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Representations of Women in the Work of Gustave Flaubert and Leo Tolstoy

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004115/00001

Material Information

Title: Representations of Women in the Work of Gustave Flaubert and Leo Tolstoy
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Horowitz, Jillian
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Flaubert, Gustave
Tolstoy, Leo
Spivak, Gayatri C.
Ortner, Sherry B.
Chodorow, Nancy J.
Realism
Literature
Gender Studies
Post-Colonialism
Ecofeminism
Psychoanalysis
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis examines works by two recognized masters of Realist fiction, Gustave Flaubert and Leo Tolstoy, in light of contemporary feminist theories. The purpose of this thesis is twofold: to examine both the canonical novels and lesser-known short stories of these Realist writers and to consider a range of feminist approaches to literature. The first chapter reads Flaubert's short story "A Simple Heart" ("Un Coeur Simple") (1877) in conjunction with Gayatri C. Spivak and post-colonial, post-modernist theory. The second chapter examines Leo Tolstoy's novella "Family Happiness" (1859) through the lens of ecofeminism, using Sherry B. Ortner's essay "Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?" (1972) as a frame. In the third chapter, I look at both Flaubert's MADAME BOVARY (1857) and Tolstoy's ANNA KARENINA (1877) and their respective representations of motherhood via Nancy Chodorow and object-relations theory. This thesis is an attempt not only to rethink the ways in which texts by canonical authors are read, but to also create new possibilities for feminist analyses.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jillian Horowitz
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Schatz, David.; Reid, Amy

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 H8
System ID: NCFE004115:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004115/00001

Material Information

Title: Representations of Women in the Work of Gustave Flaubert and Leo Tolstoy
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Horowitz, Jillian
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Flaubert, Gustave
Tolstoy, Leo
Spivak, Gayatri C.
Ortner, Sherry B.
Chodorow, Nancy J.
Realism
Literature
Gender Studies
Post-Colonialism
Ecofeminism
Psychoanalysis
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis examines works by two recognized masters of Realist fiction, Gustave Flaubert and Leo Tolstoy, in light of contemporary feminist theories. The purpose of this thesis is twofold: to examine both the canonical novels and lesser-known short stories of these Realist writers and to consider a range of feminist approaches to literature. The first chapter reads Flaubert's short story "A Simple Heart" ("Un Coeur Simple") (1877) in conjunction with Gayatri C. Spivak and post-colonial, post-modernist theory. The second chapter examines Leo Tolstoy's novella "Family Happiness" (1859) through the lens of ecofeminism, using Sherry B. Ortner's essay "Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?" (1972) as a frame. In the third chapter, I look at both Flaubert's MADAME BOVARY (1857) and Tolstoy's ANNA KARENINA (1877) and their respective representations of motherhood via Nancy Chodorow and object-relations theory. This thesis is an attempt not only to rethink the ways in which texts by canonical authors are read, but to also create new possibilities for feminist analyses.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jillian Horowitz
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Schatz, David.; Reid, Amy

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 H8
System ID: NCFE004115:00001


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R E P R E S E N T A T I O N S O F W O M E N I N T H E W O R K O F G U S T A V E F L A U B E R T A N D L E O T O L S T O Y B Y J I L L I A N H O R O W I T Z A T he s i s S ubm i t t e d t o t he D i vi s i on o f H um a ni t i e s N e w C ol l e ge of F l o r i da i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f o r t he de gr e e of B a c he l or of A r t s U nde r t he j oi nt s pons or s hi p of D r A m y R e i d a nd D r D a vi d S c ha t z S a r a s ot a F l or i da M a y, 2009

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i i T a bl e of Co nt e n t s A c know l e dgm e n t s i i i A bs t r a c t i v I nt r o duc t i on 1 1. H ol y O bj e c t s N on S pe a ki ng S ub j e c t s : F l a ube r t s 7 A S i m pl e H e a r t ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e ) a n d t he S uba l t e r n 2. S e a s ons a nd S t P e t e r s bur g: T ol s t oy s F a m i l y 24 H a ppi ne s s a nd t he W om a n/ N a t ur e B i na r y 3. C onf l i c t e d M ot he r hood: F l a ube r t s M a da m e B ova r y 38 T ol s t oy s A nna K a r e ni na a nd O bj e c t R e l a t i ons T he or y F l a ube r t s M a da m e B ova r y a nd I ndi f f e r e nt 45 M ot he r hood A nna K a r e ni na a nd F a m i l i a l A t t a c hm e nt 53 C onc l us i on 61 B i bl i ogr a p hy 63

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i i i A c kn ow l e d gm e n t s T hi s t he s i s w oul d not ha ve be e n pos s i bl e w i t hout t he gui da nc e a nd s uppor t o f m a ny. I w oul d f i r s t a nd f o r e m os t l i ke t o t ha nk D r A m y R e i d a nd D r D a vi d S c ha t z t he c o s pons or s of t hi s pr oj e c t a s w e l l a s D r R obe r t Z a m s ky, f or t he a c a de m i c di r e c t i on c ons i de r a t i on, a nd a s s i s t a nc e t he y ha ve pr ovi de d m e o ve r t he pa s t ye a r a nd t h r oughout m y N e w C ol l e ge c a r e e r I w oul d a l s o l i ke t o s pe c i a l l y t ha nk M a i a V a l kuc ha k; S ha nnon S t r i s c he k; M a ddy E di s on; L a ne S i l be r s t e i n; m y pa r e nt s T i na G ut m a n a nd A l a n H or ow i t z ; a nd a l l of m y f r i e nds a nd f a m i l y m e m be r s w ho ha ve pr ovi de d s ugge s t i ons e di t s opi ni ons a nd m or a l s uppor t t h r oughout t hi s e nde a vor

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i v R E P R E S E N T A T I O N S O F W O M E N I N T H E W O R K O F G U S T A V E F L A U B E R T A N D L E O T O L S T O Y J i l l i a n H or ow i t z N e w C ol l e ge of F l o r i da 2009 A B S T R A C T T hi s t he s i s e xa m i ne s w or ks by t w o r e c ogn i z e d m a s t e r s of R e a l i s t f i c t i on, G us t a ve F l a ube r t a nd L e o T o l s t oy, i n l i ght of c ont e m por a r y f e m i ni s t t he or i e s T he pu r pos e of t hi s t he s i s i s t w of ol d: t o e xa m i ne bot h t he c a noni c a l no ve l s a nd l e s s e r know n s hor t s t or i e s of t he s e R e a l i s t w r i t e r s a nd t o c ons i de r a r a nge of f e m i ni s t a ppr oa c he s t o l i t e r a t u r e T he f i r s t c ha pt e r r e a ds F l a ube r t s s hor t s t or y A S i m pl e H e a r t ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e ) ( 1877) i n c onj unc t i on w i t h G a ya t r i C S pi va k a nd pos t c ol oni a l pos t m ode r ni s t t he or y. T he s e c ond c ha pt e r e xa m i ne s L e o T ol s t oy s nove l l a F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s ( 1859) t hr ough t he l e ns of e c of e m i ni s m us i ng S he r r y B O r t ne r s e s s a y I s F e m a l e t o M a l e a s N a t ur e i s t o C ul t ur e ? ( 1972) a s a f r a m e I n t he t hi r d c ha pt e r I l ook a t bot h F l a ube r t s M a da m e B ova r y ( 1857) a nd T ol s t oy s A nna K a r e ni na ( 187 7) a nd t he i r r e s pe c t i ve r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of m ot he r hood vi a N a nc y C hodor ow a nd obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or y. T hi s t he s i s i s a n a t t e m pt not onl y t o r e t hi nk t he w a ys i n w hi c h t e xt s by c a no ni c a l a ut hor s a r e r e a d, but t o a l s o c r e a t e ne w pos s i bi l i t i e s f or f e m i ni s t a na l ys e s A m y R e i d D i vi s i on of H um a ni t i e s D a vi d S c ha t z D i vi s i on of H um a ni t i e s

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1 Int r odu c t i o n E ur ope w a s i n a s t a t e of f l ux dur i ng t he m i d n i ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y, bot h pol i t i c a l l y a nd a r t i s t i c a l l y. I n t he r e a l m of l i t e r a t ur e t he r e a l i s t m ove m e nt ga i ne d a s c e nda nc y ove r t he r om a nt i c i s m of t he e a r l y 1800s R e a l i s t l i t e r a t ur e a t t e m pt s t o de pi c t hum a n be i ngs a nd t he s oc i e t i e s i n w hi c h t he y l i ve a s t he y a r e i n a di r e c t l y r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l m a nne r w i t hout r e c our s e t o s t yl i z e d pr os e or he a vy s ym bol i s m H a r r y L e vi n s a r t i c l e W ha t i s R e a l i s m ? quot e s t he F r e nc h c r i t i c D ur a nt y w ho s um m a r i z e s t he obj e c t i ve s of r e a l i s m a s s i m pl y t he e xa c t c om pl e t e a nd s i nc e r e r e pr oduc t i on of t he s oc i a l m i l i e u i n w hi c h w e l i ve ( 197) T he r e a l i s t m ode be c a m e a n a ve nu e f o r w r i t e r s t o e xpl or e ps yc hol ogi c a l m ot i va t i on a nd t he pr e s s i ng s oc i a l que s t i ons of t he t i m e r e s ul t i ng f r om c ha nge s i n pol i t i c a l a nd f a m i l y s t r uc t ur e s T he nove l w hi c h e xpe r i e nc e d a n i nc r e a s e i n ge ne r a l r e a de r s hi p a nd w hi c h w e r e o f t e n r e ga r de d a s di da c t i c t ool s be c a m e a p r i m e f or m a t i n w hi c h t o e xpl or e t he s e i s s ue s P r i s c i l l a M e ye r obs e r ve s t oo, i n A nna K a r e ni na : T ol s t oy s P ol e m i c w i t h M a da m e B ova r y t ha t T he ge nr e of t he nove l of a dul t e r y w a s of c our s e w i de s pr e a d i n E u r ope a n l i t e r a t u r e of t he n i ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y, a nd i t s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s na t ur a l l y s ha r e m a ny f e a t ur e s ( 24 4) M os t of t he a dul t e r ous f e m a l e pr ot a goni s t s not a bl y s ha r e t he s a m e f a t e : de a t h. I n t hi s t he s i s I w i l l l ook a t t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of w om e n i n r e a l i s t l i t e r a t ur e t hr ough t he l e ns of c ont e m por a r y f e m i n i s t t he or i e s I n pa r t i c ul a r I a m e xa m i ni ng t he w or ks of t he F r e nc h a ut ho r G us t a ve F l a ube r t ( 182 1 1880) a nd t he R us s i a n a ut hor L e o T ol s t oy ( 1828 1910 ) bot h o f w hom c om pos e d t he i r be s t know n w or ks ove r a s i m i l a r t i m e s pa n. I de c i de d t o us e t he w o r ks of t he s e a ut hor s t o e xa m i ne t he s e r e pr e s e nt a t i ons

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2 f or s e ve r a l r e a s ons T ol s t oy a nd F l a ube r t a r e w i de l y c ons i de r e d a s t he a r bi t e r s o f t he r e a l i s t l i t e r a r y t r a di t i on i n R us s i a a nd F r a nc e r e s pe c t i ve l y. T he i r ( a r gua bl y ) m os t f a m ous w or ks A nna K a r e ni na ( 1877) a nd M a da m e B ova r y ( 1857) c e nt e r on t he a dul t e r y o f t he e ponym ous f e m a l e c ha r a c t e r s w ho, i n t he t r a di t i on of nove l s o f a dul t e r y m e e t s i m i l a r l y t r a gi c e nds by s ui c i de M or e ove r t he a ut ho r s w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h one a not he r s ugge s t i ng t ha t t he pa r a l l e l s t ha t a ppe a r i n t he i r w o r k m a y be m or e t ha n m e r e c oi nc i de nc e I c hos e t w o w or ks e a c h by F l a ube r t a nd T ol s t oy a s hor t s t or y/ nove l l a a nd a f u l l l e ngt h nove l i n or de r t o ba l a nc e out m y a na l ys i s I n a ddi t i on t o M a da m e B ova r y I opt e d t o e xa m i ne F l a ube r t s s hor t s t or y e nt i t l e d A S i m pl e H e a r t ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e ) publ i s he d i n 1877 a s one of t he t hr e e s t or i e s c om pos i ng T hr e e T a l e s ( T r oi s C ont e s ) a nd one of F l a ube r t s f i na l c om pl e t e d w or ks F r om T ol s t oy s oe uvr e I c hos e t o r e a d a nd a na l yz e A nna K a r e ni na ( 1877) a s w e l l a s t he nove l l a l e ngt h F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s ( # $ % &" ( ) + ) a pi e c e publ i s he d e a r l y i n T ol s t oy s c a r e e r ( 1859) A l l f our w or ks a r e f r ont e d by f e m a l e pr ot a goni s t s ; o f t he s e f ou r t hr e e a r e e nga ge d i n s om e s or t o f a dul t e r ous o r qua s i a dul t e r ous a f f a i r ( s ) a nd gi ve bi r t h t o c hi l dr e n w i t h m i xe d f e e l i ngs ; a not he r gr oup of t hr e e ( out o f t he f our ) t e xt s c ul m i na t e i n t he de a t h of t he m a i n f e m a l e c ha r a c t e r O nl y one of t he na r r a t or s i s f e m a l e G i ve n t he f oc us on w om e n i n t he s e m a l e a ut hor e d t e xt s i t m a ke s s e ns e t o vi e w t he s e nove l s a nd s hor t w or ks us i ng a f e m i ni s t f r a m e w or k. F e m i ni s t t he or i e s p r om ot e t he a na l ys i s of w om e n s r e pr e s e nt a t i ons i n l i t e r a t ur e ; t he y a l s o pr ovi de a f r a m e w or k f or e xa m i ni ng t he unde r l yi ng s t r uc t ur e s of a nd c ont e xt s s ur r oundi ng t e xt s F o r m y ow n a na l ys i s I c hos e t o ut i l i z e t he t he or i e s o f t h r e e di f f e r e nt f e m i ni s t s c hol a r s f r om t h r e e di f f e r e nt t he o r e t i c a l t r a di t i ons : G a ya t r i S p i va k a nd pos t c ol oni a l / pos t m ode r n f e m i ni s m ;

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3 S he r r y O r t ne r a nd e c of e m i ni s m ; a nd N a nc y C hodo r ow a nd f e m i n i s t ps yc hoa na l ys i s / obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or y. I t m a de pe r s ona l s e ns e not t o f i t t he nove l s a nd s t or i e s of F l a ube r t a nd T ol s t oy unde r one s pe c i f i c f r a m e w or k. M y i nt e nt i on i n t h i s t he s i s i s t o pr e s e nt a s e a r c h of a ppr oa c he s t hr ough w hi c h t o a na l yz e a nd i nt e r p r e t w om e n s f unc t i ons i n r e a l i s t t e xt s I n m y f i r s t c ha pt e r I a na l yz e F l a ube r t s s hor t s t or y A S i m pl e H e a r t ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e ) us i ng G a ya t r i C ha kr a vor t y S pi va k a nd p os t c ol oni a l f e m i ni s t t he or y C r i t i c s s uc h a s R ol a nd B a r t h e s a nd R a ym onde D e br a y G e ne t t e ha ve w r i t t e n on t e xt ua l i s s ue s s uc h a s t he r e a l i t y e f f e c t a nd t he di s or de r of ut t e r a nc e r e s pe c t i ve l y, but t he r e ha s be e n l i t t l e e m pha s i s on F l i c i t s ot he r ne s s t o a nd w i t hi n t he t e xt I n he r w r i t i ngs pa r t i c ul a r l y i n he r 1988 e s s a y C a n t he S uba l t e r n S pe a k? S pi va k t he or i z e s t he c onc e pt of s uba l t e r ni t y. T he s uba l t e r n i s a n i ndi vi dua l or gr o up t ha t e xi s t s out s i de of t he dom i na nt pow e r s t r uc t ur e a nd w ho i s de ni e d t he a bi l i t y t o s p e a k t hr ough pol i t i c a l a nd t e xt ua l m e a ns I n t he c a s e of A S i m pl e H e a r t t he pr ot a goni s t F l i c i t i s a n i l l i t e r a t e pe a s a nt w om a n w or ki ng a s a s e r va nt i n a bou r ge oi s hous e hol d i n N or m a ndy. S he i s t hought t o be nobl e but s t upi d, a nd a s bot h a w om a n a nd a s e r va nt he r a bi l i t y t o s pe a k i s s t unt e d w i t hi n t he t e xt : t he na r r a t or a t t r i but e s onl y a ha ndf ul of ut t e r a nc e s t o he r t h r oughout t he 40 pa ge s t or y. I n t he s t or y, t oo, t he onl y t r ue e m ot i ona l c o nne c t i on s he c a n f or ge i s w i t h a pa r r ot t ha t s he na m e s L oul ou. L oul ou i s t he onl y c r e a t ur e w i t h w hi c h F l i c i t c a n c om m uni c a t e ; w hi l e ge nui ne c om m uni on w i t h hu m a ns s e e m s a l w a y s t o e l ude F l i c i t he r bond w i t h he r pa r r ot c ont i nue s be yond t he bi r d s de a t h, c ul m i na t i ng i n a m om e nt o f r e l i gi ous t r a ns c e nde nc e a t he r de a t h. H e r r e l a t i ons hi p t o F l a ube r t s na r r a t or w i t h i n t he t e xt i s s i m i l a r l y f r a ught ; be c a us e s he i s t w i c e ot he r e d a nd doubl y opp r e s s e d by he r s e x

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4 a nd s oc i oe c onom i c s t a ndi ng, s he i s s o f or e i gn a nd s o unknow a bl e t ha t not onl y c a n s he not s pe a k, but a l s o F l a ube r t s na r r a t or a ppe a r s bot h una bl e a nd unw i l l i ng t o unde r s t a nd he r W ha t t he r e a de r of A S i m p l e H e a r t r e c e i ve s i s not a f ul l por t r a i t of F l i c i t ; r a t he r i t i s a po r t r a i t of t he c ha r a c t e r s ow n a l i e na t i on f r o m t he t e xt I n m y s e c ond c ha pt e r I e xa m i ne T ol s t oy s nove l l a F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s ( 1859) us i ng a n e a r l y e c of e m i ni s t f r a m e w or k pr ovi de d by S he r r y B O r t ne r I n he r s e m i na l 1972 e s s a y, I s F e m a l e t o M a l e a s N a t ur e i s t o C ul t ur e ? O r t ne r p r opos e s t ha t w om e n a r e uni ve r s a l l y c ons i de r e d s e c onda r y t o m e n a s a r e s ul t of t he i r be i ng s ym bol i c a l l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s om e t hi ng t ha t i s s e c onda r y t o s oc i e t y: na t ur e B e c a us e c ul t ur e a s a ge ne r a l r ul e hol ds i t s e l f i n oppos i t i on a ga i ns t na t ur e t h r ough c r e a t e d s ys t e m s of m e a ni ng, w om e n m us t i n t ur n be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he na t u r a l a nd, t hu s a r e vi e w e d a s i nf e r i or t o m e n w ho a r e a s s oc i a t e d i n t he s e s ys t e m s of m e a ni ng w i t h c u l t ur e B y us i ng O r t ne r s w or k t o a na l yz e t hi s t e xt I w i s he d bot h t o m a ke us e o f a na l ys e s of t he nove l l a s s e nt i m e nt a l i s m by c r i t i c s l i ke E dw a r d W a s i ol e k a nd N a t a l i a K i s s e l e f f a nd m ove pa s t ge ne r i c c r i t i que s i nt o a m o r e ove r t l y f e m i ni s t one I n T ol s t oy s nov e l l a t he m a i n c ha r a c t e r a nd na r r a t or M a r ya A l e xa ndr ovna ( M a s ha ) i s c ons i s t e nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h na t ur e ( t he c ount r ys i de t he s e a s on s a nd i t s a c c om pa nyi ng c ha nge s t he dom e s t i c s phe r e ) w he r e a s S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h, he r hus ba nd, i s a t onc e a s pa t r oni z i ng, know l e dge a bl e a bout t he w o r l d, a nd a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c ul t ur e W he n M a s ha be c om e s bor e d w i t h he r l i f e i n t he c ount r y S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h t a ke s he r i nt o P e t e r s bur g s oc i e t y ( i e c ul t ur e a t i t s m os t ba s e a nd obvi ous ) w he r e s he gr ow s i nc r e a s i ngl y di s t a nt f r om he r hus ba nd, c or r u pt e d, a nd w o r l dl y; he r de f i l e m e nt by c ul t ur e c ul m i na t e s w i t h a ne a r a dul t e r ous e nc ount e r I t i s onl y a f t e r t hi s i nc i de nt t ha t M a s ha f e e l s c om pe l l e d t o t ur n ba c k t o pr i v a t e l i f e i n t he c ount r y t o r e c onc i l e w i t h he r

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5 hus ba nd, a nd t o pl a y t he r ol e of dut i f ul w i f e a nd m ot he r I n T ol s t oy s t e xt w om e n s l i ve s a r e i nt r i ns i c a l l y l i nke d t o t he i r na t ur a l f unc t i ons i n t he dom e s t i c s phe r e ; c ul t u r e a nd t he publ i c s phe r e i s by de f i ni t i on a c o r r upt i ng i nf l ue nc e on w om e n. I n t he t h i r d c ha pt e r I t u r n f r om s hor t f i c t i on t o t w o l onge r c a noni c a l t e xt s : F l a ube r t s nove l M a da m e B ova r y ( 1857) a nd T ol s t oy s nove l A nna K a r e ni na ( 1877) w hi c h I e xa m i ne t h r ough t he f r a m e w or k of N a nc y C hodor o w s 1978 book T he R e pr oduc t i on of M ot he r i ng B ot h nove l s ha ve be e n s ubj e c t t o F r e udi a n ps yc hoa na l yt i c c r i t i c i s m but t he r e ha s be e n l i t t l e a na l ys i s t ha t dr a w s on C hodor ow s pe r s pe c t i ve C hodor ow i s a pr opone nt of a f o r m of ps yc hoa na l ys i s know n a s obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or y. A l t hough t he ba s i s f or obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he o r y i s F r e udi a n, obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he o r i s t s a r gue t ha t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n m ot he r a nd c hi l d i s r e c i pr oc a l r a t he r t ha n m e r e l y f l ow i ng i n t he di r e c t i on o f m ot he r t o c hi l d. T he y a l s o s ugge s t t ha t t he m ot he r i s t he pr i m a r y obj e c t upon w hi c h pe r s ona l i t y f or m a t i on r e l i e s ; a nd t ha t m ot he r i ng i s de ve l ope d t h r ough a f e m a l e c hi l d s i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h t he m ot he r r a t he r t ha n t he de s i r e f o r a pe ni s s ubs t i t ut e or t he r e s ul t of a n i nna t e m a t e r na l i ns t i nc t I n t he c a s e s of E m m a B ova r y a nd A nna K a r e ni na t he s t a nda r d m ode l of m ot he r i ng i s di s r u pt e d. E m m a s m o t he r i s c om pl e t e l y a bs e nt f r om t he t e xt of M a da m e B ova r y up unt i l s h e di e s F o r E m m a t he c onc e pt o f m ot he r hood s e e m s a n e s c a pe f r om he r ba na l e xi s t e nc e but w he n E m m a g i ve s bi r t h t o a f e m a l e c hi l d, di s i l l us i onm e nt s e t s i n. E m m a f i nds he r s e l f pe r f or m i ng m ot he r hood onl y w he n s he ha s s pe c t a t or s a nd he r da ught e r B e r t he i s ne a r l y a s a bs e nt a s E m m a s m ot he r w a s E m m a doe s not know how t o m ot he r but i t i s B e r t he w ho m us t pa y f or E m m a s t r a ns gr e s s i ons O n t he ot he r ha nd, A nna K a r e ni na i s a bl e t o m ot he r a nd pa s s i ona t e l y l ove s t he s on s he ha d w i t h t he hus ba nd w hom s he de s pi s e s H ow e ve r w he n s he gi ve s

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6 bi r t h t o a ba by gi r l f a t he r e d by he r l ove r s he f i nd s t ha t s he c a nnot l ove he r da ught e r S he br i e f l y f i nds a da ught e r s ubs t i t ut e i n he r E ngl i s h p r ot g e but e ve n t h i s a t t e m pt a t m ot he r i ng a da ught e r f a i l s T ol s t oy s nove l a l s o s uppor t s C hodor ow s c onc e pt of r e l a t i ona l pa r e nt i ng; i n A nna K a r e ni na bi o l og i c a l t i e s br e a k dow n i n o r de r t o f o r m f a m i l y bonds c r e a t e d by c hoi c e A l t hough a l l o f t he f i c t i ona l w o r ks t ha t I e xa m i ne i n t hi s t he s i s c ont a i n f e m a l e pr ot a goni s t s a l l of t he s e c ha r a c t e r s a r e c ons t r uc t e d a nd r e pr e s e nt e d i n a m a nne r t ha t r e f l e c t s t he pa t r i a r c ha l nor m s a nd j udgm e nt s of t he m i l i e u i n bot h t he i r f i c t i ve w or l ds a nd t he r e a l w or l ds of t he ( m a l e ) a ut ho r s B y e xa m i ni ng t he s e t e xt s i n l i ght of c ont e m por a r y c r i t i c a l f e m i ni s t t he o r i e s I hope t o b r i ng f o r t h ne w a na l ys e s of t he s e c l a s s i c ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y w or ks

