, like the rest of the set and costum es, instills a sense of fantasy that is more like dressing up and playing pretend than watching a Hollywood movie complete with fantastical special effects. The mirro rs voice, from a simple round mirror that hangs on the wa ll, could as easily issue from any household mirror as from the queens mirror (see figs. 32-34). Additionally, the mirror does not convey the eerie supernatural power of the acousmtre 94

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because it does not play a specific, malevolent character. The mirrors almost monotone female voice calmly answers the queens questions, always with the same answers: You, oh qu een, are the fairest of all, queen, though you are fair, its true, Snow White s fairer by far than you, or queen, though you are the fairest here. Snow Whites over se ven peaks tall with the seven dwarfs so small, shes far fairer and has no peer (Kolditz). As in the Grimms tale, and unlike the capitalist films Snow White and the Seve n Dwarfs, A Tale of Terror, and Berzs Snow White, the mirror speaks without trickery, mockery, or a defined personality. Kolditzs mirr or also does not embody an image. When the mirror answers, we see the queens expression reflected in the looking glass (see figs. 32-34). If the mirrors voice from the Unit ed States in the first three films analyzed in this thesis reflects the double-edged sword of the patriarchal consumer-culture, which inspires de sire simultaneously with temporary satiety, it reflects DEFAs wish to support ideal socialism in Schneewittchen Both the queen and Snow White are active and developed characters, and they represent opposing styles of government rather than opposing definitions of femininity as in Gilber t and Gubars monster and angel. Snow White certainly does not allow he rself to be excluded and despondent when the queen ostracizes her at the beginning of the film, and even when she departs from the huntsman who tells her not to be afraid to travel alone 95

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through the forest she says, listening, do you hear that [the sound of a cuckoo]? Im not alone here. (Kolditz). Kolditzs film includes a few importan t details that distinguish the fair Snow White and her friends from the aristocracy. The good king and Snow White represent progressive figures of authority that the mirror ultimately supports. For instance, the film begins at the queens castle the day of an important feast. Guard, whats up? Schneewittchen calls to a guard in the tower of the castle as she runs. Later the same day, Schneewittchen helps in the kitchen while she is banned from the dining hall. Not only does she prove her ability to befriend the servants bu t she also proves that she has the power of initiative to socialize rather than ostracize hersel f from the life of the castle. A kitchen servant of appr oximately the same age soon reveals that it is Schneewittchens birthday; he is the only person who remembered. The fact that the servant knew of her birthday suggests a close relationship between the two, possibly representi ng a childhood bond of friendship. SNOW WHITE: Can I help? she asks the head cook. COOK: What are you doing in the kitchen? SNOW WHITE: The queen banned me from the banquet hall. KITCHEN BOY: Banned? Its your birthday. SNOW WHITE: Nobody knows. The other kitchen servants rush to a table behind Schneewittchen while she stirs the contents of a pot, an d, after shuffling about, they turn to 96

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her with flowers in hand to give her for her birthday. (Kolditz) Clearly, Schneewittchen embodies fairness beyond physical appearances. The king, Schneewittchens suitor, al so proves himself fair through good humor, and fair treatment to all. He addresses the servants the same way he addresses the queen, and Snow White. He also re fuses to give up his search for Snow White, who he intends to marry. Both the king and Schneewittchen prove that they are not too royal or proper to play jokes on the queen. Du ring the wedding cele bration, the king offers the evil queen an appl e. He takes a knife and s lices it in half to offer the queen the red half. It is not poison ed, but the queen flees in terror, to be banished from the kingdom forever. The queens aristocratic guests are po rtrayed as consumers. When they sit down to eat the fruits of the kitchen staffs labo r, they do not say thank you, nor do they speak amongst themse lves. All the queens guests are men, many of them old and overweight, and they primarily speak to the queen to wish her good health and beauty, rather than to converse amongst themselves as friends. Similar to the change in the mirr ors voice in Disneys, and Cohns Snow White films, Kolditzs mirror chooses Snow White after the king meets and falls in love with her. This of course coincides with beginning of the queens doubts concerning the stat us of her own beauty when the king chooses the daughter over the stepmother ; however it is also clear that the 97

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98 positive qualities of Snow White cannot be engendered in the queen, no matter how beautiful she could become. The mirror speaks with the voice of the enveloping humanitarian society that DEFA wished to introduce to young audiences (Zipes, Brothers 257).

