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Walpurgis Night in Sarasota

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004062/00001

Material Information

Title: Walpurgis Night in Sarasota For Chamber Ensemble
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Castano, Alejandro
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Composition
Walpurgis
Piano Quintet
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Walpurgis Night in Sarasota is a piece in four movements for piano, tuba, clarinet, viola and cello. There are three important elements to this piece. The first is the narrative that is constructed around the theme of "Walpurgisnacht." The second is the synthesis of outside references. The third is how the piece engages history. As a response to the restrictive mode of cultural production established by traditional modernism, this piece attempts to appropriate stylistic characteristics of exterior sources. As a response to the cultural disengagement of traditional postmodernism, the piece seeks to integrate these references into an organizational logic. As such, Walpurgis Night in Sarasota takes elements of both modernism and postmodernism in order to create an autonomous art object that is not entirely isolated from its contemporary culture.
Statement of Responsibility: by Alejandro Castano
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Supplements: Accompanying materials: 1 CD (recording of the performance).
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Miles, Stephen

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 C3b
System ID: NCFE004062:00001

Permanent Link: http://ncf.sobek.ufl.edu/NCFE004062/00001

Material Information

Title: Walpurgis Night in Sarasota For Chamber Ensemble
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Castano, Alejandro
Publisher: New College of Florida
Place of Publication: Sarasota, Fla.
Creation Date: 2009
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Composition
Walpurgis
Piano Quintet
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Walpurgis Night in Sarasota is a piece in four movements for piano, tuba, clarinet, viola and cello. There are three important elements to this piece. The first is the narrative that is constructed around the theme of "Walpurgisnacht." The second is the synthesis of outside references. The third is how the piece engages history. As a response to the restrictive mode of cultural production established by traditional modernism, this piece attempts to appropriate stylistic characteristics of exterior sources. As a response to the cultural disengagement of traditional postmodernism, the piece seeks to integrate these references into an organizational logic. As such, Walpurgis Night in Sarasota takes elements of both modernism and postmodernism in order to create an autonomous art object that is not entirely isolated from its contemporary culture.
Statement of Responsibility: by Alejandro Castano
Thesis: Thesis (B.A.) -- New College of Florida, 2009
Supplements: Accompanying materials: 1 CD (recording of the performance).
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO NCF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The New College of Florida, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Local: Faculty Sponsor: Miles, Stephen

Record Information

Source Institution: New College of Florida
Holding Location: New College of Florida
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: local - S.T. 2009 C3b
System ID: NCFE004062:00001


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WALPURGIS NIGHT IN SARASOTA For chamber ensemble BY ALEJANDRO CASTANO A Senior Project Submitted to the Division of Humanities New College of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts Under the sponsorship of Dr. Stephen T. Miles Sarasota, Florida May, 2009

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ii Dedicado a Angela Garcia y Armando Castano Porque finalmente no quise ser inventor, y no les molesto demasiado.

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iii Acknowledgements It's been an honor having the op portunity to compose a music piece as a senior project. It was a lot of work, but having the opportunity, the memory and the experience makes any of the hardship worthwhile. Now that it is done, it was a pleasure, even in the stressful parts. Nevertheless, this piece would not exist without a handful of people. The first, to whom I've dedicated it, are my parents. My mother has given me her unconditional support and encouragement from the beginning of my adventures in music. My father gave me the opportunit y to hear Edgar Varse and Arnold Schoenberg before I was old enough to find their music "weird." I also need to thank Cody Burger, for all those jam sessions over the years, and Laura Mohai, for listening to 20 minutes of music every time I changed a sing le note. I cannot express how thankful I am for Dr. Stephen T. Miles. Without his guidance and encouragement, I probably wouldn't have had the courage to actively pursue an education in music. Without his unwavering devotion to his students' education, Sar asota would be a much more uneventful place.

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iv Table of Contents Acknowledgements ----------------------------------------------------------iii Abstract ------------------------------------------------------------------------v Essay Description ------------------------------------------------------------1 Walpurgis Night in Sarasota (score) ---------------------------------------25

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v WALPURGIS NIGHT IN SARASOTA Alejandro Castano New College of Florida 2009 ABSTRACT Walpurgis Night in S arasota is a piece in four movements for piano, tuba, clarinet, viola and cello. There are three important elements to this piece. The first is the narrative that is constructed around the theme of "Walpurgisnacht." The second is the synthesis of outside r eferences. The third is how the piece engages history. As a response to the restrictive mode of cultural production established by traditional modernism, this piece attempts to appropriate stylistic characteristics of exterior sources. As a response to th e cultural disengagement of traditional postmodernism, the piece seeks to integrate these references into an organizational logic. As such, Walpurgis Night in Sarasota takes elements of both modernism and postmodernism in order to create an autonomous art object that is not entirely isolated from its contemporary culture. Dr. Stephen T. Miles Division of Humanities

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1 WALPURGIS NIGHT IN SARASOTA: PROJECT DESCRIPTION Walpurgis Night in Sarasota is a piece in four movements for piano, tuba, clarinet, viola and cello. There are three important elements to this piece. The first is the narrative that is constructed around t he theme of "Walpurgisnacht." The second is the synthesis of outside references. The third is how the piece engages history. This distinction is created for the organization of the paper, since there is a strong interrelation between them in actuality. Th e Narrative What on earth is "Walpurgis Night," and why is it the title of the piece? As a composer, I've always been attracted to the darker sides of the human experience. Tired of this consistency in my compositional approach, I decided that it would be beneficial to create a work representing everything that lured me towards "darkness." This was a personal decision, meant as a means to purging myself of an unpleasant infatuation. Thus, I decided to create a composition where the main subject matter would be "the night." At some point I became acquainted with a north European celebration with pagan origins that carried many connotations that captured my attention. This celebration is that of Walpurgisnacht In northern European countries, such as Sweden an d Germany, the night of Walpurgis is celebrated as a transition into spring. A strong element of the tradition is the assertion that during this particular night, evil spirits are released from hell. Thus, the celebrations usually involve the construction of large bond fires around which congregations gather. The connotations

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2 of the night, epitomized as a setting for Goethe's Faust made the Walpurgisnacht celebrations an ideal theme for my subject matter. Using the contemporary celebrations as a narrative wasn't compelling, however, since the decision was rooted in making "the night" as dark as possible. So, I decided to emphasize "darkness" by inventing a religious ritual surrounding the bond fire tradition. The narrative of the piece is based on this inve ntion, which is why "Walpurgis Night" is the title of the piece. 1 The story is as follows: as the sun sets, a congregation gathers. The celebration begins and manifests ritualistic elements such as dancing into a fervor and collective behavior A religious experience takes place and is sacred in nature. Finally, the ritual concludes and everyone is in a festive mood. Each of these steps in the narrative became the foundation of a movement or "scene." The first scene is titled "The Congregation," and covers the span of sunset and the assemblage of the participants. The cultural references chosen for this scene were those of late romanticism and impressionism (as exemplified by the music of Erik Satie). I chose them in order to use functional harmony, hoping t hat doing so would create a sense of familiarity in the listener. This degree of comfort would serve as a metaphor for the congregation's situation. The second scene is titled "The Summon," and conveys the beginning of the ritual. With the intension of cr eating a rhythmically dynamic and dissonant scene, I chose a plurality of composers as inspiration. Messiaen, Zorn, Stravinsky, Kilar and King Crimson are all alluded to. 1 The "in Sarasota" conditionality is intended to highlight the personal nature of the cultural references.

