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Out On a Limb--Forest Canopies

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004087/00001

Material Information

Title: Out On a Limb--Forest Canopies Science and Environmental Education Utilizing a Traveling Exhibit
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Evers, Zachary
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Education
Environmental Studies
Out On a Limb
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Environmental and Science education is of the utmost importance to the health and longevity of our forests and the natural world. This environmental education thesis is on informing the public about science and the environment through the use of the "Out On a Limb � Forest Canopies" exhibit and analyzing the effectiveness of its impact. "Out On a Limb � Forest Canopies" is a science education exhibit developed to educate people about forest canopies and illustrate the challenges of canopy access by scientists. A traveling rain forest diorama, touch screen information kiosk, and mock canopy walkway will circulate venues in Southwest Florida, increasing public awareness of how forest canopies are important to all life on Earth. Canopy research provides a highly visual, exploratory approach to scientific inquiry that can be effectively communicated to school groups and the general public. The intellectual merit of the exhibit is to provide public education about forest biodiversity, how the treetops provide energy for all life, links between the treetops and the forest floor, and why citizens should conserve forests. This is achieved through the creation hands-on activities and curriculum related to the exhibit for school groups and other visitors, as well as the implementation of a system of metrics to track and assess the impact it has on the public. Literature on science education and methods for improving science education was also reviewed.
Statement of Responsibility: by Zachary Evers
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Lowman, Margaret

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 E9
System ID: NCFE004087:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004087/00001

Material Information

Title: Out On a Limb--Forest Canopies Science and Environmental Education Utilizing a Traveling Exhibit
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Evers, Zachary
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Education
Environmental Studies
Out On a Limb
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Environmental and Science education is of the utmost importance to the health and longevity of our forests and the natural world. This environmental education thesis is on informing the public about science and the environment through the use of the "Out On a Limb � Forest Canopies" exhibit and analyzing the effectiveness of its impact. "Out On a Limb � Forest Canopies" is a science education exhibit developed to educate people about forest canopies and illustrate the challenges of canopy access by scientists. A traveling rain forest diorama, touch screen information kiosk, and mock canopy walkway will circulate venues in Southwest Florida, increasing public awareness of how forest canopies are important to all life on Earth. Canopy research provides a highly visual, exploratory approach to scientific inquiry that can be effectively communicated to school groups and the general public. The intellectual merit of the exhibit is to provide public education about forest biodiversity, how the treetops provide energy for all life, links between the treetops and the forest floor, and why citizens should conserve forests. This is achieved through the creation hands-on activities and curriculum related to the exhibit for school groups and other visitors, as well as the implementation of a system of metrics to track and assess the impact it has on the public. Literature on science education and methods for improving science education was also reviewed.
Statement of Responsibility: by Zachary Evers
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Lowman, Margaret

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 E9
System ID: NCFE004087:00001


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Chapter 1 Literature Review 1.1 The State of Science Education in the US According to many different studies the state of science education in the United States is sadly lacking (Zerhouni 2008, Gold 2007, NAS 2007, PISA 2006, Holden 2000, Mervis 2007, NAEP 2006). Our nation has always prided itself on being a leader in the fields of science and technology (NAS 2007), but it is beginning to lose its foothold as students from other countries continue to gain strength in science (PISA 2006) and math (Holden 2000). America has come to be more reliant on those international students and workers to fuel our scientific and technological workforce. To uphold its tradition as a competitive contributor in the arena of science and technology, America must first look to bolster the next generation of scientists who currently occupy seats in the K-12 classrooms of America. This includes finding ways to motivate students and to encourage them that they will be the ones to solve today's problems. Challenges such as finding a source of clean and renewable energy, preservation of our environment, and the growth of our economy will very soon transfer from the baby-boomers to the next generation (NAS 2007). If students do not gain a proficience in science, our nation will likely fail or be outcompeted by other nations. Labor economists predict that well over half of US students may leave school without gaining necessary skills (Zerhouni 2008) that include problem-solving, critical-thinking and communication (Murnane and Levy 1996). Efforts have been made to assess the state of science education in America both domestically and in relation to the rest of the world. The major domestic effort is headed 1

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up under the U.S. Department of Education in the National Center for Educational Statistics which, beginning in 1990, organized the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). According to their website, it is "the only nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas." Assessments are conducted periodically in the major subject areas such as mathematics, reading, writing, and science ( http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/about/ ). The most recently released report, aptly dubbed The Nation's Report Card, enumerates the results of the 2005 assessment on science. A sample size of 300,000 representative students in grades 4, 8, and 12 were tested on their conceptual understanding of science, knowledge of scientific investigation, and practical reasoning skills in the fields of life science, physical science, and earth science. Results were reported on a raw score scale of 0 to 300 points, and achievement levels of Basic (score of 138-169), Proficient (170204), or Advanced (205+). As a longitudinal study, trends at both the national and state levels can be interpreted giving an accurate picture of how well science literacy goals are being met. Unfortunately, the most obvious trend the data show is that these goals are not being reached, and in many cases are stagnant or declining. The fourth grade cohort was the only group to show improvement from the 1996 and 2000 assessment. National averages from those years were 147 points, however the results from the 2005 assessment put the national average at 151 points. This means that only 29% of fourth grade students reached an achievement level of proficient or greater, as opposed to only 27% in 2000, and only 68% were at a basic level or higher, up from 63%. The corollary to this statistic, however, is that roughly one third of fourth grade 2

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students sampled have a scientific literacy that is below a basic understanding level. Florida's fourth grade students came in just below the national average with a score of 150 points. Eighth grade students share a similar fate as the fourth graders, with only 29% of students achieving a score which placed them at proficient levels of science literacy. However only 59% demonstrated levels of mastery above a basic comprehension. This means that 41% of eighth grade students in the U.S. are performing below a basic achievement level in science. These results are unchanged from 1996 and 2000, meaning that there has been no significant gains in middle schools' attempts at science education reform (NAEP 2006). This is an ominous predictor of the future of our nation's science industry, given the importance of middle school science whereby this age group should be showing the most improvement (Bazler 1993). Twelfth grade students showed the most alarming, though not the most unpredictable, trends in the NAEP science assessment. Though the national score was up from 146 in 2000 to 147 in 2005, these numbers are down from the 1996 average of 150. With only 18% of students performing at a proficient level, and only 54% at a level of basic or above, serious concerns are raised about the qualifications of the students we are graduating into the collegiate education system and the nation's workforce. High school students are showing a marked drop in levels of science achievement (NAEP 2006) and in their level of interest in science (Beck et. al. 2006, Bazler 1993). As students move through the education system, their achievements in science become progressively worse, and the gap between the U.S. and the global student population continues to grow (Mervis 2007). 3