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99

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Conclusion Though expectations for the women have changed from the silenced and unsilenced women of Bottigheimers argument the dichotomy still exists in todays culture, and after anal yzing the four films, even more so in the capitalist culture of the United States. Gilbert and Gubars dichotomy between the angel and the monster reflect an even more subtle and oppressive message for females to embo dy passiveness (or its opposite) in literature when human beings are transfor med into objects of art. The stillpresent influence of the patriarchal vo ice on judgments of fairness in Snow White proves that this issue surrounding ideal beauty is still relevant. Fortunately, films like Kolditzs Schneewittchen and Nussbaums Sydney White though I didnt analyze the latter, draw the protagonist away from angelicism and into agency, good-humor, and optimism. On the opposite end of the spectrum, we have Cohns presentation of competition between mothers, the power of art objects, an d the rejection of Claudias nurturing character that drives her to madness and destruction. There are many more layers to unearth in this film that this thesis couldnt cover. The acousmatic power of the mirror, where it occurs in film, also effectively produces the subtle effect of the voice that creep in to the senses of the audience, much like the invisible voices of culture that frame and influence our lives and the lives of the Grimms fairy tale reader s in the nineteenth century. 100

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Conclusion Perhaps the natural question to as k in conclusion is, will Snow White take up her own mirror when she be comes queen? Will the authoritative voice of the mirror persist into Snow White tales yet to be written? There are several textual adaptations of the ta le that have been written from the twentieth century to today, and each reflects concerns of its era. For instance, Donald Barthelmes postmodern novel Snow White (1965) includes representations of the president, as well as characters ironic desire for safety in monotony and conformism, even killing one of their number when he begins acting against the norm. While Barthelmes Snow White and other versions such as Angela Carters The Snow Child and Robert Coovers The Dead Queen exemplify retold fairy tales for adults, authors also transform the tale for modern childhood audiences. One such author, Gail Carson Levine, wrote a childrens novel entitled Fairest which explores the difference between genetic beauty and false beau ty, as well as the importance of appreciating ones gifts and good qua lities. A childrens novel, such as Fairest inevitably presents a Snow White ch aracter who will not take up the mirror, because she represents the good child who learns her lesson about beauty and the dangers of vanity. In contrast, other stories suggest that perhaps Snow White, like her stepmother before her, will feel the prick of jealousy when she realizes the power of her own beauty and its ephemerality. 101

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Film directors already have begun to move away from focusing on the authoritative voice of the mirror. A film that I did not analyze, Tom Davenports Willa: An American Snow White (1999), presents a mirror without a character voice. Instead, when the stepmother, an aging and retired actress, looks into the mirror, sh e either hears applause or booing and carousing, as if the mirror contained an invisible theater audience. In this case, the mirrors voice entirely reflects the stepmothers fears, and when she becomes mad and monstrous, the mirror be comes silent. Another film that I did not analyze, Caroline Thompsons Snow White: the Fairest of Them All (2002), portrays the mirrors voice as an ec ho of the stepmothers fears. When the queen loses her beauty after she breaks the mirror, her demon brother tells her: [Snow White] was not a threat until you imagined her to be one. Envy is a cold, [(words undistinguishabl e)] from hell (Thompson). Both of these more recent films reflect the cons equences of vanity, and not unrealistic vanity such as in Disneys Snow White with a queen that the director makes more monstrous than human. Addition ally, the most recent Snow White film from the United States, Sidney White (2007), transforms the mirror into an online webpage for rating the attractiveness of young women at the university where the film is set. Entitl ed Hot or Not, the list is generated based on votes cast by the student body While a disconcerting concept, the only character who pays great attentio n to the ratings is the antagonist, Rachel Witchburn, who is number one fr om the beginning. As the newcomer 102