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7 1 H ol y O b j e c t s N on S p e a ki ng S ub j e c t s : F l a ub e rt s U n C oe ur S i m pl e ( A S i m pl e H e a rt ) a nd t h e S uba l t e rn I n t hi s f i r s t c ha pt e r I w i l l e xa m i ne G us t a ve F l a ube r t s s hor t s t or y U n C oe ur S i m pl e ( A S i m pl e H e a r t ) t hr ough a pos t c ol oni a l i s t f e m i ni s t l e ns U s i ng G a ya t r i C ha kr a vor t y S pi va k s c onc e pt i on o f t he s uba l t e r n w om a n a nd m y ow n c onc e pt i on of a l l t ha t s uba l t e r ni t y e nt a i l s I w i l l a r gue t ha t F l i c i t t he f e m a l e s e r va nt pr ot a goni s t o f F l a ube r t s t a l e i s s i t ua t e d out s i de t he he ge m on i c c ul t ur a l pow e r s t r uc t ur e o f ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y bour ge oi s F r a nc e T hi s e xc l us i on f r om t he r ul i ng or de r e f f e c t i ve l y ot he r s F l i c i t t o s uc h a n e xt e nt t ha t s he s t a nds a s a r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l O t he r t o ne a r l y e ve r y f i gur e s he i nt e r a c t s w i t h e ve n F l a ube r t s na r r a t or a t hi r d pe r s on, om ni s c i e nt pr e s um a bl y m a l e bys t a nde r f r om w hos e l a ngua ge a nd na r r a t i on F l i c i t i s of t e n a l i e na t e d. D e f i ni ng w ha t c ons t i t ut e s s uba l t e r ni t y i n t hi s pr o j e c t i s of p r i m a r y i m por t a nc e A t no poi nt doe s G a ya t r i S p i va k e xpl i c i t l y de f i ne t he t e r m s uba l t e r ni t y no r t he pr e c i s e c ondi t i ons t ha t l e a d t o t he c r e a t i on or c l a s s i f i c a t i on of a s uba l t e r n gr oup W ha t one c a n s a y i s t ha t s uba l t e r ni t y i s c ons t i t ut e d on t he ba s i s o f a c l a s s ope r a t i ng out s i de o f t he dom i na nt c ul t ur a l he ge m oni c s t r uc t ur e one t ha t i s c ons i s t e nt l y vi e w e d a s obj e c t r a t he r t ha n a s a S / s ubj e c t t ha t i s t o s a y, on t he ba s i s of r e pr e s e nt a t i on a s oppos e d t o s pe e c h. I n he r e s s a y C a n t he S uba l t e r n S pe a k? S pi va k w r i t e s t ha t f o r t he t r ue s uba l t e r n g r oup, w hos e i de nt i t y i s i t s di f f e r e nc e t he r e i s no unr e pr e s e nt a bl e s uba l t e r n s ubj e c t t ha t c a n know a nd s pe a k i t s e l f ( 73) S uba l t e r ni t y, t he n, i s m a r ke d by t he i na bi l i t y f or t he

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8 s uba l t e r n gr oup t o de f i ne i t s e l f t o c ons t i t ut e i t s ow n t e r m s f o r t he dom i na nt g r oup; w e c a n o nl y e s t a bl i s h t hos e w ho oc c upy t he pos i t i on o f s uba l t e r n t h r ough our ow n he ge m oni c di s c our s e of r e pr e s e nt a t i on. L a c k of a c c e s s t o s pe e c h a nd s e l f r e pr e s e nt a t i on i s ge ne r a l l y c ons i gne d t o t h r e e gr oups t ha t c ons t i t ut e r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l ot he r ne s s t o t he dom i na nt s ys t e m of W e s t e r n E ur ope a n, w hi t e m a l e pa t r i a r c hy ( gr oups w hi c h, a c c or di ng t o S pi va k, c om pos e t he s i l e nt s i l e nc e d c e nt e r m a r ke d by c ol oni a l e pi s t e m i c vi ol e nc e ) : m e n a nd w om e n a m ong t he i l l i t e r a t e pe a s a nt r y, t he t r i ba l s [ a nd] t he l ow e s t s t r a t a of t he ur ba n s ubpr ol e t a r i a t ( S uba l t e r n 78 ) T he s uba l t e r n gr oups t ha t e xi s t i n c ol oni z e d de ve l opi ng s t a t e s or i n t he m a r gi na l i z e d w or ki ng c l a s s e s of de ve l ope d c ount r i e s a r e e xot i c i z e d a nd/ or de ni e d a c c e s s t o m one t a r y a nd s oc i a l i z e d c a pi t a l H ow e ve r t he opp r e s s i on e xpe r i e nc e d by w om e n c a n i nt e r s e c t w i t h e a c h of t he s e c a t e gor i e s of s uba l t e r ni t y and c ons t i t ut e a s uba l t e r n c l a s s on i t s ow n. I f i n t he c ont e xt of c ol oni a l p r oduc t i on, t he s uba l t e r n ha s no hi s t or y a nd c a nnot s pe a k, S pi va k not e s t he s uba l t e r n a s f e m a l e i s e ve n m or e de e pl y i n s ha dow ( S uba l t e r n 82 83) W om e n a r e pe r c e i ve d a s O t he r not s i m pl y by w hi t e s by c a pi t a l i s t s or by c ol oni s t s ; t he y a r e O t he r t o a ppr oxi m a t e l y one ha l f of t he hum a n r a c e r e ga r dl e s s of r a c e s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us or or i gi n. I nde e d t he c ons t i t ut i on of t he f e m a l e s ubj e c t i n l i f e i s t he pl a c e of t he d i f f r e nd ( S uba l t e r n 97) A s t he di f f r e nd t he f e m a l e s ubj e c t a s s um e s a l t e r na t e l y a pos i t i on of di f f e r e nc e f r om l a ngua ge a nd one of s ubor di na t i on or de f e r e nc e w i t hi n l a ngua ge A s a r e s ul t w hi l e S pi va k a t t e m pt s t o pos i t a f e m a l e s ub j e c t s he i s c ons t a nt l y f or c e d t o unde r m i ne he r s e l f E ve n out s i de t he r e a l m o f t he t e xt i n w ha t m i ght be r ough l y c ons i de r e d r e a l i t y, t he w om a n i s a s ym bol i c p l a c e hol de r of o t he r ne s s

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9 T he s uba l t e r n w om a n, c l e a r l y, ha s l i t t l e out l e t t h r o ugh w hi c h s he c a n e s c a pe he r s uba l t e r ni t y. F or t he s e r va nt w om a n, l i ke F l a ube r t s F l i c i t t he doubl e opp r e s s i on of he r s t a t us a s f e m a l e a nd a s pe a s a nt l e a ve s he r i n a pos i t i on i n w hi c h s he i s w hol l y una bl e t o e nt e r t he pow e r s t r uc t ur e a s a S / s ubj e c t I f I a m t o di s c us s F l i c i t a c ha r a c t e r i n a f i c t i ona l l i t e r a r y t e xt t hi s c l a s s i f i c a t i on a s s uba l t e r n be c om e s pa r t i c ul a r l y de t e r m i ni ng i n r e ga r d t o he r na r r a t i ve / t e xt ua l r e p r e s e nt a t i on. S pi v a k poi nt s out w he n w e c om e t o t he c onc om i t a nt que s t i on of t he c ons c i ous ne s s of t he s uba l t e r n, t he not i on o f w ha t t he w or k c annot s a y be c om e s i m por t a nt [ ] E l a bor a t i ons o f i ns ur ge nc y s t a nd i n pl a c e of t he ut t e r a nc e [ a nd] t he s e nde r t he pe a s a nt i s m a r ke d onl y a s a poi nt e r t o a n i r r e t r i e va bl e c ons c i ous ne s s ( S uba l t e r n 82) I w i l l e l a bor a t e on F l i c i t s a t t e m pt s t ow a r d c l a i m i ng/ r e c l a i m i ng he r c ons c i ous ne s s t o w ha t e ve r e xt e nt t ha t t hi s i s m a de pos s i bl e f o r t he i l l i t e r a t e pe a s a nt w om a n by F l a ube r t s na r r a t or l a t e r i n t he c ha pt e r H ow e ve r i t i s i m por t a nt t o poi nt ou t he r e t ha t a n a na l ys i s of t he s uba l t e r n r e qui r e s a de c ons t r uc t i ve r e a di ng. O ne c a nnot s i m pl y r e a d w ha t i s c l e a r l y m a r ke d, but m us t a l s o e xa m i ne t ha t w hi c h i s not s a i d e i t he r by t he s uba l t e r n f i gu r e ( s ) i n que s t i on or t hr ough t he na r r a t i ve i t s e l f T he e xa m i na t i on o f t he f e m a l e c ons c i ous ne s s a nd r e c l a m a t i on of S / s ubj e c t hood, a c c or di ng t o S pi va k i s l i nke d t o t he e xa m i na t i on o f t e xt s a nd na r r a t i ve s S he not e s i n he r e s s a y F e m i ni s m a nd C r i t i c a l T he or y t ha t a s a f e f i gur e s e e m i ngl y out s i de o f t he l a ngua ge ( s pe e c h) w r i t i ng oppos i t i on i s t he t e x t a w e a ve o f know i ng a nd not know i ng w hi c h i s w ha t know i ng i s ( 55 ) I n t he c a s e of U n C oe ur S i m p l e i n w hi c h bot h t he m a i n c ha r a c t e r of F l i c i t a nd t he pr i m a r y s uppor t i ng c ha r a c t e r / f o i l o f M a da m e A uba i n a r e bot h f e m a l e a nd, t o va r yi ng e xt e nt s de pr i ve d of s ubj e c t i vi t y, t he e l e m e nt of

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10 not know i ng i s pa r t i c ul a r l y i m por t a nt t o i nve s t i ga t e M or e ove r t he di s c our s e of t he l i t e r a r y t e xt i s pa r t of a ge ne r a l c onf i gu r a t i on o f t e xt ua l i t y, a pl a c i ng f o r t h o f t he s ol ut i on a s t he una va i l a bi l i t y of a uni f i e d s ol ut i on t o a uni f i e d or hom oge nous ge ne r a t i ng o r r e c e i vi ng, c ons c i ous ne s s ( F e m i ni s m 55) T he l a c k of a uni f i e d s ol ut i on t hr ough w hi c h t he r e a de r c a n i nt e r pr e t F l i c i t a nd he r s i ngul a r c o ns c i ous ne s s l e a ds t o r e l i a nc e on t he s t or y s na r r a t or a s be a r i ng a nd t r a ns m i t t i ng t he c l o s e s t r e s e m bl a nc e t o t hi s s ol ut i on. D e s pi t e hi s pr e s e nc e a s a n unna m e d t hi r d pe r s on o m ni s c i e nt ( one t ha t i s p r e s um a bl y m a l e a s onl y t he m a l e na r r a t or ha s t he c a pa c i t y t o i de nt i f y ot he r s by na m e a nd c ons c i ous ne s s w hi l e r e m a i ni ng out s i de t he s ym bol i c r e a l m of na m e s ) our know l e dge of F l i c i t s c ons c i ous ne s s a s m e di a t e d t hr ough t hi s n a r r a t or i s i nc om pl e t e T he c ol l e c t i ve c ons c i o us ne s s of he r pe r s onhood a nd s ubj e c t i vi t y i s pl ur a l ; t he un i f i c a t i on o f t hi s c ons c i ous ne s s i s a s S pi va k w r i t e s i m pos s i bl e T he c ons t i t ut i on o f F l i c i t i n U n C oe ur S i m pl e a s a s ubj e c t a t l e a s t t hr ough t he c ons t r uc t i on of F l a ube r t s na r r a t or i f not t he r e a de r i s que s t i ona bl e a t be s t T he ve r y f i r s t l i ne of t he t e xt be l i e s F l i c i t s l a c k of s u bj e c t i vi t y: F or ha l f a c e nt ur y, M a da m e A uba i n s hous e m a i d F l i c i t w a s t he e nvy of a l l t he good l a di e s of P ont l E v que ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 3 ) T hi s f i r s t s e nt e nc e pos i t s t he pe a s a nt w om a n a s not a pe r s on e xa c t l y, but r a t he r a s a n obj e c t of u nque s t i ona bl y hi gh us e va l ue ( a t l e a s t a s f a r a s dom e s t i c dut i e s a r e c onc e r ne d) w hos e pos s e s s or i s t o be e nvi e d by pa m pe r e d bour ge oi s w om e n ( f o r w hom hous e w or k i s a t a s k be ne a t h t he i r s oc i a l c l a s s ) A s i f s he w e r e a n obj e c t on di s pl a y, t he na r r a t or c ont i nue s w i t h a l i s t o f he r da i l y du t i e s : Fo r j u s t o n e h u n d r ed f ran cs a y ear s h e d i d al l t h e co o k i n g an d t h e h o u s e w o rk s h e s a w t o t h e d arn i n g t h e w as h i n g an d t h e i r o n i n g s h e co u l d b ri d l e a h o rs e k eep t h e ch i ck en s w el l fed an d ch u rn t h e b u t t er W h at i s mo re s h e re mai n ed fai t h fu l t o h er mi s t res s w h o i t mu s t b e s ai d w as n o t t h e eas i es t o f p eo p l e t o g et al o n g w i t h (3 )

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11 F l i c i t s de s c r i pt i on he r e m e nt i ons l i t t l e t ha t w oul d s ugge s t he r pe r s onhood f r om he r pe r a nnum w a ge t o he r f e e di ng t he l i ve s t oc k ot h e r t ha n he r f a i t hf u l ne s s i n r e ga r d t o he r m i s t r e s s M a da m e A uba i n. A t t he be gi nni ng a nd t he e nd of t he s e f i r s t f e w s e nt e nc e s of t he s t or y, i t i s c l e a r t ha t F l i c i t i s t he t e r r i t o r y a nd pos s e s s i on of t he bour ge oi s M m e A uba i n; how e ve r t he m i ddl e s e c t i on i s s om e w ha t a m bi guous i n r e ga r d t o t he r e f e r e nt D e bor a h J e ns e n, i n he r e s s a y T he P e r s ons a nd T h i ngs S c hool : P a r r ot s P e a s a nt s a nd P a r i a hs i n U n C oe ur s i m pl e a nd L a C haum i r e i ndi e nne poi nt s out t hi s c onf us i on of s ubj e c t s a nd not e s t ha t t hi s pa s s i ng of f of t he ba t o n of s ubj e c t hood f r om m i s t r e s s t o s ubj e c t a nd ba c k a ga i n i na ugur a t e s t he pr ob l e m of F l i c i t s a ut onom y a nd e qua l i t y ( J e ns e n 110) H ow e ve r de s pi t e M a da m e A uba i n s c l a i m ove r F l i c i t a s he r s e r va nt t he f or m e r s ow n s ubj e c t i vi t y a nd a ge nc y i s a l s o l i m i t e d. S he i s not s i m pl y a w om a n, but a l s o a w i dow w i t hout a ny l i vi ng m a l e r e l a t i ve s D e s pi t e no l onge r be i ng i n t he r e a l m o f t he l i vi ng, M a da m e A uba i n s hus ba nd s t i l l e xe r t s g r e a t i nf l ue nc e on t he hous e hol d t hr ough hi s ve r y i m a ge ; he r boudoi r c ont a i ns a pi c t ur e of M ons i e ur dr e s s e d up i n t he f a nc i f ul a t t i r e t ha t w a s f a s hi ona bl e a t t he t i m e a n d, upon F l i c i t s i ni t i a l a r r i va l s he l i ve d i n a c ons t a nt s t a t e of t r e pi da t i on a s a r e s ul t [ ] of t he m e m o r y of M ons i e ur w hi c h s e e m e d t o hove r ove r e ve r yt hi ng ( 4, 7) T hough onl y a pa i nt e d r e pr e s e nt a t i on a nd a c ons i s t e nt l y s poke n of m e m or y t he ot he r w i s e unna m e d M ons i e ur e xe r t s i nvi s i bl e a ut hor i t y ove r M a da m e A uba i n, w ho t he n e xe r t s h e r ( f a r m or e e vi de nt ) a ut hor i t y ove r he r s e r va nt F l i c i t F l i c i t s s t a t us a s s uba l t e r n w om a n i s i m m e di a t e l y a nd a bunda nt l y c l e a r but he r na ve t a bout he r opp r e s s e d s t a t us be c om e s m a ni f e s t i n he r i na bi l i t y t o r e c ogni z e w he n

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12 m or e pow e r f ul i ndi vi dua l s a t t e m pt t o pur c ha s e h e r a nd he r us e va l ue W hi l e t he e xc ha nge be t w e e n he r a nd M a da m e A uba i n ( one h undr e d f r a nc s a ye a r f o r t he pe r f or m a nc e of a ny a nd a l l m e ni a l hous e hol d t a s ks ) a ppe a r s s om e w ha t t r a ns pa r e nt t o he r s he i s e i t he r c onf us e d or ove r l y t r us t i ng of m e n w h o a t t e m pt t o buy he r f or l e s s r e s pe c t a bl e us e s F l i c i t w ho w a s or pha ne d a t a young a ge w a s t a ke n i n by a f a r m e r t o l ook a f t e r l i ve s t oc k, w a s be a t e n r e gul a r l y f or n o r e a s on a t a l l a nd w a s e ve nt ua l l y t ur ne d out o f t he hous e f or ha vi ng s t ol e n t hi r t y s ou s a t he f t of w hi c h s he w a s qui t e i nnoc e nt ( U n C oe ur S i m p l e 5) T hi s s he a c c e pt s w i t hout a c om pl a i nt o r a t l e a s t t he t e xt / na r r a t or doe s not r e gi s t e r a ny of he r c om pl a i nt s S he i s s oon t a ke n i n a t a not he r f a r m f or t he s a m e t a s k. H ow e ve r i t i s a r ound t hi s t i m e dur i ng he r e i ght e e nt h ye a r w he n a m a n f i r s t a t t e m pt s t o buy he r a f f e c t i ons : Sh e w as s t an d i n g o ff o n h er o w n s h y l y w h en a y o u n g man fai rl y w el l o ff t o j u d g e b y h i s ap p ea ran c e [ ] ap p ro a ch ed h er an d as k ed h er t o d an ce H e b o u g h t h er a g l as s o f ci d er a cu p o f co ffe e, a cak e an d a s i l k s c arf an d i mag i n i n g t h at s h e u n d ers t o o d h i s mo t i v e, o ff ered t o ac co mp an y h er b ack h o me. A s t h ey w e re w al k i n g al o n g t h e ed g e o f a fi el d o f o at s h e t h ru s t h er t o t h e g ro u n d Sh e w as t erri fi ed an d b eg an t o s cre am H e ran o ff (5 ) F l i c i t s s t a t us a s a s uba l t e r n w om a n i s e vi de nt t o e ve r yone a r ound he r s o e vi de nt t ha t t he m a n m e nt i one d a bove a young bour ge oi s na m e d T h odor e be l i e ve s t ha t by buyi n g he r s m a l l l uxur i e s he a l s o pur c ha s e s he r s e xua l c o ns e nt A f t e r t he t w o r un i nt o one a not he r onc e a ga i n, he bl a m e s hi s i ndi s c r e t i on o n i ne br i a t i on bu t c ont i nue s t o a t t e m pt t o pur c ha s e he r s e xua l a f f e c t i ons t hi s t i m e t hr ou gh a pr opos a l of m a r r i a ge H ow e ve r hi s br i e f l y m e nt i one d f e a r of m i l i t a r y s e r vi c e t r um ps a ny a f f e c t i on f or F l i c i t e i t he r r e a l or pe r c e i ve d; he pur c ha s e s hi s f r e e dom f r om s e r vi c e by m a r r y i ng a w e a l t hy o l d l a dy f r om T ouc que s a nd s e nds a f r i e nd t o i nf o r m F l i c i t of t h i s de c i s i on ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 7) F l i c i t i s de va s t a t e d, but s oon f i nds h e r pl a c e w i t hi n t he c onf i ne s of

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13 M a da m e A uba i n s hom e a pl a c e w he r e t he r ul e s o f e xc ha nge a r e m o r e s t r i c t l y de f i ne d a nd do not r e qui r e a ny s a c r i f i c e of honor H e r e s h e e f f e c t i ve l y e xi t s f r om pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he dom i na nt he t e r os e xua l e c onom y; s he r e m a i n s a vi r gi n un t i l he r de a t h. F l i c i t s i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h T h odor e he r f i r s t a n d onl y r o m a nt i c l ove m a r k a t ur ni ng poi nt i n he r young l i f e but i t doe s not pr ov e t o be t he onl y t i m e dur i ng w hi c h m or e pow e r f ul i ndi vi dua l s a t t e m pt t o pur c ha s e h e r a nd t a ke a dva nt a ge of he r i nna t e ge ne r os i t y a nd s i m pl e he a r t T he ne xt i nd i vi dua l t o a t t e m pt t o t a ke a dva nt a ge of F l i c i t i s N a s t a s i e B a r e t t e L e r oux, a f i s he r m a n s w i f e w i t h t h r e e c hi l dr e n w hom F l i c i t be l i e ve d t o be he r s i s t e r F l i c i t a f t e r f i ndi ng he r i n t he r e s or t t ow n o f T r ouvi l l e be c a m e ve r y a t t a c he d t o t he m S he bought t he m a bl a nke t s om e s hi r t s a nd a c ooki ng s t ove T he y w e r e obvi ous l y ou t t o t a ke a dva nt a ge of he r ( 14) I n a n i nt e r e s t i ng r e ve r s a l by pr ovi di ng N a s t a s i e a nd he r a s s um e d c hi l dr e n w i t h obj e c t s of s om e p r a c t i c a l va l ue F l i c i t c l e a r l y be l i e ve s t ha t s he c a n e a r n t he i r a f f e c t i on a nd c onne c t i on s om e t hi ng t ha t s he c r a ve s ha vi ng onl y e xpe r i e nc e d a bor t i ve uns a t i s f yi ng r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h ot he r s S o, t oo doe s s he s e e k t hi s s or t of e xc ha nge w i t h h e r ne phe w V i c t or A s a i l or V i c t or a nd hi s w e e kl y v i s i t s r e pl a c e t he i nt e r a c t i on s be t w e e n F l i c i t a nd N a s t a s i e a nd pr ovi de he r w i t h a n ou t l e t f o r m a t e r na l a f f e c t i ons U p unt i l hi s de pa r t ur e f o r H a va na a nd hi s e ve nt ua l de a t h a t s e a t he i r i nt e r a c t i ons a r e m a r ke d by e xc ha nge s of goods a nd s e r vi c e s : V i c t or oc c a s i ona l l y pr ovi de s F l i c i t w i t h s t or i e s a bout hi s t r a ve l s a nd t hr e e s m a l l gi f t s ( a l i t t l e box m a de out o f s he l l s a c of f e e c upa nd a bi g gi nge r b r e a d m a n ) w hi l e s he w oul d a l w a ys f e e d hi m l unc h, s e nd hi m ba c k w i t h pr a c t i c a l goods ( a ba g of s uga r a pi e c e of s oa p, a l i t t l e b r a ndy o r e ve n m one y ) a nd m e nd h i s c l ot hi ng, a l l be c a us e s he w a s gl a d of a ny oppor t un i t y o f e nc our a gi ng h i m t o vi s i t he r a ga i n ( U n C oe ur

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14 S i m pl e 17 18) I n t he e c onom y i n w hi c h F l i c i t i s a l l ow e d t o t a ke pa r t w he r e s he m i s t a ke s t r a de f or ge ne r os i t y a nd a f f e c t i on s he i s onl y a l l ow e d c he a p t r i nke t s a nd f e i gne d a f f e c t i on w hi l e pr ovi di ng a ny a nd a l l ne c e s s i t i e s t ha t a r e i n he r pow e r t o gi ve a s w e l l a s ge nui ne ( i f na ve ) l ove a nd c a r e C l e a r l y F l i c i t doe s not a nd c a nnot unde r s t a nd t hi s e c onom y; s he i s e nt i r e l y ou t s i de of i t a s a r e s ul t of he r c l a s s i f i c a t i on a s a n i l l i t e r a t e s e r va nt w om a n. N o r doe s s he ha ve t he c a pa c i t y t h r ough t hi s na r r a t i ve / na r r a t or t o c om m uni c a t e a nd a c hi e ve s ubj e c t i vi t y out s i de of t he t hi ngs a nd s e r vi c e s t ha t s he c a n pr ovi de F l i c i t s l a c k of a c c e s s t o t he dom i na nt l a ngua ge hi nde r s he r c a pa c i t y t o f unc t i on a s a S / s ubj e c t t hr oughout t he t e xt a l a c k t ha t i s n e ve r r e m e di e d by t he na r r a t o r t he a r bi t e r of t hi s di s c our s e a nd t he onl y m e di um t hr o ugh w hom w e ga i n a c c e s s t o he r l i f e a nd c ons c i ous ne s s F l i c i t s por t r a ya l by F l i c i t a nd t he na r r a t i ve a s a w hol e i s m a r ke d by a s e ns e of d i s or de r f r a gm e nt a t i on a nd S pi va k s c om bi na t i on of know i ng a nd not know i ng t ha t c ons t i t ut e s t e xt ua l know l e dge R a ym onde D e br a y G e ne t t e i n he r e s s a y P r of a ne S a c r e d: D i s or de r of U t t e r a nc e i n T r oi s C ont e s w r i t e s t ha t ut t e r a nc e s f r om i t s m os t i nf r e que nt t o i t s m os t om ni p r e s e nt m a ni f e s t a t i on, a r e a l w a ys c ha r a c t e r i z e d by a s pe c i f i c ki nd o f di s or de r w hi c h i n t ur n i s e i t h e r t he pr oduc t or t he c a us e of a m or e ge ne r a l di s i nt e gr a t i on of t he r e l a t i ons hi p of t he i nd i vi dua l t o t he w or l d ( F l a ube r t a nd P os t m ode r ni s m 13) T he di s or de r a t i s s ue he r e i s t ha t of a n unde f i ne d c ons c i ous ne s s a s m a ni f e s t e d t hr ough F l i c i t ; how e ve r t he na r r a t or pr ovi de s us not hi ng w i t h w hi c h t o de f i ne i t o r t r a ns c e nd i t D e br a y G e ne t t e r i ght l y p oi nt s out t ha t F l i c i t i s n ot e nt i r e l y de voi d of l a ngua ge i n U n C oe ur S i m pl e : s he m a ke s s i xt e e n di r e c t r e s pons e s [ ] f r om one t o t w e l ve w o r ds i n l e ngt h, [ t ha t ] a r e [ ] f ound [ i n t he t e xt ] ( F l a ube r t a nd