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3 The third scene is titled "The Response," and conveys the religious experience. In o rder to create a metaphor illustrating the sacred nature of the experience, I decided to use a song written by someone else as the foundation of the scene. It seemed to me like a religious experience would necessitate a level of externality, from which it could be attributed to God (or the devil, or whatever). Using an external source satisfied this requirement. The fourth scene is titled "The Conclusion," and spans the end of the ritual and sunrise. It begins with the development of sections from the secon d scene. This movement recapitulates the themes of the previous scenes, creating a metaphor for retrospection. The salsa rhythm, at the end of the composition suggests the light hearted nature of a post ritual congregation. What I was interested in doing w as synthesizing the different cultural references into new music. For this reason, I decided the external source of the third scene could serve as the source for the thematic material of the other scenes. The tune I chose for this purpose was a blues song known as "St. James Infirmary" 2 based on its use of the tritone interval and somber lyrics. I employed my subjective taste. How It Happens This piece combines elements of process music with cultural references determined by subjective choice. It attempts this by differentiating between musical 2 Some renditions include Louis Armstrong's, which can be found in his recording "Louis Armstrong & friends" on Stardust R ecords, 2007, The White Stripes', which can be found on their self titled debut on Third Man Records, LLC, 2008, and Duke Ellington's in "Duke Ellington:1929 1930" on Chronological Classics, 2006. A score and lyrics are attached (see Addendum).

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4 style and musical process (or logic). The distinction resides on the superficial qualities of style, and the underlying mechanics of process. What I quickly realized, however, was that there is a strong relationship between the two. As a matter of fact, the underlying logic of a musical approach will determine its superficial characteristics. This realization actually made me more optimistic about my piece. By intentionally mismatching musical processes, I hoped to t hat a fruitful array of new musical styles might emerge. In other words, I wanted to create references to particular types of music, and then use the underlying process of other types of music to develop them. This was based on my desire to synthesize thin gs together. First Scene The Congregation The first movement (or "scene") can be divided into two parts. The first part of the scene is in C minor, and is inspired by romantic esthetics, particularly in the employment of functional harmony being pushed towards atonality. The process chosen is "modulation that is increasingly jarring." I attempted to appropriate the strategy by modulating to the tritone from the onset, and then using a subtractive process to juxtapose a tone with its tritone directly. In the score (which is attached), the main theme can be seen introduced as early as on m. 12 in its simplified form by the left hand of the piano. It is then gradually addressed by the introduction of each instrument until it is revealed in its full form in m. 29 by the clarinet. This instantiation is an allusion to classical esthetics, since the clarinet plays the theme on the fifth scale degree, though it is repeated again in the root of the key immediately thereafter. Just after this exposition

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5 of the them e, the exposition of the process "modulation" begins (m. 39). This passage begins in A minor, and arrives to E flat major in m.46. The first direct juxtaposition of the tone with its tritone occurs mm.53 54, and is emphasized in m.55. Immediately afterward s, E flat minor is contrasted to A minor (mm. 56 58). Mm. 61 67 are a sequence of tritones and half steps which lead back to a reintroduction of the theme. As a reiteration of the late romantic esthetic, the theme is repeated, modulating to D flat minor. T he process of modulating to the tritone is then repeated using the melodic theme. The first modulation, from D flat minor to G minor occurs by m.82. The changing meter introduced in m. 81 serves as foreshadowing for a later passage. Similarly, the piano's rhythmic pattern introduced in m. 92 serves as foreshadowing for the last scene. In this first part, the style determined was "late romantic." The connection to the "St. James" theme is in the importance of the tritone. The second part is based on the esth etic of early impressionism, as exemplified by Erik Satie's "Gymnopedies" and "Gnossiennes." In the score, this part begins on m. 103. The style determined is based on simple and ongoing melodies that defy concrete tonality and meter, coupled with extended tertian harmony. The process of Satie's that I appropriated was the juxtaposition of contrasting elements and modes without developmental features. This is exemplified by the second section of this part of the scene, which also happens to be (in its chord structure) an allusion to "St. James." The contrasting section begins on m. 120 in A minor (arriving from an E flat minor). Some of the ways in which this section is intended to contrast with the previous section (other than the cello accompaniment, which changes from minor thirds to a pizzicato "walking bass" and

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6 the change in tonal center) include the passage's increased harmonic directness. This was done by minimizing the piano accompaniment's use of extended tertian harmony, and by centering the melody still carried by the viola, on the root of the harmony rather than on the 11 th As can be seen in mm. 120 127, the harmonic progression can be reduced to i VI ii V, which is an allusion to VI ii V progression of "St James". 3 The contrasting section ends on m. 138, where the recapitulation of the first "impressionist" section begins. The first instantiation of the "integration" this piece exemplifies occurs in the third section of this second part. The ending of the scene is the Satie style superimposed ov er the modulation that constituted the late romantic process. In order to avoid unnecessary repetition, this is done briefly, concluding the scene. The integration can be seen by the juxtaposition of F major with C flat major in m. 150. The sequence of tri tones and half steps that ended the exposition of the process in the first part of this scene is then employed to fully process the second part's melodic theme in mm. 159 163. Second Scene The Summon The second scene can be divided into three parts an d is based on C minor, though much more loosely so than the first scene. The first part could be understood as being inspired by early modernist esthetics, as exemplified by Stravinsky's Russian period, the second on Wojciech Kilar's late chamber music, th e third on Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time and heavy metal. The first part itself can be divided into 3 The "St. James Infirmary's" chord progression can be reduced to the repetition of i V i i VI ii 0 V V i V i i VI V i i. However, all interpretations are different. The White Stripes version is almost entirely on i, while the Primrose version (addendum item), follows the following variation: i V i V i iv V i i V i V iv V i V.