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Sydney White climbs the charts, she d oes so because of her unusual character and confident drive to be herself rather than conform to the images of beauty and rules set forth by the sorority mo ther Rachel Witchburn. Sydney is beautiful, but she also has unlikely fair y tale heroine skills such as knowing how to do construction and campaignin g for school presidency. There are more options to pursue in both the stud y of the role of th e mirror in Snow White films and the portrayal of Sno w White in popular films and media. The transformation of the mirrors role in Snow White films appears to reflect a positive cultural change, or perhaps influential standards of beauty are changing. Perhaps the confid ent, active Snow White will take the place of the passive, reliant Snow White of Disneys f ilm from 1937, for instance. The perpetuation of the passive heroine, however, will likely remain in our cultural imaginations. To illustrate this, Jack Zipes writes, One only need study other cine matic and video productions of fairy tales, such as Shelley Duvalls films in the Faerie Tale Theatre series or The Princess Bride (1987), to recognize that the production and reception of fairy tales are limited by the conditions of institutionalization; and that even women continue to subscribe to male myths about their appropriate social roles and biological nature. (Zipes, Brothers 61) The desire for security, or fulfilling soci al roles, such as the mother or wife role, cannot be ignored, especially in fairy tale films. 103

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Taking into account that cultures are constantly changing, perhaps a question to address is, why are the port rayals of Snow White and the role of the mirror shifting in recent films? What, if anything, does the director have to gain from institutionalizing an active Snow White? This is a complex question that I offer, rather than defend, because the messages a person chooses to take from a f ilm are personalized. In Sydney White a film obviously geared toward homogenous wh ite children and young adults (there is only one prominent nonwhite charac ter in the film, an exchange student from Africa) the protagonists are dorks, and, strangely though not entirely original, the film celebrates stereotypes of kids that othe r people pick on, whether because they are shy, or collect science fiction action figures, for example. A disappointing aspect of th e film is that, while the film supports diversity of interests in young adults, it does not support diversity of cultures. In the Grimms text and the four films I analyzed, the likeliness of Snow White growing up to become tr apped by the mirror, as Gilbert and Gubar suggest, seems much greate r when the mirror has a strong authoritative, and individually pers onalized voice. For example, in A Tale of Terror, the director leaves us with an im age of the mirror reforming (Cohn). The power of the mirror in this film transcends the mortal vanity of the stepmother rather than dying with her. Lilly (Snow White) may destroy her stepmother before the credits roll, but there will always be mirrors in which she can examine her changing beauty. Likewise, I cannot imagine Berzs 104

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passive Snow White not becoming trapped by her role as queen and (future) mother in the kings castle. In th e Grimms text, Snow White reveals her penchant for pretty articles by accepting the staylace and th e comb. Does she represent a stage in a womans life an d will she one day be come the wicked queen? The Grimms present this possibilit y. The fairy tale does not specify that Snow White and her king live ha ppily ever after. On the contrary, when [the queen] entered [the room of the wedding feast], Snow White recognized her right away (Tatar, Annotated 255). This is the last we hear of Snow White. The Gr imms conclude with the death of the stepmother. There will always be mirrors for Snow White to peer into. Even if she, as queen, ordered all mirrors destroyed except for one, similar to Perraults monarchs who order all spindles remo ved from the kingdom in Sleeping Beauty in the Wood, at least one wo uld persist. There will never be complete peace, because as the Grimms an d all fairy tale writers and scholars know, fairy tales present opportunities for the oppressed to succeed. Many Snow White adaptations illustrate this with Snow White representing the oppressed protagonist in Kolditzs Schneewittchen, Disneys Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Berzs Snow White. Perhaps if the voice of the mirror were to be oppressed, it would have another identity altogether. In the Grimms adaptation, however, the authoritative and omniscient mirror speaks the truth: the young queen is a thousand times more fair (Tatar, Annotated 255, my emphasis). When Snow Wh ite realizes that she no longer 105

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is the young queen, who will she become ? The answer to this question, unanswered in text and film, is left to the imaginations of the audience. The true ending perhaps, mirrors our own internally voiced fears and hopes for the pronouncements of cultural voices and values. 106