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Internationally, the results are not very redeeming for U.S. science education (Gold 2007, Zerhouni 2008). On the 1999 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) U.S. Twelfth graders scored almost dead last out of the 20 participating countries (NAS 2006) and America was the only country to show a significant drop as our students progressed through grade levels (Holden 2000). In 2000, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), formed in 1997 under the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), conducted it's first of an ongoing series of surveys of its 30 member nations. These surveys were meant to assess the relative strengths and weakness of the educational systems of the world in an effort to address the effects of globalization (Friedman 2006, PISA 2006). In 2006, the third of these surveys was conducted, focusing on science literacy or the "capacity of students to analyze, reason, and communicate effectively as they pose, solve, and interpret problems in a variety of situations," as well as on student attitudes towards science. By that time, 27 other nations had partnered the the OECD and joined in the assessment. Out of the approximately 400,000 15-year-old students representative of the 57 total nations that were tested on their proficiency at problem solving, the United States ranked 36 th (Figure 1.1). Almost one quarter of our nation's students ranked below a level 2 proficiency level, meaning that they had such a limited scientific knowledge that it could only be applied in a few, familiar situations. Furthermore, only 66% of US students surveyed felt that science was very relevant to them (PISA 2006). 4

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1.2 Methods of Improving Science Education During the joint meeting of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineers in 2005, participants discussed the current trends of devolution in science and technology in the U.S., and how it will inhibit citizens from competing for high-quality jobs in the today's global economy. To ameliorate this fear and improve the U.S.'s standing in the enterprise of knowledge acquisition, they called upon their 5 Figure 1.1

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Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) to be charged with the task of alleviating the situation. Specifically, they asked this of the COSEPUP: "What are the top ten actions, in priority order, that federal policy makers could take to enhance the science and technology enterprise so that the United States can successfully compete, prosper, and be secure in the global community of the 21 st century? What implementation strategy, with several concrete step, could be used to implement each of those actions?" The urgency with which this task was carried out was (especially in terms of government) astounding. Only weeks elapsed between the COSEPUP's initial meeting and the issue of their final report. Not surprisingly, the first three recommendations are associated with improving the K-12 education system. The first recommendation of the committee is known as "10,000 Teachers for 10 Million Minds." It states that the U.S. should recruit 10,000 teachers annually by offering collegiate scholarships to pay for bachelor's degree programs and concurrent teaching certification courses in science, mathematics, and engineering. These scholarships would require the recipients to commit to teaching 5 years in the public school system post-graduation. By doing so, the COSEPUP estimates that the quality of education for 10 million K-12 students would be improved by ensuring highly skilled, competent educators in the front of the classroom. The second recommendation follows in a similar vein and looks to further the training and education of the current corps of science and mathematics teachers, a quarter of a million of them each year. This is achieved through a four-part program of professional development programs including : 1) summer institutes, 2) master's degree programs in science and mathematics, 3) training for Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate teachers, and 4) the development of a voluntary national K6

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12 science and mathematics curriculum (NAS 2007). Though the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 currently requires all mathematics and science teachers to participate in professional development (No Child Left Behind Act of 2001), and the opportunities are seemingly endless, teachers report confusion as to which of these programs are worthwhile. This recommendation would work to identify which of these programs are of outstanding merit, and provide funding for educators to attend them. The final recommendation of the COSEPUP concerning K-12 Science education attacks the problem from the other end of the spectrum: the students themselves. It works to increase the talent pool of students entering the collegiate circle and the workforce by encouraging students to participate in more challenging curriculum. Their goal is to have 1.5 million students enrolled in at least one AP or IB course by 2010 (NAS 2007). A parallel study to the TIMSS, U.S. students who successfully completed AP Calculus in 2000 were administered the same test as the participants in the 1995 TIMSS test. Their scores were significantly higher than both the U.S. average and the average scores of all the participating countries (Mervis 2007). Inquiry-based learning is another tool for improving the state of science education in the U.S. today. It engages students actively in the subject matter, instead of occupying a passive role by listening to a teacher lecture. Studies have shown that teaching science in an inquiry-based setting helps to promote positive attitudes toward science (Kyle et al. 1985), as well as develop critical thinking (Narode et al. 1987) and communication skills (Rodriguez and Bethel 1983). To scientists, inquiry-based learning is a very easy concept to understand. It is, at its core, the same process as doing science, as seen in Figure 1.2 (BSCS 2008). The 1996 National Science Education Standards defined inquiry-based 7

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learning in this way: "Scientific inquiry refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence derived from their work. Inquiry also refers to the activities of students in which they develop knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas as well as an understanding of how scientists study the natural world." (NRC 1996) In 2000, the inquiry model of science education was such a success that the National Research Council published Inquiry and the National Science Standards which identified the five essential features of inquiry-based learning: 1. Learner engages in scientifically oriented questions. 2. Leaner gives priority to evidence in responding to questions. 3. Learner formulates explanations from evidence. 4. Learner connects explanations to scientific knowledge. 5. Leaner communicates and justifies explanations. (NRC 2000) 8 Figure 1.2

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By adhering to the model of inquiry-based education, an opportune niche is created in the education system for scientists (BSCS 2008), graduate students (Beck et al. 2006), professors, and undergraduate students to connect with the K-12 community to foster positive and lasting experiences in science through outreach programs (Silva 2007). These outreach programs have a positive correlation to science literacy and to the pursuit of careers in science. A recent program at Washington University brought local high school students from the area into the laboratory and linked them with graduate students for hands-on experiments and small-group discussion. The high school students displayed a better understanding of the material, and 65% of them reported a commitment to a career in science. The experience was also positive for the graduate students, over one third of whom have continued involvement in outreach programs after leaving Washington University (Beck et al. 2006). 1.3 The Natural World as Inspiration to Students and Future Scientists In a 2006 survey of the members of the Ecological Society of America, 58% of participants responded that their interest in ecology developed before they graduated from high school, and over 60% cited that their most critical influence was not connected with any teacher or classroom (Brewer et al. 2006). Just being in nature, connecting with the world around them as a child is what caused them to fall in love with science and to choose a career focused on the pursuit of knowledge about the natural world (Lowman 2006). What makes this survey so pertinent is that children today are not experiencing a profound attachment to nature because they are not spending enough time in it (Louv 9