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7 two "development" sections and two "exposition" sections. I composed a short passage based on themes from the second part of the first scene using the octatonic scale. These make up the "exposition" sections. The "development" sections take samples from these passages, consisting of 3, 5, 4, 5, 4 and 5 beats alternating with passages of 5, 3, 5, 8 and 5 beats, and rearrange the original sequence of the passage. In other words, the development that happens consists of a cut and paste re arrangement of sections from the "exposition." The sequence of numbers is symbolic in nature: Walpurgis Night leads into May, which is the 5 th month; it is the 3(0 th ) of April (which is the 4 th month). 4 The scene begins with the "development" sections in order to provide a puzzle, which is solved with the "exposition" sections. In the score, the development sections begin after a short interlude lasting mm. 7 20, on m. 21. The first exposition begins on m. 47 and can be discerned as such by the absence of asymmetrical phrase structure that results in a stronger melody. Mm. 51 55 serve as a variation on the first development section. The exposition is recapitulated in mm. 56 60. The second development section begins in m. 61 (in A minor) and is followed by the second exposition section in m. 74. The process of "cut and paste" is loosely based on Stravinsky's "block" technique. The decision to put the "developed" sections b efore their original form was intended as providing variation from the first scene's structure. However, since they are, in their nature, the processed manifestations of the "exposition" sections, it seems counterfactual to call them anything else. 4 It is noteworthy that the random 8 in the second sequence of these numbers was actually a consequence of having two measures of 4 beats that I found convenient to merge.

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8 The se cond part can be divided into two sections as well. The style is inspired by Wojciech Kilar's late chamber works, in particular Requiem Father Kolbe, which mixes elements of process music with the idiom of the polish avant garde. To do this I used the repe tition of a short passage written in the octatonic scale to establish the style, and used repetition and an additive process to establish a corresponding process. This can be seen in mm. 79 107. The process can be seen when the ostinato passage played by t he cello goes through diminution in mm. 85 88. The second part disrupts this by establishing a different process under the Wojciech style, the use of the previously mentioned sequence to "cut and paste" the subject and modulate to the fifth in mm. 107 113 It does this by going up the octatonic scale (still based on A minor) E flat minor, and then shifting to E minor. Mm 113 123 reiterate the subject matter, in a "developed" form which includes increasingly frequent rhythmic diminutions. The third part of the scene is based on the style of Messiaen's most rhythmic passages in his Quartet for the End of Time 5 and attempts to highlight its similarities with heavy metal's use of modal structures and asymmetrical rhythms. 6 It beings on m. 124, is repeated by the piano solo on m. 129 and by the strings on m. 135. It moves the tonality back to C minor. It also uses the rhythmic sequence first exposed in the first part of the scene as a foundation (in order to create the rhythmic dynamism appropriate to the style s described) while maintaining the thematic integrity of the piece. 5 Movements II, IV, VI 6 See King Crimson's album Red on Discipline US, 2004. The tracks "Red" and "Starless" provide good examples.

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9 Third Scene The Response The third scene is much simpler. It consists of the bluesy styling of "St James," though simplified to a more direct harmonic language, being processed by minim alist techniques. It can be divided into two parts, however. The first part serves as an exposition, where the theme is repeated over and over again, modulating harmonically, metrically, with regards to the tempo, and re orchestrated. The scene is in G min or, to provide additional contrast with the surrounding scenes. As the music gets progressively slower, an additive process is introduced to create variation in the different melodies involved. This can be seen starting on m. 39 (where the tempo changes fr om a doted quarter note of ~66bpm to 50). The second tempo change occurs on m. 50, when it shifts to ~33bpm. In order to avoid further tempo diminution (since 33 is not even on most conventional metronomes), "slowing down" occurs through shifts in meter fr om this point forwards. 7 This can be seen on m. 61 and m. 68. The "slowing down" occurred systematically in an increasingly frequent (structurally speaking) manner: the speed is diminished every three phrases, and then every two. The movement modulates har monically, going alternately to the tritone and to the minor third. This can be seen beginning with the modulation from G minor to C sharp minor (which concludes in m. 27), and the subsequent modulation to E minor on m. 42. The harmonic modulations occur e very time the full 4 phrase "St James" theme concludes. These two processes of alternating lengths lead the scene through a series of keys all the way to D minor. The cello plays variations of the first 7 Though this would work with a conductor, in the absence of one and with limited time constraints, the musicians performing this piece will a ctually just "meno mosso, no ritard" (slow down) to avoid mental gymnastics.

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10 scene's melodic theme through to m. 50, where it chan ges to playing variations on the "St James" melody. The second part is composed using scaffolding technique. In this part, a harmony is constructed over the slowest rendition of the "St. James" melody. The tonal center moves to G major. This begins in m. 1 01. While the left hand of the piano and the cello are playing the "St. James" melody, the other instruments are providing a harmony that is in no way functional. In m. 101, the viola plays a major third above the melody's D, which is an F sharp. The tuba plays an A, which is the fifth of the root. The clarinet plays a D, two octaves above the melody. The right hand of the piano plays an E, which is the fifth of the fifth, or the 9 th of the melody. Through this collection of pitches, a major chord with an a dded 9 th is created at every shift in the melody. The notes between the principal chords, which are built every time a note changes in the melody, are non harmonic tones. They are distributed as follows: the cello and viola play four and two rhythmic value s for every note in the melody while the piano's right hand and the tuba play three. Thus divided, all the instruments must move in step wise motion from their pitch in opposite directions (e.g. the tuba moves upwards while the right hand of the piano move s downwards). This particular process is based on the techniques of Leonin and Perotin. The passage is the processing of "St James" by this technique, though the process of scaffolding, by conception, turns the experience around. The melody ends up hidden in the background while the process itself takes the foreground of the musical experience. This section lasts until the end of the scene.