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Works Consulted Primary Sources Films Schneewittchen Dir. Gottfried Kolditz. Perf. Doris Weikow, Marianne Christina Schilling. Icestorm, 1961. VHS. Snow White. Dir. Michael Berz. Perf. Dian a Rigg and Sarah Patterson. MGM, 1987. DVD. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Dir. Walt Disney. Walt Disney Home Video, 1937. VHS. Snow White: A Tale of Terror Dir. Michael Cohn. Perf. Sigourney Weaver and Sam Neill. Universal Pictures, 1997. DVD. Snow White: the Fairest of Them All. Dir. Caroline Thompson. Perf. Miranda Richardson and Kristin Kreuk. Hallmark, 2002. DVD. Sydney White. Dir. Joe Nussbaum. Perf. Amanda Bynes. Universal Pictures, 2007. DVD. The 10th Kingdom Dir. David Carson and He rbert Wise. Perf. Kimberly Williams, John Larroquette, Scott Cohen, and Camryn Manheim. Hallmark, 2000. DVD. Willa: An American Snow White. Dir. Tom Davenport. Perf. Becky Stark, Caitlin OConnel, & Mark Jaster. Davenport Films and From the Brothers Grimm, 1999. DVD. 107

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Texts Apuleius. The Golden Ass. Trans. P. G. Walsh. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Barthelme, Donald. Snow White. New York, NY: Atheneum, 1965, 1967. Basile, Giambattista. The Crow. Giambattista Basiles The Tale of Tales, or Entertainment for Little Ones. Trans. Nancy L. Canepa. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 2007. 361-370. ---. The Little Slave Girl. Giambattista Basiles The Tale of Tales, or Entertainment for Little Ones. Trans. Nancy L. Canepa. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 2007. 195-198. ---. The Three Citrons. Giambattista Basiles Th e Tale of Tales, or Entertainment for Little Ones. Trans. Nancy L. Canepa. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 2007. 433-442. Bruford, Alan, from a manuscript by La dy Evelyn Stewart-Murray, 1891. A Scottish Gaelic Version of Snow-White. Scottish Studies 9 (1965): 153-174. Carter, Angela. The Snow Child. The Bloody Chamber and Other Stories. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1979. 91-92. Coover, Robert. The Dead Queen. A Child Again. San Francisco: McSweeneys Books, 2005. 51-63. Johnson, A. E., ed. and trans. Perraults Complete Fairy Tales New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, Inc., 1961. 108

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Levine, Gail Carson. Fairest New York NY: HarperCollins, 2006. Maguire, Gregory. Mirror Mirror. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Opie, Iona and Peter. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs; Snow-Drop. The Classic Fairy Tales. London: Oxford University Press, 1974. 175-182. Ovid. Echo and Narcissus. The Metamorphoses. Ed. Horace Gregory. New York, NY: Penguin Book s USA Inc., 1958. 95-100. Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. Ed. William P. Holden. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1954. Tatar, Maria. The Annotated Brothers Grimm New York NY: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 2004. Zipes, Jack, ed. and trans. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company, 2001. Secondary Sources Bacchilega, Cristina. Cracking the Mirror Three Re-Visions of Snow White. Boundary 2 15.3 (1998): 1-25. Barzilai, Shuli. Reading Snow White: The Mothers Story. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 15.3 (1990): 515-534. Bettelheim, Bruno. The Jealous Queen in Snow White and the Myth of Oedipus. The Uses of Enchantment. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1975. 194-199. 109

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---. Snow White. The Uses of Enchantment. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1975. 199-215. Bildungsroman. Oxford English Dictionary 1989 Second ed. Oxford University Press. Web. 12 Mar. 2009. Bottigheimer, Ruth B. Silenced Women in the Grimms Fairy Tales: The Fit Between Fairy Tales and Society in Their Historical Context. Fairy Tales and Society. Ed. Ruth B. Bottigheimer. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986. 115-131. Cashdan, Sheldon. Envy: If the Slipper Fits... The Witch Must Die: The Hidden Meaning of Fairy Tales. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1999. 85106. ---. Once Upon a Time. The Witch Must Die: The Hidden Meaning of Fairy Tales. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1999. 1-20. ---. Vanity: Mirror, Mirror, on the Wall. The Witch Must Die: The Hidden Meaning of Fairy Tales. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1999. 39-62. Chion, Michel. The Voice in Cinema. Trans. Claudia Gorbman. 1982. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Coats, Karen. Looking Glasses and Neverlands: Beyond the Symbolic. Looking Glasses and Neverlands : Lacan, Desire and Subjectivity in Childrens Literature Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2004. 77-95. 110