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2006). Children's apparent disconnect with nature was made especially striking when a British study found that primary school-children in the UK could identify PokŽmon characters with greater accuracy than native wildlife such as an otter, beetle, or oak tree (Balmford et al. 2002). As the Senegalese environmentalist Baba Dioum once said, "In the end we will only conserve what we love. We love only what we understand." In his 2006 book "Last Child in the Woods," Richard Louv applied the term Nature-Deficit Disorder to this phenomenon of disengagement with nature. While he is clear that there is no clinical or medical reasoning behind this nomenclature (simply that the phrase accurately conveys his meaning), he does bring to light that detachment from nature can have an adverse effect on the social, educational, and emotional health of children. One particularly poignant fourth-grader Louv spoke with said this about his playtime: "I like to play indoors better, 'cause that's where all the electrical outlets are." What are the ramifications of so many children sitting around indoors instead of playing outside? James Sallis, the program director of the Active Living Research Program for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, points to several studies which show that the single greatest indicator of preschooler's activity level is "simply being outdoors." He also says that a sedentary, indoor lifestyle for children is tied to many mental health problems. One of the more common of these mental health disorders in children is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is characterized by restlessness, inability to focus or pay attention, difficulty listening and following directions, and in some cases aggression. These symptoms make academic success a serious challenge for children afflicted with this syndrome. Says both Louv and others, direct exposure to nature can 10

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help to quell many of these issues, reducing or eliminating the need for medications like Ritalin and Dexedrine. (Louv 2006, Taylor et al. 2001, Wells 2000). Even students who do not suffer from ADHD, learning in an environment-based context has been shown to improve standardized test scores in social studies, language arts, mathematics and science, raise GPAs, develop problem-solving, critical thinking, and decision-making skills, as well as decreasing behavior issues and absences. Examples of the success of local environment-based educational programs are abundant. In Dallas, Texas Hotchkiss Elementary School saw a 13% increase in the passing rates of its fourth grade students after implementing such a program. Statewide passing rates over the same period rose only 1%. The school also saw a 91% decrease in disciplinary referrals which the teachers and principal credit to the students' active involvement in learning (Lieberman 2002). An environment-based school in Asheville, North Carolina saw gains of 31% in students performing at a "proficient" level on a standardized math test, as opposed to a 15% increase at other schools in the area (Louv 2006). One of the more exciting fields of research that has been used in recent years to inspire students to get turned-on to science is rain forest and canopy ecology. Canopy walkways, originally intended as a research tool used to gain access to the upper reaches of rain forest canopies, quickly became a source of public interest in the canopy (Lowman et al. 2006). One major environmental education program to take advantage of this fascination with the treetops has been The JASON Project (Lowman 1999). Its principle founder was Dr. Robert D. Ballard, the deep-sea explorer famous for discovering the wreckage of the HMS Titanic. In ecstatic joy after his discovery, it occurred to him that the key to exciting younger generations about science lay in that 11

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pure excitement of exploration and discovery. In 1989, he started the JASON Project in an attempt to connect students in the classroom with real-life scientists doing exciting research via telecommunication all across the globe. He felt that this sense of "being there" would spark children's imaginations and catalyze their enthusiasm to learn and to be a part of their own great discovery ( http://www.jason.org/ ). It has been shown that its unique blend of distance learning and interactions with the explorers of our planet invoke in students a positive attitude towards learning (Bruckerhoff 1998) and science (Bazler et al 1993). Since its inception, The JASON Project has travelled to rain forests in Belize and Peru as part of JASON V and X respectively. For these journeys, the expertise of canopy ecologist Dr. Margaret Lowman was called upon by to help lead students and teachers on an expedition into to the rain forest canopy. Dr. Ballard was excited to work in an ecosystem that was so opposite his area of study, and yet so similar in terms of how little knowledge there was of it. In 1994, JASON V argonauts (the name given to participants of the program) travelled to Belize, where Dr. Lowman helped construct a canopy walkway specifically for the program. It was such a success that five years later, the JASON team contacted her once again to ask where she thought might provide another suitable site for JASON X. Her enthusiastic response was the Peruvian Amazon. It was there that a colleague of hers had built a canopy walkway which can only be described as awe-inspiring. Over 1,200 feet of walkway connect twelve canopy platforms reaching heights of over 125 feet, this was the first place in Dr. Lowman's mind that instilled the type of wonder and amazement the JASON Project was founded upon. She had previously brought teachers and families to the ACEER (Amazon Center for Education 12

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and Environmental Research, since renamed ACTS (Amazon Conservatory for Tropical Studies) walkway to map epiphytes and study herbivores, and her focus during JASON was to study bromeliads. During this excursion, students helped her to study and name a new species of beetle that feasted on the leaves of bromeliads. After submissions from over 900 schools, the Nutmeg Canopy beetle ( Calliaspis rubra ) was declared the winning entry. This would not be the last time Dr. Lowman ventured into the rain forest canopy with the intention of educating the public about science and the wonder of the natural world. Shortly after returning from the JASON X expedition, she led a group of youths from the local Boys and Girls Club and Girls Incorporated into the Amazon with funding raised by the TREE Foundation (Tree Research, Exploration, and Education) a nonprofit organization she helped start. The co-project of the TREE Foundation was to build a canopy walkway in the Myakka River State Park of Sarasota, FL which was opened to the public in June of 2000 (Lowman et al. 2006). To this day, the Myakka Canopy Walkway serves as a source of ecotourism to the park, and as a field trip location for teachers from local schools who have the desire to get their students out of the classroom, and into nature. As we have seen, "hooks" in nature are the key to inspiring students to take an interest in science and the environment, in the hope that they may one day become the stewards that we need them to be in order to maintain a balance with our natural world. From these "hooks" in nature, Lowman decided to create a school exhibit to bring forest canopies to students who may not be able to participate in field trips. 13