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11 Fourth Scene The Conclusion The fourth scene can be divided into three parts as well. It returns to the original ke y of C minor. The first part is the conclusion of the last part of the second scene, and lasts from m. 1 40. It is a development of the Messiaen section that uses the rhythmic sequences (on which the passage is already based) to modulate to the fifth and t hen to the fifth of the fifth. Mm 1 7 are an introduction that recapitulates the theme in the pizzicato strings. This is followed by a repetition on the piano. The first modulation takes place during mm. 12 17. Mm. 18 22 recapitulate the theme in the new k ey. Mm. 23 28 extend this recapitulation through a variation that leads into mm. 29 40, where the piece modulates to a dominant 7 th chord on D (or the V/V of the original C minor). This section can be understood as the Messiaen/Heavy Metal style processed through the Stravinsky/Wojciech "cut and paste" kaleidoscope. The second part of the scene is a recapitulation of the first part of the first scene. The first section of this part consists of a recapitulation of the theme. The viola goes through the deve lopment of the melody from m. 41 to the fully developed rendition in m. 49. The second section of this part invokes a dance style, but revisits the first part's process of modulation. This takes place in mm. 54 65. The first scene's theme is modulated from G minor to F# minor, and then to F minor. 8 A recapitulation of the theme by the tuba takes place on F# minor in mm. 58 62. The final recapitulation takes place in F minor from m. 66 to m. 74. On mm 74 and 75, the tritone is reintroduced. 8 These three notes correspond to the blue note incorporating scale of "St. James" which is used whenever a passage alludes to it, such as the entirety of the third scene, or the contrasting section of the second part of the first scene.

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12 The third part of this scene can be divided into three sections. The first consists of an elaboration of the "salsa" dance style, using it to create a variation of the "St James" theme in mm. 78 93. The second consists of a non developmental juxtaposition process (taken fr om the second part of the first scene) by which thematic material from the second scene is re orchestrated. This is done in a "bambuco" dance rhythm (which can be seen in mm. 94 110, played at the tritone of the salsa passages (creating an alternation betw een the F B dichotomy introduced by the piano in mm. 74 and 75). Mm. 111 132 use a subtractive process to increase the juxtaposition of the sections. The bambuco section and the salsa theme are shorter in each appearance. This was done to highlight their s imilarities and supposedly reveal the origin of the bambuco's thematic tritone as being rooted in the harmonic embellishment of the "St James" source. The third section of this part of the scene throws everything together. It uses the processes of juxtapo sition with the tritone, modulation to the tritone and "cut and paste" meter changes at the same time. They take place underneath a variation of the first theme from the first scene, and use the salsa accompaniment on the piano and strings. This important though short passage, which spans the mm. 133 144, serves as an attempt to push the "romantic" style, represented by its theme, though all the different processes simultaneously. The section consists of a sequence of tritones and half steps in which the mu sic moves from B minor back to C minor. M. 133 presents itself as a G major chord (VI, since the previous section was in B minor), which is followed by a C sharp minor chord (ii) and B minor chord (i). This is an allusion to

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13 the "St. James" chord progressi on that also attempts to demonstrate the blues song's importance. This B is followed by its tritone, F major, which resolves to A minor. In mm. 137 139 the A minor goes to E flat (tritone) which resolves to G sharp minor. This goes on until C minor is re turned to in m. 143, after which the piece concludes through the recapitulation of the opening gestures on the piano. All of the scenes are held together by the piano's continual use of the low C as bookends. This was done to provide continuity and highlig ht the piece's overall C minor tonality, contrasting it with the third motions tonality on G (which modulates gradually to D, and then again to G for the Perotin Leonin inspired section), as well as emphasizing the dynamism of the fourth scene (through it s lack of introduction). Theoretical Considerations (and History) An important element of the piece is the attempt to synthesize outside references. I've described it as the reason behind making a distinction between style and process Why did I want to do this, however? The decision to pursue synthesis was based on a rejection of the restrictive production that's become constitutive of modernism in music, and the disengagement of postmodernism. In order to explain this best, a short description of modern ism and postmodernism seem necessary. Modernity is the rationalization of separate areas of cultural production through a process of specialization. 9 The emphasis of modernity is the creation of the new; the synthesis of irrational elements of the past in to a rational present. Music underwent this transformation as the gradual restriction of production that the projects 9 Jurgen Habermas "Modernity An Incomplete Project," The Anti Aesthetic, (1983) "The distinguishing mark of works that count as modern is the new.'" (p. 4)

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14 of serialism and integral serialism best exemplify. This concern for innovation and synthesis creates in modernism a forward looking histo rical orientation. Postmodernism, in contrast, can be understood as a rejection of the teleology this implies. The rejection of modernity encompasses the willingness to treat the old and the different (music outside of the restricted production of speciali sts) as valuable. It can be seen in the willing pluralism of styles of Stravinsky's neoclassical works. It can also be illustrated by the music of John Zorn's Naked City which uses endless allusions to pre existing styles of music. This willingness to emp loy external references can be understood as taking a "step back" from the historical process. In other words, if modernism can be described as the voluntary positioning of composers at the "end of history," postmodernism can be understood as the voluntary positioning of a composer "outside" of history, looking backwards. 10 This indicates an issue, which is that while modernism is concerned primarily with the present and the future, it fails to give credence to the past. Postmodernism rectifies this through its concern for pluralism, but doesn't fully engage the present. By standing outside of history and looking back, a composer is not engaging the dynamic cultural processes taking place. Take Stravinsky's neoclassical works, for example. They completely ig nore that his contemporaries were developing a variety of serial methods. I don't mean, of course, that Stravinsky should have adopted serial technique sooner than he did (the late 1950s), but he also failed to provide strong alternatives. The innovative nature of his Russian period attests to how successful he would have been in directing culture had he not decided to "step outside" of history. 10 Helga de la Motte Haber "Postmodern ism in Music: Retrospection as Reassessment" (in Contemporary Music Review Col. 12, Part 1, pp. 77 83) 1995.

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15 Stravinsky's amazing ability to personalize his external references makes him a bad example, though. His engagem ent with his material, such as his use of modern rhythms and harmonies to illustrate Pergolesi's material in Pulcinella masks his disengagement with the times. Although Stravinsky actively appropriated both Pergolesi and Tchaikovsky individually, he never reconciled them together. The new styles that Stravinsky was providing were appropriations of older styles, Stravinsky versions of older music, rather than true new alternatives to twelve tone music and free atonality. Similarly, John Zorn's use of "rock riffs next to "jazz" and "country" riffs in his Naked City recordings 11 don't interact, despite being right next to each other. This single level engagement seems very artificial to me. Culture is not made of single references. It is a dynamic process in which various elements interact simultaneously to create new alternatives. This synthesis was something I attempted, as previously described, in Walpurgis Night in Sarasota From Habermas' description, it seems like the failure of modernism was its inabil ity to engage culture on the ground, rather than its attempts at rationalization. But if modernism is understood as the rational pursuit of progress, or "the new," and postmodernism as a cultural retrospection and reassessment, is there any room in the dis course for musical innovation that doesn't see itself as supplanting the past? How do developments in contemporary music fit into this story? One of the most important developments in music since the advent of modernism in Europe in the late 19 th century h as been the development of minimalism and postminimalism. I would argue that classical minimalism, such as 11 The song "you will be shot" from Live Volume 1, Tzadik 2002, is a good example.