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15 P os t m ode r ni s m 19) H ow e ve r a s J ona t ha n C ul l e r a l s o not e s i n hi s book F l a ub e r t : T he U s e s of U nc e r t a i nt y i t i s pa t e nt l y c l e a r t ha t F l i c i t doe s not he r s e l f s uc c e e d i n or ga ni z i ng a nd i nt e r p r e t i ng he r e xpe r i e nc e S he i s w r i t t e n, a s i t w e r e by a s oc i a l c ont e xt ( C ul l e r 210) T he s oc i a l c ont e xt be i ng t ha t o f t he b our ge oi s he ge m on i c di s c our s e of ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y F r a nc e f i l t e r e d t h r ough a de c i de dl y uni ve r s a l m a l e ge nde r e d a r bi t e r F l i c i t i s pr e s e nt e d a s a t w i c e ot he r e d e nt i t y w i t h no l a ngua ge or f or m of e xpr e s s i on t o c a l l he r ow n. T h i s i nt e r pr e t a t i on of he r c ons c i ous ne s s a nd e xi s t e nc e l e a ve s a voi d bot h f or he r a nd f o r ou r unde r s t a ndi ng o f he r ps yc he m ot i v a t i ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e F l i c i t i s m a r ke d a s a non s pe a ki ng s ubj e c t by F l a ube r t s na r r a t or a t t he ve r y be gi nni ng of t he t e xt W i t h i n t he f i r s t f e w pa ge s h e r e m a r ks on t he f a c t t ha t t he s e r va nt w om a n ha r dl y e ve r s poke a nd he r upr i ght s t a nc e a nd de l i be r a t e m ove m e nt s ga ve he r t he a ppe a r a nc e of a w om a n m a de ou t of w ood, dr i ve n a s i f by c l oc kw or k ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 5) A w om a n m a de out of w ood a nd d r i ve n by a n i nne r m e c ha n i s m i s not a w om a n a t a l l ; r a t he r s he i s a n a ut om a t on e s s e nt i a l l y unt hi nki ng, a m e r e obj e c t w i t hout a ny i nne r l i f e or s pi r i t T hough he r ut t e r a nc e s a r e oc c a s i ona l l y m a r ke d i n t he na r r a t i ve m os t of t he m a r e l i nke d t o t he de e ds t ha t s he pe r f o r m s r a t he r t ha n s pe e c h/ s pe a ki ng a s a r e ve a l i ng or t r a ns f or m a t i ve a c t T o w i t ne a r l y e ve r y t i m e s he s pe a ks out s i de t he c ont e xt of he r w or k ( ba r t e r i ng w i t h f a r m e r s f o r hous e hol d goods f or e xa m pl e o r s how i ng M a da m e A uba i n s unc l e out t he door a f t e r he ha s t oo m uc h t o dr i nk) he r ut t e r a nc e s a r e di s r e ga r de d, m a de l i ght of o r i gno r e d. A t e l l i ng e xa m pl e i s one of t he onl y e xpl i c i t l y ve r ba l i nt e r a c t i ons t ha t t a ke pl a c e be t w e e n F l i c i t a nd M a da m e A uba i n, du r i ng w hi c h t he s e r va nt a t t e m pt s t o c om f or t he r m i s t r e s s by i de nt i f yi ng w i t h he r : T h i n k i n g t h at h er o w n s i t u at i o n mi g h t s erv e as s o me co mfo rt F l i ci t v en t u red : Bu t Mad a me I h av en t re cei v ed an y n e w s fo r s i x mo n t h s

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16 N e w s f ro m w h o m ? W h y n e w s fro m my n ep h e w Fl i ci t g en t l y r ep l i ed O h y o u r n ep h e w A n d w i t h a s h ru g o f h e r s h o u l d ers Mad a me A u b ai n b eg an p aci n g t h e ro o m ag ai n as i f t o s ay I h ad n t g i v e n h i m a t h o u g h t A n d i n an y cas e h es n o co n ce rn o f mi n e! A mer e s h i p s b o y h es n o t w o rt h b o t h eri n g ab o u t Bu t s o meo n e l i k e my d au g h t e r real l y A l t h o u g h Fl i ci t h ad b e en f ed s u ch ro u g h t re at men t s i n ce s h e w as a ch i l d s h e fel t v e ry o ff en d ed b y M ad a me A u b ai n Bu t s h e s o o n g o t o v er i t ( U n Co eu r Si mp l e 2 0 ) D ur i ng t hi s e xc ha nge F l i c i t i s t r yi ng t o e s t a bl i s h c om m on gr ound a nd a s e ns e o f c onne c t i on w i t h he r m i s t r e s s i n t he hope s of be i ng a bl e t o e xp r e s s s ym pa t hy w i t h M a da m e A uba i n s m i s e r y a t not ha vi ng he a r d f r o m he r da ught e r V i r gi ni e i n f our da ys U nf or t una t e l y f o r F l i c i t t he e f f o r t f a l l s on de a f a nd i ndi f f e r e nt e a r s F o r M a da m e A uba i n, a t l e a s t i n t hi s poi nt i n t he na r r a t i ve t he s e r va nt s c onc e r ns a r e s o f a r r e m ove d f r om he r ow n, he r gr i e f ove r not r e c e i vi ng l e t t e r s f r om he r onl y da ught e r i n a f e w da ys be i ng, t o he r m or e j us t i f i e d t ha n F l i c i t s ove r s pe ndi ng m ont hs a t a t i m e w i t hout a ny ne w know l e dge of he r l ow e r c l a s s ne phe w s e xi s t e nc e I n t hi s m om e nt w he r e F l i c i t s pe a ks s i m pl y a nd hone s t l y t o br i dge t he ga p o f m our ni ng a nd f or ge s i m i l a r i t y a nd c om m uni on be t w e e n t he m M a da m e A uba i n a l i e na t e s he r s e r va nt f ur t he r a nd r e i ns c r i be s t he i r di f f e r i ng opp r e s s i ons a s w e l l a s F l i c i t s s uba l t e r n s t a t us i n he r hous e hol d a nd F r a nc e U ps e t a s F l i c i t i s by t hi s s l i ght s he i s us e d t o l i ngui s t i c opp r e s s i on f r om bot h he r e qua l s a nd oppr e s s or s f or he r e nt i r e l i f e t i m e ; a s a r e s ul t s he s oon [ ge t s ] ove r i t a nd f or ge t s t he of f e ndi ng e xc ha nge T hi s pa s s a ge i s doubl y i nt e r e s t i ng i n r e ga r d t o t he na r r a t i ve t e c hni que us e d t o c onve y t hi s f a i l e d c om m uni on; i n i t F l a ube r t a nd hi s na r r a t or i nt e r s pe r s e t he l i m i t e d di a l ogue w i t h f r e e i ndi r e c t di s c our s e on t he s i de s o f bot h F l i c i t a nd M a da m e A uba i n. T he e xc ha nge i t s e l f w oul d s e e m r e l a t i ve l y of f ha nd a nd i nnoc uous w i t hout t he na r r a t or s i nt r us i on, but t he na r r a t or a l s o c l e a r l y ha s m or e i ns i ght i nt o t he l a t t e r s t hought s ( w hi c h

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17 a r e a r t i c ul a t e d i n a quot e d t hought ut t e r a nc e ) t ha n t he f or m e r ( w hos e e m ot i ona l s t a t e i s de s c r i be d r a t he r t ha n r e c a l l e d a s s pe e c h) D e br a y G e ne t t e c l a i m s t ha t i n U n C oe ur S i m pl e t he I i s i ndi c a t i ve o f a n a t t e m pt t o e s t a bl i s h a n a ut onom y of t he u t t e r a nc e t ha t di r e c t di s c our s e e i t he r c a nnot o r doe s not w a nt t o a c c om pl i s h ( F l a ube r t a nd P os t m ode r ni s m 21) I w oul d ve nt ur e t o a r gue t ha t on t he c ont r a r y, t he di s c our s e a c c om pl i s he s w ha t t he I c a nnot a t l e a s t not f or F l i c i t S i nc e F l i c i t i s c ons t r uc t e d a s a non s pe a k i ng s ubj e c t w ho, e ve n w he n s he s pe a ks i s i gno r e d a s t hough s he w e r e m ut e he r r e f e r e nc e t o he r s e l f a s t he I i s e s s e nt i a l l y i ne f f e c t i ve i n c ons t i t ut i ng he r s ubj e c t hood i n t he e ye s of bot h M a da m e A uba i n a nd t he na r r a t i ve I nde e d, a s C ul l e r not e s F l i c i t i s s i l e nt f or t he m os t pa r t a l i e na t e d f r om l a ngua ge [ ] l i ke [ t he ] w oode n r obo t t ha t F l a ube r t s na r r a t o r de s c r i be s he r a s be i ng ( T he U s e s of U nc e r t a i nt y 208 209) N ot onl y doe s F l i c i t l a c k a c c e s s t o s pe e c h, a s e vi de nc e d by t he de a r t h o f he r ut t e r a n c e s a nd l a c k of s poke n c om m uni c a t i on t hr o ughout t he na r r a t i ve bu t a l s o t o t he s ym bol i c a c t s of r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng A ny a c c e s s s he ha s t o t he dom i na nt d i s c our s e i s m e di a t e d not t hr ough w or ds but by i m a ge s W he n M ons i e ur B our a i s t he m a na ge r of M a da m e A uba i n s pr ope r t i e s gi ve s a n i l l us t r a t e d g e ogr a phy book a s a gi f t t o M a da m e s c hi l dr e n i n t he hope s t ha t i t w oul d he l p P a ul a nd V i r gi ni e e nj oy t he i r s t udi e s t he f o r m e r m a ke s a n a t t e m pt t o e xpl a i n t he pi c t ur e s t o F l i c i t ; i n f a c t F l a ube r t s na r r a t or no t e s t hi s w a s t he onl y t i m e a nyone e ve r t a ught he r ho w t o r e a d a book ( U n C oe ur S i m p l e 9) I nt e r e s t i ngl y t hi s ge og r a phy book i s one i n w hi c h t he non W e s t e r n E ur ope a n w or l d i s e xot i c i z e d, pr e s e nt e d m or e t hr ough g r a phi c r e p r e s e nt a t i on t ha n t hr ough w or d s a nd i s t he w or k o f t he c ol oni z i ng c ul t ur a l he ge m ony. I t a ppe a l s m or e t o t he f e t i s hi z a t i on of t he T hi r d W o r l d t ha n t o a ny pa r t i c ul a r l y pe da gogi c a l p ur pos e w i t h i t s de pi c t i on of s c e ne s

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18 f r om di f f e r e nt pa r t s of t he w o r l d, c a nni ba l s w e a r i ng f e a t he r e d he a d dr e s s e s a m onke y a bduc t i ng a young gi r l a gr oup of B e doui ns i n t he de s e r t a w ha l e be i ng ha r poone d, a nd s o on ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 9) A l t hough F l i c i t r e m a i ns i l l i t e r a t e be i ng t a ught t o r e a d f r om s uc h a t e xt onl y s e r ve s t o a s s oc i a t e he r e ve n m or e c l os e l y w i t h t he c ol oni z e d, t he oppr e s s e d, a nd t he s uba l t e r n L a t e r i n t he t e xt a f t e r s he f i nds out t ha t he r ne phe w V i c t or s s hi p m a de i t t o H a va na s he be c om e s c ur i ous a nd pr oj e c t s he r unc ul t u r e d i m a gi na t i on ont o V i c t o r s pos s i bl e doi ngs : Bec au s e o f i t s as s o ci at i o n w i t h ci g ars F l i ci t i mag i n e d H av an a t o b e a p l a ce i n w h i ch t h e o n l y t h i n g p eo p l e d i d w as t o s mo k e an d s h e p i ct u red V i ct o r w al k i n g amo n g s t cro w d s o f N eg ro es i n a cl o u d o f t o b ac co s mo k e. W as i t p o s s i b l e t o reach H av an a b y l an d i f n eed b e ? H o w f ar w as i t f ro m Po n t l E v q u e? ( U n Co eu r Si mp l e 2 1 ) S he c hoos e s t o c ons ul t M ons i e ur B our a i s t he p r ov i de r of t he ge ogr a phy book, f or i ns i ght on V i c t or s l oc a t i on T hi s e nde a vor pr ove s c om pl e t e l y unhe l pf ul f or F l i c i t ow i ng t o t he f a c t he r e nt r a nc e i nt o t he r e a l m of w r i t i ng a nd ge ogr a phi c a l know l e dge ha s be e n pr e c l ude d by he r s uba l t e r n s t a t us A t one poi n t B our a i s s e e i ng he r unc om p r e he ndi ng e xpr e s s i on, a s ke d he r w ha t w a s puz z l i ng he r a nd s he a s ke d hi m i f he w oul d s how he r t he hous e i n w hi c h V i c t o r w a s l i vi ng ( 21) F l i c i t s unc ons c i ous na ve t pr oduc e d a r e a c t i on of hi l a r i t y f r om he r t e a c he r w hi l e s i nc e he r ow n unde r s t a ndi ng w a s s o l i m i t e d t ha t s he p r oba bl y e ve n e xpe c t e d t o s e e a pi c t ur e of he r ne phe w s he c oul d not unde r s t a nd w ha t he f oun d s o f unny ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 21) B e c a us e s he i s ba r r e d a c c e s s t o t he r e a l m of w r i t i ng F l i c i t i s pr e s e nt e d t o t he r e a de r a s t hi nki ng a nd a ppr e he ndi ng t hi ngs i n t e r m s of i m a ge s a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i ons r a t he r t ha n i n na m e s a nd w or ds T hi s i na bi l i t y t o a c c e s s t he r e a l m of w r i t i ng a nd, s ubs e que nt l y, know l e dge i s a l s o w or t h not i ng he r e i n r e ga r d t o F l i c i t s e xpe r i e nc e of R om a n C a t hol i c i s m W he n

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19 F l i c i t i s f i r s t de pi c t e d a s a t t e ndi ng M a s s t he r e a de r i s i ni t i a l l y pr ovi de d w i t h a de s c r i pt i on of t he p e w c ha pe l a nd t he B i bl i c a l de s i gns of t he s t a i ne d gl a s s w i ndow s E ve nt ua l l y t he p r i e s t be gi ns w i t h a l e s s on on t he S c r i pt ur e s but i ns t e a d of na m e s a nd ( w r i t t e n) hi s t or i e s a nd pa r a bl e s F l i c i t s m i nd w a s f i l l e d w i t h i m age s of P a r a di s e t he F l ood, t he T ow e r of B a be l c i t i e s c ons um e d by f l a m e s pe opl e dyi ng a nd i dol s c a s t dow n ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 15, e m pha s i s m i ne ) W hi l e s he c a n r e c ons t r uc t i m a ge s of B i bl i c a l e ve nt s vi vi dl y a nd e a s i l y, a bs t r a c t c onc e pt s pr ove m or e di f f i c ul t f or he r F o r e xa m pl e s he f ound i t di f f i c ul t t o i m a gi ne w ha t t he H ol y S p i r i t l ooke d l i ke be c a us e he w a s not onl y a bi r d but s om e t i m e s a f i r e a nd s om e t i m e s a b r e a t h ( 15) W i t hout pos s e s s i ng know l e dge of C hur c h t e a c hi ngs F l i c i t s unde r s t a ndi ng of t he t r a ns c e nde nt S pi r i t i s boun d t o be on s ha ky gr ound; s he i s a f t e r a l l i l l i t e r a t e a nd i m m a ne nt A l t hough s he ga i ne d m uc h s e ns ua l a nd i m a gi na r y pl e a s ur e f r om t he c hur c h a nd t he M a s s O f ch u r ch d o g m a s h e u n d ers t o o d n o t a w o rd an d d i d n o t ev en at t e mp t t o u n d ers t an d i t A s t h e cu r s t o o d ex p l ai n i n g i t al l t o t h e ch i l d ren an d t h e ch i l d ren rep e at ed w h at t h ey h ad l earn t F l i ci t w o u l d d ro p o ff t o s l eep t o b e w o k en s u d d en l y b y t h e cl at t er o f w o o d en s h o es o n t h e s t o n e fl o o r [ ] ( U n Co eu r Si mp l e 1 5 ) F l a ube r t s na r r a t o r ne ve r t ouc he s on t he m o t i ve s b e hi nd F l i c i t s l a c k of a t t e m pt or de s i r e t o a bs or b or unde r s t a nd c hur c h dog m a bu t i n t he c ont e xt one m a y s a y t ha t he r l a c k of a c c e s s t o know l e dge i s s o p r onounc e d t ha t s he l a c ks t he dr i ve t o e ve n t r y t o e nt e r i nt o t hi s r e a l m T ow a r d s t he e nd o f he r l i f e F l i c i t e ve nt ua l l y e nc ount e r s t he one obj e c t w i t h w hi c h he r l a c k o f a c c e s s t o s pe a ki ng a nd he r a s s oc i a t i ons w i t h i m a ge s a nd gr a phi c r e pr e s e nt a t i on r a t he r t ha n w i t h r e a di ng, w r i t i ng a n d di s c our s e a r e not i ns ur m oun t a bl e obs t a c l e s T hi s obj e c t i s not a not he r s ubj e c t s o m u c h a s i t i s s i m pl y a n a ni m a l : a pa r r ot t ha t s he na m e s L oul ou. A c c or di ng t o M a r y O r r i n he r book F l a ube r t : W r i t i ng t he

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20 M a s c ul i ne L oul ou s i gni f i e s t he pos s i bl e a nd t he i m a gi na r y f or F l i c i t a non e c onom i c t oke n of e xc ha nge [ ] a t a t i m e i n F l i c i t s l i f e w he r e t he r e i s no one e l s e upon w hom t o l a vi s h he r be i ngne s s ( O r r 165) L oul ou t he pa r r ot w a s or i gi na l l y br ought t o M a da m e A uba i n s hous e hol d by t he bl a c k s e r va nt of t he B a r on de L a r s onni r e s a s a gi f t one r e qu i r i ng no f ur t he r e xc ha nge or e c onom i c t r a ns a c t i on. T he B a r on, a f or m e r c ouns e l i n A m e r i c a w ho w a s a ppoi nt e d t he t ow n s s ubpr e f e c t w a s pr om ot e d a nd ha d t o l e a ve t ow n a nd L oul ou i m m e di a t e l y. T he gi f t of t he pa r r ot w a s or i gi na l l y i n t e nde d f or M a da m e A u ba i n, but be c a us e t he bi r d gr e w t o be a n a nnoy a nc e a nd s i nc e t he pa r r ot ha d be e n a s our c e of w onde r t o F l i c i t f or a l ong t i m e f o r i t c a m e f r om A m e r i c a i t w a s pa s s e d of f t o F l i c i t t o l ook a f t e r ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 26 28 ) T he c onne c t i on be t w e e n A m e r i c a a nd i t s s i gni f i c a nc e a s unknow a bl e a nd w ondr ous f or F l i c i t t he bl a c k s e r va nt a m a n w ho, l i ke F l i c i t a l s o i s s uba l t e r n i n ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y bour ge oi s F r a nc e a nd t he e xot i c pa r r ot a l l s e r ve t o m or e c l os e l y l i nk F l i c i t t o he r s uba l t e r n s t a t u s A s i de f r om t hi s s uba l t e r n a l i gnm e nt i n t he c a t e gor y of e c onom y a nd c ol oni z a t i on, L oul ou i s t he f i r s t be i ng w i t h w hi c h F l i c i t e xc ha nge s a nyt hi ng r e s e m bl i ng l a ngua ge c om m uni c a t i on, or c om m uni on R e c a l l i ng t he be g i nni ng of t he na r r a t i ve w he r e F l a ube r t s na r r a t o r r e f e r s t o F l i c i t a s a w om a n m a de of w ood, s om e pe opl e w ho w oul d vi s i t t he A uba i n hous e hol d c a l l e d [ L ou l ou] a bl oc khe a d [ une bc he ] ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 29) L i ke F l i c i t t he bi r d w a s out w a r dl y pe r c e i ve d a s be i ng hol l ow e m pt y he a de d, de voi d o f s e nt i m e nt o r a ge nc y. H o w e ve r i n d i r e c t oppos i t i on t o vi e w i ng t he pa r r ot a s s i m pl y a n obj e c t s he de c i de d s he w oul d t e a c h hi m how t o s pe a k a nd he w a s ve r y s oon a bl e t o s a y, P r e t t y boy Y our s e r va nt s i r a nd H a i l M a r y! ( 29 ) D e s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t pa r r ot s a r e on l y c a pa bl e of m i m i c r y a nd ha ve no f o r m a l l a ngua ge

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21 c a pa c i t i e s of t he i r ow n L oul ou s m i ndl e s s r e pe t i t i on of e ve r yda y pl e a s a nt r i e s w a s e nough f or F l i c i t t o de ve l op a s ym bol i c c onne c t i on w i t h hi m t ha t f unc t i one d out s i de o f w ha t ge ne r a l l y pa s s e s a s di s c our s e F l i c i t be c om e s c om pl e t e l y de a f a f t e r a bout of t ons i l l i t i s a nd l i nge r i ng e a r i n f e c t i ons but s t i l l s he c oul d he a r L oul ou s pe a k a nd c om m uni c a t e ba c k t o hi m : T he y w oul d hol d c onve r s a t i ons w i t h e a c h ot he r t he pa r r ot e ndl e s s l y r e pe a t i ng t he t hr e e s t oc k phr a s e s f r om hi s r e pe r t or y a nd F l i c i t r e pl yi ng w i t h w or ds t ha t m a de ve r y l i t t l e s e ns e but c a m e s t r a i ght f r om t he he a r t ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 31) E ve n w i t hout he r s e ns e of he a r i ng t he pa r r ot s e xt r e m e l y l i m i t e d pow e r s of s ound r e pe t i t i on, a nd he r pos i t i on a s a non s pe a ki ng a nd now non he a r i ng obj e c t ( i nde e d, m uc h l i ke t ha t of he r pa r r ot ) F l i c i t a nd L oul ou c om e a s c l os e a s t he s uba l t e r n c a n c om e t o a r e pr e s e nt a bl e a c t of s pe e c h w i t hout t r a ns c e ndi ng s uba l t e r ni t y e nt i r e l y N or doe s L oul ou s e ve nt ua l de a t h e nd t he pa t t e r n of c om m uni c a t i on be t w e e n t he pa r r ot a nd F l i c i t R a t he r t ha n a c c e pt t he de a t h o f he r be l ove d bi r d a nd c ont i nue on s he w e pt s o m uc h t ha t he r m i s t r e s s e ve nt ua l l y s a i d, W e l l w hy don t you ha ve hi m s t uf f e d? ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 32 ) T he pr oc e s s of s hi ppi ng a nd s t uf f i ng L oul ou t a ke s ne a r l y s i x m ont hs but e ve nt ua l l y he r e t ur ns t o F l i c i t w ho i ns t a l l s t he ne w l y s t uf f e d a nd, t o s om e e xt e nt r e s ur r e c t e d bi r d i n he r be dr oo m W hi l e s he c a n no l onge r e xpe r i e n c e ve r ba l c om m uni on w i t h t he bi r d, s he c ons t r uc t s a r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l a nd r e l i gi ous c om m uni on i n w hi c h L oul ou pl a ys t he i nt e g r a l r ol e W he n s he w e nt t o c hur c h F l a ube r t s na r r a t o r r e l a t e s s he w oul d s i t ga z i ng a t t he pi c t ur e of t he H ol y S pi r i t a nd i t s t r uc k he r t ha t i t l ooke d r a t he r l i ke he r pa r r ot ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 3 5) H e r c onf us i on/ c om m uni on w i t h L oul ou ( or a t l e a s t L oul ou s i m a ge ) be c om e s m or e a nd m or e m a r ke d a s t i m e w e a r s on. S oon e nough, i n he r m i ndt he pa r r ot [ be c a m e ]

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22 s a nc t i f i e d by c onne c t i on w i t h t he H ol y S pi r i t a nd t he H ol y S pi r i t i n t ur n a c qui r i ng l i f e a nd m e a ni ng ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 35) L oul ou s i na ni m a t e uns pe a ki ng obj e c t body a l s o be gi ns a s a n obj e c t of c onf us i on w i t h t he H ol y S pi r i t f o r F l i c i t but ul t i m a t e l y s hi f t s f r om be i ng s o m e t hi ng t ha t a l l ow s he r t o a ppr e he nd t he H ol y S pi r i t t o be i ng a n obj e c t of ove r t i dol a t r y F l i c i t F l a ube r t s na r r a t or r e c ount s w oul d s a y he r p r a ye r s w i t h he r e ye s t ur ne d t ow a r d t he pi c t ur e [ of t he H ol y S pi r i t ] but e ve r y now a nd t he n s he w oul d t ur n h e r he a d s l i ght l y t o l ook a t t he pa r r o t ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 35 ) A f t e r t he de a t h of M a da m e A uba i n, w i t h t he s a l e of t he hous e a n i m m i ne nt pos s i bi l i t y, F l i c i t t ur ns e nt i r e l y t o L ou l ou a s a hol y obj e c t ; t hough m e r e l y a n obj e c t t he n t he s e r va nt e ndow e d t he s t uf f e d bi r d w i t h qua l i t i e s t ha t w e r e n ot gi ve n e ve n t o t he H ol y S pi r i t S he de ve l ope d t he i dol a t r ous ha bi t of kne e l i ng i n f r ont of t he pa r r ot t o s a y he r pr a ye r s S om e t i m e s t he s un w oul d c a t c h t he pa r r ot s gl a s s e ye a s i t c a m e t hr ough t he l i t t l e w i ndow c a us i ng a n e m a na t i on o f r a di a nt l i ght t ha t s e nt he r i nt o e c s t a s i e s ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 37) I f w e a r e t o a c c e pt J ona t ha n C ul l e r s not i on t ha t a r bi t r a r y s i gns w hi c h m a ke no pr e t e ns e of a c c ur a t e l y c onve yi ng hum a n f e e l i ngs a r e i n r e a l i t y t he f or m s w hi c h c ont a i n t he gr e a t e s t de pt hs i t i s uns ur p r i s i ng t ha t F l i c i t t ook t he s i gn a nd i m a ge of t he pa r r ot s he l ove d a s t he pr i m a r y ve hi c l e f or h e r m os t de e pl y f e l t e m ot i ons ( C ul l e r 209) T ow a r d t he e nd of he r l i f e t he s t i l l de vout l y r e l i gi ous ( i f i do l a t r ous ) F l i c i t f e l t s or r y t ha t s he c oul d do not hi ng t o p r e pa r e t he t ow n s a l t a r s a nd s o of f e r e d up t he s t uf f e d pa r r ot ; w hi l e he r ne i ghbo r s obj e c t e d t o t he of f e r i ng s a yi ng t ha t i t w a s not r e a l l y s ui t a bl e t he c ur a c c e pt e d, a nd i n r e s pons e s he a s ke d hi m t o a c c e pt L oul ou t he one t r e a s ur e s he pos s e s s e d, a s a gi f t f r om he r w he n s he di e d ( U n C oe ur S i m pl e 38 ) T he a c t of gi vi ng t he s t uf f e d L oul ou a s a gi f t not onl y c om pl e t e s t he c yc l e of non e c onom i c

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23 t oke n e xc ha nge ( a s O r r de s c r i be s i t ) bu t a l s o r e p r e s e nt s a c ont i nue d a t t e m pt on F l i c i t s pa r t t o c r e a t e m e a ni ngf ul c om m uni on w i t h s om e one a nyone w ho w i l l l i s t e n t o he r I r oni c a l l y, i t i s a c l e r gym a n w ho i s l e f t w i t h t he r e m na nt s o f he r s ubj e c t i vi t y i n t he f or m o f t he de a d, i dol i z e d L oul ou a m a n w ho i s not onl y pa r t of one o f t he i ns t i t ut i ons c ont r i but i ng t o he r opp r e s s i on, but a l s o a m a n w ho w oul d l i ke l y t a ke of f e ns e t o F l i c i t s t r a ns f or m a t i on of a s t uf f e d pa r r o t i nt o t he i m a ge of t he H ol y S pi r i t F l i c i t di e s on t he ve r y l a s t pa ge o f t he na r r a t i v e de di c a t e d t o he r H ow e ve r i t i s onl y w i t h he r de a t h t ha t s he a c hi e ve s a nyt hi ng r e s e m bl i ng s ubj e c t i vi t y. O r r w r i t e s B e yond t a ki ng or gi vi ng bu t m e r e l y be i ng, F l i c i t c om e s t o a ut he nt i c i t y a t t he poi nt w he r e he r i m m a ne nc e m a t c hi ng t he pa r r ot s be c o m e s t r a ns c e nde nc e i n t he de a t h w hi c h t a ke s he r ( O r r 165) F l a ube r t s na r r a t o r c onc l ude s U n C oe ur S i m pl e by i nf o r m i ng t he r e a de r t ha t w i t h he r dyi ng br e a t h s he i m a gi ne d s he s a w a huge pa r r ot hove r i ng a bove he r he a d a s t he he a ve ns pa r t e d t o r e c e i ve he r ( U n C o e ur S i m pl e 40 ) I f i t i s a s S pi va k w r i t e s t ha t t he s uba l t e r n c a nnot be he a r d t o s pe a k, t he onl y w a y i n w hi c h t he s uba l t e r n c a n s pe a k/ s ha pe he r r e pr e s e nt a t i on i s t hr ough he r d e s t r uc t i on. F l i c i t s i m pl e a s he r he a r t m a y be how e ve r know a bl e s he m i ght be c om e i s no e xc e pt i on.