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Chapter 2 "Out On a Limb Forest Canopies" Exhibit History "Out On a Limb Forest Canopies" is a mobile, traveling exhibit consisting of three main components: a 5'x3'x5' scale diorama modeled after a Peruvian lowland rain forest, a touch screen visual information kiosk, and a section of canopy walkway. The brainchild of Dr. Margaret Lowman and funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation, the exhibit was designed with the intention to excite and educate the residents and visitors of southwest Florida, and eventually beyond, about the rain forest and other forest canopies. Using the exciting field of canopy research as a "hook", the exhibit was also intended to inspire students, especially women and minorities, to consider science as a viable career path. 2.1 NSF Grant The National Science Foundation was created in 1950 by an act of congress to "promote the progress of science". The primary vessel by which this goal is achieved is by awarding limited-term grants through its various programs, each based on specific criteria and needs. Having already received a National Science Foundation grant in 1999 to study the link between herbivory in the canopy and soil processes such as decomposition and fertility, Dr. Lowman realized the need to translate her and others scientific research and effectively communicate it to the public at large. Only after the knowledge of the scientific research is disseminated to citizens can America's global competitiveness get back on track (NAS 2007). It was in this spirit that the idea for the 14

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"Out On a Limb" exhibit was conceived. The National Science Foundation also shared this sentiment; under the Education and Human Resource directorate, in the Organization for Research on Learning in Formal and Informal Settings, one component of the Informal Science Education program was dedicated to Communicating Research to Public Audiences. It was in this arena that Dr. Lowman sought funding for the project. Early in 2005, a grant proposal was submitted based on the ultimate need to educate the public about the importance of forest canopies to all life on Earth. Especially due to the increase in population in southwest Florida and the subsequent threat of deforestation to make way for housing, knowledge about these ecosystems is absolutely necessary in order to garner support from the public for conservation initiatives. Later that year, the grant proposal was approved and funds approaching $75,000 were allocated, making the National Science Foundation the primary sponsor of the exhibit. Additional support for local school visits and community outreach came from the TREE Foundation, New College of Florida, and the Community Foundation of Sarasota. 2.2 The Exhibit The physical exhibit, as previously stated, is comprised of three main components: the diorama, the information kiosk, and the walkway. The design and construction of these elements was completed by Dr. Phillip K. Wittman of Canopy Quest, a canopy access specialist company. 15

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The diorama's physical dimensions are 3' X 4' X 4' sitting atop a 1.5 feet base. Locking castor wheels on the base retain the exhibit's mobility, and for ease of transport, the diorama has wheels which nest inside the base when on display. Graphic panels in English and Spanish line the outside of the base, enhancing the aesthetics and depicting real-life examples of some of the exhibit's inhabitants. Spanish translations of all materials were included to encourage diversity among visitors, given Florida's large population of Latinos. The diorama is all built at a 1:100 scale, putting the total depicted area at 120,000 square feet. The diorama represents an Amazon lowland rain forest in Peru, with approximately 22 different species distributed throughout the diorama to scale. These various rain forest dwelling organisms are stratified in the forest floor, understory, canopy, and emergent layers, including primary producers such as Kapok trees and various lianas, primary consumers (e.g. leaf-cutter ants), secondary consumers (e.g. jaguar and puma), and decomposers (e.g. termites). Dynamic components include Strangler Figs in multiple stages of development, xeromorphic orchids, and a Harpy eagle carrying a 16 Table 2.1 Organisms represented in the Diorama Amazon Mealy Parrots Azteca ant nests Black Agouti Blue-backed Manikins Crested Caracaras Harpy Eagle Jaguar Leaf-cutter ants and subterranean fungus garden Masked Crimson Tanagers Pale Vented Pigeon Puma Scarlet Macaws Adult and juvenile Tapirs termite nests Three-toed sloth White Lipped Peccaries White Necked Puffbirds Strangler Figs Kapok trees lianas xeromorphic orchids bromeliads ferns

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freshly caught sloth. A complete list of the organisms can be found in Table 2.1. The inclusion so many organisms illustrates the incredible array of biodiversity present in an actual rain forest, and and the specific layer they inhabit. It engages visitors in a "Where's Waldo" exercise of observation by challenging them to attempt to locate all of the different species. When presentations of the exhibit are given, information about each of the organisms is discussed as they are discovered. Exemplary features of the diorama are scientists and researchers using many of their technical methods and equipment to access to the canopy and to study its inhabitants. Canopy access towers, ropes and the single rope technique, and Canopy platforms are depicted; and most exciting of all, the dirigible and canopy raft flies atop the forest diorama. When viewers discover these different teams of researchers, student docents explain the specific canopy access methods, including advantages and disadvantages. For example, my notes to explain the single rope technique include the following: "The single rope technique, or SRT, is the most widely used method of canopy access. This is mostly due to its low cost and its mobility. As the name suggests, a single rope is propelled over a supporting branch in the canopy. This is usually achieved with the aid of a slingshot device. After this rope is secured the researchers, wearing safety harnesses, use equipment called ascenders or jumars to climb the rope. Jumars clip onto the rope and can only move up until they are released. Through a process of alternating which jumar bears the researcher's weight and which one slides up the rope, the physical energy required to climb hundreds of feet is greatly reduced. However, the SRT can only get researchers into trees that have a branch strong enough to support their weight that is low enough to pass a rope over. For the same reason, even if the tree is able to be climbed, the upper branches are not accessible. In order to reach these portions of the tree at the top of the 17