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---. The Subject of Childrens Literature. Looking Glasses and Neverlands : Lacan, Desire and Subjectivity in Childrens Literature. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2004. 1-11. Ests, Clarissa Pinkola. Women Who Run With the Wolves: Myths and Stories of the Wild Woman Archetype. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993. Freud, Sigmund. On Narcissism: An Introduction. Ed. Peter Gay. The Freud Reader. New York, NY: W. W. No rton & Company, 1989. 545562. ---. Repression. Ed. Peter Gay. The Freud Reader. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 1989. 568-572. Gallop, Jane. Lacans Mirror Stage: Where to Begin. SubStance 11.4 (1983): 118-128. Gilbert, Sandra M. & Susan Gubar. T he Queens Looking Glass: Female Creativity, Male Images of Women, and the Metaphor of Literary Paternity. The Madwoman in the Attic. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. 3-44. Girardot, N. J. Initiation and Meanin g in the Tale of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The Journal of American Folklore 90 (1977): 274-300. Jones, Steven Swann. The Structure of Snow White. Fairy Tales and Society. Ed. Ruth B. Bottigheimer. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Pre ss, 1986. 165-186. 111

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Lthi, Max. The Fairytale As Art Form and Portrait of Man. Trans. Jon Erickson. 1975. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984. Macquisten, A. S. and R. W. Pickford. Psychological Aspects of the Fantasy of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The Psychoanalytic Review 29 (1942): 233-252. Oxberry, Victoria. I Didnt Mean to Frighten You: The Disney Gothic. The Film Journal. Ed. Rick Curnutte. Jan. 2006. 5 Nov. 2008. . Rowe, Karen E. To Spin a Yarn: The Female Voice in Folklore and Fairy Tale. Fairy Tales and Society. Ed. Ruth B. Bottigheimer. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986. 53-74. Sale, Roger. Fairy Tales. Fairy Tales and After: From Snow White to E.B. White Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ha rvard University Press, 1978. 23-47. Sale, Roger. Written Tales: Perrault to Andersen. Fairy Tales and After: From Snow White to E.B. White Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1978. 49-75. Tatar, Maria. Off With Their Heads! Fair y Tales and the Culture of Childhood Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992. ---. Spinning Tales: The Distaff Side. The Hard Facts of the Grimms Fairy Tales. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Un iversity Press, 2003. 106-133. 112

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Tolkien, J. R. R. On Fairy Stories. Tree and Leaf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1965. 3-73. Zipes, Jack. The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. ---. The Instrumentalization of Fantas y: Fairy Tales, the Culture Industry and Mass Media. Breaking the Magic Spell Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2002. ---. Once Upon a Time Beyond Disney: Contemporary Fairy-Tale Films for Children Happily Ever After: Fairy Tale s, Children, and the Culture Industry. New York: Routledge, 1997. 89-110. ---. The Splendor of the Arabian Nights. When Dreams Come True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition New York: Routledge, 1999. 49-60. ---. Toward a Theory of the Fairy-Tale Film: The Case of Pinocchio Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales, Children, and the Culture Industry New York: Routledge, 1997. 61-87. 113

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Works Cited Primary Sources Films Schneewittchen Dir. Gottfried Kolditz. Perf. Doris Weikow, Marianne Christina Schilling. Icestorm, 1961. VHS. Snow White. Dir. Michael Berz. Perf. Dian a Rigg and Sarah Patterson. MGM, 1987. DVD. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Dir. Walt Disney. Walt Disney Home Video, 1937. VHS. Snow White: A Tale of Terror Dir. Michael Cohn. Perf. Sigourney Weaver and Sam Neill. Universal Pictures, 1997. DVD. Snow White: the Fairest of Them All. Dir. Caroline Thompson. Perf. Miranda Richardson and Kristin Kreuk. Hallmark, 2002. DVD. Sydney White. Dir. Joe Nussbaum. Perf. Amanda Bynes. Universal Pictures, 2007. DVD. The 10th Kingdom Dir. David Carson and He rbert Wise. Perf. Kimberly Williams, John Larroquette, Scott Cohen, and Camryn Manheim. Hallmark, 2000. DVD. Willa: An American Snow White. Dir. Tom Davenport. Perf. Becky Stark, Caitlin OConnel, & Mark Jaster. Davenport Films and From the Brothers Grimm, 1999. DVD. 114