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16 Reich's early works, can be considered an extension of the modernist project. There are three bits of evidence for this. The first is its development as a reaction against integral serialism. If minimalism was trying to supplant what was there before, doesn't it mean that it was historically engaged, unlike neoclassical Stravinsky? The second is that Reich actively sought to create a new music from the ground up. His initial works were based on found sound objects from which he later devised a theory of "process music" for instruments. Gradually he reintroduced tonality and narrative into his works. The third is its reliance on "process." The use of the se techniques creates a level of autonomy in the music. An example of this autonomy and how it can lead to a restrictive level of cultural production can be illustrated by twelve tone technique. Process music has a certain self effacing quality. But what i s this self that is muted other than the cultural construction of the composer? Because process music has a self effacing quality, as did twelve tone technique, it limits the ability of culture to be engaged in a composition. The more a work is autonomous, the more it will be self referential, instead. This self referential trait is one of the characteristics of the project of rationalization in music. This is only applicable to early minimalism, however. As minimalism was elaborated, the introduction of t raditional elements of music supplanted process as the guiding logic of composition, eliminating most of these issues. 12 One characteristic of this musical development has been the attempts to bridge the "high art/low art" divide. Cultural groups such as th e Bang on a Can easily and frequently allude to 12 Jonathan W. Bernard "Minimalism and the Resurgence of Tonali ty" American Music Vol. 21, No. (Spring 2003): 112 133.

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17 external sources, such as rock music, while employing process music techniques. I don't think this generation of minimalist composers can be considered modernist, as a consequence. So how do they fit into my discussion? I would argue that postminimalism contains both modernist and postmodernist elements. It is an approach to composition that abandons modernism's restricted mode of cultural production without rejecting its concern for innovation. It seems like it exemplifies a different approach towards addressing the same disengagement that Walpurgis Night in Sarasota concerns itself with. The later works of Ligeti show similar developments. 13 They demonstrate how an engagement with the past doesn't necessitate detachment. In his piano etudes, Ligeti uses influences from Conlon Nancarrow's piano pieces, sub Saharan music, Schumann and Chopin, and "seeks to integrate all these strands into an organizational logic," thereby avoiding strict pluralism 14 and synthesiz ing them into something new. He also preserves the autonomy of his art, enforcing its longevity relative to its cultural origin, as well as its underlying concern for "rationalization." Lessons Learnt As I mentioned previously, the most important thing t hat I have learnt through this project is that style is almost entirely contingent on the underlying processes, so my attempts to separate them were flawed from their conception. However, although Steve Reich's music cannot be considered jazz because of it s lack of improvisational 13 Alastair Williams "Modernism Inside Out" in High Modernism and After 14 Williams, p. 86

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18 features, it still alludes to it in its harmonic language. Similarly, I hope that the use of certain features of the underlying process (such as the use of the octatonic scale) and the dismissal of others (such as the use of actua l block structures) will allow my project enough room to be successful. The most immediate concession is that the relationship between different sections will not be intelligible for the listener. It will be difficult, no doubt, to recognize that a particu lar "style" is the theme, rather than a particular melody, and this confusion will probably contribute to the piece's experiential inaccessibility. Keeping the distinction, I believe, is defendable. Since the goal was to create synthesis from referential p luralism, rather than making the allusions truly transparent, their murkiness is relatively inconsequential. Hopefully, the narrative structure as well as physical engagement will be sufficient to make the piece enjoyable even if unintelligible to the lis tener as an intellectual experiment trying to respond to postmodernism.

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19 REFERENCES Recordings: Armstrong, Louis. "St James infirmary" in "Louis Armstrong & friends," Stardust Records, 2007. Ellington, Duke. "St. James Infirmary" in "Duke Ellingto n:1929 1930" on Chronological Classics, 2006. Kilar, Wojciech. "Requiem Father Kolbe" in "Requiem Father Kolbe," Jade Records, 2006 King Crimson. "Red," on Discipline US, 2004 Messiaen, Olivier. "Messiaen: Quartet for the End of Time," as performed by Amici Ensemble, Naxos, 2001. Perotin and Leonin. "Viderunt Omnes" and "Siderunt Principes" in "Music of the Gothic Era," Archiv Produktion, 2002 Primrose, Joe. "St. James Infirmary," piano part, arr. by Fred Van Eps, Gotham Music Service, Inc, 1929. Rei ch, Steve. "Four Organs" as performed by Bang on a Can in "New York Counterpoint, Eight Lines, Four Organs," Nonesuch Records, 2000 Satie, Erik. "Satie: The Complete Solo Piano Music [BOX SET]" as performed by Jean Yves Thibaudet, Decca, 2003 Stravinsky Igor.

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20 "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring & Suite from The Firebird'" as performed by Leonard Bernstein and the London Symphony Orchestra, on Sony Classical, 2004 "Stravinsky: Firebird Suite/Pulcinella Suite" Pierre Boulez, Sony, 1991. White Stripes, The. "St James Infirmary Blues" in "The White Stripes," Third Man Records, LLC, 2008, Zorn, John "Six Litanies for Heligabalus," Tzadik, 2007 "Live Volume 1," Tzadik, 2002 Readings: Barnard, Jonathan. "Minimalism, postminimalism, and the resurgence of tonality in recent American music: American Music, Vol. 21, No. (Spring 2003):112 133 Habermass, Jurgen. "Modernity An Incomplete Project," The Anti Aesthetic, (1983) Motte Haber, Helga de la. "Postmodernism in Music: Retrospection as Reassessment" in Contemporary Music Review, Vol. 12, Part 1, pp. 77 83, 1995. Williams, Alastair. "Modernism Inside Out" in High Modernism and After

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21 ADDENDUM

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22

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24 St James Infirmary Lyrics 15 I went down to St. James Infirmary, I saw my baby there, She was laying on a long white table So young, so cold, so fair Now there's sixteen coal black horses Hitched to a rubber tied hatch There's seven girls goin' to the graveyard Only six of them are coming back Let her go, let her go, god bless her! Wherever she may be Whe ther upstairs or down with the devil She'll never find another man like me When I die, bury me in my straight leg britches In a high top Stetson hat With a 50 dollar watch piece on a gold chain So that all the boys know I died standing pat I want six cra b shooters as my pallbearers And a chorus girl to sing me a song I want a jazz band right on top of my hearse wagon To raise hell as we roll along Now that you've heard my story I'll have another shot of booze And if anyone should ask you I've got the St. James Infirmary blues. 15 The song's lyrics change depending on whoever is singing it, this is a collection of the most conventiona l verses.