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canopy, the dirigible and raft would be more suitable." The information and simulated gaming kiosk forms the second component of the exhibit, and adds an an audio-visual aspect to the exhibit as a whole. Housed in a sustainable bamboo cabinet, it consists of an internal computer, stereo system, and a interactive touch-screen. While the diorama remains a mostly "hands-off" display, the kiosk is very much "hands-on", promoting students and visitors to touch and engage the exhibit making it a more memorable experience. As they explore the wealth of pictures, videos and information, actual bird calls and other sounds of the rain forest are played in the background. These sounds of the rain forest help to not only attract visitors, but also provide for a more immersive experience once their attention has been captured. The final piece of the exhibit is a short section of a canopy walkway, one of the many tools canopy ecologists use to study the forest canopy. In essence, it is a small wooden suspension bridge with planks of wood running across metal cables. While actual canopy walkways are suspended high in the trees, the Out On a Limb walkway rests only about a foot above the ground. It is, however, designed to some of the same specifications as the real thing. While it may not provide much canopy access, it piques the curiosity of visitors to the exhibit. With curiosity being one of the precursors of learning and exploration (Louv 2006), the exhibit walkway is a great incentive for visitors to seek real forest canopy exploration, such as in the Myakka River State Park of Sarasota, Florida. In this respect, the NSF exhibit widens the scope and breadth of science beyond a brief encounter and inspires visitors to get out and explore the natural world around them. 18

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Chapter 3 Experiences with the Exhibit My experiences with science education began in Professor Lowman's Science Outreach for Students (SOS) tutorial during my second year (2005-2006) at New College. It was a tutorial designed to connect Novo Collegians to K-12 schools and other educational venues with two goals: to deliver hands-on lessons to young people about ecology and the environment, and to engage college students in meaningful community volunteerism. After my first outreach lesson, I was hooked. While nerve-racking, the feeling of being in front of a classroom delivering lessons was unrivaled. Participating in this tutorial has since shaped the rest of my academic career, and inspired my goal of becoming a K-12 science teacher after graduation. It has given me valuable experience in the areas of public speaking, writing lesson plans, tracking student performance, classroom management, and the creation of exciting hands-on activities. It was also provided my first exposure to the NSF funded Out On a Limb Forest Canopies exhibit. Working alongside Dr. Lowman, I observed her ability to connect the public and K-12 students to her technical NSF research on forest canopies by creating such an outreach exhibit. Everyone in the tutorial was very excited about the opportunity to work on an NSF funded project. Seeing my zeal for education, Dr. Lowman asked me if I would be willing to take on a larger role with the exhibit, acting as a lead student presenter and coordinator. I was thrilled with the idea and gladly accepted the invitation. As my involvement grew, the exhibit also became the focus of my Baccalaureate Thesis. The Palmer Ranch Springfest in March of 2007 was my inaugural presentation of the Out On a Limb exhibit. During this excursion, I met Dr. Phillip K. Wittman, the 19

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designer and creator of the exhibit. He trained me to load the exhibit into a rented truck for transportation, to properly secure and transport the different sections so that they would not break, and how to set it up on-site. As families began to arrive to our tent, Dr. Phil trained me to identify all of the organisms found in the exhibit, and explain some interesting stories about them (one of the more fascinating artifacts he brought with him was a Bot fly larva in a small vial. The interesting thing about this particular larva was that it had come out of his forearm. This really got the children excited, and made many of the parents a little queasy). Due to the large size of Springfest, I was able to practice giving demonstrations dozens of times with all different age groups, and to observe some of the exhibit designer's techniques and approaches. I have remembered many of those stories and sometimes use them in presentations to engage the public. That summer, I received a fellowship from the TREE Foundation (http://www.treefoundation.org/) to travel to the Ecological 20 Dr. Phillip K. Wittman showing the exhibit to visitors

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Society of America's (ESA) annual conference in San Jose, CA to present a poster about the Out on a Limb exhibit to a professional audience of ecologists (http://www.esa.org/). While there, I was able to attend talks and symposia given by ecologists and other scientists, participate in workshops, and meet many people interested in science and environmental education. The presentation I was most excited to attend was the symposium entitled "No Child Left Indoors: Ecologists linking young people with nature." Not only did this presentation directly relate to my research on science education and the outdoors, but it also featured a few friends presenting their case-studies (Dr. Lowman and Fabiana Silva). Richard Louv, author of Last Child in the Woods, presented the keynote lecture. One of the other exciting features about the ESA was its proximity to both the Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose, and The Tech Museum of Innovation. After spending time volunteering and working at Sarasota's Gulfcoast Wonder and Imagination Zone (GWIZ!) I was excited to visit other hands-on science museums. The Discovery Museum is ranked among the top five youth museums in the nation, and the Tech is one of the largest science and technology museums with over 132,000 square footage. While tailored to different age groups, it was interesting to see how the two venues interacted with visitors by actively engaging them with the exhibits. The poster sessions in which I was presenting were not until the last day of the conference. Slightly less structured than the oral and symposium presentations, all of the posters were hung around the conference hall with their respective authors standing nearby to offer explanations and take questions. I spent my time both near my poster and visiting other posters related to the topic of environmental education. I received much 21

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support for the work I was doing with the exhibit, as well as learning about many new resources and ideas for engaging students of all age groups. Overall, the experience was extremely positive and strongly confirmed my ideas that the work I was doing made a difference. Shortly after returning from the conference, GWIZ was holding its final week of summer camp programs. The focus of this final week was "The Rainforest It's a Jungle in There" which provided an ample forum to present the exhibit. Having worked extensively at GWIZ before, I was greeted by the staff and was well aware of the format of the camps. There were two groups of campers, separated by grade level into Pre-K and Kindergarten through 2 nd grade. I spent most of my time helping with the K-2 classroom where the exhibit was on display, though I did give a short presentation to the Pre-K group. The week held many educational activities for the children relating to the rainforest and the use of the exhibit as a teaching tool helped to reinforce the concepts that they were learning. I learned how a change in venue and setting, specifically from the festival atmosphere of Springfest to the more formal educational venue of the 22

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museum, affected visitors reactions to the exhibit. When they spent more than just a few minutes engaged with the exhibit, the children's powers of observation blossomed as they competed with each other to be the first to discover all of the organisms. Towards the end of the week, when their parents came to pick them up, they had become experts themselves and began to deliver mini-presentations to their parents about the things they had learned about the diorama and the canopy walkway. I told each of their parents about the canopy walkway in Myakka River State Park in the hope those who had not seen it would take their children to discover the similarities between the rainforest and their own local parks. This connection may foster a bridge from what they had learned about rainforest conservation to conserving our local forests. In December of 2007, as part of my thesis project, I took the exhibit to classrooms at the Pineview School in Osprey, FL. The first of two trips it would make to Denise 23