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24 2 S e a s ons a n d S t P e t e rs b urg : T ol s t oys F a m i l y H a p pi n e s s a nd t he W o m a n / N a t ur e B i na ry I n t hi s c ha pt e r I w i l l a na l yz e L e o T ol s t oy s s hor t s t or y F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s ( 1859) t h r ough a n e c of e m i ni s t l e ns U s i ng S he r r y B O r t ne r s obs e r va t i ons on t he c ons t r uc t e d a s s oc i a t i on s be t w e e n w om e n/ na t ur e a nd m e n/ c ul t ur e a s a t he or e t i c a l f ounda t i on, I w i l l e xpl or e t he t e xt ua l m e t hods t ha t T ol s t oy us e s i n s e t t i ng up t he s e bi na r i e s w i t hi n t he na r r a t i ve I n pa r t i c ul a r I w i l l e xa m i ne M a r ya A l e xa ndr ovna s ( M a s ha s ) m a r ke d a s s oc i a t i on w i t h t he na t ur a l w or l d a nd t he c ount r ys i de H ow e ve r ove r t he c our s e of t he na r r a t i ve a s M a s ha m ove s f r om t he na t ur a l s t a t e of he r c ount r y hous e a nd he r bl oom i ng l ove f o r S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h i nt o t he s t a ge s of m a r r i a ge a nd he r i nt r oduc t i on t o S t P e t e r s bur g s oc i e t y/ unna t ur a l c ul t ur e s he unde r goe s a p r oc e s s of c or r upt i on a nd de f i l e m e nt I nde e d, i t i s onl y a t t he de noue m e nt of t he s t or y t ha t a r e t ur n t o t he c ount r y/ na t u r e c l e a ns e s M a s ha of he r c ul t ur e i nf l ue nc e d de pr a vi t y s i m ul t a ne ous l y r e t ur ni ng he r t o he r na t ur a l m a r i t a l du t i e s a nd n a t ur a l s t a t e of ha ppi ne s s f a m i l y ha ppi ne s s I n or de r f o r m e t o j us t i f y T ol s t oy s a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n M a s ha a nd na t ur e a s a ke y e l e m e nt of t he na r r a t i ve of F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s I f i nd i t ne c e s s a r y t o s i t ua t e t he t e xt ua l c onne c t i on w i t hi n a br oa de r f r a m e w or k S he r r y B O r t ne r s e s s a y I s F e m a l e t o M a l e a s N a t ur e i s t o C ul t ur e ? ( 1972 ) m a y ge ne r a l l y f a l l unde r t he a c a de m i c c a t e gor y of a nt hr opol ogy, bu t t he c e nt r a l a r g um e nt l e nds i t s e l f w e l l t o r e a di ngs o f br oa dl y c ul t ur a l

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25 t e xt s i nc l udi ng l i t e r a r y one s O r t ne r be gi ns w i t h a pr e m i s e t ha t w hi l e i ni t i a l l y s hoc ki ng, i s di f f i c ul t t o que s t i on: t he s e c onda r y s t a t us of w o m e n, s he w r i t e s i s one of t he t r ue uni ve r s a l s a p a n c ul t ur a l f a c t ( 5 ) T hi s s t a t e m e nt i s t e m pe r e d i m m e di a t e l y by t he a c know l e dgm e nt t ha t w i t hi n t hi s uni ve r s a l f a c t t h e s pe c i f i c c ul t ur a l c onc e pt i ons a nd s ym bol i z a t i ons of w om e n a r e i nc r e di bl y di ve r s e a nd e ve n m ut ua l l y c ont r a di c t or y ( 5) O r t ne r w or ks f r om a n a c t i vi s t a ngl e i n t ha t he r a i m i s t o f i nd t he r oot s o f t hi s uni ve r s a l s ubor di na t i on of w om e n a nd, s ubs e que nt l y, t o w or k t o e nd t hi s s ubor di na t i on; he r w or k i s not t ha t of a di s i nt e r e s t e d, f ul l y obj e c t i ve s c hol a r A f t e r pl a c i ng t he onus on t he s ke p t i c t o pr ove t ha t w om e n a r e not uni ve r s a l l y s ubor di na t e d t o a t l e a s t s om e e xt e nt ( a s oppos e d t o t he vi e w poi nt t ha t w om e n s s ubor di na t i on i s a n i s ol a t e d phe nom e non) O r t ne r p r ovi de s pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i ons f or t hi s oppr e s s i on of w om e n. H e r f i r s t e xpl a na t i on, t ha t o f bi ol ogi c a l de t e r m i ni s m ( i e w om e n a r e bi ol og i c a l l y or ge ne t i c a l l y i nf e r i o r t o m e n a nd s o a r e de s t i ne d t o be pl a c e d i n a s e c onda r y r ol e a r ol e t ha t m os t o f t he m f i nd s a t i s f yi ng) i s i m m e di a t e l y di s m i s s e d s uc h di f f e r e nc e s O r t ne r a r gue s onl y t a ke on [ t he ] s i gni f i c a nc e of s upe r i or / i n f e r i or w i t hi n t he f r a m e w or k of c ul t ur a l l y de f i ne d va l ue s ys t e m s ( O r t ne r 9 ) A s a r e s ul t of t he i ns uf f i c i e nc y of t he bi ol ogi c a l de t e r m i ni s m m ode l O r t ne r t ur ns t o t hos e e l e m e nt s t ha t s he be l i e ve s c o m pos e t he ge ne r a l i z e d uni ve r s a l s of t he hum a n c ondi t i on on a br oa d s c a l e : Fo r ex amp l e ev ery h u man b ei n g h as a p h y s i cal b o d y a n d a s en s e o f n o n p h y s i cal mi n d i s p art o f a s o ci et y o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u al s an d an i n h eri t o r o f a cu l t u ral t rad i t i o n an d mu s t en g ag e i n s o m e rel at i o n s h i p h o w ev er med i at ed w i t h n at u re o r t h e n o n h u m an r ea l m i n o rd e r t o s u rv i v e. E v ery h u man b ei n g i s b o rn (t o a mo t h er) an d u l t i mat el y d i es ; al l are as s u m ed t o h av e an i n t eres t i n p e rs o n al s u rv i v al ; an d s o ci et y / cu l t u re h as i t s o w n i n t er es t i n (o r at l e as t mo men t u m t o w a rd ) co n t i n u i t y an d s u rv i v al t h at t ran s c en d s t h e l i v es an d d eat h s o f p a rt i cu l ar i n d i v i d u al s (O rt n er 1 0 )

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26 T a ki ng t he s e hum a n gi ve ns i nt o c ons i de r a t i on, O r t ne r pos i t s t ha t w om a n i s be i ng i de nt i f i e d w i t h or i f you w i l l s e e m s t o be a s ym bol of s om e t hi ng t ha t e ve r y c ul t u r e de va l ue s s om e t hi ng t ha t e ve r y c ul t u r e de f i ne s a s b e i ng a t a l ow e r or de r of e xi s t e nc e t ha n i t s e l f ( 10) S he c onc l ude s t ha t t hi s s om e t hi ng t ha t i s uni ve r s a l l y de va l ue d by hum a n c ul t ur e i s na t ur e a t l e a s t i n t he m os t ge ne r a l s e ns e of t he t e r m E ve r y c ul t ur e o r ge ne r i c a l l y, c ul t u r e s he poi nt s out i s e nga ge d i n t he pr oc e s s of ge ne r a t i ng a nd s us t a i ni ng s ys t e m s of m e a ni ngf ul f or m s ( s ym bol s a r t i f a c t s e t c ) by m e a ns of w hi c h hum a ni t y t r a ns c e nds t he gi ve ns of na t u r a l e xi s t e nc e ( 10) W hi l e s om e c ul t ur e s m a ke gr e a t e r di s t i nc t i ons a l ong t hi s na t u r e / c ul t ur e bi na r y t ha n ot he r s a nd t he di s t i nc t i on i t s e l f i s e nt i r e l y s ha pe d by hum a n c ons t r uc t e d s ys t e m s O r t ne r be l i e ve s t ha t t h i s i s a ba s i c oppos i t i on pr e s e nt i n a l l c ul t ur e s t he oppos i t i on of hum a n ne e ds a nd de s i r e s t o t he e a r t h. I t w oul d l ogi c a l l y f ol l ow t he n t ha t i f na t ur e s e r ve s a s t he s ubor di na t e t e r m i n t he na t ur e / c ul t ur e di a l e c t i c a nd w om e n a r e i n a l l c a s e s i n a l l c ul t u r e s c ons i de r e d s ubor di na t e a nd i nf e r i o r t o m e n, t ha t w om e n a r e o n a t l e a s t s om e l e ve l a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he t e r m na t ur e a nd m e n, w i t h c ul t u r e O r t ne r t he n c ont i nue s by out l i ni ng t he ba s i s f o r t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n w om e n a nd na t ur e ; a c c or d i ng t o he r i t a l l o f c our s e be gi ns w i t h t he body, a nd t he na t ur a l pr oc r e a t i ve f unc t i ons s pe c i f i c t o w om e n a l one ( O r t ne r 12) S he poi nt s out t hr e e l e ve l s on w hi c h t he f e m a l e by vi r t ue o f he r s e xe d body, i s pos i t i one d a s c l os e r t o na t ur e t ha n t he m a l e : i ) H er b o d y an d i t s fu n c t i o n s mo r e i n v o l v ed mo re o f t h e t i me w i t h s p eci es l i fe, s eem t o p l ac e h e r cl o s e r t o n at u r e [ ] i i ) H er b o d y an d i t s fu n ct i o n s p u t h er i n s o ci al ro l es t h a t are i n t u rn co n s i d er ed t o b e at a l o w er o rd e r o f cu l t u re, i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e h i g h er o rd e rs o f t h e cu l t u ral p ro ces s i i i ) H e r t rad i t i o n al s o ci al ro l es [ ] i n t u rn g i v e h er a d i ffer en t p s y ch i c s t ru ct u re an d ag ai n t h i s p s y ch i c s t ru ct u re l i k e h er p h y s i o l o g i cal n at u re an d h er s o ci al ro l es i s s e en as b ei n g mo re l i k e n at u re ( O rt n e r 1 2 )

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27 F or t he pu r pos e s of t hi s c ha pt e r I do not f i nd i t ne c e s s a r y t o f ul l y r e i t e r a t e O r t ne r s de t a i l e d e xpl or a t i ons of e a c h l e ve l H ow e ve r i t i s ne c e s s a r y t o m e nt i on s e ve r a l poi nt s t ha t c om e up dur i ng t he s e e xpl or a t i ons ; na m e l y, t ha t m e n a r e vi e w e d a s c r e a t or s of t r a ns c e nde nt a nd of t e n a bs t r a c t obj e c t s a nd c onc e pt s w he r e a s w om e n m e r e l y c r e a t e pe r i s ha bl e s hum a n be i ngs ( 14) ; t ha t w om e n a r e of t e n c ur i ous l y a c c e pt i ng of t he i r s i t ua t i on a s a s ubor di na t e r a c e ( 15 ) ; t ha t w om e n s pl a c e i s s e e n a s i n t he hom e a nd t ha t t he y a r e c l os e l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h na t ur e by vi r t ue o f hom e m a ki ng a nd c hi l d r e a r i ng ( 17 ) ; a nd f i na l l y, a s a r e s ul t o f t he s e a s s oc i a t i ons m e n c r e a t e c ul t ur e w hi l e w om e n s e r ve a s i nt e r m e di a r i e s bot h phys i c a l l y a nd ps yc hi c a l l y ( 18 ) ( T he s e l a t t e r poi nt s w i l l p r ove t o be pa r t i c ul a r l y w e l l a r t i c ul a t e d by T ol s t oy t h r ough M a s ha s na r r a t i on i n F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s a s I w i l l de m ons t r a t e l a t e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r ) O r t ne r doe s e nd he r e s s a y by r e a s s e r t i ng t ha t a ny a nd a l l di s t i nc t i ons t ha t s he ha s m a de a c c o r di ng t o t he w om e n na t ur e / m e n c ul t ur e bi na r i e s a r e c ul t ur a l c ons t r uc t i ons : W om a n i s not i n r e a l i t y a ny c l os e r t o ( nor f a r t he r f r om ) na t ur e t ha n m a n bot h ha ve c ons c i ous ne s s bot h a r e m or t a l B ut t he r e a r e c e r t a i nl y r e a s ons w hy s he a ppe a r s t h a t w a y ( O r t ne r 28) I n t he c a s e of F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s pe r ha ps M a s ha i s not na t ur a l l y S e r ge y s s ubor di na t e but t o e c ho O r t ne r t he r e a r e c e r t a i nl y r e a s ons w hy s he t oo, a ppe a r s t ha t w a y B e f or e I c ont i nue I w oul d l i ke t o t a ke not e o f t he de a r t h of c r i t i c a l m a t e r i a l on F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s T he r e a r e f e w books or pa pe r s de di c a t e d t o t he s hor t s t or y, w hi c h s c hol a r s f r e que nt l y not e i n t he e xi s t i ng m a t e r i a l J oe A ndr e w ope ns t he c ha pt e r de di c a t e d t o F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s i n hi s book N a r r a t i ve S pa c e a nd G e nde r i n R us s i a n F i c t i on by poi nt i ng out t ha t F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s ha s r e c e i ve d s ur pr i s i ngl y l i t t l e c r i t i c a l a t t e nt i on, a s m os t w r i t e r s on t hi s w or k not e s oone r o r l a t e r ; he a l s o not e s T ol s t oy s ow n di s t a s t e f or

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28 t he w or k, w hi c h, a s he de s c r i be d i t i n hi s di a r y w a s a l oa t hs om e di s gr a c e ( A ndr e w 85) A s a r e s ul t I w i l l be r e l yi ng m or e on O r t ne r s w or k a s a f ounda t i on f or m y a na l ys i s a nd l e s s on t he f e w pe r t i ne nt w or ks on t he nove l l a t ha t I c a m e a c r os s i n m y r e s e a r c h. M or e ove r I w i l l be w or ki ng w i t h a c onc e pt i on of na t ur e t ha t w i l l i nc l ude a s pe c t s of t he w or l d ove r w hi c h a n i ndi v i dua l ha s no c ont r ol on e t ha t w i l l c ove r not onl y t hos e e l e m e nt s t ha t O r t ne r e xpl a i ns but t he s e a s ons t r e e s f or e s t s a nd s o f or t h w hi c h a r e of t e n c a t e gor i z e d a s na t ur e i n l i t e r a r y t e xt s A t t he ope ni ng o f F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s t he r e a de r i s i m m e di a t e l y s i t ua t e d w i t hi n na t ur e : W e w e r e i n m our ni ng f or m y m ot he r w ho ha d di e d i n t he a ut um n a nd I s pe nt a l l t ha t w i nt e r a l one i n t he c ount r y w i t h K a t ya a nd S onya ( 3) I m m e di a t e l y t oo one r e a l i z e s t ha t t he na r r a t o r of t he nove l l a i s a young f e m a l e r a t he r t ha n t he t hi r d pe r s on om ni s c i e nt a nd pr e s um a bl y m a l e na r r a t or t ha t c a n be f ound i n m a ny o f T ol s t oy s m a j or w or ks i nc l udi ng t he l a t e r A nna K a r e ni na T hi s na r r a t or i s M a r ya A l e xa ndr ovna ( r e f e r r e d t o by he r d i m i nut i ve M a s ha i n t he t e xt ) w ho i s s e ve nt e e n a t t he be gi nni ng o f t he r e t r os pe c t i ve na r r a t i on S he w a s a t a t ur ni ng p oi nt i n he r l i f e f or i n t he ve r y ye a r of he r de a t h [ M a s ha s ] m ot he r w a s i nt e ndi ng t o m ove t o P e t e r s bur g i n or de r t o t a ke [ he r da ught e r ] i nt o s oc i e t y ( 3) T hi s m ove f r om na t ur e a nd t he na t ur a l s ur r oundi ngs of P okr ovs koe t he f a m i l y s c ount r y e s t a t e i nt o t he c os m opol i t a n c i t y a nd c ul t u r e w a s f or e c l os e d by he r m ot he r s de m i s e ; i ns t e a d, M a s ha i s i s ol a t e d i n t he hous e a nd by t he w i nt e r w hi c h w a s s o c ol d a nd s o w i ndy t ha t t he s now dr i f t s c a m e hi ghe r t ha n t he w i ndow s ; t he pa ne s w e r e a l m os t a l w a ys di m m e d b y f r os t a nd [ t he y] s e l dom w a l ke d or dr ove a nyw he r e t hr oughout t he w i n t e r ( 3 ) T he f r e e z i ng, da r k w i nt e r s e r ve s a s a r e f l e c t i on of M a s ha s de pr e s s i on a nd s ol i t ude ; M a s ha he r s e l f m i r r or s t he na t ur a l s t a t e of

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29 t he s e a s on a s w e l l a s of t he hous e E dw a r d W a s i ol e k not e s i n T ol s t oy s M a j or F i c t i on t ha t T ol s t oy us e s t he na t ur a l s e a s ons a s a n a na l og ue t o t he m ove m e nt of e m ot i ons a nd t ha t t he di m m e d f r os t y w i ndow s s i m i l a r l y r e f l e c t h ow t he l i f e i ns i de ha s be e n di m m e d by de a t h a nd c l os e d t o t he out s i de w or l d D e a d na t ur e out s i de r e f l e c t s t he de a d l i f e i ns i de ( W a s i ol e k 41) T he r e m a y be f e w bounda r i e s be t w e e n i n ne r a nd out e r i n r e ga r d t o de a d na t ur e bu t t he yo ung, bl a c k c l a d M a s ha s t i l l s e r ve s a s t he m e di a t or be t w e e n t he out s i de a nd t he i ns i de a nd i s m o r e c l os e l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he w i nt e r t ha n w i t h t he hous e s oc c upa nt s or i t s oc c a s i ona l c he e r l e s s vi s i t or s H ow e ve r w i nt e r c a nnot l a s t f o r e ve r a nd ne i t he r c a n M a s ha s i s ol a t i on. I n t he m ont h of M a r c h, S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h, t he gua r di a n of P okr ovs koe a nd a f r i e nd of M a s ha s l ong de c e a s e d f a t he r a r r i ve s t o ha ndl e t he m a na ge m e nt of t he f a m i l y e s t a t e W i t h hi s a r r i va l s pr i ng be gi ns S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h s i ni t i a l c om m e nt s t o M a s ha pa r a l l e l t he s e a s ona l c ha nge : Can t h i s real l y b e y o u ? h e s ai d i n h i s p l ai n d eci s i v e w ay w al k i n g t o w ard s m e w i t h h i s ar ms ap art Is s o g reat a ch an g e p o s s i b l e? H o w g ro w n u p y o u ar e! I u s ed t o c al l y o u v i o l et b u t n o w y o u ar e a ro s e i n fu l l b l o o m! ( Fa mi l y H ap p i n es s 5 ) I n l i ke ni ng t he ne a r l y a dul t M a s ha t o t ype s of f l ow e r s ( f i r s t a vi ol e t t he n a r os e ) S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h i s pe r pe t ua t i ng a s or t of na t ur i s t l a ngua ge i n w hi c h w om e n a r e de s c r i be d not by t he i r hu m a n c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s but r a t he r a r e r e p r e s e nt e d a s obj e c t s t ha t w hi l e be a ut i f ul a nd na t ur a l l a c k a ny s or t o f di s c e r na bl e a ge nc y. T he r e s t of t hi s i ni t i a l vi s i t f o r M a s ha c ons i s t s of r e m i ni s c e s of M a s ha s f a t he r a pe r f or m a nc e of B e e t hove n s M oonl i ght S ona t a ( f or w hi c h s he r e c e i ve s m ode r a t e pr a i s e f r om S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h) a nd a di s c us s i on of w om e n a nd t he i r us e f ul ne s s U pon h e a r i ng of M a s ha s i na bi l i t y t o s t a nd s ol i t ude S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h a s s e r t s t ha t he c a n t p r a i s e a young l a dy w ho i s a l i ve onl y

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30 w he n pe opl e a r e a dm i r i ng he r but a s s oon a s s he i s l e f t a l one c ol l a ps e s a nd f i nds not hi ng t o he r t a s t e one w ho i s a l l f o r s how a nd ha s no r e s our c e s i n he r s e l f ( 7) T he i de a l w om a n i s one t ha t i s not s i m pl y a s h i ny obj e c t b ut a l s o one t ha t c a n m a ke he r s e l f us e f ul H e r a bi l i t i e s a nd us e f ul ne s s of c our s e a r e a l i gne d w i t h na t ur a l dom e s t i c m a t t e r s r a t he r t ha n t o a nyt hi ng a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c ul t ur e I nde e d i t i s c ul t u r e a t l a r ge pe opl e i n gr oups t ha t i s a na t he m a t o t he young w om a n w i t hi n t he t e xt S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h m us t of c ou r s e l e a ve P ok r ovs koe but p r om i s e s t o r e t u r n l a t e r i n t he s pr i ngt i m e T he a r r i va l of s pr i ng br i ngs no t onl y t he r e bi r t h o f t he l a nd, b ut a l s o t he r e e m e r ge nc e of M a s ha s ha ppi ne s s M y ol d de j e c t i on pa s s e d a w a y a nd ga ve pl a c e t o t he unr e s t w hi c h s pr i ng b r i ngs i n i t f ul l of d r e a m s a nd va gue hope s a nd de s i r e s ( 9) R a t he r t ha n l a ngui s hi ng, a s s he ha d done t ha t w i nt e r M a s ha be gi ns t o r e a d a nd pl a y t he pi a no, but a l s o i m m e r s e s he r s e l f i n t he na t ur a l w or l d; s he not e s t ha t s he a l s o of t e n w e nt i nt o t he ga r de n a nd w a nde r e d f or l ong a l one t hr ough t he a ve nue s or s a t on a be nc h t he r e ; a nd H e a ve n know s w ha t m y t hought s a nd w i s he s a nd hope s w e r e a t s uc h t i m e s ( 9) T he s e t hought s a nd w i s he s a r e c onne c t e d not onl y t o t he na t ur a l s e t t i ng of t he c ount r y ga r de n, but a l s o t o he r e m e r gi ng, na t ur a l l ove f o r S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h. W a s i ol e k obs e r ve s S e r ge y a nd t he f e e l i ngs he a r ous e s i n [ M a s ha ] a s w e l l a s t he a dve nt of s pr i ng, c ont r i ve t o b r i ng M a s ha ba c k t o w ha t i s c onc r e t e a nd pr e s e nt i n he r ; s he c om e s ba c k t o l i f e w he n s he t ouc he s w ha t i s r e a l a nd na t ur a l w i t h i n he r ( 44 ) T r ue t o hi s w or d, S e r ge y r e t ur ns t o P o kr ovs koe i n M a y, w he r e he m e e t s M a s ha a nd he r c om pa ni on K a t ya une xpe c t e dl y ( a l s o i n t he ga r de n) A l t hough t hi s s pr i ng vi s i t e nds on a c ol d no t e a s a r e s ul t of M a s ha s r e l uc t a nt a gr e e m e nt t ha t S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h i s a n a gi ng m a n, t he f ol l ow i ng s e a s on s um m e r br i ngs vi s i t s t w o t o t hr e e t i m e s a w e e k. I t i s dur i ng t hi s

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31 s um m e r t ha t M a s ha a nd S e r ge y s l ove be gi ns t o t a ke f or m S e r ge y M i ha i l i c h i s m os t i nt e r e s t e d i n M a s ha w he n he r a ppe a r a nc e i s s i m pl e a nd unpr e t e nt i ous ; s he i s a t f i r s t t a ke n a ba c k by hi s c om pl e t e i ndi f f e r e nc e a nd e ve n c ont e m pt f or [ he r ] pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e but s oon c om e s t o t he r e a l i z a t i on t ha t he w i s he d t o m a ke s ur e t ha t [ s he ] ha d no t a t r a c e of a f f e c t a t i on ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 14) T hi s t ot a l di s r e ga r d f o r he r a ppe a r a nc e i s a n a t t e m pt on S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h s pa r t t o r i d he r of t h e a f f e c t a t i ons of c ul t u r e a nd, i n t ur n a n a t t e m pt t o l oc a t e he r i n t he do m e s t i c a nd na t ur a l s phe r e r a t he r t ha n t ha t o f t he pub l i c s phe r e of c ul t ur e V a ni t y i s i n t he e ye s of S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h ( a nd by p r oxy, T ol s t oy) a c or r upt i ng i n f l ue nc e a nd one t o w hi c h a pu r e w om a n s houl d not f a l l pr e y T he s c e ne dur i ng w hi c h M a s ha a nd S e r ge y M i ka hi l i c h unde r s t a nd, i f not f ul l y de c l a r e t he i r l ove f o r one a not he r a l s o oc c ur s i n n a t ur e on t he ve r a nda h i n t he ga r de n a nd a l ong i t s pa t hs T he s um m e r i s e ndi ng i t i s A ugus t a nd M a s ha ha s t a ke n C om m uni on on he r bi r t hda y A f t e r di nne r t he s u n s hone i nt o t he dr a w i ng r oom a nd [ t he y] w e nt ou t on t he ve r a nda h, w he r e S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h s t r i ps t he l e a ve s of f a l i l a c br a nc h dur i ng t he i r pi vo t a l di s c us s i on ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 34) O nc e a ga i n, M a s ha i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h f l ow e r s ; a s t he l i l a c br a nc h i s s t r i p pe d a nd ba r e d, s o a r e he r f e e l i ngs f o r S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h, a nd he i s t he one w ho f or c e s h e r unve i l i ng. W a s i ol e k a ga i n not e s t ha t A ugus t i s t he m ont h i n w hi c h na t ur e c om e s t o f r u i t i on a nd, a s M a s ha s i nt e r na l l i f e ha s pr ove d t o be c l os e l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he s e a s ons a n d s t a t e s of na t ur e i t f ol l ow s t ha t he r l ove a l s o c om e s t o f ul l f r ui t i on a t t hi s t i m e ( 41) T he i r m a r r i a ge c om e s onl y t w o w e e ks a f t e r t he i r r e a l i z a t i on o f l ove I t t oo i s a n a f f a i r un s ul l i e d by t he t r a ppi ngs of s oc i e t y, a s i t w a s c onduc t e d w i t hout w e ddi ng c l ot he s w i t hout a pa r t y, w i t hout be s t m e n a nd s uppe r