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& ? c c Piano Dramatic q = 120 (press down on pedal loudly and let ring) ¡ > p g g g g # # # # # # # g g g g f # # # # # # # g g g g g # # # # g g g g g g g w t p w w & ? & t B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 11 11 11 11 w b w w w b w w rit. w w w w b w w a tempo w b w w w b w w w w w w b w w w WALPURGIS NIGHT in Sarasota Alejandro 2008 op. 6 First Scene The Congregation Castano *roll left hand on white keys and right hand on black keys from the lowest to the highest note of the piano

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& ? & t B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. p p p f 20 w 20 > > 20 b w w 20 b w > > w > b w w w > w > w w w > f w w b w w b w w & ? & t B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f f 24 n 24 > > 24 w > > 24 w b b > > > > > rit. > > > > n > > w w ? > b 2 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. p p f f a tempo 28 28 > 28 b b n n 28 # w F p p p n b b w > n b b b > > > n b b > > pizz. n b b > > > & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. p p p f f f arco 33 33 > > > 33 # b b n n 33 # w f n w b > > j > > b w > > j > > > f w > > j > > > F n w b > > > j > > > p f f > > # > # # w 3 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F F P 39 39 39 w w 39 J F b w w b b w n n b j b b b w w b b b b b b J b w w w b # # # # F w w J & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f 45 45 45 # n 45 # n b j b b b w w b b b b b b J b b w w b b b # # w w # F F f 3 3 w w J 4 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 50 n 50 b 50 b b 3 3 w w b 50 b n b j b b b 3 3 w w b b b b b J b 3 3 w w J # 3 3 w w w # f f f n b b b b 3 3 w w b b w w b & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. P P P P P P f f f f f f 55 n 55 b 55 N b b b b 55 # b F F F F F F n w b b b b b 3 3 w w b b b b b b J w N 3 3 w w J P P P P P P f f f f f f n b b b b b b b b b b w w 5 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F 60 # 60 # 60 # # # 3 w w # # 60 # # P P P P # b # b # # # # # # F F P n b b b b n b f P f b b # b n b n # b n & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 64 b 64 b 64 b b b b b 64 b b J b f b b b # b n # b b n n # 3 f f n > > w > > b > > > > > f > > > > 6 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 70 n 70 > > 70 w w 70 > p f > b b 3 # f n > 3 b n b w w b F n n b # # # & ? & ? B ? # # 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 c c c c c c 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f F 76 b 76 b 76 b b b b b 76 b b F p p b b b b b F f b b b b b b b b b b b b b F b b b b b b b b b f # # # # 7 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 c c c c c c 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 81 81 81 b b 81 b F b f f n b b b J b b b b b f F b b b b b b b b b b b b b w b b b J b b & ? & ? B ? # # 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 c c c c c c 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 86 b 86 b b 86 b b b b b b b b b b 86 b b b b b F b b b b b b b b b b b b J b F b b b b b b b b b b b b b b J b b 8 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 c c c c c c 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 90 b 90 b 90 b b b b b b 90 b b F # # # # # # # # f pizz. j j j b b b & ? & ? B ? # # 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F pizz. P 93 n 93 b b 93 b b n b 93 b b b J b j P # # # # n j j 9 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. p 96 96 b 96 96 F P arco b n n j j f b b b P F p arco ¡ p p & & ? B ? # # n # b b b b 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 B b Cl. Vla. Vc. Pno. 102 102 102 p p F F j J . J . 10 First Scene

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& & ? B ? # b b b b B b Cl. Vla. Vc. Pno. 109 109 # 109 J # # N N N . j J . J . & ? & ? B ? # b b b b b B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 116 116 116 116 j J # J J # n J J b b f f pizz. F j J J b J n b n 11 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # b b b b b B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 123 123 123 b 123 n n J J b n j J n # J J j n j ^ ^ j J J b J n & ? B ? b b b b Vla. Vc. Pno. 130 130 b n b n n J J b n n j J n # J J j n b j 12 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # b b b b b B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 137 137 137 137 p F F arco P j J . J b . b b b b b . & & ? B ? # b b b b B b Cl. Vla. Vc. Pno. 145 145 145 . j J . b b b J b b F b b b b b b j 13 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # b b b b b B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 152 152 152 b 152 b P P P P P j f f f F b b b b b b j b b P P F F b b b b j J b b f f F j F P b b b b b b b b & ? & ? B ? # b b b b b c c c c c c B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. P f f f P P 159 b 159 b 159 b b b b 159 b b F F F f P P n j b n f f F F # n # 2 n n # n # 2 w w w w b b 14 First Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # b b b b b B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 164 164 w 164 w w 164 w F w w w w w ! w p p w w w w w w attacca. w 15 First Scene

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? & ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 Tuba Piano f L'istesso tempo q = 120 f b b b b & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f 11 N 11 A 11 A 11 P P b b F F b b b b b b b A A A b A P p p f f f b b b b b F F A A b A b b alejandro 2008 Second Scene The Summon

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& ? & ? B ? # # 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 20 20 A 20 A 20 A molto vib j n J b ! no vib j n J b ! molto vib j n J b ! no vib n b b n ! molto vib j n n b ! & ? & ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 B b Cl. Tuba Pno. 26 j n 26 b b b 26 F no vib b f f P molto vib j n J b no vib j n J b J molto vib n b b n 2 Second Scene

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& ? & ? # # 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Pno. no vib 31 n J 31 J b j b 31 molto vib J J j n b b b J J J F no vib b b b F med vib j n J b J & ? & ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 B b Cl. Tuba Pno. no vib 35 j n 35 J b 35 med vib j n J b j b b b n no vib j n J b j med vib j n b j b b & ? & ? # # 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 B b Cl. Tuba Pno. F no vib 40 40 40 b b b f f f med vib j n J b j j J J J no vib j n J b J b b j b j n J J J b b 3 Second Scene

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& ? & ? B # # 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Pno. med vib 44 n j 44 J b j b 44 J J J J J b b 44 molto vib j J j n b j b b J J J F no vib b b b b b P arco molto vib no vib j n J J b j b b b & ? & ? B # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Pno. molto vib 48 J b n j n 48 j b b b 48 b b 48 no vib j n J b J b j b b b molto vib no vib J b n b j n j b j b b b b 4 Second Scene