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Fugere's 3 rd grade classroom, the exhibit was accompanied by several SOS students and myself to give a short presentation on the rainforest and how scientists study it. Ms. Fugere's students were extremely receptive to both the exhibit and to the student presenters. During this presentation I trained three New College students to create and deliver lessons based on the exhibit. It was several of my co-presenter's first classroom trip and I wanted them to gain the experience I had received from so many SOS presentations. The presentation went smoothly and I was happy to see that the exhibit performed well in such a variety of settings, from outdoor festival to science museum to classroom. We were all invited back to see the blacklight-reactive rainforest that the Pineview third grade would be working on over the next few weeks. This initial visit also established a good rapport with Ms. Fugere and I later returned to give more extensive lessons and collect data for this thesis from the entirety of the third grade at Pineview. I also assisted them on their field trip to Myakka River State park where they were studying and tracking bromeliad growth. There have been several other presentations of the Out On a Limb Forest Canopies exhibit, most recently to the Duke TIP Summer Program students visiting New College of Florida. All of them have been positive in respect to both the visitors' reception of the ideas and messages presented and in solidifying my choice to become a science teacher. I am extremely grateful to have had the opportunity to work with so many amazing educators, scientists and friends throughout this experience. I never thought that along the way I would have learned so many valuable lessons from those I was supposed to be teaching, but every single one of them has affected me and I will never forget them. 24

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Chapter 4 Metrics 4.1 Development of Metrics The "Out On a Limb Forest Canopies" exhibit was created to educate school children and the general public about the rain forest and forest canopies around the world. Specifically, there are five "take-home" educational messages or concepts this exhibit was designed to impart: 1) biodiversity in forest canopies, 2) knowledge about linkages from the treetops to the forest floor, 3) the challenges scientists face in conducting research in the canopy, 4) the role that the public can play in forest conservation, and 5) the importance of forests to all life on Earth. The challenge comes in how to assess whether or not these educational goals are being met. In order to accomplish this, a system of metrics was designed and implemented. I relied on the help of Professor of Psychology Dr. Charlene Callahan, whose expertise in the area of developing surveys and the evaluation process was pivotal in the accomplishment of this task. In my initial meeting with Professor Callahan several obstacles to the creation of a system specific to this exhibit were discussed and tackled. The foremost issue was that of structure, i.e. what form the evaluation would take. Ultimately, a small quiz consisting of five questions was created (see Appendix A), one question relating to each of the five target goals discussed above. Once this was decided upon, several other issues became apparent. The most challenging in this case was that of experimental design. In order for the quiz to collect relevant and measurable data on knowledge gained, baseline data was needed for comparison. Here the dual-life of the exhibit as both a classroom teaching tool 25

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and an informal exhibit on display posed interesting questions. While taking on its role in a more formally structured classroom, this baseline data could easily be collected in the form of a pre quiz. Then after the material is presented, a post quiz is administered. By analyzing the gap between the pre and post quizzes, an accurate statement can be made regarding the accumulation of knowledge affected by the exhibit. However, this methodology proves much more difficult when the exhibit is on display (i.e. at a museum) and its visitors are not required to stay for any duration of time. In this setting, the administration of a pre and post quiz is neither easily accomplished nor pragmatic. To alleviate this problem, another system of controls and variables was used. Instead of a pre quiz as a control and a post quiz as experimental, the quiz will be given to potential or non-viewers of the exhibit (i.e. museum patrons as they enter the museum) who will collectively serve as the control. The quiz will also be given to those who specifically view the exhibit and receive a short demonstration, thus acting as the experimental or variable group. Through the alternation of these methods, statistically relevant data can be collected and analyzed in a wide range of settings. The next challenge was that of age difference. The exhibit is viewed by people of all ages, from kindergarten to senior citizens. Obviously a kindergarten student would have some difficulty answering a question designed for adults. Conversely a high school student answering questions designed for a second grade student would not collect much relevant data. Thus it was decided that there should be two different versions of the quiz in order to account for this discrepancy. One version was designed for elementary student (grades K-5), and another for middle school and upwards (grade 6 and up). Each version would be composed of questions fitting for its respective age group while still testing the 26

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knowledge gained in the five target areas. The last hurdle to clear was the actual questions to be included in the quiz. In order to account for different learning and test taking strategies, a variety of question types were included. Question types incorporated into the quiz are: multiple choice, fillin-the-blank, matching, check boxes, and list/short answer. The variety of questions will help to ensure that the quiz is testing the material and not the preference of question type. Each quiz was designed to have one question pertaining to each of the five target areas. As such, this affords the ability to conduct analysis on the success of the exhibit in each category individually, as well as wholly. Also, to ensure that there is a minimum artifact of sampling bias, the questions for the control and variable group will be alternated. This is achieved by having two different versions of each quiz for each age group: "Quiz A" and "Quiz B". Some visitors and students in the control group will take "Quiz A", and some will take "Quiz B", and the same for the experimental group. In situations where the same visitor or student is taking both pre and post quiz, care will be taken to ensure that a different version is taken each time. Thus for any one question, there will be several control responses and several experimental responses. In this way, the bias of individual questions can be counteracted and can be kept from interfering with the analytical results. 4.2 Implementation Although the system of metrics was designed to meet the challenges faced by the multifariousness of the exhibit, for this thesis I decided to focus on the elementary user group, specifically the third grade classes of Pine View School in Osprey, Florida. The 27

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exhibit was delivered and housed in Denise Fugere's classroom early in October of 2008 to coincide with a month-long unit on the rainforest conducted by the third grade teachers. Arrangements were made for myself to visit the classroom over the course of three days. This provided enough time for each of the nine third grade classes to view the exhibit, receive a short presentation on the rainforest using the exhibit as a teaching aid, as well as take the pre and post quizzes. Quiz A was given as a pre quiz to the students on the first and last day of presentations, with Quiz B administered as the post quiz. Conversely, students who received the presentation on the second day were given Quiz B as a pre quiz and Quiz A as post. Students were instructed not to include their name, such that the quizzes would remain anonymous. This lead to a total sample size of 135 students for the pre quiz, and 134 for the post quiz (one student was called out of the classroom during the presentation and did not return for the duration). 4.3 Analyses Analysis of the data collected was conducted in several ways. Those participants who took the quizzes on 10/15/08 shall be referred to as "Group 1", those who took the quizzes on 10/23/08 will be referred to as "Group 2", and those who took the quizzes on 10/24/08 will be referred to as "Group 3". Initially, the scores of each quiz were tallied and the mean for each group of pre and post quizzes was found. The results from this basic analysis are as follows: 28