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32 a nd c ha m pa gne a nd a l l t he ot he r c onve nt i ona l f e a t ur e s of a w e ddi ng ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 35) M a r r i a ge how e ve r doe s not p r ovi de t he s or t of ha ppi ne s s t ha t M a s ha ha d hope d f or S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h m ove s M a s ha f r om P okr ov s koe t o hi s ow n e s t a t e one o f t hos e ol d f a s hi one d c ount r y hous e s i n w hi c h s e ve r a l ge n e r a t i ons ha ve pa s s e d t he i r l i ve s t oge t he r unde r one r oof r e s pe c t i ng a nd l ovi ng one a not he r ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 44) S he i s a t f i r s t c ont e nt w i t h he r s i m pl e c ount r y l i f e a nd t he r out i ne na t ur e of he r da ys but e ve nt ua l l y t hi s l i f e a nd l ovi ng he r hus ba nd w i t hout a ny e l e m e nt of m a r t y r dom be gi n t o bot he r he r S he l ongs f o r a n oppor t uni t y i n w hi c h t o pr ove he r l ove w hi c h he r i dyl l i c a nd r out i ne r us t i c l i f e c a nnot of f e r I w a nt e d m ov e m e nt a nd not a c a l m c our s e of e xi s t e nc e M a s ha r e c a l l s I w a nt e d e xc i t e m e nt a nd da nge r a nd t he c ha nc e t o s a c r i f i c e m ys e l f f or m y l ove ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 48 ) M a s ha s f e e l i ng of s t a gna t i on i s onc e a ga i n t i e d t o t he c our s e of t he s e a s ons ; w i t h t he a d ve nt of w i nt e r s he a dm i t s I be ga n t o f e e l l one l y, t ha t l i f e w a s r e pe a t i ng i t s e l f t ha t t he r e w a s not hi ng ne w i n e i t he r hi m or i n m ys e l f a nd t ha t w e w e r e m e r e l y goi ng ba c k t o w h a t ha d be e n be f or e ( 48) N e a r l y a ye a r ha s pa s s e d s i nc e t he i r f i r s t m e e t i ng i n t he t e xt t he s e a s ons ha ve m a de a n a l m os t c om pl e t e c yc l e M a s ha be c om e s i nc r e a s i ngl y m or e di s i l l us i one d w i t h he r s i m pl e l i f e a nd w i t h t he r o l e of dom e s t i c he l pm a t e a nd i n f e r i or t o w hi c h s he i s r e l e ga t e d a s S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h s w i f e S e r ge y i s m uc h c ha gr i ne d a t M a s ha s di s s a t i s f a c t i on, but r a t i ona l i z e s hi s s he l t e r i ng he r i n t he c ount r y, a w a y f r om c i t y l i f e a nd c or r upt i ng i nf l ue nc e s by e xpl a i ni ng, I know t ha t e xc i t e m e nt i s a l w a ys pa i n f ul ; I ha ve l e a r nt t ha t f r om t he e xpe r i e nc e of l i f e I l ove you a nd I c a n t but w i s h t o s a ve you f r om e xc i t e m e nt ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 51) E xc i t e m e nt he r e i s a n a l ogous t o t he c i t y a nd t o t he

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33 i nf l ue nc e s of c ul t ur e ; S e r ge y w i s he s t o s hi e l d M a s ha f r om s oc i e t y i n or de r t o s a ve he r f r om t he pa i n of c or r upt i on a nd l os t i nnoc e nc e S t i l l M a s ha s di s i l l us i onm e nt a nd bor e dom c a nnot be a s s ua ge d w i t hout j ou r ne yi ng i n t o s oc i e t y, how e ve r a nd a f or t ni ght l a t e r be f o r e C hr i s t m a s [ t he y] w e r e i n P e t e r s bur g ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 53) M a s ha s i ni t i a l t r i p t o P e t e r s bur g a nd he r e nt r y i nt o s oc i e t y m a r ks t he be gi nni ng of he r de f i l e m e nt by c ul t ur e by t he r e s ul t i ng a f f e c t a t i ons of c ul t ur e a nd by m e n. T he f i r s t s i gn of he r c or r upt i on c om e s w i t h he r i ni t i a l i m pr e s s i ons of P e t e r s bur g. S he r e c a l l s I f ound m ys e l f a t onc e i n s uc h a ne w a nd de l i ght f ul w or l d, s ur r ounde d by s o m a ny pl e a s ur e s a nd c onf r ont e d by s uc h nove l i nt e r e s t s t ha t I i ns t a nt l y t hough unc ons c i ous l y, t ur ne d m y ba c k on m y pa s t l i f e a nd i t s pl a ns ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 54) I t i s he r e t ha t M a s ha be gi ns t o m a ke t he t r a ns i t i on f r om a na t ur e ba s e d l i f e ( dom e s t i c r ur a l a nd he a vi l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he s e a s ons a nd na t ur a l w or l d) t o a l i f e r oo t e d i n c ul t ur e w hi c h T ol s t oy c ons t r uc t s a s a r t i f i c i a l a nd de t r i m e nt a l pa r t i c ul a r l y t o w om e n. S he i s s how e r e d w i t h c om pl i m e nt s by s oc i e t y l a di e s ; i s i nvi t e d t o n um e r ous ba l l s ; a nd t a ke s pl e a s ur e i n be i ng a dm i r e d a nd de s i r e d by i ndi vi dua l s o t he r t ha n he r hus ba nd. W a s i ol e k w r i t e s T he c our t s hi p i n t h e c i t y i s a n a r t i f i c i a l a nd f a l s e one o f i dl e c om pl i m e nt s a nd unr e a l e m ot i ons t i r e l e s s l y r e pe a t e d i n t he s a m e w a y, a n d w i t h t hi s un r e a l i t y a nd unna t ur a l ne s s of s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i on be gi ns t he unna t ur a l s e pa r a t i on of hus ba nd a nd w i f e ( 46) M a s ha i s obl i vi o us t o bot h he r hus ba nd s bor e dom w i t h s oc i e t y l i f e a nd t he ba c kha nde d c om pl i m e nt s gi ve n t o he r ( f or e xa m pl e t he ve r di c t on he r a t one pa r t i c ul a r ba l l w a s t ha t s he w a s qui t e unl i ke t he ot he r w om e n a nd ha d a r ur a l s i m pl i c i t y a nd c ha r m o f [ he r ] ow n ) ; i nde e d, s he l a m e nt s t ha t s he w a s ut t e r l y bl i nde d by t hi s s udde n a f f e c t i on w hi c h I s e e m e d t o e voke i n a l l our ne w a c qua i nt a nc e s a nd c onf us e d by t he un f a m i l i a r

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34 a t m os phe r e of l uxur y r e f i ne m e nt a nd nove l t y ( 5 5 56) T he c ha nge s t ha t oc c ur i n M a s ha hor r i f y S e r g e y M i kha i l i c h, a s he w a t c he s h e r m ove f r om he r na t ur a l s t a t e of be i ng i nt o one t ha t a dopt s t he va i n t r a ppi ngs of P e t e r s bur g s oc i e t y a nd, a s a r e s ul t c a us e s he r t o t ur n a w a y f r om he r hus ba nd a nd a s s e r t a m odi c um of i nde pe nde nc e I n a n a r gum e nt t ha t r e s ul t s f r om M a s ha s de s i r e t o put of f t he i r de pa r t u r e t o N i kol s koe ( S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h s e s t a t e ) i n or de r t o be f or m a l l y i nt r oduc e d t o a pr i nc e a t a ba l l he t e l l s he r : It s i ck en s m e t h at t h e p ri n ce ad mi red y o u an d y o u t h er efo re ru n t o meet h i m, fo rg et t i n g y o u r h u s b an d an d y o u rs el f an d y o u r w o m an l y d i g n i t y ; an d y o u w i l l fu l l y mi s u n d ers t an d w h at y o u r w a n t o f s el f r es p ect mak es y o u r h u s b an d f eel fo r y o u (F ami l y H ap p i n es s 5 9 6 0 ) F r om t hi s pa s s a ge i t a ppe a r s t ha t a bove a l l e l s e S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h r e s e nt s M a s ha s gr ow i ng i nde pe nde nc e f r om hi m a nd he r r e a l i z a t i o n of he r s oc i a l pot e nt i a l i n t he publ i c s phe r e S he t oo s e e m s t o s e ns e t he dupl i c i t y of h e r m ot i ve s : A h, s o t hi s i s a hus ba nd s pow e r [ s he t hought ] t o i ns ul t a nd hu m i l i a t e a pe r f e c t l y i nnoc e nt w om a n S uc h m a y be a hus ba nd s r i ght s bu t I w i l l not s ub m i t t o t he m ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 60) I n r e f us i ng t o a c c e pt he r hus ba nd s f ul l d om i na t i on ove r he r M a s ha di s r upt s t he dyna m i c of t he i r m a r i t a l r e l a t i ons hi p a nd t ha t of t he na t ur a l dom i na t i o n of t he pa t r i a r c ha l m a l e f i gur e ove r t he i n f e r i or f e m a l e T he r upt u r e of M a s ha s na t ur a l r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h pa r a l l e l s t ha t of t he t e xt s na r r a t i on; t hr e e ye a r s pa s s by i n t he c our s e of a s m a ny pa ge s T he i r l i ve s be c om e s e pa r a t e ; a l i m i t t o t e nde r ne s s e m e r ge s i n S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h, a s M a s ha s a r t i f i c e a nd va ni t y pr e ve nt s hi m f r om f ul l y l ovi ng he r ( 64) T he unna t ur a l ne s s of M a s ha s be i ng be c om e s pa r t i c ul a r l y e vi de nt w he n s he gi ve s bi r t h t o t he i r f i r s t s on: A t fi rs t t h e f eel i n g o f m o t h erh o o d d i d t ak e h o l d o f m e w i t h s u ch p o w e r, an d p ro d u c e i n me s u ch a p as s i o n o f u n an t i ci p at ed j o y t h at I b el i ev ed t h i s w o u l d p ro v e t h e b eg i n n i n g o f a n e w l i fe fo r me. Bu t i n t h e co u rs e o f t w o mo n t h s w h en I b eg an t o g o o u t ag ai n my f eel i n g

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35 g re w w e ak er an d w eak e r, t i l l i t p as s ed i n t o me re h ab i t a n d t h e l i fel es s p erfo r man c e o f a d u t y (F ami l y H ap p i n es s 6 5 ) M a s ha s bor e dom w i t h m ot he r hood a nd m ot he r i ng i s w ha t f ul l y s e pa r a t e s he r f r om he r na t ur a l r ol e a s m o t he r hom e m a ke r a nd dom e s t i c he l pm a t e T he pr i va t e s phe r e l os e s i t s m e a ni ng i n he r l i f e a nd i s r e pl a c e d w i t h i dl e a nd d a m a gi ng e nt e r t a i nm e nt a nd s oc i a l e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he publ i c s phe r e M a s ha s t r a ns gr e s s i ve a c t i ons c a nnot c ont i nue i nde f i ni t e l y i n t he t e xt : e i t he r s he m us t r e pe nt of he r s i ns a ga i ns t na t ur e or s uf f e r t he c ons e que nc e s T he pi vot a l m om e nt oc c ur s dur i ng t he s um m e r of M a s ha s t w e nt y f i r s t ye a r i n t he G e r m a n r e s or t t ow n of B a de n. S he s pe nds t hi s s um m e r a w a y f r om he r hu s ba nd, i n t he c om pa ny of m e n t o w hom s he i s not r e l a t e d. O ne of t he s e m e n, a n I t a l i a n m a r qui s w ho r e m a i ns na m e l e s s c a pt ur e s he r a t t e nt i on a s a r e s ul t of hi s bol dne s s a nd hi s r e s e m bl a nc e t o S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h. S he r e c a l l s H e s t r uc k m e by t hi s l i ke ne s s t hough i n ge ne r a l i n hi s l i ps e ye s a nd l ong c hi n t he r e w a s s om e t hi ng c oa r s e a nd a ni m a l w hi c h c ont r a s t e d w i t h m y hus ba nd s c ha r m i ng e xpr e s s i on of ki ndne s s a nd no bl e s e r e ni t y ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 66) I nt e r e s t i ngl y w hi l e t he c om pa r i s on s e e m s i nt e nde d t o c ont r a s t t he i r r e s pe c t i ve na t ur e s t he I t a l i a n m a r qu i s i s de not e d by na t ur a l a ni m a l i s t i c qua l i t i e s w he r e a s S e r ge y M i ki ha i l i c h i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t a r e c om m onl y a l i gne d w i t h c ul t ur e d a nd c i vi l i z e d i ndi vi dua l s ( c hi e f l y m e n) O n one a f t e r noon, M a s ha a nd a not he r R us s i a n l a dy, M m e M t a ke a dr i ve t o t he r ui ns of a c a s t l e on t he out s ki r t s o f B a de n, w he r e t he y ha ppe n t o ove r he a r a c onve r s a t i on be t w e e n t he I t a l i a n m a r qui s a nd a F r e nc h a c qua i nt a nc e T he da y i t s e l f i s pl e a s a nt but t he c ol dne s s of t he c a s t l e i t s r e pr e s e nt a t i on of r ui ne d c i v i l i z a t i on, a nd t he s e t t i ng s un a l l f or e s ha dow t he e nd of M a s ha s va i n a nd unna t ur a l m ode of l i vi ng. W he n s he e nc ount e r s t he m a r qui s w hom s he ove r he a r d

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36 c oa r s e l y di s c us s i ng hi s i nt e nt i ons t ow a r d he r M a s ha t r i e s t o a voi d hi m ; he r t hough t s be gi n t o gr a vi t a t e t ow a r d w om e n s dom a i n, [ he r ] hus ba nd, [ he r ] c hi l d, [ he r ] c ount r y ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 68) H ow e ve r t he m a r qu i s c a t c he s up t o he r a nd upon t he t ouc h of hi s ha nd, s he r e c ogni z e s hi s pa s s i on f or he r a nd f i n ds he r s e l f t e m pt e d t o t h r ow [ he r s e l f ] he a dl o ng i nt o t he a bys s of f or bi dde n de l i ght s t ha t ha d s udde nl y ope ne d up be f or e [ he r ] ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 69) Y e t a t t he m om e nt a t w hi c h t he I t a l i a n pr oc l a i m s hi s l ove i n a voi c e r e m i ni s c e nt of S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h s a n e pi ph a ny of s or t s t a ke s pl a c e A t o nc e s he r e m i ni s c e s I t hought o f m y hus ba nd a nd c hi l d, a s c r e a t ur e s onc e p r e c i ous t o m e w ho ha d now pa s s e d a l t oge t he r out of m y l i f e ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 69 70) R e c ogni z i ng t he l e ve l of va ni t y a nd a r t i f i c e t o w hi c h s he ha s f a l l e n, M a s ha f i nds t ha t he r onl y r e c our s e a nd r ou t e t o ha ppi ne s s i s t o l e a ve B a de n ( a nd P e t e r s bur g ) be hi nd, t o r e t ur n t o N i kol s koe w i t h he r hus ba nd, a nd t o a s s um e t he r ol e of dut i f ul w i f e a nd m ot he r onc e m or e F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s e nds a t P okr ovs koe on a s pr i n g ni ght M a s ha gi ve s bi r t h t o a not he r c hi l d, a nd s he a nd S e r ge y M i kha i l i c h i nha bi t M a s ha s gi r l hood hom e a s N i kol s koe t he i r m a r i t a l hom e unde r goe s r e pa i r s A s a t t he be gi nni ng o f t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p, M a s ha r e ga i ns he r i nt e r e s t i n pl a yi ng t he pi a no ( a n i nt e r e s t t ha t s he f a i l e d t o pur s ue w hi l e i n P e t e r s bur g, a m ong s oc i e t y) a nd a g a i n pl a ys B e e t hove n s M oonl i ght S ona t a f or he r hus ba nd. L i ke t he y di d i n ye a r s pa s t t he c oupl e goe s out t o s i t on t he ve r a nda but t hi s t i m e r a t he r t ha n e xpe r i e nc i ng t he r a ys of t he s un, i t be g i ns t o r a i n W a s i ol e k not e s t ha t t hi s ge nt l e r a i n [ ] pur i f i e s t he e a r t h a bout M a s ha a nd i nde e d t he r a i n a ppe a r s t o c l e a ns e he r ( 47) :

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37 I res t ed o n e h an d u p o n t h e w et s l i p p ery r ai l an d p u t my h ead o u t T h e fr es h rai n w et t ed my h ai r an d n eck i n p l ac es T h e cl o u d g ro w i n g l i g h t er an d t h i n n er, w as p as s i n g o v e rh ead ; t h e s t ead y p at t er o f t h e rai n g av e p l ace t o o cc as i o n al d ro p s t h at f el l fro m t h e s k y o r d ri p p ed fro m t h e t re es [. ] T h e w h o l e p ro s p ect b efo r e u s g re w cl ear. (F ami l y H ap p i n es s 7 6 ) H e r e M a s ha i s r e t ur ne d t o he r i ni t i a l a s s oc i a t i ons w i t h t he na t ur a l w or l d; t he b r i e f r a i n s how e r i t s c l e a ns i ng e f f e c t a nd t he c l e a r i ng of t he s ky a r e a l l i ndi c a t i ve of he r r e t ur n t o he r e qua l l y na t ur a l r ol e or r a t he r na t ur a l i n T ol s t oy s f i c t i v e w o r l d a s a good m ot he r a nd w i f e H e r r e c onc i l i a t i on w i t h he r hus b a nd i s i m m i ne nt ; a nd a s t he y r e ki ndl e t he i r m a r i t a l bond, t he f r a gr a nt f r e s hne s s of t he ni ght r os e e ve r s t r onge r a nd s w e e t e r f r om t he ga r de n; t he s ounds a nd t he s i l e nc e gr e w m or e s ol e m n; s t a r a f t e r s t a r be ga n t o t w i nkl e ove r he a d ( F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s 80) W i t h t hi s M a s ha s r e a t t a c hm e nt t o na t u r e i s c om pl e t e ; t he na t ur a l w or l d a ppe a r s t o be f ul l y i n s ync h w i t h he r i nt e r na l w o r l d. T he f i c t i ve w or l d i n w hi c h M a s ha e xi s t s i s one t ha t T ol s t oy c ons t r uc t s a c c or di ng t o t he bi na r i e s a s s oc i a t i ng w om e n w i t h na t ur e a nd m e n w i t h c ul t ur e T he onl y w a y i n w hi c h s he c a n e xi s t i n a s t a t e o f ba l a nc e a nd e qui l i br i um i s t o l i ve w i t hout va ni t y w i t hout pr e t e ns i on, e nt i r e l y out s i de of t he publ i c s phe r e a n d w i t hout i nde pe nde nc e H e r ha ppi ne s s c a n onl y be a c hi e ve d by t he s ubor di na t i on of he r ne e ds t o t hos e of he r hus ba nd a nd of t he do m e s t i c s phe r e a r e a l m t ha t i s gove r ne d by t ha t w hi c h i s s ym bol i c a l l y f e m i ni ne a nd by f e m i ni ne p r oc e s s e s s uc h a s hom e m a ki ng a nd c hi l d r e a r i ng. F a m i l y ha ppi ne s s f or T ol s t oy s f e m a l e pr ot a goni s t s houl d be he r onl y goa l A nyt hi ng e l s e w oul d pr ove s i m pl y una c c e pt a bl e

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38 3 Conf l i c t e d M ot he r hoo d: F l a u be r t s M a da m e Bo va r y T o l s t oys A nna K a r e ni na a nd O b j e c t Re l a t i ons T h e ory I n t hi s f i na l c ha pt e r I w i l l e xa m i ne t w o nove l s G us t a ve F l a ube r t s M a da m e B ova r y ( 1857) a nd L e o T ol s t oy s A nna K a r e ni na ( 1877) t h r ough a ps yc hoa na l yt i c l e ns I n pa r t i c ul a r I w i l l us e N a nc y C hodor ow s 1978 b ook T he R e pr oduc t i on of M ot he r i ng, i n w hi c h s he s e t s f or t h a f e m i ni s t ps yc hoa na l yt i c vi e w of f a m i l y s t r uc t ur e a nd t he pr oc e s s e s t hr ough w hi c h w om e n a r e c onf i gur e d f or m ot he r hood. W hi l e bo t h M a da m e B ova r y a nd A nna K a r e ni na a r e of t e n c ons i de r e d t o be nove l s i n w hi c h t he e ponym ous c ha r a c t e r s a r e pr i m a r i l y a dul t e r e s s e s c hi l dr e n, c hi l dbe a r i ng, a nd m ot he r i ng f a c t or he a vi l y i nt o t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he s e w om e n a s w e l l a s t he i r r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h m e n ( bot h l e ga l l y s a nc t i one d a nd i l l i c i t ) I n he r e s s a y, T he A dul t e r e s s s C hi l dr e n, N a om i S e ga l poi nt s out t ha t W om e n i n t he nove l o f a dul t e r y a r e doubl y m ot he r s f i r s t be c a us e t he y f unc t i on i n t he pha nt a s y t r i a ngl e t ha t br i ngs t he a d ul t e r y s t or y ou t of t he oe di pa l m ot i ve a nd s e c ondl y [ ] be c a us e t he y a c t ua l l y ha ve c hi l d r e n i n t he t e xt s t h r o ugh w hom t he y s uf f e r a nd s i n ( 109) F or A nna K a r e ni na a nd E m m a B ova r y, bot h of w hom gi ve bi r t h ove r t he c our s e of t he i r i ndi vi dua l na r r a t i ve s c hi l d be a r i ng a nd m o t he r hood/ m ot he r i ng a r e s our c e s of s uf f e r i ng a nd c onf l i c t e s pe c i a l l y i n r e ga r d t o t he i r f e m a l e c hi l dr e n I n t he c a s e of E m m a B ova r y m ot he r hood ( a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y t he m ot he r i ng of a m a l e c hi l d) i s r om a nt i c i z e d a s t he a pot he os i s of he r l i f e i m a gi ne d t o be t he s i ngul a r e ve nt t ha t w i l l l e a d t o he r s e l f a c t ua l i z a t i on a s a w om a n a nd a hum a n be i ng. T he a c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e how e ve r

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39 pr ove s di s a ppoi nt i ng a nd di s i l l us i oni ng, a nd s he ne gl e c t s he r young da ught e r ; or a l t e r na t e l y, s he pe r f o r m s m ot he r hood onl y f or ve r y br i e f pe r i ods f o r e nt i r e l y s e l f s e r vi ng m ot i ve s O n t he ot he r ha nd, A nna K a r e ni na doe s not f i nd he r s e l f i ni t i a l l y di s he a r t e ne d by m ot he r hood, but a s t i m e w e a r s on, s he i s c a ught i n a r e l a t i ona l t r i a ngl e be t w e e n he r l e gi t i m a t e s on ( f a t he r e d by he r de s pi s e d hus ba nd) a nd he r i l l e gi t i m a t e l ove r A nna s r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h he r c hi l d r e n a l s o di f f e r : w hi l e s h e f e e l s a pr onounc e d a t t a c hm e nt t o he r s on, s he s t r uggl e s t o f e e l a m a t e r na l c onne c t i on t o he r da ught e r f a t he r e d by he r l ove r V r ons ky. I n m y a na l ys i s of t hi s c ha pt e r s p r i m a r y t e xt s I w i l l r e l y p r i m a r i l y on N a nc y C hodor ow a nd a f o r m o f ps yc hoa na l ys i s know n a s obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or y O bj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or i s t s us e F r e udi a n ps yc hoa na l ys i s a s a ba s i s f or e xpl or i ng pe r s ona l i t y f or m a t i on. I n T he R e pr oduc t i on o f M ot he r i ng C h odor ow e xpl a i ns t ha t w hi l e obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or y s ha r e s t he e m pha s i s on s e xua l i t y a nd t he be l i e f t ha t s e xua l i t y i s o r ga ni z e d dur i ng a n i nd i vi dua l s e a r l y f o r m a t i ve ye a r s obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or i s t s a r gue t ha t t he c hi l d s s oc i a l r e l a t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e f r om e a r l i e s t i n f a nc y i s de t e r m i ni ng f or ps yc hol ogi c a l gr ow t h a nd pe r s ona l i t y f or m a t i on ( 47) S i m i l a r l y obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or i s t s a r gue t ha t t he i nna t e dr i ve s a nd e r ot o ge ni c z one s us ua l l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h bi ol ogi c a l pr oc e s s e s i n ps yc hoa na l ys i s ( or a l a na l pha l l i c ge ni t a l ) a r e r a t h e r t he pr oduc t of s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i ons c onc e r ni ng t he s e z one s a nd a r e m a ni pul a t e [ d] a n d t r a ns f or m [ e d ] [ ] i n t he c ou r s e of a t t a i ni ng a nd r e t a i ni ng r e l a t i ons hi ps ( C hodor ow 4 8) I n t hi s pe r s pe c t i ve ongoi ng i nt e r pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons hi ps r e m a i n t he pr i m a r y f o r c e be hi nd pe r s ona l i t y de ve l opm e nt w i t h t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pa r e nt a nd c hi l d be i n g f or e m os t E l e m e nt s of t he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps a r e a ppr opr i a t e d a nd i nt e r na l i z e d; i n t ur n, w ha t i s i nt e r na l i z e d f r om a n