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& & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Vla. Vc. Pno. f f F molto vib sur pont 51 n 51 b b b 51 j b no vib j b b j j j b J molto vib b b b j b no vib b b b b b b j b j & ? & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. molto vib 55 55 55 b b b 55 j b n f f F ord. med vib no vib j n j J b j b b b J b j b med vib molto vib j b n j n j b b b b b j b j b b 5 Second Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f ord. vib. no vib 58 j n j b 58 J b j b 58 b b 58 J b j b med vib med vib j b n b j n j b j b b b b j b b b no vib no vib med vib med vib b . b F pizz. pizz. f molto vib j # b j j & ? & ? B ? # # 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 62 j # 62 j 62 J j 62 j j j no vib J j j molto vib no vib j # b J j J J b J J J J J j j j j j J n j # b J J 6 Second Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F 66 66 66 # # 66 f f f F no vib j # j J j j med vib j # b j j no vib j # j n j j & ? & ? B ? # # 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 71 71 j j 71 71 n j # j n b J J F b b # # arco p F arco molto vib j # b J J n j b j 7 Second Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 75 J n # 75 b 75 75 j f P f J j # # # # J no vib J n j # J n b b n b b # # J # f B ? 8 9 8 9 Vla. Vc. 79 b b b # b b b p b b b b b b B ? 4 3 4 3 8 9 8 9 Vla. Vc. # P 85 b b b b b b p F b b b b b b P f b b b J b 8 Second Scene

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& ? B ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 Vla. Vc. Pno. 90 90 b b J b b F b b b b J b b b b b J b b # f b b b b b b b b b b & ? B ? 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vla. Vc. Pno. p 95 N b 95 b b b J N b b b b b J b b P f b J b J b n b b b J b # b b b J b J b b b b J b b & ? B ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 Vla. Vc. Pno. p F F 99 N b b b b 99 b b b P b b n J b J b b b b b F f f P b b n b n b J b J b n b b b J b f b b b b J b J b b b b J b b 9 Second Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. # F p 103 103 b 103 b J b J b b n b b J b J b n 103 b b b J b P b b A b n J b J b J b J b b b b J b b p F P # b b b b b b n b b b b b b b P f n n A b b b n b b n J b J b b b b b & ? & ? B ? # # 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F p 107 b J b 107 107 b b n b J b 107 b b f J b b b n b J b b b b b f # # J J b j N b J n J J # # J j N f J # n b # b # b J n # b b F F P b J n J b b j N b b J J J J b j N 10 Second Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f P 112 b J 112 b 112 b 112 b J F p P # F b J n J b # b b b n b n b J b J n b b J b f f f f f A n n J b J b b b b b J b J b b b J b b & ? & ? B ? # # 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 115 b b 115 115 # # # b b 115 b N b b # N b b a # # f f f f f b J n J b # b b b n b n b J b J n b b J b 11 Second Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 118 A n n J b J 118 b b 118 b b b J b J b 118 b b J b b f f b n b # 3 3 3 b b J b b b b b f f f b n n b 3 3 3 b b J b J b b b b b b b & ? & ? B ? # # 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 121 b n b # 3 3 3 121 b 121 b J b b 121 b b b b b n n b 3 3 3 b b J b J b b b b b b b f f f f f > b > b b b b > N > b b b b b b b n b b b b b b b 12 Second Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 c c c c c c 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 126 b 126 b 126 b b b b 126 b b n b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b n b b b b & ? & ? B ? # # 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f 131 131 131 b b b b 131 n b b b b gliss. gliss. b b b b b b n b b b b b b f b b b n b b b 13 Second Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 c c c c c c 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 c c c c c c B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 137 b 137 b 137 137 b b n b b b b b b b b b b w w w w w w w w F f F f n w w w w b p p f w w w w & ? & ? ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vc. Pno. p P 143 n 143 143 w w w w w w w w F w w attacca. w w 14 Second Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # c c c c c c Clarinet in B b Tuba Viola Cello Piano F q = 100 w ! ! ! ! f f f f pizz. f w w w w J & ? & ? B ? # # 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 7 # 7 7 # 7 # j # J # j f P j n solo j b arco F P j b b J j b N # b J alejandro Third Scene The Response

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 13 j n 13 13 b j b 13 j b j b j n j b b j n j b b b b b b b J j b b b b b J b j b j b j n b b b j b b j & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 19 j n 19 19 b b 19 j b j b # b J j n b j b j b j b j j b j n j b b b b b b b j j b b b j 2 Third Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 25 25 25 b # j # 25 # j F F f f f # j # # # # # # # J # # J # # # # # # # # # # # # J # J # # # # # J # # # # J # # # J # # # # # # J # # J & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 31 # j # J 31 31 # # 31 # J # # J # # # # # # # # # # # J # # # # # # j # # # # # # # J # # # # # # J # # # J # j # # # # # # # # J # # J 3 Third Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 36 # 36 # 36 # # # # # # 36 # N # # J # J # # # j # # # J # # # # J no rit. # J # j # # j # # J # # J q. = 50 f (poco) meno mosso J # # # # J # # J # n # # # # # # # # # n # # J & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 41 # j 41 # 41 # # # # n # # # # # 41 # J # # # f f J J J # # # # # # J j j J J 4 Third Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 45 j 45 45 45 J J J J J # J # # # # # J # j # J j # J # J & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. q. = 33 50 J 50 50 50 J J # # # # # # j j J J j # J J # # j J J 5 Third Scene

PAGE 64

& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 55 n 55 # 55 # # 55 # J b J J n j N J b b b n 3 N b b b b b b b J b J n b N 3 b N b b n J J n b b b b j b b b J b b J b b & ? & ? B ? # # c c c c c c B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 60 b 3 60 b N b N 3 60 b b b n b b 60 b b 3 b b 3 F F b 3 b b 3 b b b 3 b b b b 3 b 3 b 3 n b b 3 b b b 3 b b 3 b b b b b b n 3 b b 3 3 b b 3 b b 3 6 Third Scene

PAGE 65

& ? & ? B ? # # 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 64 b 3 64 64 b b b 3 3 b b b 3 64 b 3 3 n N 3 b 3 3 b 3 b b n 3 b 3 b b b 3 3 b b b b 3 b b 3 b b 3 n b b N b 3 b b n 3 3 b b b b b b & ? & ? B ? # # 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 68 b 68 68 b b b b b 68 b b b b b b n b n b b b b n b b b b b b b b ! b n sul pont # sul pont poco vib molto vib. ! 7 Third Scene