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Figure 4.1 The results from this rudimentary analysis clearly show that the Post quiz mean is 0.82 points, or 13.4% higher than the Pre quiz mean. This initial statistic demonstrates that there was a basic improvement in comprehension of the educational goals outlined in section 4.1. However, further analysis can be made to reinforce this point, as well as to outline the improvement made in each of the specific areas. The median quiz score as well as the upper and lower quartiles were calculated to aid in the demonstration (Figure 4.2). Figure 4.2 29

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As shown by the above graphic, the median scores went up from Pre to Post quiz in every group except Group 2. This was also the same group who had the lowest difference in means from Pre to Post quiz. However, closer analysis of the interquartile range shows another marker of improvement. Notice the lower quartile improved a full point between quizzes. This demonstrates that in the lower 50% of scores, students scored better on the Post quiz than the Pre. While this may not seem as much of an achievement, many teachers I have spoken to have said that teaching is not just about increasing the greatest common denominator, but also about raising the lowest. A t-test was also conducted to determine whether the difference in scores between the pre and post quizzes were statistically significant or due to random chance. For this calculation, the entire set of pre quizzes was used as the control group and the set of post quizzes was assigned as the treatment group. The standard deviation of the pre quiz group is calculated at 1.955, thus making the variance 3.822. The standard deviation of the post quiz group is 1.871 and the variance is 3.5. The t-test returned a t-value of t=3.5147. Setting the alpha value at .025 and with the degrees of freedom equaling 267, the ratio of 3.5147 is larger than the critical value of t for a one tailed t-test at 2.24. Thus there is a statistically significant increase in the scores from the pre quiz group to the post quiz group. The final analyses conducted were in regards to the improvement in each of the five target messages the exhibit was designed to convey. These are, again: biodiversity in forest canopies (Q1), knowledge about linkages from the treetops to the forest floor (Q2), the challenges scientists face in conducting research in the canopy (Q3), the role that the public can play in forest conservation (Q4), and the importance of forests to all life on 30

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Earth (Q5). It is here that I feel the most important knowledge can be gained from the breakdown of scores as to where improvement in the lessons accompanying the exhibit can be made. To counteract any bias on individual questions, this analysis will be made in terms of each version of the quiz, juxtaposing the Pre Quiz A answers against the Post Quiz A answers, and the same for Quiz B. Results are also given for the combined total of all quizzes in each target area. For the biodiversity question, there were a total of five possible points, one for each correctly identified rainforest organism. The remaining questions were each valued at one point, and thus were either correct or incorrect. The results are presented on the next page and are given in terms of the percentage of correct answers, as well as the difference in percentage: 31

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After review of these scores, it becomes apparent that improvement occurred in almost all questions and subject areas after viewing the exhibit and receiving the accompanying demonstration. In terms of individual questions, the most improvement occurred on Q5 of Quiz B with an increase of 28 percentage points. The least 32 Pre Quiz Post Quiz Difference Quiz A Q1: 64% 68% +4% Quiz B Q1: 66% 71% +5% Combined Q1: 65% 70% +5% Quiz A Q2: 63% 82% +19% Quiz B Q2: 95% 94% -1% Combined Q2: 73% 90% +17% Quiz A Q3: 84% 92% +8% Quiz B Q3: 80% 83% +3% Combined Q3: 83% 86% +3% Quiz A Q4: 46% 28% -18% Quiz B Q4: 88% 98% +10% Combined Q4: 59% 78% +19% Quiz A Q5: 87% 92% +5% Quiz B Q5: 55% 83% +28% Combined Q5: 78% 86% +8% Table 4.1

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improvement occurred on Q4 of Quiz A with a decrease of 18 percentage points. Due to the extreme variation of the scores, these questions can be identified as possibly problematic, and potential candidates for omission or revision in future studies. It should also be noted that the only other decrease in score was 1 percentage point on Q2 of Quiz B, however this decrease only brought the average from a 95% to a 94%, which is still a very acceptable score. This also raises some concern about possible revision or omission of that question due to it being too easy from the onset. In terms of the categories the questions relate to however, improvement was marked across the board. The most dramatic increase occurred on Q4, the role that the public can play in forest conservation. Here we note an increase of 19 percentage points from pre to post. This is somewhat curious, as the question relating to this category on Quiz A saw the sharpest decrease as previously discussed. However, due to the inequality of the sample sizes (only one group took Quiz A as the post quiz) and the relatively large increase in performance from the two groups that took Quiz B as the post quiz, this statistic becomes more rational. The least dramatic increase came from Q3 relating to the challenges that scientists face in conducting research in the canopy. Here we see an increase of only 3 percentage points from pre quiz scores to post. This demonstrates that in future presentations, greater emphasis should be placed on explanation of the canopy access methods portrayed in the exhibit and the reasons that such methods must be employed. 33

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4.4 Discussion Through this pilot study of the system of metrics created to assess the "Out On a Limb Forest Canopies" exhibit, certain flaws have been brought to light. Several questions included in the quizzes have been flagged as problematic and will be reworked for future implementation. Unique markers connecting the pre and post quizzes taken by individual students, while still upholding their anonymity, would have allowed for more thorough analyses to be run. It has also shown which areas in the presentation of the exhibit should be given greater emphasis to increase their impact on its audience. However, the data confirm that the "Out On a Limb" exhibit is effective as a teaching tool. The data collected from the system of metrics has shown that the exhibit disseminates knowledge about the rainforest, its inhabitants, the ways in which scientists study it, the reasons forests are important, and the ways in which we can all help to protect it. 34