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Texts Apuleius. The Golden Ass. Trans. P. G. Walsh. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Barthelme, Donald. Snow White. New York, NY: Atheneum, 1965, 1967. Basile, Giambattista. The Crow. Giambattista Basiles The Tale of Tales, or Entertainment for Little Ones. Trans. Nancy L. Canepa. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 2007. 361-370. ---. The Little Slave Girl. Giambattista Basiles The Tale of Tales, or Entertainment for Little Ones. Trans. Nancy L. Canepa. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 2007. 195-198. ---. The Three Citrons. Giambattista Basiles Th e Tale of Tales, or Entertainment for Little Ones. Trans. Nancy L. Canepa. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 2007. 433-442. Bruford, Alan, from a manuscript by La dy Evelyn Stewart-Murray, 1891. A Scottish Gaelic Version of Snow-White. Scottish Studies 9 (1965): 153-174. Carter, Angela. The Snow Child. The Bloody Chamber and Other Stories. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1979. 91-92. Coover, Robert. The Dead Queen. A Child Again. San Francisco: McSweeneys Books, 2005. 51-63. Johnson, A. E., ed. and trans. Perraults Complete Fairy Tales New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, Inc., 1961. 115

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Levine, Gail Carson. Fairest New York NY: HarperCollins, 2006. Maguire, Gregory. Mirror Mirror. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Opie, Iona and Peter. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs; Snow-Drop. The Classic Fairy Tales. London: Oxford University Press, 1974. 175-182. Ovid. Echo and Narcissus. The Metamorphoses. Ed. Horace Gregory. New York, NY: Penguin Book s USA Inc., 1958. 95-100. Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. Ed. William P. Holden. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1954. Tatar, Maria. The Annotated Brothers Grimm New York NY: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 2004. Zipes, Jack, ed. and trans. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company, 2001. Secondary Sources Barzilai, Shuli. Reading Snow White: The Mothers Story. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 15.3 (1990): 515-534. Bettelheim, Bruno. The Jealous Queen in Snow White and the Myth of Oedipus. The Uses of Enchantment. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1975. 194-199. ---. Snow White. The Uses of Enchantment. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1975. 199-215. 116

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Bildungsroman. Oxford English Dictionary 1989 Second ed. Oxford University Press. Web. 12 Mar. 2009. Bottigheimer, Ruth B. Silenced Women in the Grimms Fairy Tales: The Fit Between Fairy Tales and Society in Their Historical Context. Fairy Tales and Society. Ed. Ruth B. Bottigheimer. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986. 115-131. Cashdan, Sheldon. Vanity: Mirror, Mirror, on the Wall. The Witch Must Die: The Hidden Meaning of Fairy Tales. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1999. 39-62. Chion, Michel. The Voice in Cinema. Trans. Claudia Gorbman. 1982. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Coats, Karen. Looking Glasses and Neverlands: Beyond the Symbolic. Looking Glasses and Neverlands : Lacan, Desire and Subjectivity in Childrens Literature Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2004. 77-95. Ests, Clarissa Pinkola. Women Who Run With the Wolves: Myths and Stories of the Wild Woman Archetype. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993. Gilbert, Sandra M. & Susan Gubar. T he Queens Looking Glass: Female Creativity, Male Images of Women, and the Metaphor of Literary Paternity. The Madwoman in the Attic. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. 3-44. Lthi, Max. The Fairytale As Art Form and Portrait of Man. Trans. Jon Erickson. 1975. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984. 117

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118 Oxberry, Victoria. I Didnt Mean to Frighten You: The Disney Gothic. The Film Journal. Ed. Rick Curnutte. Jan. 2006. 5 Nov. 2008. . Rowe, Karen E. To Spin a Yarn: The Female Voice in Folklore and Fairy Tale. Fairy Tales and Society. Ed. Ruth B. Bottigheimer. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986. 53-74. Tatar, Maria. Off With Their Heads! Fair y Tales and the Culture of Childhood Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992. ---. Spinning Tales: The Distaff Side. The Hard Facts of the Grimms Fairy Tales. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Un iversity Press, 2003. 106-133. Tolkien, J. R. R. On Fairy Stories. Tree and Leaf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1965. 3-73. Zipes, Jack. The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. ---. The Splendor of the Arabian Nights. When Dreams Come True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition New York: Routledge, 1999. 49-60.


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