PAGE 66

& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F P P 77 77 77 77 b n # b n ord. molto vib. P P b b b b b & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 84 n 84 b 84 84 b # n n # n ord. # # # 8 Third Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 89 89 89 89 & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. sul pont poco vib 94 94 94 94 f F b b # # 9 Third Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 99 99 99 99 ord. b b f f f # 2 2 2 # J n J 3 b 3 b b 2 2 N # 2 2 # & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 105 n j # 105 J 3 105 b # 3 b 105 b j n # n 3 3 b b n 2 2 b b b b b J # n n j N b 3 n 3 # 10 Third Scene

PAGE 69

& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 109 2 2 109 109 # 109 2 2 n # 2 2 # j n J 3 # b 3 b b & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 113 113 113 N 113 # 2 2 J n J 3 b 3 b b b N 2 2 # 2 2 11 Third Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 117 n 117 J 3 117 b # 3 b 117 b n b J # 3 n 3 n 2 2 b b b b & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 120 J n 120 J # n 3 120 n b 3 120 n 2 2 # N # # 2 2 # # # # # # U U N U U U U 12 Third Scene

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& ? B ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 Viola Cello Piano pizz. pizz. f f P dramatic q. = 80 b b b b b b b b b b b b & ? & ? B ? # # 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 c c c c c c 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f f F arco f 7 7 7 b b b b 7 j n b b b b b b j b b b b j n b b b b b b b b b j j f j n b b b b b J b j Alej. Fourth Scene The Conclusion

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& ? & ? B ? # # 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F F F 12 n 12 b 12 12 b j N j n b b b b b b b b b b a # N # N N N N # j N f f f f # # # # # # # # # # j N # j # & ? & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 c c c c c c 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 17 n 17 b 17 17 b j b b j n b b b b j b b j n b b b b b b b j J 2 Fourth Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 22 J n 22 b 22 b b 22 J b J f f f f n b n b b b b b n b n b n b b b b b b b & ? & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 c c c c c c B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 28 n 28 b 28 28 arco b b n b b b b b b b 3 Fourth Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # c c c c c c 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 32 32 32 32 N # N N # N # # # # # # # # # # gliss. gliss. J J & ? & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 c c c c c c B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 35 35 35 35 b b J J J J J 4 Fourth Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # c c c c c c B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 40 w 40 w 40 w w w # w w 40 w # w p p § F pizz. pizz. w w w w ¡ b w w w w F p w w w w b P w w b & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 46 46 46 w w 46 b F w w w w b f # b b w w ¡ b b 5 Fourth Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 51 w 51 w 51 ¡ # b 51 ¡ b b # j # # J # # f f F n b J j b n J j b J w b & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 56 # n 56 56 # # # # J # J 56 # # # N b # # # J N # # # J w # # # f w # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # J # # 6 Fourth Scene

PAGE 77

& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 61 61 # 61 # # # # # 61 # f F # # # # # # J # # j # # # # # # n # # # # j # n J w # # n J # J b n a J a J w & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. arco f  f 66 66 w 66 b J J j j 66 b F w J b J j j b #  w b J J j j b w J b J j j w b b f w j b b n n J b b n n b 7 Fourth Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f 71 b 71 w b 71 J b J j j 71 w f f b j b b n n J b b n n b w b J 2 w w w w w w b w w p w w w # w w F F b # # # & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F F F 77 77 77 b # # # 3 # # # 3 77 n f pizz. f f f # # # # > # > # # > # > # # # # J # # # # # 8 Fourth Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F 81 # 3 81 # 81 J # # 81 arco f # # # J # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F 85 3 85 85 J # # # # # 85 # # f # # # # > # > # # # # J # # # # # 9 Fourth Scene

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& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. F 89 # 3 89 # 89 J # # 89 f # # # J # # J # # # # # J # # # # & ? & ? B ? # # 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. arco f 93 > > > J # > 93 > > > j > 93 > > > J > > > > J > 93 > # > # > # j # > > # > # > # j # > pizz. f f f f J j J J J J n b b J J b J n b b J J b J J 10 Fourth Scene

PAGE 81

& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 98 98 98 J 98 J J J b b b b J J b J # J b b b b b J J b N J b J j J J J J & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 104 n 104 b 104 b J J b 104 J J n b b J J b J J J J j j J b b b b J J b J J b b b b b J J b J J J b 11 Fourth Scene

PAGE 82

& ? & ? B ? # # c c c c c c B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f f f f 110 > > > j > 110 > > > j > 110 > > > J > > > > j > 110 > > # > # > # J > pizz. F f # 3 # J # # > > arco f # > > # # J # # > > # & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 114 # 114 # 114 # # # # # # # 114 > > # # # F 3 J # # # # # > > # # # # # # # # # > > # > # > # 12 Fourth Scene

PAGE 83

& ? & ? B ? # # 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 117 n # 117 # 117 J # # 117 > > # # > > arco > > > J # > > > > j > > > > J > > > > J > > # > # > # j # > > # > # > # j # > & ? & ? B ? # # 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. pizz. f 120 120 120 J 120 j b J b J J J J b J n J b b b b J b b b b n J b b b b b J J b b b J b 13 Fourth Scene

PAGE 84

& ? & ? B ? # # c c c c c c B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 124 124 124 J 124 J b J b J J J j b J J J J J b b j J J j pizz. F # 3 J # # & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. arco 129 # 129 129 129 # # J # # J # # # # # J # # # # 14 Fourth Scene

PAGE 85

& ? & ? B ? # # 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. arco 132 J # 132 j 132 J > > > J 132 > # > # > # j # > > # > # > # j # > pizz. pizz. F F F f f J j J > # J # # # # # J J j > # > & ? & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f f f 136 J 136 N 136 j 136 > j j > j n b b b b j j > J # # # # # # J J > j > 15 Fourth Scene

PAGE 86

& ? & ? B ? # # 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 c c c c c c 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 140 J 140 # 140 140 J N N b b b j J > > # # # # # # # # # J J J J j > j > & ? & ? B ? # # 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 c c c c c c B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f f f 143 143 143 b b j 143 J > # b n b b n n > > > > arco F F F F j w w w w f w w w P P w w w 16 Fourth Scene

PAGE 87

& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. 148 w 148 w 148 148 f P p p P w b w w F P w w 3 3 3 3 w & ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. f F 152 152 152 w w 152 p w w t f w ¡ " w ? 17 Fourth Scene

PAGE 88

& ? & ? B ? # # B b Cl. Tuba Vla. Vc. Pno. p 156 156 156 roll left hand on white keys amd right hand on black keys all the way up the piano g g g g # # # # # # # g g g g 156 f f # # # # # # # g g g g g # # # # g g g g g g g w " " > 18 Fourth Scene


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