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Appendix A Question Categories, Quizzes and Answers Categories for Quiz Questions and Answers: Biodiversity in forest canopies knowledge of species that live in the canopy/ identification Knowledge about linkages from the treetops to the forest floor leaf litter provides nutrients to floor, decomposition The challenges scientists face in conducting research in the canopy knowledge of canopy access methods The role that the public can play in forest conservation name things "you" can do to conserve forests The importance of forests to all life on Earth medicines, carbon sinks, produce oxygen Biodiversity Questions: List 5 organisms that live in the rainforest: Linkages Questions: K-5: The rainforest has __ layers. (4) True /False: Very little light from the sun reaches the forest floor in a rainforest. Grade 6 and up: True/ False : So many things grow in the rainforest because the layer of fertile topsoil can be up to 20 feet thick. Most of the nutrients in the thin layer of rainforest topsoil come from ________________. ( leaves, decomposing leaves, fallen leaves, leaf litter, etc. ) Challenges Questions: K-5: Why is it hard for scientists to study the rainforest canopy? ( it's very high, trees are tall, etc .) True/ False : It is very easy for scientists to study the rainforest canopy. 35

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Grade 6 and up: Scientists use many methods to access the forest canopy. Of the following choices, which one do they not use? a. Hot Air Balloon b. Rope climbing c. Parachutes d. Walkway Bridge Name one way scientists access the rainforest canopy. ( hot air balloon, cranes, ropes, canopy platforms, walkway bridges, canopy towers, cherry pickers, satellite images/GIS, indigenous climbing techniques) What you can do Questions: K-5: What are the three R's of conservation of resources? ( reduce, reuse, recycle ) Name one way you can help protect the rain forests of the world. Grade 6 and up: Name one way you can help protect the rain forests of the world. True/ False : Recycling aluminum cans has no effect on the rainforest because trees are made of wood, not metal. Importance Questions: K-5: Trees and other plants, like in a rainforest, make the ________ that we breathe in. ( oxygen ) True/ False : Cutting down rainforest in other parts of the world won't hurt us here. Grade 6 and up: About ___ % of medicines we use today came from the rainforest. a. 5 b. 10 c. 15 d. 25 Forests are natural ways to trap and store _____________ from the atmosphere. ( Carbon Dioxide, CO2 ) 36

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Grades K-5 37

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Grades K-5 38

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Grades 6+ Quiz A 1. List 5 organisms that live in the rainforest: ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 2. True/ False : So many things grow in the rainforest because the layer of fertile topsoil can be up to 20 feet thick. 3. Scientists use many methods to access the forest canopy. Of the following choices, which one do they not use? a. Hot Air Balloon b. Rope climbing c. Parachutes d. Walkway Bridge 4. Name one way you can help protect the rain forests of the world. 5. About ___ % of medicines we use today came from the rainforest. a. 5 b. 10 c. 15 d. 25 39

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Grades 6+ Quiz B 1. List 5 organisms that live in the rainforest: ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 2. Most of the nutrients in the thin layer of rainforest topsoil come from ________________. 3. Name one way scientists access the rainforest canopy. 4. True/ False : Recycling aluminum cans has no effect on the rainforest because trees are made of wood, not metal. 5. Forests are natural ways to trap and store _____________ from the atmosphere. 40

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Appendix B Samples of Student Quizzes Pre quiz samples: 41

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Post quiz samples: 45

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References Balmford A, Clegg L, Coulson T, Taylor J. 2002. Why Conservationists Should Heed Pokemon. Science, 295(5564):2367. Bazler JA, Spokane AR, Ballard R, Fugate MS. 1993. The Jason Porject Experience and Attitudes toward Science as an Enterprise and Career. Journal of Career Development, 20:101-12. Beck MR, Morgan EA, Strand SS, Woosley TA. 2006. MENTORING: Volunteers Bring Passion to Science Outreach. Science, 314(5803):1246-7. Brewer C, Taylor J, Perkins A. 2006. Profile of Ecologists: Results of a Survey of the Membership of the Ecological Society of America. Bruckerhoff C. 1998. JASON IX: A Summative Evaluation Re port of The JASON Foundation. BSCS. 2008. Scientists in Science Education. Jan 2008. Online at Friedman T. 2006. The World is Flat New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 49

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Gold M. 2007. US Teens Trail Peers Around World on Math-Science Test. Washington Post, Dec. 5 2007: A07. Holden C. 2000. Asia Stays on Top, U.S. in Middle in New Global Rankings. Science, 290(5498):1866. < http://www.jason.org/ > The JASON Project. Kyle WC. 1985. What research says: Science through discovery: Students love it. Science and Children, 23(2):3941. Lieberman G, Hoody L. 1998. Closing the achievement gap: Using the environment as an integrating context for learn ing. San Diego, GA: State Education and Environmental Roundtable. Louv R. 2006. Last Child in the Woods: Saving our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder. North Carolina: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill. Lowman MD. 1999. Life in the Treetops. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Lowman MD. 2006. No Child Left Indoors. Front Ecol Environ, 4(9):451. 50

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Lowman MD, Burgess E, Burgess J. 2006. It's a Jungle Up There: More Tales from the Treetops. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Mernane RJ, Levy F. 1996. Teaching the New Basic Skills: Priciples or Educating Children to Thrive in a Changing Economy. New York: The Free Press. Mervis J. 2007. U.S. Math Tests Don't Line Up. Science, 315(5818):1485. Narode R, Heiman ML, Lochhead J. 1987. Teaching Thinking Skill: Science. Washington, DC: National Education Association. ED 320 755. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). 2006. The Nation's Report Card: Science 2005. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Online at < http://nationsreportcard.gov/science_2005/ >. NAEP Overview. 51

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National Research Council (NRC). 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning Washington, DC: National Academy Press. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. no. 107-110, 115 Stat 1425 (2001). Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). 2007. PISA 2006: Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World. France: OECD Publications. Online at . Rodriguez I, Bethel LJ. 1983. An Inquiry Approach to Science and Language Teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(4):29196. Silva F. 2007. Science Outreach for Students: Review and Assessment of a Science Education Outreach Program. New College of Florida (unpublished). Taylor AF, Kuo FE, Sullivan WC. 2001. Coping with ADD: The Surprising Connection to Green Play Settings. Environment and Behavior, 33(1):54-77. 52

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Wells NM. 2000. At Home with Nature: Effects of "Greenness" on Children's Cognitive Functioning. Environment and Behavior, 32(6):775-795. Zerhouni EA. 2008. From the Desk of the NIH Director: Special Edition on Science Education. Jan. 2008. 18 Feb. 2009. < http://www.nih.gov/about/director/newsletter/January2008.htm >. 53


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