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40 ongoi ng r e l a t i ons hi p be c om e s unc ons c i ous a nd pe r s i s t s m or e or l e s s i nde pe nde nt of t ha t or i gi na l r e l a t i ons hi p. I t m a y be ge ne r a l i z e d a s a f e e l i ng of s e l f i n r e l a t i ons hi p a nd s e t up a s a pe r m a ne nt f e a t ur e o f [ ] t he e xpe r i e nc e of s e l f ( C hodor ow 50) S uc h i nt e r na l i z a t i ons a r e us ua l l y t i e d t o t he phys i c a l o r p s yc hol ogi c a l pa r t s t ha t a n i ndi vi dua l a l i gns he r or hi m s e l f w i t h a nd t he s e i nt e r na l i z a t i o ns c ont i nua l l y bui l d upon one a not he r a s r e l a t i ons hi ps de ve l op a nd gr ow A s a r e s ul t a pe r s on l i ve s i n a m ul t i pl e obj e c t w o r l d i n t he i nt e r na l l a r ge l y unc ons c i ous obj e c t w or l d of t he i r ps yc he w hi c h ha s ha d i t s f ounda t i ons i n t he pa s t i n c hi l dhood, a nd i n t he e x t e r na l l a r ge l y c ons c i ous w or l d of da i l y l i f e ( C hodor ow 51 ) W hi l e m a ny s i m i l a r i t i e s e xi s t be t w e e n t r a di t i ona l F r e udi a n ps yc hoa na l yt i c t he or y a nd obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he o r y, a n i m por t a nt d i f f e r e n c e t o c ons i de r i s t he pe r c e i ve d r e l e va nc e of e a c h t he or y a c c or di ng t o i t s pr opone nt s C hodor ow not e s ge ne r a l l y t ha t ps yc hoa na l ys t s of t e n c l a i m uni ve r s a l i t y f or t he c ont e nt t he y ha ve f ound, w he n t hi s i s i n f a c t de ve l ope d i n t he ps yc hoa na l ys i s of pa t i e nt p opul a t i ons dr a w n a l m os t e nt i r e l y f r o m pe opl e l i vi ng i n W e s t e r n i ndus t r i a l c a pi t a l i s t s oc i e t i e s ( 53) O bj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or y, or a t l e a s t t he f or m ul a t i on of t he t he or y t ha t C hodor ow pr e s e nt s i n he r w or k, s e e ks i ns t e a d t o a c know l e dge t he s pe c i f i c i t y of ps yc hoa na l ys i s ; he r ow n a na l ys e s a r e ba s e d on t he s a m e popul a t i ons t ha t l i ve i n W e s t e r n i ndus t r i a l c a pi t a l i s t e c onom i e s but s he doe s not pr e s e nt t he m a s uni ve r s a l s a c r os s a l l l oc a t i ons a nd c ul t ur e s I f pe r s ona l i t y f or m a t i on ha s i t s r oot s i n ongoi ng r e l a t i on s hi ps i t f ol l ow s t ha t t he f i r s t m os t ongoi ng a nd m os t i nf l ue nt i a l r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t i ndi vi dua l s ha ve i s t ha t w i t h t he i r m ot he r C hodor ow f oc us e s not onl y on how t he c hi l d m ot he r r e l a t i ons hi p c ont r i but e s t o pe r s ona l i t y f or m a t i on i n bot h f e m a l e a nd m a l e c hi l d r e n, bu t a l s o on t he r oot s of m o t he r i ng. T he obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or y of m ot he r hood put f or t h by C hodor ow

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41 di f f e r s gr e a t l y f r om t he a c c ount s of ps yc hoa na l ys t s s uc h a s A l i c e a nd M i c ha e l B a l i nt w ho t he or i z e a n i ns t i nc t ua l m ot he r i nf a nt r e l a t i o ns hi p t ha t l e a ds t o m ut ua l l i bi di na l s a t i s f a c t i on, or J udi t h K e s t e nbe r g, w ho a r gue s t ha t m a t e r na l f e e l i ngs a r e t he pr oduc t of undi s c ha r ge d e a r l y va gi na l s e ns a t i ons ( C hodor ow 22) C hodor ow f i r s t l y i ns i s t s t ha t w om e n s m ot he r i ng doe s not e xi s t i n i s ol a t i on I t i s a f unda m e nt a l c ons t i t ut i ng f e a t ur e of t he s e xua l di vi s i on o f l a bo r ( 32 ) I n ot he r w or ds i t c a nnot be c ons i de r e d a s s om e t hi ng t ha t oc c ur s na t ur a l l y i n w om e n a nd t h a t e xi s t s i n a s oc i a l or r e l a t i ona l va c uum S e c ondl y s he w r i t e s w om e n s m ot he r i ng i s not a n unc ha ngi ng c ul t ur a l uni ve r s a l ( 32) M ot he r i ng pr a c t i c e s f a m i l y s t r uc t ur e a nd or ga ni z a t i on a nd t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n m ot he r i ng a nd ot he r s or t s of w or k f or w o m e n a r e a l l s ubj e c t t o va r i a t i on i n di f f e r e nt c ul t u r e s a nd t i m e pe r i ods H ow e ve r a s C ho dor ow not e s t he de ve l opm e nt of i ndus t r i a l c a pi t a l i s m i n t he W e s t e nt a i l e d t ha t w om e n s r ol e i n t he f a m i l y be c om e i nc r e a s i ngl y c onc e r ne d w i t h pe r s ona l r e l a t i ons a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a bi l i t y ( 32) T he bur ge oni ng i ndus t r i a l ( or i ndus t r i a l i z i ng) c a pi t a l i s t e c onom i e s i n w hi c h bot h E m m a B ova r y a nd A nna K a r e ni na e xi s t di c t a t e w ha t c ons t i t ut e s good m ot he r i ng r a t he r t ha n t he ot he r w a y a r ound A s a r e s ul t i t i s e vi de nt t ha t t h e m ot he r i ng t ha t w om e n do i s not s om e t hi ng t ha t c a n be t a ught s i m pl y by gi vi ng a gi r l dol l s o r by t e l l i ng he r t ha t s he ought t o m ot he r r a t he r t he r e pr oduc t i on of m ot he r i ng m us t r e l y on t he f e m a l e c hi l d s obj e c t r e l a t i ona l s t a nc e w i t h t he m ot he r a s s he pr og r e s s e s f r om t he p r e oe di pa l s t a ge t h r ough oe di pa l r e s ol ut i on, a dol e s c e nc e a nd a d ul t hood ( 33 ) I nde e d, C hodor ow l a t e r w r i t e s t he e a r l y [ m ot he r c hi l d] r e l a t i ons hi p ge ne r a t e s a ba s i c r e l a t i ona l s t a nc e a nd c r e a t e s pot e nt i a l pa r e nt i ng c a pa c i t i e s i n e ve r yone w ho ha s be e n m ot he r e d, a nd a de s i r e t o r e c r e a t e s uc h a

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42 r e l a t i ons hi p a s w e l l ( 90 ) ( I w i l l di s c us s t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t he l a c k o f a m ot he r / m ot he r i ng i n t he c a s e of E m m a B ova r y l a t e r i n t h i s c ha pt e r ) T he e l a bor a t i on o f t he r e l a t i ona l s t a nc e be t w e e n m ot he r a nd c hi l d a s w e l l a s t he di r e c t i on i n w hi c h t he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps de ve l op, t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he m ot he r da ught e r a nd m ot he r s on r e l a t i ona l s t a nc e s a nd t h e r e c i pr oc a l na t ur e of t he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps a r e c r uc i a l t o C hodor ow s a r t i c ul a t i on of obj e c t r e l a t i ons t he or y T he m ot he r i s t he p r i m a r y obj e c t i n a n i nf a nt s l i f e : I n a s oc i e t y w he r e m ot he r s pr ovi de ne a r l y e xc l us i ve c a r e a nd c e r t a i nl y t he m os t m e a ni ngf ul r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he i nf a nt t he i nf a nt de ve l ops i t s s e ns e of s e l f m a i nl y i n r e l a t i on t o he r ( C hodor ow 78) T hi s r e l a t i ona l a t t a c hm e nt l e a ds t o a s e ns e of i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h t he m ot he r i n a n i n f a nt ; t he m ot he r f ul f i l l s t he ne e ds of nour i s hm e nt a nd a f f e c t i on w h i c h t he c hi l d r e c ogni z e s B ot h m a l e a nd f e m a l e c hi l dr e n e xpe r i e nc e t hi s i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd bot h s e xe s a r e a f f e c t e d by t hi s pr i m a r y r e l a t i ons hi p: In l at er l i f e, a p ers o n s e arl y r el at i o n t o h er o r h i s mo t h er l ead s t o a p reo ccu p at i o n w i t h i s s u es o f p ri ma ry i n t i macy an d me r g i n g O n o n e p s y ch o l o g i cal l ev el al l p eo p l e w h o h av e ex p eri en c ed p ri mary l o v e an d p ri mary i d en t i fi cat i o n h av e s o me as p ect o f s el f t h at w a n t s t o recr eat e t h es e ex p eri en ces an d m o s t p eo p l e t ry t o d o s o (Ch o d o ro w 7 9 e mp h as i s mi n e ) A s a r e s ul t of t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s of pr i m a r y l ove a n d i de nt i f i c a t i on, a m a j o r i t y o f pe opl e w om e n a s w e l l a s m e n s e e k t o r e pr oduc e t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s H ow e ve r be c a us e t he pr i m a r y r e l a t i ons hi p i s a l w a ys w i t h t he m ot he r a t l e a s t i n i ndus t r i a l W e s t e r n c a pi t a l i s t s oc i e t i e s f a t he r l ove i s di f f e r e nt : T he c hi l d kno w s i t s f a t he r f r om t he be gi nni ng a s a s e pa r a t e be i ng, unl e s s t he f a t he r pr ovi de s t he s a m e ki nd of pr i m a r y c a r e a nd r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he m ot he r ( C hodor ow 79 80) A s a r e s ul t o f t he de t a c he d f a t he r f i gu r e c hi l dr e n t e nd t o i de a l i z e t he r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h hi m s i nc e he i s i n C hodor ow s vi e w l e s s t i e d t o r e a l obj e c t r e l a t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s f or t he c hi l d ( 80 ) T hi s phe nom e non w he n l i nke d t o

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43 t he r ol e s s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d f o r w om e n a nd m e n ( e g. t he m ot he r a s pr i va t e dom e s t i c bi ol ogi c a l ; t he f a t he r a s publ i c a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i ve o f c ul t ur e a nd s oc i e t y) l e a ds t o t he c r e a t i on of ge ne r a l i z e d a t t i t ude s t ow a r d m o t he r s a nd f a t he r s a nd t ow a r ds w om e n a nd m e n a s a r ul e C hodor ow c onc l ude s gi r l s a nd bo ys e xpe c t a nd a s s um e w om e n s uni que c a pa c i t i e s f or s a c r i f i c e c a r i ng a nd m ot he r i ng a nd a s s oc i a t e w om e n w i t h t he i r ow n f e a r s of r e gr e s s i on a nd pow e r l e s s ne s s T he y f a nt a s i z e m or e a bout m e n a nd a s s oc i a t e t he m w i t h i de a l i z e d vi r t ue a nd gr ow t h ( 83) C hodor ow s e xpl a na t i on f or m ot he r hood/ m o t he r i n g i s i nf or m e d by bo t h br oa d s oc i o c ul t ur a l e xpe r i e nc e a nd i nt i m a t e ps yc hol ogi c a l e xpe r i e nc e S he not e s t ha t w hi l e t he m ot he r c hi l d r e l a t i ons hi p f or t he m ot he r ha s a qual i t y of e xc l us i vi t y a nd m ut ua l i t y, i n t ha t i t doe s not i nc l ude ot he r pe opl e a nd be c a us e i t i s di f f e r e nt f r o m r e l a t i ons hi ps t o a dul t s he r m ot he r i ng i s i nf o r m e d by he r r e l a t i on s hi p t o he r hus ba nd, he r e x pe r i e nc e of f i na nc i a l de pe nde nc e he r e xpe c t a t i ons of m a r i t a l i ne qua l i t y, a nd he r e xpe c t a t i ons a bout ge nde r r ol e s ( 86, e m pha s i s m i ne ) T hi s s oc i a l e x pe r i e nc e a l s o w or ks i n t a nde m w i t h t he e xpe r i e nc e of he r ow n m ot he r how e ve r a s bot h t he f or m [ ] a nd t he c ont e nt of a m ot he r s m ut ua l r e l a t i on w i t h he r i nf a nt g r ow out of he r e a r l y e xpe r i e nc e ( C hodor ow 89) W om e n s e a r l y e xpe r i e nc e a nd i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h t he i r m ot he r s a nd e s pe c i a l l y t he i r e xpe r i e nc i ng of t he m s e l ve s a s l e s s s e pa r a t e t ha n boys a s ha vi n g m or e pe r m e a bl e e go bounda r i e s c r e a t e s a m or e obj e c t r e l a t i ona l ps yc hol ogi c a l s t r uc t ur e a nd e nt r e nc he s i t s e l f w he n t he w om a n be gi ns t o m ot he r he r ow n c hi l d ( C hodor ow 93) T he w a ys i n w hi c h w om e n r e l a t e t o t he i r c hi l d r e n i s a l s o de pe nde nt on t he s e x of t he c hi l d a de t e r m i ni ng f a c t or i n r e pr oduc i ng ( f e m a l e ) m ot he r f i gur e s ; a c c or di ng t o C hodor ow m ot he r s t e nd t o e xpe r i e nc e t he i r da ught e r s a s m or e l i ke a nd c ont i n uous w i t h, t he m s e l ve s [ ] B y

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44 c ont r a s t m ot he r s e xpe r i e nc e t he i r s ons a s a m a l e o ppos i t e ( 16 6) B y p r oxy, t he di f f e r e nt m ot he r i ng t ha t f e m a l e a nd m a l e c hi l dr e n e xpe r i e nc e s e r ve s t o pl a c e di f f e r e nt va l ue s on m a s c ul i ni t y a nd f e m i ni ni t y M a s c ul i ni t y i s vi e w e d a s s om e t hi ng s e pa r a t e f r om a nd i nde pe nde nt of t he m ot he r a nd, i n t he i r una t t a i na bi l i t y, m a s c ul i ni t y a nd t he m a s c ul i ne r ol e a r e f a nt a s i z e d a nd i de a l i z e d by boys ( a nd of t e n by gi r l s ) w he r e a s f e m i ni ni t y a nd t he f e m i ni ne r ol e r e m a i n f or a gi r l a l l t oo r e a l a nd c on c r e t e ( C hodor ow 177) I n c onc l us i on, C hodor ow s um s up t he r e a s ons a nd m ot i ve s be hi nd m ot he r i ng: W o men d ev el o p c ap aci t i es fo r mo t h eri n g fro m t h ei r o b j ect rel at i o n al s t an ce. T h i s s t an ce g ro w s o u t o f t h e s p e ci al n at u r e an d l en g t h o f t h ei r p reo ed i p al rel at i o n s h i p t o t h e mo t h er; t h e n o n ab s o l u t e r ep res s i o n o f o ed i p al rel at i o n s h i p s ; an d t h ei r g en e ral o n g o i n g mo t h e r d au g h t er p reo ccu p at i o n as t h ey a re g ro w i n g u p It al s o d ev el o p s b ecau s e t h ey h av e n o t y et fo r med t h e s a me d efen s es ag ai n s t rel at i o n s h i p s as m en (2 0 4 ) W om e n s m ot he r i ng, a nd i t s r e pr oduc t i on, i s a l s o t he ba s i s f or t he r e pr oduc t i on of w om e n s l oc a t i on a nd r e s pons i bi l i t i e s i n t he dom e s t i c s phe r e ( 208) W hi l e m ot he r hood m a y be a c om bi na t i on of s oc i o c ul t u r a l a nd ps yc ho l ogi c a l f a c t or s a s m e nt i one d e a r l i e r i t s pur pos e a s w e c ur r e nt l y know i t i s pr i m a r i l y t o r e pr oduc e t he s t a t us quo: t he nuc l e a r f a m i l y, t he c a pi t a l i s t e c onom y, a nd pa t r i a r c ha l s oc i e t y. E m m a B ova r y a nd A nna K a r e ni na e a c h a t t e m pt t o e s c a pe t he c ons t r a i nt s of t he pa t r i a r c ha l s oc i e t i e s i n w hi c h t he y e xi s t W hi l e t he y bot h a r e ( bi ol ogi c a l ) m ot he r s t o c hi l dr e n, t he y e xpe r i e nc e i nt e r na l c on f l i c t i n r e ga r d t o t he pr oc e s s of m ot he r i ng a nd a ppe a r t o ha ve ha d l i t t l e gui da nc e f r om or i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h a m ot he r f i gur e t ha t m i ght ha ve a i de d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e o f r e p r oduc t i on. N e i t h e r A nna nor E m m a i s a bl e t o i de nt i f y w i t h t he i r f e m a l e c hi l dr e n t o A nna s di s m a y a nd E m m a s i ndi f f e r e nc e B ot h a r e w om e n f or w hom C hodor ow s de s c r i pt i on o f t he r e pr oduc t i on of m ot he r i ng ha s t o s om e e xt e nt f a l t e r e d or f a i l e d.

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45 F l au b e r t s M ad a m e B ovar y an d I n d i f f e r e n t M o t h e r h ood I n G us t a ve F l a ube r t s nove l M a da m e B ova r y ( 185 7) t he t i t ul a r c ha r a c t e r t he da ught e r of a w e l l t o do, l a nd ow ni ng f a t he r m a r r i e s a pr ovi nc i a l doc t or onl y t o f i nd t ha t t he r e l a t i ons hi p doe s not l i ve up t o he r r om a nt i c i l l us i ons S he a t t e m pt s t o f i nd f ul f i l l m e nt i n r e l i gi os i t y, i n i l l i c i t a f f a i r s i n books a nd i n e xpe ns i ve c ons um e r goods but a l l t o no a va i l S he br i e f l y a t t e m pt s t o f i nd s a t i s f a c t i on i n m o t he r hood a nd m ot he r i ng but t hi s e xpe r i e nc e pr ove s j us t a s unf ul f i l l i ng a nd di s i l l us i oni ng t o E m m a B ova r y a s a l l of he r ot he r a t t e m pt s a t s e l f a c t ua l i z a t i on a nd f ul f i l l m e nt I n t hi s s e c t i on, I w i l l a t t e m pt t o gi ve a ps yc hoa na l yt i c e xpl a na t i on a s t o w hy E m m a s e e m s una bl e t o m ot he r a s w e l l a s t he s i gni f i c a nc e of he r i na bi l i t y t o m ot he r he r young d a ught e r B e r t he A s t a r t i ng poi nt f or t he a na l ys i s of E m m a s f a i l ur e t o m ot he r a nd he r i ndi f f e r e nc e t o m ot he r i ng c a n be f ound a t t he be gi nni ng o f M a d a m e B ova r y w he r e F l a ube r t s na r r a t or pr ovi de s us w i t h a b r i e f h i s t or y of E m m a R oua ul t s l i f e pr i o r t o he r m a r r i a ge t o C ha r l e s B ova r y. T he r e a de r c a n a s s um e t ha t E m m a i s bor n i nt o a nuc l e a r f a m i l y t ha t r e f l e c t s t he s l ow l y i ndus t r i a l i z i ng e c onom y of F r a nc e a t t he t i m e but t he t e xt a nd na r r a t o r do not pr ovi de a ny i n f or m a t i on i n r e ga r d t o E m m a s e a r l y ye a r s I nde e d, he r c hi l d hood i s a c om pl e t e a bs e nc e ; t he r e a de r l e a r ns a bs ol ut e l y not hi ng of he r pe r s ona l i t y o r he r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h e i t he r he r m ot he r o r f a t he r E m m a s l i f e i n t he t e xt doe s not be gi n unt i l t he a ge of t hi r t e e n, t he a ge a t w hi c h he r f a t he r s e nds he r of f t o a c onv e nt s c hool P e r ha ps t he nuns a c t a s s ur r oga t e m ot he r s f e e di ng a nd c l ot hi ng he r a nd s c hool i ng he r i n l i t e r a t ur e r e l i gi on a nd m us i c but t he r e i s no e vi de nc e of a ny s or t of m a t e r na l r e l a t i ons hi p. T he c l os e s t pe r s on E m m a ha d t o a m a t e r na l f i gur e i n t he c onve nt s c hool

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46 a ppe a r s t o be t he ol d s pi ns t e r w ho c a m e t o t he c o nve nt f or a w e e k e a c h m ont h t o m e nd t he l i ne n ; i n a ddi t i on t o he r w o r k, s he t ol d s t or i e s r e por t e d t he l a t e s t ne w s r a n e r r a nds i n t ow n [ ] a nd s e c r e t l y l e t t he ol de r one s r e a d r om a nc e nove l s t ha t s he a l w a ys ke pt w i t h he r ( M a da m e B ova r y 30) T he r e l a t i ons hi p b e t w e e n E m m a a nd t he s pi ns t e r r e a ds a s m or e ge ne r a l t ha n pe r s ona l ; i n a s e ns e t he s pi ns t e r i s of s uc h l i t t l e i m po r t a nc e ( t o t he na r r a t or a t l e a s t ) t ha t s he i s not e ve n na m e d. T he r e i s a l s o l i t t l e t o no m e nt i on of t he r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t E m m a ha d w i t h he r ow n m ot he r e i t he r be f or e or du r i ng he r s t i nt i n t he c onve nt s c hool I n f a c t t he onl y m e nt i on of E m m a s m ot he r i s t he f a c t o f he r de a t h ( f r om uns pe c i f i e d c a us e s ) a nd E m m a s r e a c t i on t o i t : W h en h er mo t h e r d i ed s h e w ep t p ro fu s el y fo r s ev eral d ay s Sh e h ad a fu n eral p i ct u re mad e w i t h t h e d e ad w o man s h ai r an d s en t h er fat h er a l et t er, fi l l ed w i t h g l o o my refl ect i o n s o n l i fe, i n w h i ch s h e as k e d t o b e b u ri ed i n t h e s ame t o mb w h en s h e d i ed H e t h o u g h t s h e mu s t b e i l l a n d ca me t o s ee h er. E mm a w as i n w ard l y p l eas ed t o f eel t h at s h e h ad s o q u i ck l y at t ai n ed t h at rare i d eal o f a p al e l an g u i d ex i s t en ce b ey o n d t h e r each o f med i o cr e s p i ri t s [] Sh e b e ca me b o r ed w i t h t h i s [an d ] co n t i n u e d [ ] u n t i l [ ] s h e h ad n o mo r e s ad n es s i n h er h eart t h an w ri n k l es o n h er fo r eh ead ( Mad a me Bo v ary 3 3 ) F r om t hi s pa s s a ge t he r e a de r c a n e a s i l y a s s um e t h a t t he de a t h of M a da m e R oua ul t ( E m m a s m ot he r ) ha s l i t t l e r e a l e f f e c t on E m m a ot he r t ha n pr ov i di ng he r w i t h a n oppor t uni t y t o pe r f o r m a s how of g r i e f t o t r i c k he r s e l f i nt o f e e l i ng e m ot i on, i nt o pl a yi ng t he pa r t o f a s pi r i t ua l pe r s on. M a da m e R oua ul t s d e a t h, t he n, i s t he onl y i ns t a nc e i n t he t e xt t o m a r k he r e xi s t e nc e a t a l l A s E l i s s a M a r de r poi nt s out i n he r e s s a y T r a um a A ddi c t i on, a nd T e m por a l B ul i m i a i n M a da m e B ova r y U nl i ke C ha r l e s 's m ot he r o r E m m a 's f a t he r t he f i gur e o f E m m a 's m ot he r ne ve r a t t a i ns t he s t a t us of a ps yc hol ogi c a l c ha r a c t e r ; s he a ppe a r s onl y t o d i s a ppe a r a nd t hi s d i s a ppe a r a nc e be c om e s r e m a r ka bl e pr e c i s e l y be c a us e i t l e a ve s no m a r k ( 56) E m m a s m ot he r s non p r e s e nc e a s a ps yc hol ogi c a l c ha r a c t e r m a y m i r r or t he i m pr i nt t ha t s he ha s l e f t on E m m a s ps yc hol ogy;

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47 t ha t i s t o s a y, l i t t l e t o none a t a l l H ow e ve r c ons i d e r i ng t he na t ur e of f i c t i ona l t e xt s a s w e l l a s t he m a l e a ut hor a nd m a s c ul i ne na r r a t or n e i t he r of w hom s e e m t o ha ve f ound t he bond be t w e e n E m m a a nd M a da m e R oua ul t t o be o f c ons e que nc e or i nt e r e s t a s s um i ng t ha t t he t e xt pr ovi de s c om pl e t e i n f or m a t i on r e ga r di ng E m m a s ps yc hol ogy i s pr obl e m a t i c A l s o pr obl e m a t i c i s M a r de r s a s s e r t i on t ha t F l a ub e r t ha r d l y s e e m s t o be s u g g e s t i n g t ha t E m m a 's p r obl e m s c a n i n a n y w a y b e a t t r i bu t e d t o a l a c k o f m a t e r n a l c a r e ; s he a r g u e s t ha t he s e e m [ s ] t o pl a c e E m m a a nd t h e e n t i r e w or l d of M a da m e B ov a r y i n a r e a l m w he r e m ot he r s no l on g e r g u a r a n t e e t he e x i s t e nc e of a s t a t e of n a t ur e ( 57) I f i n t he t e xt M a da m e R ou a u l t e x i s t s onl y a s a l a c k a nd bo t h t he t e xt a nd n a r r a t or pl a c e n e g l i g i b l e va l u e on a n y de t a i l s of E m m a s r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h h e r m o t he r F l a ub e r t i nd e e d s e e m s t o s u g g e s t t ha t t hi s l a c k ( o f m o t he r i n g of a m o t he r c h i l d r e l a t i ons hi p ) c on t r i but e s t o E m m a s ow n i n c a pa c i t y t o m o t he r ( A s a s i d e not e E m m a s c a s e m a y s e r ve t o unde r m i n e t he p s y c hoa na l y t i c c a s e o f w om e n h a v i n g a n i nn a t e m a t e r n a l i ns t i nc t a s E m m a s e e m s t o be c o m pl e t e l y de voi d of s uc h a dr i v e ) E v e n t ua l l y, a s m os t w om e n do E m m a R ou a u l t m a r r i e s H e r n e w hu s ba nd, C ha r l e s B ova r y, c a nnot l i v e u p t o t he r o m a n t i c i z e d e x pe c t a t i on s s he s e t s bu t s he i s a b l e t o br i e f l y s e t a s i de h e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i on w he n s he b e c o m e s pr e g n a nt W h i l e t he i d e a o f h a v i n g be g ot t e n a s on de l i g ht e d C ha r l e s E m m a h a s no s u c h r e a c t i on ( M a da m e B ov a r y 76) A t f i r s t F l a ub e r t w r i t e s [ s he ] on l y f e l t g r e a t a s t oni s hm e n t t he n s he w a s e a g e r t o be de l i v e r e d, s o t ha t s he c ou l d know w ha t i t w a s l i k e t o be a m o t he r ( 76) S h e a p p e a r s t o be d e l i g ht e d w i t h m ot he r hood a s a p o s s i bl e s ol u t i o n t o f i l l t he vo i d i n h e r l i f e a s o p p o s e d t o de l i g ht a t a c t ua l l y m o t he r i n g I n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e r f or m a n c e s he a ba ndon e d a l l h e r

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48 p l a n s f or t he l a ye t t e i n a f i t of b i t t e r ne s s a nd or d e r e d e v e r y t hi n g a t onc e f r o m a s e a m s t r e s s i n t he v i l l a g e b e c a us e s he c ou l d no t s p e nd a s m u c h a s s he w oul d h a v e l i k e d, s i nc e s he c ou l d no t buy e m br oi de r e d ba by bonne t s a nd a boa t s ha pe d c r a dl e w i t h pi n k s i l k c ur t a i ns ( 76) I nde e d, E m m a s e e m s t o t a ke m or e pl e a s ur e i n t he m a t e r i a l t r a ppi ngs of m ot he r i ng l i ke ba by bonne t s a nd c r a dl e s t ha n i n t he pr os pe c t of gi vi ng bi r t h a nd c ul t i va t i ng a r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h he r c hi l d. I t i s C ha r l e s w ho, r a t he r t ha n f u nc t i oni ng a s C hodor ow s di s t a nt a nd s e pa r a t e f a t he r f i gur e t a k e s pl e a s ur e i n t he upc om i ng e ve nt : not onl y doe s he c he r i s h [ E m m a ] m or e t ha n e ve r bu t he f i nds t ha t a not he r bond of t he f l e s h w a s be i ng f or m e d be t w e e n t he m a nd he w a s c ont i nuous l y a w a r e of a m or e c om pl e x uni on ( 76) A s ove r be a r i ng a s t he f i r s t M a da m e B ova r y m a y ha ve be e n, t he ove r i de nt i f i c a t i on s he a nd C ha r l e s e xpe r i e nc e d c ul m i na t e d i n hi s a dul t e xpr e s s i on of t he a f f e c t i ve ne e ds t ha t C hodor ow m a i nl y a s c r i be s t o w om e n ( C hodor ow 196) H e i s t he one w ho s e e m s c a pa bl e of m ot he r i ng w he r e a s E m m a s e e m s s e pa r a t e a nd s om e w ha t i ndi f f e r e nt s e e i ng he r c hi l d a s a s ym bol r a t he r t ha n a s a pe r s on. A s he r pr e gna nc y pr og r e s s e s a nd a s C ha r l e s s t a l k a bout t he c hi l d gr ow s i nc e s s a nt E m m a i s f o r c e d t o t h i nk m o r e ( a nd m or e s e r i ous l y) a bout t he c hi l d a s w e l l H e r de s i r e f or a s on, w hom s he w oul d na m e G e or g e s i s m a r ke d; t he i de a of gi vi ng b i r t h t o a da ught e r s e e m s i m pos s i bl e not e ve n s om e t hi n g t o be c ons i de r e d. F or E m m a T h i s i d ea o f g i v i n g b i rt h t o a m al e w as l i k e a h o p e o f c o mp en s at i o n fo r al l h er p as t fru s t rat i o n s A man at l eas t i s fre e; h e can ex p l o re t h e w h o l e ran g e o f t h e p as s i o n s g o w h er ev er h e l i k es o v er co m e o b s t acl es s av o r t h e mo s t ex o t i c p l eas u r es Bu t a w o man i s co n s t an t l y t h w a rt ed In ert an d p l i ab l e, s h e i s r es t ri ct ed b y h er p h y s i cal w eak n es s an d l eg al s u b j ect i o n (7 6 7 7 ) A l t hough E m m a s e e m s t o r om a nt i c i z e t he m a l e / m a s c ul i ne l i f e e xpe r i e nc e he r e ( m e n a r e of t e n bound t o t he i r s i t ua t i on a nd s oc i oe c onom i c p os i t i on) s he c or r e c t l y obs e r ve s t he

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49 c i r c um s c r i pt i on of w om e n s l i ve s by pa t r i a r c hy a n d i t s r e s ul t i ng c ul t u r a l m o r e s I t i s c l e a r he r e t ha t C hodor ow s a s s e r t i on i n r e ga r d t o m a s c ul i ne a nd f e m i ni ne i de nt i f i c a t i on i s a c c ur a t e a s w e l l ; E m m a B ova r y f i nds he r s e l f f a nt a s i z i ng a bout a nd i de a l i z i ng m a s c ul i ni t y a nd t he m a s c ul i ne r ol e w he r e a s f e m i ni ni t y a nd t he pr os c r i be d r ol e of t he f e m a l e a r e t oo c onc r e t e a nd i ne s c a pa bl e M or e ove r i t s e e m s t ha t i n he r a c know l e dgm e nt o f w om e n s s ubor di na t e na r r ow l y de m a r c a t e d r ol e s he i s e xpe r i e nc i ng not onl y a n a m bi va l e nc e t ow a r d he r ow n r ol e ( a nd t ow a r d m ot he r i ng ) but a l s o t he a m bi va l e nc e t ha t C hodor ow not e s m ot he r s f e e l [ ] a bout t he i r da ught e r s ( C hodor ow 135) E m m a s be l i e f a c c or di ng t o F l a ube r t ( a nd hi s na r r a t o r w ho m e di a t e s he r t hought s t hr ough f r e e i ndi r e c t di s c our s e ) i s t ha t w om a n s w i l l l i ke t he ve i l t i e d t o he r ha t w i t h a c or d, qui ve r s w i t h e ve r y w i nd; t he r e i s a l w a ys s om e de s i r e u r gi n g he r f or w a r d, a l w a ys s om e c onve nt i on hol di ng he r ba c k ( M a da m e B ova r y 77 ) F or E m m a be i ng f e m a l e / f e m i ni ne i s c onf i ni ng, but a l s o e qui voc a l ; s he i s ne ve r a f ul l a ge nt ove r he r ow n de s t i ny, a nd m ot he r i ng e s pe c i a l l y m ot he r i ng a da ught e r a nd t he r e by pe r pe t ua t i ng m ot he r hood i s j us t one of t he c onve nt i ons pr e ve nt i ng he r f r om e x e r c i s i ng he r w i l l E m m a s hope s f or a s on, a nd f o r t he a bi l i t y t o e xpe r i e nc e a s e ns e of f r e e dom vi c a r i ous l y t hr ough hi m a r e da s he d upon c hi l dbi r t h. A t t he m om e nt he r c hi l d w a s bor n a t s i x o c l oc k on a S unda y m o r ni ng, a t s unr i s e C ha r l e s a nnounc e s I t s a gi r l ; upon he a r i ng t hi s s he t ur ne d he r he a d a w a y a nd f a i nt e d ( 77) H e r e E m m a not onl y be ha ve s i n a m a nne r be f i t t i ng he r ge nde r ( f a i nt i ng c a n be m a r ke d a s a f e m i ni ne be ha vi or ) bu t a l s o e xpe r i e nc e s a ne w di s i l l us i onm e nt i n m ot he r hood a l i f e e ve nt t ha t s he be l i e ve d w oul d br i ng he r w hol e ne s s but i ns t e a d di s a ppoi nt s he r onc e m or e R a t he r t ha n gi vi ng bi r t h t o a m a l e c hi l d w ho w oul d e ve nt ua l l y gr ow up t o be w hol e a nd s e pa r a t e s he

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50 ha s pr oduc e d a f e m a l e c hi l d A f e m a l e c hi l d w ho w i l l a t t e m pt t o i de nt i f y he r s e l f w i t h E m m a w ho w i l l be s ubj e c t t o s i m i l a r bi ol ogi c a l a n d c ul t ur a l c ons t r a i nt s a nd t h r ough w hom E m m a c a nnot a c hi e ve a ny f e e l i ng of s e l f a c t ua l i z a t i on ( how e ve r f a l s e t hi s s e l f a c t ua l i z a t i on w oul d be i f gl e a ne d onl y f r om t he e x pe r i e nc e s of a m a l e o f f s pr i ng) I n l i ght of t hi s di s a ppoi nt m e nt E m m a i s una bl e t o f e e l a ny ge nui ne a t t a c hm e nt or a f f e c t i on f or he r c hi l d, w hom s he na m e s B e r t he B i l l O ve r t on, i n hi s a r t i c l e C hi l dr e n a nd C hi l dl e s s ne s s i n t he N ove l of F e m a l e A dul t e r y p oi nt s out t ha t F l a ube r t / F l a ube r t s na r r a t or onl y a l l ow s E m m a t o e xpe r i e nc e a pr e t e n de d a nd e ve n a c os t um e m ot he r hood a s s he a t t e m pt s t o c om pe ns a t e f or he r di s s a t i s f a c t i on ( 319) E m m a pe r f or m s m ot he r hood a s oppos e d t o a c t ua l l y m ot he r i ng; w h e n s he ha s a n a udi e nc e s he c l a i m e d t o a dor e c hi l dr e n; he r da ught e r s he s a i d, w a s he r c on s ol a t i on, he r j oy a nd he r pa s s i on, a nd s he a c c om pa ni e d he r c a r e s s e s w i t h l yr i c a l out pour i ngs t ha t w oul d ha ve r e m i nde d a nyone e xc e pt Y onvi l l i a ns of P a que t t e i n T he H unc hba c k of N ot r e D a m e ( M a da m e B ova r y 92) T h e pa r a l l e l o f t hi s pe r f or m a nc e o f m ot he r hood t o E m m a s e a r l i e r pe r f o r m a nc e of gr i e f i s s t r i ki ng. I n bot h i ns t a nc e s E m m a f e e l s t he ne e d t o c om pe ns a t e f or he r di s i l l us i onm e nt w i t h t he m unda ne e ve nt s of he r l i f e by pe r f o r m i ng gr a nd, r om a nt i c i z e d di s pl a ys of e m ot i on; i t a ppe a r s t ha t s he i s e qua l l y a s di s c onne c t e d f r om he r m ot he r a s s he i s t o he r da ught e r B ot h M a da m e R oua ul t a nd B e r t he f unc t i on a s a l a c k, a s voi ds w i t h no pe r s ona l i t y a nd l i t t l e be a r i ng on E m m a s de ve l opm e nt a s a hum a n be i ng T he m ot he r i ng r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t E m m a de ve l ops w i t h he r da ught e r i s ne a r l y none xi s t e nt I n he r w or l d, B e r t he e xi s t s m a i nl y a s a s hi e l d of vi r t ue be hi nd w hom s he c a n m a s k he r i l l i c i t a c t i vi t i e s ; vi s i t s t o t he w e t n ur s e s e r ve a s a m e a ns t hr ough w hi c h s he de ve l ops he r f e e l i ngs f or L e on a nd he r vi s i t s t o R odol phe U nf or t una t e l y B e r t he a l s o

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51 r e pr e s e nt s a not he r f a i l i ng o f E m m a s l i f e a nd a s s u c h i s a n a nnoya nc e A pa r t i c ul a r l y t e l l i ng i ns t a nc e of E m m a s di s i nc l i na t i on t o m ot he r a nd o f he r c os t um e m ot he r hood oc c ur s w he n s he r e t ur ns hom e a f t e r a f r ui t l e s s vi s i t t o Y onvi l l e s pr i e s t w ho i s obl i vi ous t o he r s uf f e r i ng a nd de s i r e f or r e l i gi ous s us t e na nc e : T h en s h e s a w l i t t l e Be rt h e b et w e en t h e w i n d o w an d t h e s e w i n g t ab l e, t o t t eri n g i n h er k n i t t ed s h o es as s h e t ri ed t o ap p ro a c h h e r mo t h er an d t ak e h o l d o f h er ap ro n s t ri n g s L eav e me al o n e! s ai d E m ma p u s h i n g h er a w ay T h e l i t t l e g i rl s o o n ca me b ack cl o s er s t i l l ; l ean i n g h er a rms o n h er mo t h er s k n ees s h e l o o k ed u p at h er w i t h h er b i g b l u e ey es w h i l e a s t rea m o f cl e ar s al i v a fl o w ed f ro m h er l i p t o t h e s i l k ap ro n L eav e me al o n e! E mm a rep eat ed an g ri l y T h e l o o k o n h er f ace fri g h t en ed t h e ch i l d an d s h e b eg an t o s h ri ek I t o l d y o u t o l eav e m e al o n e !" s ai d E mm a, s h o v i n g h er a w ay w i t h h er el b o w Bert h e fel l at t h e fo o t o f t h e d res s er cu t t i n g h er ch eek o n o n e o f i t s b ras s o rn amen t s Sh e b eg an t o b l e ed ; Mad a me Bo v a ry ru s h e d t o p i ck h er u p b ro k e t h e b el l co rd an d cal l ed t h e m ai d at t h e t o p o f h er l u n g s Sh e w as ab o u t t o b eg i n rep ro a ch i n g h ers el f b i t t erl y w h en Ch arl es ap p ear ed It w as d i n n ert i me an d h e h ad j u s t co me h o m e. L o o k at t h i s d arl i n g s ai d E m ma i n a s t ead y v o i ce. T h e b ab y fel l d o w n an d h u rt h ers el f w h i l e s h e w as p l ay i n g ( Mad a me Bo v a ry 9 9 1 0 0 ) H e r e E m m a ha s l i t t l e r e ga r d f or he r da ught e r unt i l he r i n di f f e r e nc e ha s t he pos s i bi l i t y of be i ng di s c ove r e d. B e r t he a s a t odd l e r r e qui r e s he r m ot he r s l ove a nd a t t e nt i on bu t E m m a i s e i t he r unw i l l i ng or una bl e t o p r ovi de i t ; s o unw i l l i ng o r una bl e i n f a c t t ha t i n he r f r us t r a t i on w i t h he r l i f e a nd he r da ught e r t ha t s he vi ol e nt l y pus he s he r a w a y ( w hi c h, i n t he t e xt s e r ve s a s a pi vot a l a c t of s e pa r a t i on, of s e ve r i ng he r s e l f f r om B e r t he ) I t i s onl y w he n B e r t he f a l l s a nd c ut s he r c he e k a n i nj ur y t ha t i s vi e w a bl e t o ot he r s t ha t E m m a f e e l s a nyt hi ng r e s e m bl i n g r e m o r s e T he s t e a dy voi c e i n w hi c h E m m a i n f or m s C ha r l e s of B e r t he s i nj ur y how e ve r be l i e s t he l a c k of a t t a c hm e nt s he f e e l s t ow a r d he r c hi l d; but C ha r l e s obl i vi ous a s us ua l t o E m m a s p e r pe t ua l di s s a t i s f a c t i on, s i m pl y r e a s s ur e s he r of t he m i l dne s s of t he i nj u r y. T he c u t l i ke E m m a s di s i l l us i onm e nt i s pl a s t e r e d ove r a nd f o r got t e n a bout

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52 B e r t he a nd he r p r e s e nc e a r e e r a s e d i n m os t of t he t e xt of M a da m e B ova r y F l a ube r t a nd hi s na r r a t or s e e l i t t l e ne e d t o c r e a t e a n y s or t of c ha r a c t e r out of E m m a s da ught e r J us t a s E m m a s c hi l dhood r e l a t i on w i t h he r m ot he r i s ne a r l y none xi s t e nt s o i s B e r t he s r e l a t i on w i t h E m m a ; a s B i l l O ve r t on not e s F l a ube r t ne ve r pr e s e nt s t he c hi l d s poi nt of vi e w ( 320) I t i s onl y a f t e r E m m a s s ui c i de t ha t w e l e a r n a nyt hi ng a bout B e r t he m os t l y i n r e ga r d t o he r f a t e i n t he w a ke of C ha r l e s s de a t h: W h en ev e ry t h i n g re mai n ed [fro m t h e s al e o f al l t h e Bo v ary s p o s s es s i o n s t o p ay o ff d eb t s ], t h ere [ w ere ] t w el v e fran c s an d s ev en t y fi v e c en t i mes w h i ch p ai d fo r M ad emo i s el l e B o v ar y s t ri p t o h e r g ran d mo t h er' s h o u s e. T h e g o o d w o m an d i ed t h at s a me y ear, an d s i n c e Mo n s i eu r Ro u au l t w as n o w p ar al y zed an au n t t o o k ch a rg e o f t h e ch i l d s u p b ri n g i n g Sh e i s p o o r an d h as p u t h er t o w o rk i n a co t t o n mi l l t o earn h er l i v i n g ( M ad a me Bo v ary 3 0 2 ) A s a r e s ul t of he r s ui c i de E m m a a voi ds t he r e s pon s i bi l i t y of pa yi ng he r de bt s a nd of m ot he r i ng he r c hi l d. I ns t e a d, i t i s B e r t he w ho dou bl y pa ys f or he r m o t he r s t r a ns gr e s s i ons t hr ough he r ne w f ound pove r t y a nd w or k i n t he c ot t on m i l l I n t hi s i ns t a nc e O ve r t on c onc l ude s t he w a ge s of f e m a l e a dul t e r y dog t he da ught e r a s w e l l a s t he m ot he r ( 32 0) I n M a da m e B ova r y m o t he r i ng a nd m ot he r hood i s c ons i s t e nt l y r e pr e s e nt e d a s a l a c k, or a s s om e t hi ng l a c ki ng. E m m a i n pa r t i c ul a r i s l a c ki ng bot h a n e xpe r i e nc e of m ot he r i ng i n c hi l dhood a nd i n he r a dul t l i f e t ow a r d B e r t he I t m i ght not be t ha t B e r t he s pl a c e hol di ng, s ym bol i c ne a r l y non s pe a ki ng r ol e i n t he t e xt s ugge s t s t ha t E m m a i s a ba d m ot he r a s O ve r t on a s s e r t s ( 320) ; r a t he r t he r e l a t i ons hi p ( or l a c k t he r e of ) be t w e e n E m m a a nd he r da ught e r i n c onj unc t i on w i t h t he r e pr e s e nt a t i on ( or l a c k t he r e of ) of M a da m e R oua ul t m a ke s c l e a r t ha t E m m a i s une qu i ppe d f or m ot he r i ng a nd he r unha ppi ne s s a t be i ng f or c e d t o r e pr oduc e f e m i ni ni t y, i n a l l i t s c ons t r a i n t s U n f or t una t e l y, w hi l e E m m a ha d i ni t i a l l y hope d t ha t m ot he r hood w oul d gi ve he r f ul f i l l m e nt B e r t he

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53 be c a m e E m m a s puni s hm e nt a nd a s s uc h not onl y ha s t o pa y f or he r m ot he r s s i ns but m a y a l s o be f a t e d t o r e pr oduc e t he m a s w e l l A n n a K ar e n i n a an d F am i l i al A t t ac h m e n t L e o T ol s t oy s nove l A nna K a r e ni na ( 1877) a nd i t s e ponym ous pr ot a goni s t di f f e r s f r om F l a ube r t s M a da m e B ova r y i n i t s e m b odi m e nt s a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of c onf l i c t e d m ot he r i ng I n opp os i t i on t o E m m a A n na i s c a pa bl e of m ot he r i ng, a s i s e v i de nc e d by he r c l os e r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h he r s on S e r ge i A l e xe i c h ( S e r yoz ha ) he r s on by he r hus ba nd, A l e xe i A l e xa ndr ovi c h K a r e ni n. A nn a e ve nt ua l l y a ba ndons he r ha t e d hus ba nd but r e t a i ns he r l ove f o r he r s on, t ow a r d w hom K a r e ni n f e e l s l i t t l e a t t a c hm e nt o r a f f e c t i on. S he a l s o gi ve s bi r t h t o a da ught e r by he r l ove r A l e xe i K i r i l l ovi c h V r ons ky, w hom s he a l s o na m e s A nna ( A nni e ) but c a nnot f e e l a ny of t he a t t a c hm e nt t o he r t ha t s he f e e l s t o S e r yoz ha M e a nw hi l e i t i s K a r e ni n hi m s e l f w ho l ove s he r a nd, i n t he w a ke of A nna s de a t h, a dopt s t he gi r l I n t hi s t e xt N a om i S e ga l r e m a r ks pa r e nt i ng by c hoi c e r a t he r t ha n by bl ood i s m a r ke d w i t h f a vor ove r t he ge ne t i c r e l a t i on t ha t br e a ks dow n ( 117) I n t hi s s e c t i on, I w i l l e xa m i ne t he br e a kdow n of t he ge ne t i c r e l a t i on a nd t he e m pha s i s on r e l a t i ona l pa r e nt i ng t ha t S e ga l not e s a s w e l l a s a t t e m pt t o p r ovi de a ps yc hoa na l yt i c e xpl a na t i on f or t he di s s ona nc e be t w e e n A nna s a t t a c hm e nt s t o S e r yoz ha a nd t o A nni e w hi c h m a r ke dl y di f f e r W he n A nna K a r e ni na i s i nt r oduc e d i n t h e t e xt s he i s i m m e di a t e l y s i t ua t e d a s a m ot he r f i gu r e T he r e a de r f i r s t s m e e t s he r a s s he e xi t s a t r a i n a t t he M os c ow s t a t i on w i t h C ount e s s V r ons ky, t he m ot he r o f A l e xe i K i r i l l ovi c h; t he t w o w om e n a ppe a r t o ha ve s pe nt

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54 t he i r t r i p t oge t he r di s c us s i ng t he i r r e s pe c t i ve s ons A nna A r ka dye vna t he c ount e s s e xpl a i ns t o he r s on, ha s a l i t t l e boy of a bout e i ght I t h i nk, a nd ha s ne ve r be e n s e pa r a t e d f r om hi m a nd s he ke e ps s uf f e r i ng a bout ha vi ng l e f t hi m ( A nna K a r e ni na 63 ) A nna c onf i r m s t hi s t e l l i ng V r on s ky, Y e s t he c ount e s s a nd I s pe nt t he w hol e t i m e t a l ki ng I a bout m y s on, s he a bout he r s ( 63) I f not hi ng e l s e A nna i s p r e s e nt e d he r e a s a dot i ng s uf f e r i ng m ot he r w ho c a n r e l a t e t o ot he r w om e n s pe c i f i c a l l y a s a m ot he r ( E ve nt ua l l y A nna w i l l be f or c e d t o l e a ve S e r yoz ha be hi nd f or t he s a ke of he r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h V r ons ky, i n a s e ns e di s pl a c i ng he r l ove f o r he r bi ol ogi c a l s on f or t ha t of a not he r s on V r ons ky. ) T he r e a de r doe s not m e e t A nna s s on un t i l ne a r l y f or t y pa ge s l a t e r upon he r r e t ur n t o he r ho m e i n P e t e r s bur g. S e r yoz ha i s t he f i r s t pe r s on t o m e e t A nna a t hom e a nd, a l t hough t he s on, j us t l i ke t he hus ba nd, pr od uc e d i n A nna a f e e l i ng a ki n t o di s a ppoi nt m e nt [ ] he w a s c ha r m i ng e ve n a s he w a s w i t h hi s bl ond c ur l s bl ue e ye s a nd f ul l s ha pe l y l e gs i n t i ght f i t t i ng s t oc ki ngs ( A nna K a r e ni na 107) T hough s he f e e l s l i t t l e m or e t ha n r e vul s i on t ow a r d he r hus ba nd, s he s t i l l m a na ge s t o l ove he r s on; s he e xpe r i e nc e d a l m os t a phys i c a l pl e a s ur e i n t he f e e l i ng of h i s c l os e ne s s a nd c a r e s s ( 107) T he unde r l yi ng s e xua l na t ur e of t hi s m ot he r s on r e l a t i ons hi p a nd, i n t ur n o f t he r e a c t i on t ha t A nna ha s t o S e r yoz ha s a f f e c t i ons i s dul y not e d by C hodor ow a s a c om m on phe nom e non. S e xua l d r i ve s t ow a r d a c hi l d a r e c o m m on, s he w r i t e s pa r t i c ul a r l y i f t he r e ha s be e n a gr a t i f yi ng p r e oe di pa l pa r e nt c hi l d r e l a t i ons hi p w hi c h ha s s t r e ngt he ne d pa r e nt a l l ove ( C hodor ow 161) I nde e d, i t a ppe a r s t ha t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n A nna a nd S e r yoz ha ha s be e n c ons i s t e nt l y gr a t i f yi ng e ve n t o t he poi nt w he r e A nna m a y ha ve di s pl a c e d he r a f f e c t i ons f or K a r e ni n on t o t he i r s on.

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55 A nna s l ove f or S e r yoz ha he r s on by t he hus ba nd t ha t s he de s pi s e s a nd hi s a dor a t i on of he r a f f e c t s t he r e l a t i ons hi ps t ha t s he h a s w i t h bot h K a r e ni n a nd w i t h V r ons ky ( w ho l a t e r s e r ve s a s bot h he r l o ve r a nd a s or t of s ur r oga t e s on) K a r e ni n a ppe a r s c ons i s t e nt l y unc om f or t a bl e w i t h S e r yoz ha e ve n be f or e A nna s a dul t e r y i s di s c ove r e d. I n P a r t I I C ha pt e r X X V I I S e r yoz ha s ow n di s c om f o r t w i t h hi s f a t he r a nd h i s f a t he r s c ol d be ha vi or t ow a r d hi m a r e r e ve a l e d: Sery o zh a c am e i n p rec ed ed b y t h e g o v e rn es s If A l ex e i A l ex an d ro v i ch h ad al l o w ed h i ms el f t o o b s erv e, h e w o u l d h av e n o t i ced t h e t i mi d p erp l ex ed l o o k w i t h w h i ch Se ry o zh a g l an ced fi rs t at h i s fat h er t h en at h i s mo t h er. [ ] A h t h e y o u n g m an H es g ro w n u p Re al l y h es b ec o mi n g q u i t e a man H el l o y o u n g man A n d h e g av e t h e fri g h t en ed Sery o zh a h i s h an d Sery o zh a h ad b een t i mi d t o w ard s h i s fat h er ev en b efo r e b u t n o w s i n ce A l ex ei A l ex an d ro v i ch h ad s t a rt ed c al l i n g h i m y o u n g man [ ], h e s h ran k fro m h i s fat h e r. A s i f as k i n g fo r p ro t ect i o n h e l o o k ed at h i s mo t h er H e f el t g o o d o n l y w i t h h er. ( A n n a K aren i n a 2 0 5 2 0 6 ) I t i s c l e a r f r om t hi s pa s s a ge t ha t S e r yoz ha i s s t i l l i n a s t a t e of i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h hi s m ot he r a nd ha s not ye t s e p a r a t e d hi m s e l f f r om he r t o a l i gn hi m s e l f w i t h hi s f a t he r H e s t i l l s e e ks c om f or t a nd s ol a c e i n A nna a nd A nna r e s ponds i n ki nd; s e e i ng hi s a w kw a r dne s s s he qui c kl y j um pe d up, r e m ove d A l e xe i A l e xa ndr ovi c h s ha nd f r om t he boy s s houl de r ki s s e d hi m t ook h i m out t o t he t e r r a c e a nd c a m e ba c k a t onc e ( A nna K a r e ni na 206) M e a nw hi l e K a r e ni n doe s not e ve n i de nt i f y h i s s on by na m e H e i s s i m pl y t he young m a n t o hi m a nd r a t he r t ha n s how i ng hi m pa t e r na l a f f e c t i on he o f f e r s hi m hi s ha nd t o s ha ke i n a bus i ne s s l i ke ge s t ur e T he bi ol ogi c a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n A l e xe i A l e xa ndr ovi c h a nd S e r yoz ha i s de gr a de d i n t o one of m e r e f or m a l i t y o f dut y S e r yoz ha s e e m s t o r e j e c t t he m a s c ul i ni t y a nd s e pa r a t e ne s s t ha t hi s f a t he r of f e r s pr e f e r r i ng i ns t e a d hi s m ot he r a nd t he l ov i ng a t t a c h m e nt s he of f e r s A c c or di ngl y A nna t a ke s c om f or t i n he r m o t he r i ng c a pa bi l i t i e s a nd i n he r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h S e r yoz ha E ve n

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56 a s s he be c om e s i nc r e a s i ngl y a bs or be d i n he r a f f a i r w i t h V r ons ky, he r s on s t i l l t a ke s pr e c e de nc e a nd pos s e s s e s t he a bi l i t y t o br i ng he r o ut of s t a t e s of de s pa i r a nd hope l e s s ne s s T hough s he f e e l s t ha t s he ha s pa r t i a l l y e xa gge r a t e d t he r ol e of t he m ot he r w ho l i ve s f or he r s on, w hi c h s he ha d t a ke n on i n r e c e nt ye a r s s he a l s o f e l t w i t h j oy t ha t i n t he c i r c um s t a nc e s s he w a s i n, s he ha d he r d om a i n, i nde pe nde nt o f he r r e l a t i ons w i t h he r hus ba nd a nd V r ons ky. T ha t dom a i n w a s he r s on. W ha t e ve r pos i t i on s he w a s i n s he c oul d not a ba ndon he r s on ( A nna K a r e ni na 2 89) T hough s he ul t i m a t e l y a ba ndons he r s on i n o r de r t o e s c a pe c onj uga l l i f e w i t h A l e xe i A l e xa ndr ovi c h i n e s s e nc e c hoos i ng V r ons ky a nd he r da ught e r A nn i e a s he r a dopt e d f a m i l y t he y ne ve r c om pl e t e l y a ba ndon e a c h ot he r e m ot i ona l l y S e r y oz ha dr e a m s of hi s m ot he r i s di s t r a c t e d by t hought s of he r a nd c a n ne ve r ge t f ul l y us e d t o he r a bs e nc e ; m e a nw hi l e A nna s m e m or y of he r s on pa r t i a l l y i nhi bi t s t he g r ow t h o f he r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h he r da ught e r a nd on one oc c a s i on s he goe s t o gr e a t l e ngt hs i n or de r t o vi s i t hi m i n hi s r oom on hi s bi r t hda y. M e a nw hi l e S e r yoz ha s be ha v i or t ow a r d V r ons ky ( w i t h A nna a s t he obv i ous m e di a t or ) p r ove s e qua l l y a w kw a r d. V r ons ky s ur m i s e s t ha t S e r yoz ha f e l t t ha t be t w e e n t hi s m a n [ V r ons ky] a nd hi s m ot he r t he r e w a s s om e i m por t a nt r e l a t i on t he m e a ni ng o f w hi c h he c oul d not unde r s t a nd, a nd he w oul d be c or r e c t ( A nna K a r e ni na 185) I nde e d, t he boy di d f e e l t ha t he c oul d no t unde r s t a nd t hi s r e l a t i on, a nd he t r i e d b ut w a s una bl e t o m a ke out w ha t f e e l i ng he ought t o ha ve f or t hi s m a n : t hi s i s w ha t l e d t o w ha t V r ons ky c ons i de r s t o be a hos t i l e a t t i t ud e t ow a r d h i m but i s i ns t e a d a n e m ot i ona l l y a m bi guous r e a c t i on t ha t c a nnot be s ol ve d ( A nna K a r e ni na 186 ) S e r yoz ha i s una bl e t o unde r s t a nd hi s m ot he r s r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h a m a n w hom t he e nt i r e hous e hol d ha t e d but t ha t s he

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57 a dor e d, a nd hi s i nc om pr e he ns i on i s j us t i f i e d. V r on s ky i s e ve nt ua l l y t he c a us e of A nna s a ba ndoni ng S e r yoz ha a s s he s e e ks t o s t a r t a ne w l i f e a nd a ne w f a m i l y w i t h hi m a nd t he i r da ught e r V r ons ky a l s o be c om e s t he r e c i pi e nt of t he l ove t ha t A nna i s not a bl e t o pr o vi de S e r yoz ha due t o he r a bs e nc e f r om t he hom e E ve n w i t hi n t he pa r a di gm o f r e l a t i ona l pa r e nt i ng t ha t t he t e xt p r opos e s a ny bondi ng be t w e e n V r ons ky a nd S e r yoz ha i s i m pos s i bl e A nna s da ught e r a nd he r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h he r i s pr e s e nt e d ve r y di f f e r e nt l y f r om he r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h S e r yoz ha A nna s da ught e r A nni e i s f i r s t a nd f or e m os t a pr oduc t of he r i l l i c i t a f f a i r w i t h V r ons ky, r a t he r t ha n t he of f s pr i ng of a l e ga l l y s a nc t i one d m a r r i a ge a s S e r yoz ha w a s T he l a bor l e a di ng up t o A nni e s bi r t h w a s a di f f i c ul t a nd a r duous one ; A n na ne a r l y d i e s of pue r pe r a l f e ve r a f t e r c hi l dbi r t h, but e ve n i n he r s uf f e r i ng, s he a ppe a r s t o be m o r e c onc e r ne d a bout he r s on t ha n a bout he r ne w bor n ba by gi r l W hi l e l yi ng on he r bi r t h / de a t hbe d, a s s he t e l l s V r ons ky of A l e xe i A l e xa ndr ovi c h s unde r l yi ng go od na t u r e s he a s ks D i d S e r yoz ha h a ve hi s di nne r ? I know e ve r ybody w i l l f or ge t ( A nna K a r e ni na 412) I nt e r e s t i ng, t oo i s A nna s na m i ng of he r c hi l d a f t e r he r s e l f : a s N a om i S e ga l poi n t s out A nna s da ught e r i s gi ve n t he s a m e na m e a s i f onl y one of t he m m a y s ur vi ve ( 117) B y t he doubl i ng of na m e s i t s e e m s a s t hough A nna i s m a ki ng a n a t t e m pt c ons c i ous or ot he r w i s e t o p r o m ot e a n i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h he r da ught e r t ha t ne ve r c om e s t o f r ui t i on A nni e s bi r t h be gi ns t he ge ne r a l s hi f t t o r e l a t i ona l pa r e nt i ng c hoi c e s ( a s oppos e d t o ge ne t i c / bi ol ogi c a l pa r e nt i ng ) i n t he t e xt A l t hou gh A nni e i s obvi ous l y not hi s of f s pr i ng a nd i s i ns t e a d t he pr oduc t of h i s w i f e s t r a ns gr e s s i ons A l e xe i A l e xa ndr ovi c h be gi ns t o f e e l a n a t t a c hm e nt t o A nna s da ught e r :

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58 Bu t fo r t h e n e w b o rn l i t t l e g i rl h e h ad s o me s p eci al fe el i n g n o t o n l y o f p i t y b u t al s o o f t en d ern es s A t fi rs t i t w as o n l y o u t o f c o mp as s i o n t h at h e co n c ern ed h i ms el f w i t h t h e n e w b o rn w e ak l i t t l e g i rl w h o w as n o t h i s d au g h t er an d w h o w as n eg l ect ed d u ri n g h er m o t h er s i l l n es s an d w o u l d p ro b ab l y h av e d i ed i f h e h ad n o t l o o k ed aft e r h e r an d h e d i d n o t n o t i ce h o w h e c am e t o l o v e h er ( A n n a K ar en i n a 4 1 9 ) T he pa r e nt a l r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t de ve l ops be t w e e n K a r e ni n a nd A nni e c a n be i nt e r pr e t e d i n s e ve r a l w a ys B i l l O ve r t on f i nds t he f a c t t ha t t he t w o pa r e nt s bond w i t h c hi l dr e n of t he oppos i t e s e x [ ] ps yc hol ogi c a l l y i nt e r e s t i ng i n i t s e l f ; pe r ha ps t hi s bondi ng a nd e s pe c i a l l y i n r e ga r d t o K a r e ni n s bondi ng w i t h A n ni e i s t he r e s ul t of di s pl a c e d l ove f o r t he s pous e s a nd t he f ul f i l l m e nt of a f f e c t i ve ne e ds t ha t c hi l dr e n of t he s a m e s e x c a nnot pr ovi de ( 320 ) P e r ha ps t oo, be c a us e A nni e i s f e m a l e K a r e ni n doe s not vi e w he r a s a t hr e a t or a r i va l a nd t he r e f or e hi s a t t a c hm e nt t o t h e c hi l d e nc ount e r s f e w hi nd r a nc e s M or e ove r hi s a f f e c t i on t ow a r ds A nna s da ught e r i s one t ha t i s c hos e n, r a t he r t ha n f or c e d upon hi m A s a r e s ul t h i s a t t a c hm e nt i s a p r oduc t of r e l a t i ona l f r e e w i l l r a t he r t ha n a n i nna t e ge ne t i c pr oduc t A nna s r e l a t i ons hi p t o he r ow n da ught e r w hi l e ob vi o us l y on a m uc h s t r onge r bi ol ogi c a l ba s i s t ha n t ha t of K a r e ni n s i s f a r m or e di s t a nt a nd de t a c he d f r om A nni e A f t e r l e a vi ng S e r yoz ha be hi nd t o l i ve a s a f a m i l y w i t h V r ons ky a nd he r da ught e r A nna c om e s t o r e a l i z e t he s ha l l ow ne s s of he r a f f e c t i on f or A nni e : T h e s i g h t o f t h i s ch i l d m ad e i t s t i l l cl ea rer t h at h er fe el i n g fo r h e r, co mp ar ed t o w h at s h e fel t fo r S ery o zh a w as n o t ev en l o v e. E v ery t h i n g ab o u t t h i s l i t t l e g i rl w as s w e et b u t fo r s o me re as o n n o n e o f i t t o u ch ed h er h eart T o t h e fi rs t ch i l d t h o u g h o f a m an s h e d i d n o t l o v e, h ad g o n e al l t h e fo rc e o f a l o v e t h at h ad n o t b een s at i s fi ed ; t h e g i rl b o rn i n t h e mo s t d i ffi cu l t co n d i t i o n s d i d n o t recei v e a h u n d red t h p art o f t h e car e t h at h ad g o n e t o t h e fi rs t [ ]. ( A n n a K aren i n a 5 3 8 ) S e ga l i nt e r e s t i ngl y poi nt s out t ha t t he s on w hom s he l ove d w i t hout r i va l i n hi s i n f a nc y c ont i nue s t o pul l he r ba c k, w hi l e t he da ught e r c onc e i ve d i n t he f ul l ne s s of de s i r e doe s

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59 not hi ng of t he s or t ; i ns t e a d, A nni e i ns pi r e s i nd i f f e r e nc e i n A nna m uc h t o t he l a t t e r s di s m a y ( 115) A nna s i na bi l i t y t o l ove he r da ught e r m a y be pa r t i a l l y pr e di c a t e d on he r e xc e s s i v e l ove f or he r s on, but a not he r pot e nt i a l e xpl a na t i on m a y be s i m i l a r t o t ha t of E m m a B ova r y s i na bi l i t y t o m ot he r he r da ught e r A s a f e m a l e a nd a s a n a m e s a ke doubl e A nna i s c e r t a i nl y a w a r e of he r da ught e r s l i m i t a t i ons bot h a s he r i l l e gi t i m a t e of f s pr i ng a nd a s a f e m a l e i n a pa t r i a r c ha l s oc i e t y i n w hi c h w om e n s r o l e s a r e c ons t r uc t e d a r ound r e pr oduc t i on a nd m ot he r hood M or e ove r he r pr i m a r y r e l a t i ons hi ps a r e e nt i r e l y c ons t r uc t e d a r ound m a l e s l e a vi ng l i t t l e r oom f or a f f e c t i ve bonds w i t h f e m a l e s on a ny l e ve l A s A nna t e l l s D a r ya A l e xa ndr ovna O bl ons k y, he r m or e vi r t uous s i s t e r i n l a w : Y o u mu s t u n d e rs t an d t h at I l o v e t w o b ei n g s eq u al l y I t h i n k b u t mo re t h an my s el f Se ry o zh a an d A l ex ei [ K i ri l l o v i ch V ro n s k y ]. [ ] I l o v e o n l y t h es e t w o b ei n g s an d t h e o n e ex cl u d es t h e o t h er. I can t u n i t e t h em y et I n eed o n l y t h at A n d i f t h e re i s n t t h at t h e res t mak es n o d i ffe ren c e. It al l m ak es n o d i f fer en ce A n d i t w i l l en d s o meh o w an d s o I can t I d o n t l i k e t al k i n g ab o u t i t ( A n n a K ar en i n a 6 4 0 ) N ot onl y do A nna s s on a nd he r l ove r c a nc e l e a c h ot he r out a nd r e m a i n a s t r ue r i va l s f or he r a f f e c t i on, but he r da ught e r doe s not a t a l l a ppe a r a s a n i ndi vi dua l w hom A nna l ove s T he i s s ue s e e m s not t ha t A nna i s una bl e t o m ot he r or una bl e t o m ot he r a da ught e r or e ve n t ha t s he i s a ba d m o t he r ( de s pi t e O ve r t on s a s s e r t i on t ha t t hi s s e que nc e pl a i nl y de f i ne [ s ] A nna a s a ba d m ot he r ) ( 320) but r a t h e r t ha t s he l a c ks t he a bi l i t y t o i de nt i f y w i t h f e m a l e s on e i t he r a nut u r i ng l e ve l or e ve n a s oc i a l l e ve l of i de nt i f i c a t i on, a s e vi de nc e d i n t he t e xt w he r e m os t pol i t e s oc i e t y a nd f e m a l e s oc i e t y i n pa r t i c ul a r s huns he r I n a n a t t e m pt t o pe r f or m a s or t of m ot he r hood w i t h a da ught e r f i gu r e A nna t a ke s on a n E ngl i s h p r ot g e na m e d H a nna h. H a n na h s e r ve s a s a s e c ond doubl i ng of A nna a nd pl a ys t he r ol e of he r a dopt e d da ught e r f ur t he r di s pl a c i ng a ny a f f e c t i on t ha t

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60 A nna f e e l s f or A nni e W he n V r ons ky, w h os e r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h hi s da ught e r i s t e nuous a t be s t a nd none xi s t e nt a t w or s t c r i t i c i z e s A nna f o r n ot l ovi ng A nni e A nna r e s ponds Y ou di d s a y ye s t e r da y t ha t I don t l ove m y da ug ht e r but p r e t e nd t o l ove t hi s E ngl i s h gi r l a nd t ha t i t s unna t ur a l I d l i ke t o know w ha t ki nd of l i f e c a n be na t ur a l f or m e he r e ( A nna K a r e ni na 743) E ve n A nna s a f f e c t i on f or he r p r ot g e i n a r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t i s s e e m i ngl y l e gi t i m a t e i s unna t ur a l a nd f e i gn e d; i n t u r n, he r da ught e r t he i l l e gi t i m a t e unna t ur a l pr oduc t o f a n i l l i c i t a f f a i r ha s no c ha nc e a t w i nni ng A nna s a f f e c t i ons T he c onf l i c t i n w hi c h t hi s a dm i s s i on a p pe a r s m a r ks t he be gi nni ng o f A nna s de s pe r a t i on, c ul m i na t i ng i n he r s ui c i de B y t he e nd of t he nove l f o l l ow i ng A nna s s ui c i de t he bi ol ogi c a l a nd g e ne t i c r e l a t i on s uf f e r s a c om pl e t e br e a kdow n a nd s w i t c he s ove r t o a w hol l y r e l a t i ona l pa r e nt i ng m ode l V r ons ky, A nni e s bi ol ogi c a l f a t he r r e noun c e s hi s c l a i m t o t he c hi l d a nd A l e xe i A l e xa ndr ovi c h K a r e ni n e nds up a dopt i ng he r a nd p l a c i ng he r i n t he s a m e hous e hol d i n w hi c h S e r yoz ha A nna s be l ove d c hi l d, i s s t i l l g r o w i ng up. H e r e t he i l l e gi t i m a t e be c om e s l e gi t i m a t e : bot h of A nna K a r e ni na s c hi l d r e n a r e unde r t he s a m e r oo f be i ng e qua l l y c a r e d f or by A nna s ha t e d s pur ne d hus ba n d. T he f a t he r t a ke s on t he r ol e of m ot he r i ng, a nd t he r e l a t i ona l pa r e nt i ng m ode l i s c o m pl e t e

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61 Con c l us i o n I n t hi s t he s i s I ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o a na l yz e t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of w om e n w i t hi n s e l e c t e d w or ks of ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y r e a l i s t l i t e r a t ur e us i ng c ont e m po r a r y f e m i ni s t t he or i e s f r om va r i ous s c hool s of t hought O ve r t he c our s e of t h i s t he s i s I f ound t ha t w hi l e F l a ube r t a nd T ol s t oy a t t e m pt t o pr e s e nt t he i r f e m a l e pr ot a goni s t s a s f ul l hum a n be i ngs a nd t he i r na r r a t or s a s pos s e s s i ng pa r t i c ul a r i ns i ght i nt o t he i r ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e s a nd m ot i va t i ons t he i r po r t r a ya l s of w om e n s t i l l f a l l i nt o f a i r l y s ha l l ow m i s ogyni s t pa t t e r ns of t hi nki ng F l i c i t i n A S i m pl e H e a r t m a y be nobl e but t hi s nobi l i t y a nd pur i t y s t e m f r om he r i l l i t e r a c y, i s ol a t i on f r o m hum a n c onne c t i on, a nd F l a ube r t s na r r a t or s i na bi l i t y t o f ul l y c om pr e he nd he r I n F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s M a s ha i s t i e d s o di r e c t l y t o t he na t ur a l w or l d a nd t o he r dom e s t i c d ut i e s t ha t a ny i nde pe nde nc e or a ge nc y t ha t s he a s s e r t s i s vi e w e d a s a s i gn of c or r upt i on a n d de f i l e m e nt a nd a s unna t ur a l by bot h he r hus ba nd a nd, pr e s um a bl y, T ol s t oy hi m s e l f A nd w hi l e m y a na l ys i s de m ons t r a t e s t ha t t hi s i s not e nt i r e l y t he c a s e bot h E m m a B ova r y a nd A nna K a r e ni na a r e pr e s e nt e d by t he i r na r r a t or s a s be i ng f a l l e n w om e n a nd ba d m ot he r s w ho di s r up t t he na t ur a l s oc i a l or de r a nd t he p r i c e t he y m us t pa y f or s uc h t r a ns gr e s s i on i s de a t h. I n us i ng pos t c ol oni a l e c of e m i ni s t a nd ps yc hoa na l yt i c t he or i e s t o e xa m i ne t he s e t e xt s I hope d t o c r i t i que F l a ube r t a nd T ol s t oy f r o m va nt a ge poi nt s t ha t a r e out s i de t he r a nge of c ur r e nt c r i t i c i s m a nd s c hol a r s hi p. W hi l e s c hol a r l y w or k on bot h F l a ube r t a nd T ol s t oy a bound, I f ound s ur p r i s i ngl y l i t t l e t ha t m o ve d i n t he di r e c t i on o f m y ow n r e a di ngs I n t he c a s e of F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s f i ndi ng r e s e a r c h a t a l l w a s da unt i ng ( A s I not e d i n C ha pt e r 2 T ol s t oy de e pl y di s l i ke d t he no ve l l a a nd r e pudi a t e d i t e ve n be f o r e he

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62 r e nounc e d hi s ot he r l a t e r w o r ks I t i s a l s o a ve r y e a r l y, di da c t i c w or k, a nd one t ha t doe s not a l w a ys l e nd i t s e l f e a s i l y t o a na l ys i s or c r i t i c i s m ) C a n oni c a l t hough t he y m a y be t he w or ks of F l a ube r t a nd T ol s t oy a r e c ons i s t e nt l y ope n t o ne w r e a di ngs I be l i e ve t ha t t hi s t he s i s c a n be c ons i de r e d a s a s t a r t i ng poi nt f or unt r a di t i ona l or c ont e m por a r y a na l ys e s f or c a noni c a l t e xt s O t he r nove l s a nd s hor t s t or i e s by F l a ube r t a nd T ol s t oy a r e ope n t o s i m i l a r a na l ys e s a nd i nt e r p r e t a t i ons a s a r e ot he r w e l l r e a d r e a l i s t t e xt s W i t h m or e t i m e I w oul d ha ve l i ke d t o i nc l u de a ny of D os t oe vs ky s nove l s ; m or e ove r r e a di ng t he l a t e r T ol s t oy s hor t s t or y T h e K r e ut z e r S ona t a ( 1889) i n l i ght of t he f e m a l e na t ur e / m a l e c ul t u r e bi na r i e s c oul d be v e r y pr oduc t i ve F l a ube r t s s hor t s t or y H e r odi a s w hi c h, l i ke A S i m pl e H e a r t w a s pu bl i s he d a s pa r t of T r oi s C ont e s i n 1877, w oul d l e nd i t s e l f w e l l t o a ps yc hoa na l yt i c r e a di ng. R e a de r s m a y t a ke t he s e s ugge s t i ons a s s t a r t i ng poi nt s f or t he i r ow n a na l ys e s

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63 Bi b l i ogr a ph y A ndr e w J oe T he r e s N o P l a c e L i ke H om e : N a r r a t i ve S pa c e a nd G e nde r i n F am i l y H appi ne s s N a r r a t i ve S pa c e a nd G e nde r i n R us s i a n F i c t i on: 1846 1903 N e w Y or k: R odopi 2007. 85 104. A r m s t r ong, J udi t h T he N ove l of A dul t e r y N e w Y or k: B a r ne s a nd N obl e 1976. T he U ns a i d A nna K a r e ni na N e w Y or k: S t M a r t i ns P r e s s 1988. C hodor ow N a nc y J T he R e pr oduc t i on of M ot he r i ng B e r ke l e y: U ni ve r s i t y o f C a l i f or ni a P r e s s 1978 C ul l e r J ona t ha n. T he S e nt i m e nt a l a nd t he S a c r e d F l a ube r t : T he U s e s of U nc e r t a i nt y I t ha c a N Y : C or ne l l U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1974. 207 228 T he U s e s of M a da m e B ova r y. F l a ube r t a nd P os t m ode r ni s m E d. H e nr y F M a j e w s ki a nd N a om i S c hor L i nc ol n & L ondon: U ni ve r s i t y of N e br a s ka P r e s s 1984 1 12. D e br a y G e ne t t e R a ym onde P r of a ne S a c r e d: D i s or de r of U t t e r a nc e i n T r oi s C ont e s F l a ube r t a nd P os t m ode r ni s m E d H e nr y F M a j e w s ki a nd N a om i S c hor L i nc ol n & L on don: U ni ve r s i t y of N e br a s ka P r e s s 1984 1 3 29.

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64 F l a ube r t G us t a ve A S i m pl e H e a r t T h r e e T a l e s T r a ns R oge r W hi t e hous e N e w Y or k: P e ngui n B ooks 2005. 3 40. T r a ns o f U n C oe ur S i m p l e T r oi s C ont e s 1877 M a da m e B ova r y T r a ns L ow e l l B a i r N e w Y or k: R a ndom H ous e 1989 T r a ns of M a da m e B ova r y 1857. J e ns e n, D e bor a h. T he P e r s ons a nd T hi ngs S c hool : P a r r ot s P e a s a nt s a nd P a r i a hs i n U n C oe ur S i m pl e a nd L a C ha um i r e i ndi e nne D i f f e r e nc e s : A J our na l of F e m i ni s t C ul t ur a l S t udi e s 17 3 ( 1997 ) : 107 125. K i s s e l e f f N a t a l i a I dyl l a nd I de a l : A s pe c t s of S e nt i m e nt a l i s m i n T ol s t oy s F am i l y H appi ne s s M ode r n C r i t i c a l V i e w s : L e o T ol s t oy E d H a r ol d B l oom N e w Y or k: C he l s e a H ous e P ubl i s he r s 1986. 211 220 L e vi n, H a r r y. W ha t i s R e a l i s m ? C om pa r a t i ve L i t e r a t ur e 3: 3 ( 1951) : 193 199 M a r de r E l i s s a T r a um a A ddi c t i on a nd T e m por a l B ul i m i a i n M a da m e B ova r y. D i a c r i t i c s 27: 3 ( 1997 ) : 49 64 M e ye r P r i s c i l l a A nna K a r e ni na : T ol s t oy's P ol e m i c W i t h M a da m e B ova r y. R us s i a n R e vi e w 54: 2 ( 1995) : 243 259

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65 O r r M a r y. T r oi s C ont e s F l a ube r t : W r i t i ng t he M a s c ul i ne N e w Y or k: O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 2000. 143 167. O r t ne r S he r r y B I s F e m a l e t o M a l e a s N a t ur e i s t o C ul t ur e ? F e m i ni s t S t udi e s 1: 2 ( 1972) : 3 31. O ve r t on, B i l l C hi l dr e n a nd C hi l dl e s s ne s s i n t he N ove l of F e m a l e A dul t e r y. T he M ode r n L a ngua ge R e vi e w 94: 2 ( 1999 ) : 314 3 27. S e ga l N a om i T he A dul t e r e s s s C hi l dr e n. E d. N i c hol a s W hi t e a nd N a om i S e ga l S c a r l e t L e t t e r s : F i c t i ons of A dul t e r y f r om A nt i qui t y t o t he 1990s N e w Y or k: S t M a r t i ns P r e s s 1997. 109 122 S pi va k, G a ya t r i C ha kr a vor t y. C a n t he S uba l t e r n S pe a k? C ol oni a l D i s c our s e a nd P os t C ol oni a l T he or y: A R e a de r E d. L a ur a C hr i s m a n a nd P a t r i c k W i l l i a m s N e w Y or k: C ol um bi a U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 1994 66 111. F e m i ni s m a nd C r i t i c a l T he or y. T he S pi va k R e a de r E d D onna L a ndr y a nd G e r a l d M a c L e a n. N e w Y o r k: R out l e dge 1996. 5 3 74. T ol s t oy, L e o. A nna K a r e ni na T r a ns R i c ha r d P e v e a r a nd L a r i s s a V ol okhons ky. N e w Y or k: P e ngui n 2000 T r a n s of % % ) ) ." % / % ) 1877.

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66 F a m i l y H a ppi ne s s G r e a t S hor t W or ks of L e o T ol s t oy T r a ns L oui s e a nd A yl m e r M a ude N e w Y or k: H a r pe r a nd R ow 1967 1 82 T r a ns of # $ % &" ( ) + 1859. W a s i ol e k, E dw a r d. P ol i k us hk a a nd F am i l y H app i ne s s T ol s t o y s M a j or F i c t i on. C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s 1978. 36 5 0.


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